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Satu lagi, bagi yang pernah ke batam pasti lebih kaget.. Dan juga rata2 bertransmisi otomatis dan dilengkapi dengan jok kulit bawaan pabrik. Bahkan saya juga pernah melihat Camry versi dipakai sebagai taksi.. Batam memang top dalam mobil2 mewah bekas impor dari Spore. Maksudnya Toyota Corona versi terakhir banyak digunakan sebagai armada taksi di batam. Sekarang kayaknya premio udah gak diproduksi lagi dan sebagai gantinya adalah camry. Oh ya, cmiiw, 'edited: di Taiwan camry pertama lahir sebelum generasi corona berakhir, artinya corona sengaja di matiin untuk memuluskan jalan camry untuk memenangkan pertarungan di kelas menengah, terutama lawan rivalnya accord, cefiro dan galant.

Dari penilaian gue, absolute nyaman dikendarai, suspensi empuk. Yg bikin demen, interiornya yg lega sekali bahkan lebih lega dibanding cielo.

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Tapi kalo cari bekasnya kudu ati2 karena absolute umurnya rata2 udah diatas th-an, cek bener2 kondisinya. Last edited by Herry on 24 Mar , , edited 1 time in total. Live as if you were to die tomorrow. Learn as if you were to live forever. Top conan Member of Mechanic Engineer Posts: Joined: 13 Jul , Post by conan » 24 Mar , Herry wrote:Oh ya, cmiiw, camry generasi pertama lahir sebelum generasi corona berakhir, artinya corona sengaja di matiin untuk memuluskan jalan camry untuk memenangkan pertarungan di kelas menengah, terutama lawan rivalnya accord, cefiro dan galant.

Actually, Mr. Herry, Camry itu sudah ada sejak cukup lama, jadi bukan replacement untuk Corona, tapi karena penjualan Corona mengecewakan dibanding Corolla dan Camry, Toyota memutuskan untuk menghentikan produksi Corona seperti Honda menghentikan Prelude yang kurang laku.

Ini foto generasi pertama Camry dengan new Camry : You do not have the required permissions to view the files attached to this post. Herry, Camry itu sudah ada sejak lama sekali, jadi bukan replacement untuk Corona, tapi karena penjualan Corona mengecewakan dibanding Corolla dan Camry, Toyota memutuskan untuk menghentikan produksi Corona seperti Honda menghentikan Prelude yang kurang laku. Ini foto generasi pertama Camry dengan new Camry :Ach ya Pantesan waktu dulu pernah liat model2 camry lama dimana gitu Thx atas ralatnya Mr.

Conan, post saya sebelumnya sebenarnya menunjukkan keadaan di Taiwan th lalu, dimana saat itu camry mulai diproduksi di Taiwan. You're very welcome Top ween Member of Mechanic Engineer Posts: Joined: 16 Nov , Location: jkt Post by ween » 24 Mar , bung conan, camry'83nya koq mirip bgt sama cressida'88 saya dulu? Top conan Member of Mechanic Engineer Posts: Joined: 13 Jul , Post by conan » 24 Mar , ween wrote:bung conan, camry'83nya koq mirip bgt sama cressida'88 saya dulu?

Rasanya bukan, Mr. Sedangkan Camry selalu FWD, karena memang bukan performance car Sepertinya saya kurang setuju kalo bung conan bilang Cressida itu performance car, karena saya menggolongkan Cressida sebagai executive saloon. Btw, soal Cressida, kalo dibilang jadi Aristo kayanya bukan juga deh, soalnya mainstream desain agak beda, lagian Cressida masih keluar model tahun , sedangkan Aristo udah ada sejak tahun Hebatnya, waktu itu termasuk mobil pertama yang seatbelt-nya otomatis 'menjerat tubuh' setelah kita start mesin dan menutup pintu Live TV from 60 channels.

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The light coming from the window looking over the large snowy field was brilliant. Pinned on the light gray wooden walls there was a multitude of art postcards.

When he came in, Pasternak explained to me that those were all sent to him by readers, mostly from abroad. Many were reproductions of religious scenes—medieval nativities, St. George killing the dragon, Mary Magdalene. After his walk, Pasternak looked especially well. He was wearing a collegiate-looking navy-blue blazer and was obviously in a good mood.

He sat at the desk by the window and placed me across from him. As on other occasions, the atmosphere was relaxed and yet of great concentration. I remember vividly feeling happy — Pasternak looked so gay and the sun through the window was warm. As we sat there for two or more hours, I felt a longing to prolong those moments—I was leaving Moscow the next day—but the bright sunlight flooding the room inexorably faded as the day advanced.

Pasternak decided to tell me about his new play. He seemed to do so on the spur of the moment. Quite fascinated, I listened to him—there were few interruptions on my part.

Once or twice, unsure of some historical or literary allusion, I asked him for explanation. I am working on a trilogy. I have about a third of it written. We have, of course, many works about that time, but there is no modern treatment of it. I hope that my plays will be as real, as involved with everyday life as Dead Souls.

Although they will be long, I hope that they can be played in one evening. I think that most plays should be cut for staging. I admire the English for knowing how to cut Shakespeare, not just to keep what is essential, but rather to emphasize what is significant.

Only what is expressive today, what works dramatically should be staged. The first play takes place in —that is when unrest caused by serfdom is first felt throughout the country. The old feudal system is outlived, but no tangible hope is yet to be seen for Russia. The second one deals with the s. Liberal landowners have appeared and the best among Russian aristocrats begin to be deeply stirred by western ideas. Unlike the two first plays, which are set in a great country estate, the third part will take place in St.

Petersburg in the s. But this part is but a project yet, while the first and second plays are partially written. I can tell you in more detail about those if you like. It is existence before it has been touched by any form of spirituality.

It is in a state of great neglect, nearly bankrupt. The masters of the estate, the count and his wife, are away. They have gone on a trip to spare themselves the painful spectacle of the designation—by means of a lottery—of those among their peasants who must go into the army.

As you know, military service lasted for twenty-five years in Russia in those times. The masters are about to return and the household is getting ready to receive them. In the opening scene we see the servants cleaning house—sweeping, dusting, hanging fresh curtains. There is a lot of confusion, of running around—laughter and jokes among the young servant girls.

Soon the mood among the servants becomes more somber. From their conversations we learn that there are hidden bandits in the neighboring woods; they are probably runaway soldiers. She was a sadistic woman, an actual historical figure who took delight in terrifying and torturing her serfs—her crimes so extreme at a time when almost anything was permitted to serf-owners that she was finally arrested. This bust is said to have a magical meaning.

Its destinies are linked to those of the estate. It must therefore be dusted with extreme care, lest it be broken. He is about to leave for town to sell wood and wheat — the estate lives off such sales—but he joins in the general mood instead of going.

He remembers some old masquerade costumes stored away in a closet and decides to play a trick on his superstitious fellow servants. He dresses himself as a devil—big bulging eyes like a fish. In haste the servants group themselves at the entrance to welcome the count and his wife. Prokor has no other alternative but to hide himself in a closet. She has refused, and when he threatened her with violence a young valet traveling with them defended her—an unbelievable defiance.

He shoots at the count. There is a great panic — servants rushing around and screaming. The plaster statue tumbles down from the cupboard and breaks into a thousand pieces.

It wounds one of the young servant girls, blinding her. The title is, of course, symbolic of Russia, oblivious for so long of its own beauty and its own destinies. It is poor Prokor, still costumed as a devil and hidden in the closet, who is eventually accused of having stolen them. As the countess does not reveal the truth, he is convicted of the theft and sent to Siberia.

The theater is the art of emotions—it is also that of the concrete. The trend should be toward appreciating melodrama again: Victor Hugo, Schiller. The setting is the same estate, but times have changed. We are in , on the eve of the liberation of the serfs. The estate now belongs to a nephew of the count.

He would have already freed his serfs but for his fears of hurting the common cause. He is impregnated with liberal ideas and loves the arts. And his passion is theater. He has an outstanding theatrical company. Of course, the actors are his serfs, but their reputation extends to all of Russia. He is also the hero of this part of the trilogy.

His name is Agafon, a marvelously talented actor. The count has provided him with an outstanding education. He is invited to attend the premiere of a new play. The play is called The Suicide. I might write it—a play within a play as in Hamlet. I would love to write a melodrama in the taste of the middle of the nineteenth century. A scene takes place there, and who should the relay-master be but Prokor, the former estate keeper?

He has been back from Siberia for some years—released when the countess disclosed his innocence on her deathbed. He has become increasingly prosperous running the relay station. And yet despite the advent of new times, the scene at the inn echoes the almost medieval elements of the first play: we see the local executioner and his aides stop at the inn.

They are traveling from the town to their residence deep in the woods—by custom they are not allowed to live near other people. There is a long discussion about art between Alexandre Dumas and Agafon. This part will illustrate my own ideas about art—not those of the s, needless to say. Agafon dreams of going abroad, of becoming a Shakespearean actor, to play Hamlet. An obnoxious character whom we first meet at the relay station is the local police chief.

He is a sort of Sobakevich, the character in Dead Souls who personifies humanity at its crudest. Backstage, after the performance of The Suicide, he tries to rape one of the young actresses. Defending her, Agafon hits the police chief with a champagne bottle, and he has to flee for fear of persecution.

The count, however, helps him, and eventually gets him to Paris. Eventually he has his mother cured of her blindness by a famous European doctor. I want him to represent the middle class, which did so much for Russia at the end of the nineteenth century.

Imagine someone like Schukin, who collected all those beautiful paintings in Moscow at the turn of the century. Essentially, what I want to show at the end of the trilogy is just that: the birth of an enlightened and affluent middle class, open to occidental influences, progressive, intelligent, artistic.

It was typical of Pasternak to tell me about his plays in concrete terms, like a libretto. As he went on, I realized that what he was describing was simply the frame of his new work.

Parts of it were completed, others were still to be filled in. After all, what is important is not the historical accuracy of the work, but the successful re-creation of an era. It is not the object described that matters, but the light that falls on it, like that from a lamp in a distant room. Toward the end of his description of his trilogy, Pasternak was obviously hurried.

Dinnertime was long past. He would glance at his watch from time to time. The tales of our fathers sounds like reigns of the Stuarts;. Further away than Pushkin, The figures of dreams.

As we came down to the dining room, the family already was seated around the large table. There is a painting by Guillaumin just like this. Everyone stood as we entered and remained standing while Pasternak introduced me around the table. Besides Mme. He was a student in physics at the Moscow University. Professor Neuhaus was also a guest. He is a famous Chopin teacher at the Moscow Conservatory to whom Mme. Pasternak had once been married. He was quite elderly, with an old-fashioned mustache, very charming and refined.

He asked about Paris and musicians we knew there in common. I was seated to the right of Pasternak. Pasternak was at his left. The table was simply set, covered with a white linen Russian tablecloth embroidered with red cross-stitches.

The silverware and china were very simple. There was a vase with mimosa in the middle, and bowls of oranges and tangerines. Guests passed them to each other while Pasternak poured the vodka. The meal progressed slowly. Soon kvass was poured out—a homemade fermented drink usually drunk in the country. Because of fermentation the kvass corks would sometimes pop during the night and wake everybody up—just like a pistol shot, said Mme.

The conversation was general. Last winter he was one of the most widely read authors in Moscow. A new collection of his writings had just been published.

Pasternak and the ladies at the table remarked that they found Hemingway monotonous—all those endless drinks with little else happening to the heroes. Pasternak, who had fallen silent for a while, took exception. It is the density of style which counts. Light in August is a marvelous book. The character of the little pregnant woman is unforgettable.

As she walks from Alabama to Tennessee something of the immensity of the South of the United States, of its essence, is captured for us who have never been there. Later the conversation turned to music. Professor Neuhaus and Pasternak discussed fine points of interpretation of Chopin. Nonetheless, I am afraid that Chopin is considered a little old-fashioned in the United States. I gave a piece on Chopin to Stephen Spender which was not published.

The conversation moved on to Proust, whom Pasternak was slowly reading at that time. Its text has long been lost, but among many other things on the nature of symbolism it said that, although the artist will die, the happiness of living which he has experienced is immortal.

If it is captured in a personal and yet universal form it can actually be relived by others through his work. It was not written up in the Russian press. Camus is not translated into Russian. But French writers when they commit themselves to political causes are particularly unattractive. Either they are cliquish and insincere or with their French sense of logic they feel they have to carry out their beliefs to their conclusion. They fancy they must be absolutists like Robespierre or Saint-Just.

Tea and cognac were served at the end of the meal. Pasternak looked tired suddenly and became silent. As always during my stay in Russia I was asked many questions about the West—about its cultural life and our daily existence. Lights were turned on. I had to go. I felt very tired, too. Pasternak walked me to the door, through the kitchen. We said good-bye outside on the little porch in the blue snowy evening. I was terribly sad at the thought of not returning to Peredelkino.

Pasternak took my hand in his and held it for an instant, urging me to come back very soon. I had already walked down the porch and into the path when he called me back. I was happy to have an excuse to stop, to turn back, to have a last glimpse of Pasternak standing bareheaded, in his blue blazer under the door light.

Do write to me, in any language you prefer. I will answer you. Photograph by John Lamberton. When David Tod Roy entered a used-book shop in the Chinese city of Nanjing in , he was a year-old American missionary kid looking for a dirty book.

Roy had previously encountered only an incomplete English translation, which switched decorously into Latin when things got too raunchy. Roy, now 80 and an emeritus professor of Chinese literature at the University of Chicago, recalled recently by telephone. So have readers who have followed Mr. Roy notes with pride, had long eluded even native Chinese-speaking scholars. And then there is the sex, which has fed fascination with the book, even though few people could actually read it.

Today, complete versions remain hard to find in China, though it is easily downloadable on Chinese Internet sites. The level of raunch remains startling even to some Western literary scholars — particularly the infamous Chapter 27, in which the merchant, named Ximen Qing, puts his most depraved concubine to particularly prolonged and imaginative use.

Tan said of the older novel. It was the first long Chinese narrative to focus not on mythical heroes or military adventures, but on ordinary people and everyday life, chronicled down to the minutest details of food, clothing, household customs, medicine, games and funeral rites, with exact prices given for just about everything, including the favor of bribe-hungry officials up and down the hierarchy.

Roy said. Roy dates the beginning of his work on the translation to the s. But that edition still omitted the many quotations from earlier Chinese poetry and prose, along with, Mr. Roy said, much of the authentic flavor. So he began copying every line borrowed from earlier Chinese literature onto notecards, which eventually numbered in the thousands, and reading every literary work known to have circulated in the late 16th century, to identify the allusions.

The first volume appeared in to rave reviews; the next came a long eight years later. Some colleagues urged him to go faster and scale back the notes. At one point, a Chinese website even reported that he had died amid his labors. Just as Mr. Scholars credit Mr. Roy whose brother, J. Zhang in Pittsburgh. Anyone who knows two languages moderately well knows that it is rare for words to match up perfectly, and for languages as far apart as Chinese and English, in which even grammatical categories are conceived differently, strict equivalence is not possible.

This raises the question of what translation is. It is not code-switching. Here the doughty female protagonist, Golden Lotus, is waiting in a garden for her latest lover, who is also her son-in-law. To tease her, the son-in-law hides under a raspberry trellis, then jumps out as she passes by and throws his arms around her:.

Clement Egerton assisted by the distinguished modern Chinese novelist Lao She writes:. Bernard Miall, retranslating an earlier abridged German rendition by Franz Kuhn, has this:. In each case the translator has grasped the original well, but then, in turning to the needs of second-language readers, handles dilemmas differently.

Is the mischievous lover a short-life, villain, rascal, or garnement? How literal should one be? Should the translator help out like this, if there is a danger that a reader from another culture might miss something? Where should the balance lie between matching form and matching sense?

In the end, none of the renditions feels exactly like the original. In that sense they all fail. But failure by that standard is inevitable, because my language students are incorrect to think that exact equivalence is possible. Translators from Chinese usually ignore puns. Sometimes they dissect them in footnotes, and scholars appreciate the dissection because scholars are interested in innards.

What is the alternative, though? To try to invent a parallel pun in the second language? Such efforts demand great ingenuity as well as a willingness to take considerable liberty with denotative meaning. Verisign and Cybertrust have security signs you are aware who to trust. Only shop through an Internet connections.

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  MEET YOUR SPEAKERS

Abstract As the economic demand for vegetable oils increases, there is a need for improved recovery from source seeds to offset the rising demand. How to Cite. Vol 1 No 1 Make a Submission. Current Issue.

I am working on a trilogy. I have about a third of it written. We have, of course, many works about that time, but there is no modern treatment of it.

I hope that my plays will be as real, as involved with everyday life as Dead Souls. Although they will be long, I hope that they can be played in one evening. I think that most plays should be cut for staging. I admire the English for knowing how to cut Shakespeare, not just to keep what is essential, but rather to emphasize what is significant. Only what is expressive today, what works dramatically should be staged. The first play takes place in —that is when unrest caused by serfdom is first felt throughout the country.

The old feudal system is outlived, but no tangible hope is yet to be seen for Russia. The second one deals with the s. Liberal landowners have appeared and the best among Russian aristocrats begin to be deeply stirred by western ideas. Unlike the two first plays, which are set in a great country estate, the third part will take place in St. Petersburg in the s. But this part is but a project yet, while the first and second plays are partially written.

I can tell you in more detail about those if you like. It is existence before it has been touched by any form of spirituality. It is in a state of great neglect, nearly bankrupt. The masters of the estate, the count and his wife, are away. They have gone on a trip to spare themselves the painful spectacle of the designation—by means of a lottery—of those among their peasants who must go into the army.

As you know, military service lasted for twenty-five years in Russia in those times. The masters are about to return and the household is getting ready to receive them. In the opening scene we see the servants cleaning house—sweeping, dusting, hanging fresh curtains. There is a lot of confusion, of running around—laughter and jokes among the young servant girls.

Soon the mood among the servants becomes more somber. From their conversations we learn that there are hidden bandits in the neighboring woods; they are probably runaway soldiers.

She was a sadistic woman, an actual historical figure who took delight in terrifying and torturing her serfs—her crimes so extreme at a time when almost anything was permitted to serf-owners that she was finally arrested. This bust is said to have a magical meaning. Its destinies are linked to those of the estate.

It must therefore be dusted with extreme care, lest it be broken. He is about to leave for town to sell wood and wheat — the estate lives off such sales—but he joins in the general mood instead of going. He remembers some old masquerade costumes stored away in a closet and decides to play a trick on his superstitious fellow servants.

He dresses himself as a devil—big bulging eyes like a fish. In haste the servants group themselves at the entrance to welcome the count and his wife. Prokor has no other alternative but to hide himself in a closet. She has refused, and when he threatened her with violence a young valet traveling with them defended her—an unbelievable defiance.

He shoots at the count. There is a great panic — servants rushing around and screaming. The plaster statue tumbles down from the cupboard and breaks into a thousand pieces. It wounds one of the young servant girls, blinding her.

The title is, of course, symbolic of Russia, oblivious for so long of its own beauty and its own destinies. It is poor Prokor, still costumed as a devil and hidden in the closet, who is eventually accused of having stolen them. As the countess does not reveal the truth, he is convicted of the theft and sent to Siberia. The theater is the art of emotions—it is also that of the concrete. The trend should be toward appreciating melodrama again: Victor Hugo, Schiller. The setting is the same estate, but times have changed.

We are in , on the eve of the liberation of the serfs. The estate now belongs to a nephew of the count. He would have already freed his serfs but for his fears of hurting the common cause. He is impregnated with liberal ideas and loves the arts. And his passion is theater. He has an outstanding theatrical company. Of course, the actors are his serfs, but their reputation extends to all of Russia.

He is also the hero of this part of the trilogy. His name is Agafon, a marvelously talented actor. The count has provided him with an outstanding education. He is invited to attend the premiere of a new play. The play is called The Suicide. I might write it—a play within a play as in Hamlet. I would love to write a melodrama in the taste of the middle of the nineteenth century. A scene takes place there, and who should the relay-master be but Prokor, the former estate keeper? He has been back from Siberia for some years—released when the countess disclosed his innocence on her deathbed.

He has become increasingly prosperous running the relay station. And yet despite the advent of new times, the scene at the inn echoes the almost medieval elements of the first play: we see the local executioner and his aides stop at the inn. They are traveling from the town to their residence deep in the woods—by custom they are not allowed to live near other people.

There is a long discussion about art between Alexandre Dumas and Agafon. This part will illustrate my own ideas about art—not those of the s, needless to say. Agafon dreams of going abroad, of becoming a Shakespearean actor, to play Hamlet. An obnoxious character whom we first meet at the relay station is the local police chief.

He is a sort of Sobakevich, the character in Dead Souls who personifies humanity at its crudest. Backstage, after the performance of The Suicide, he tries to rape one of the young actresses. Defending her, Agafon hits the police chief with a champagne bottle, and he has to flee for fear of persecution.

The count, however, helps him, and eventually gets him to Paris. Eventually he has his mother cured of her blindness by a famous European doctor. I want him to represent the middle class, which did so much for Russia at the end of the nineteenth century. Imagine someone like Schukin, who collected all those beautiful paintings in Moscow at the turn of the century. Essentially, what I want to show at the end of the trilogy is just that: the birth of an enlightened and affluent middle class, open to occidental influences, progressive, intelligent, artistic.

It was typical of Pasternak to tell me about his plays in concrete terms, like a libretto. As he went on, I realized that what he was describing was simply the frame of his new work. Parts of it were completed, others were still to be filled in. After all, what is important is not the historical accuracy of the work, but the successful re-creation of an era.

It is not the object described that matters, but the light that falls on it, like that from a lamp in a distant room. Toward the end of his description of his trilogy, Pasternak was obviously hurried. Dinnertime was long past. He would glance at his watch from time to time. The tales of our fathers sounds like reigns of the Stuarts;. Further away than Pushkin, The figures of dreams.

As we came down to the dining room, the family already was seated around the large table. There is a painting by Guillaumin just like this. Everyone stood as we entered and remained standing while Pasternak introduced me around the table.

Besides Mme. He was a student in physics at the Moscow University. Professor Neuhaus was also a guest. He is a famous Chopin teacher at the Moscow Conservatory to whom Mme.

Pasternak had once been married. He was quite elderly, with an old-fashioned mustache, very charming and refined. He asked about Paris and musicians we knew there in common. I was seated to the right of Pasternak. Pasternak was at his left. The table was simply set, covered with a white linen Russian tablecloth embroidered with red cross-stitches.

The silverware and china were very simple. There was a vase with mimosa in the middle, and bowls of oranges and tangerines. Guests passed them to each other while Pasternak poured the vodka. The meal progressed slowly. Soon kvass was poured out—a homemade fermented drink usually drunk in the country.

Because of fermentation the kvass corks would sometimes pop during the night and wake everybody up—just like a pistol shot, said Mme. The conversation was general. Last winter he was one of the most widely read authors in Moscow. A new collection of his writings had just been published. Pasternak and the ladies at the table remarked that they found Hemingway monotonous—all those endless drinks with little else happening to the heroes.

Pasternak, who had fallen silent for a while, took exception. It is the density of style which counts. Light in August is a marvelous book. The character of the little pregnant woman is unforgettable. As she walks from Alabama to Tennessee something of the immensity of the South of the United States, of its essence, is captured for us who have never been there.

Later the conversation turned to music. Professor Neuhaus and Pasternak discussed fine points of interpretation of Chopin. Nonetheless, I am afraid that Chopin is considered a little old-fashioned in the United States. I gave a piece on Chopin to Stephen Spender which was not published. The conversation moved on to Proust, whom Pasternak was slowly reading at that time.

Its text has long been lost, but among many other things on the nature of symbolism it said that, although the artist will die, the happiness of living which he has experienced is immortal.

If it is captured in a personal and yet universal form it can actually be relived by others through his work. It was not written up in the Russian press. Camus is not translated into Russian. But French writers when they commit themselves to political causes are particularly unattractive. Either they are cliquish and insincere or with their French sense of logic they feel they have to carry out their beliefs to their conclusion.

They fancy they must be absolutists like Robespierre or Saint-Just. Tea and cognac were served at the end of the meal. Pasternak looked tired suddenly and became silent. As always during my stay in Russia I was asked many questions about the West—about its cultural life and our daily existence. Lights were turned on. I had to go. I felt very tired, too. Pasternak walked me to the door, through the kitchen. We said good-bye outside on the little porch in the blue snowy evening.

I was terribly sad at the thought of not returning to Peredelkino. Pasternak took my hand in his and held it for an instant, urging me to come back very soon. I had already walked down the porch and into the path when he called me back. I was happy to have an excuse to stop, to turn back, to have a last glimpse of Pasternak standing bareheaded, in his blue blazer under the door light.

Do write to me, in any language you prefer. I will answer you. Photograph by John Lamberton. When David Tod Roy entered a used-book shop in the Chinese city of Nanjing in , he was a year-old American missionary kid looking for a dirty book. Roy had previously encountered only an incomplete English translation, which switched decorously into Latin when things got too raunchy.

Roy, now 80 and an emeritus professor of Chinese literature at the University of Chicago, recalled recently by telephone. So have readers who have followed Mr. Roy notes with pride, had long eluded even native Chinese-speaking scholars.

And then there is the sex, which has fed fascination with the book, even though few people could actually read it. Today, complete versions remain hard to find in China, though it is easily downloadable on Chinese Internet sites. The level of raunch remains startling even to some Western literary scholars — particularly the infamous Chapter 27, in which the merchant, named Ximen Qing, puts his most depraved concubine to particularly prolonged and imaginative use. Tan said of the older novel.

It was the first long Chinese narrative to focus not on mythical heroes or military adventures, but on ordinary people and everyday life, chronicled down to the minutest details of food, clothing, household customs, medicine, games and funeral rites, with exact prices given for just about everything, including the favor of bribe-hungry officials up and down the hierarchy.

Roy said. Roy dates the beginning of his work on the translation to the s. But that edition still omitted the many quotations from earlier Chinese poetry and prose, along with, Mr. Roy said, much of the authentic flavor. So he began copying every line borrowed from earlier Chinese literature onto notecards, which eventually numbered in the thousands, and reading every literary work known to have circulated in the late 16th century, to identify the allusions. The first volume appeared in to rave reviews; the next came a long eight years later.

Some colleagues urged him to go faster and scale back the notes. At one point, a Chinese website even reported that he had died amid his labors. Just as Mr. Scholars credit Mr. Roy whose brother, J. Zhang in Pittsburgh. Anyone who knows two languages moderately well knows that it is rare for words to match up perfectly, and for languages as far apart as Chinese and English, in which even grammatical categories are conceived differently, strict equivalence is not possible.

This raises the question of what translation is. It is not code-switching. Here the doughty female protagonist, Golden Lotus, is waiting in a garden for her latest lover, who is also her son-in-law.

To tease her, the son-in-law hides under a raspberry trellis, then jumps out as she passes by and throws his arms around her:. Clement Egerton assisted by the distinguished modern Chinese novelist Lao She writes:.

Bernard Miall, retranslating an earlier abridged German rendition by Franz Kuhn, has this:. In each case the translator has grasped the original well, but then, in turning to the needs of second-language readers, handles dilemmas differently. Is the mischievous lover a short-life, villain, rascal, or garnement? How literal should one be?

Should the translator help out like this, if there is a danger that a reader from another culture might miss something? Where should the balance lie between matching form and matching sense?

In the end, none of the renditions feels exactly like the original. In that sense they all fail. But failure by that standard is inevitable, because my language students are incorrect to think that exact equivalence is possible. Translators from Chinese usually ignore puns. Sometimes they dissect them in footnotes, and scholars appreciate the dissection because scholars are interested in innards.

What is the alternative, though? To try to invent a parallel pun in the second language? Such efforts demand great ingenuity as well as a willingness to take considerable liberty with denotative meaning.

David Roy is aware of these dilemmas. But on balance Roy comes down much more on the side of reflecting and explaining the word level in the original. Readers are invited also to see a political allegory on corruption at the imperial court.

The story is set during the reign of Emperor Huizong of Song — CE , but the allegory points clearly to contemporary Ming rulers as well. The story sprawls. There are more than eight hundred named characters, from high officials and military commanders to peddlers and prostitutes, with actors, tailors, monks and nuns, fortunetellers, acrobats, and many others, even cats and dogs, in between. The author is unknown, and the question of who it might have been has generated extraordinary controversy, which remains unresolved.

We do know it was a superbly erudite person because of the many insertions into the text of songs and set phrases drawn from the histories, drama, storytelling, and fiction available at that time.

In the original woodblock printing of the text, characters follow one another, without punctuation, no matter their source. Modern printings provide punctuation, but Roy goes further by devising a system of indentation and differing type sizes to set off allusions, poems, and songs. With this editorial help, the translation is actually easier to read than the original. The plan would not have worked, though, because the pornography is by no means so densely packed. Westerners, too, have sometimes become fixated on the pornography, and translators have handled it in different ways.

Kuhn and Miall omit the passage. Serious scholars agree that it makes no sense to reject the wide-ranging novel as pornography but do not agree about how well crafted it is. It contains odd turns of direction, abrupt shifts of mood, digressions that seem to lead nowhere, and discrepancies that result at least in part from the borrowing of much material from other sources. The controversial question is whether these are flaws or a different kind of careful writing.

Is the novel a haphazard pile, casually assembled and often tedious to read? Plaks shows that apparently whimsical insertions actually can have significant parts in foreshadowing events or offering ironic comment.

The huge novel also has an architecture that he and Roy explain. Tankobon Hardcover. See all free Kindle reading apps. Don't have a Kindle? What other items do customers buy after viewing this item? Customer reviews. How are ratings calculated? Instead, our system considers things like how recent a review is and if the reviewer bought the item on Amazon. It also analyzes reviews to verify trustworthiness. Review this product Share your thoughts with other customers. Write a customer review.

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