قائمة مشاهير اللاأدريين - ويكيبيديا

18714

Arrival of the searching to importance of presence plan the strategic tall extension to the coming succession for the generations moved, with status the automatic corollary for the moving in the succession intergenerational with specification valuable and the occupational principles for the company and understandable necessity of adoption aalHwkmt for her continuity and her protection from the collapse. Retrieved 25 April Hence, this study aimed to propose a model for a strategic map for a health institution a university hospital center based on the four main aspects which are the patient axis, the financial axis, the internal operations axis, and the apprenticeship and learning axis. The results indicated that Al-Jazeera posted tweets about political news.

Pin on مدونة السنتر التعليمي Education Center

seoauditing.ru › seoauditing.rudyehia › posts. seoauditing.ru › store › apps › details. The u/myschool77 community on Reddit. Reddit gives you the best of the internet in one place. Fig (): Examples of third class levers. 8. Science - Sixth Primary - Second Term. Page Second Term. ()., kui. How to determine the type of a. seoauditing.ru › pdf › specification-and-sample-assessments.

نموذج اجابة الاحياء 2019 نموذج ب. The Social Mission of the U.

seoauditing.ru › PresentationRevue. seoauditing.ru › sites › files › nabnos › files › acquiadam-assets. seoauditing.ru › files › thesis › VanNimmen_Ruben_Masterproef. seoauditing.ru › sa-ar › groups_sitemap. seoauditing.ru › sitemap-detail-fromto

ام مصرية المسار المصرى - اختبارات السفارة للسنوات السابقة

seoauditing.ru › video. seoauditing.ru › _webready_content_text.نموذج اجابة الاحياء 2019 نموذج ب 10 الجينوم والطبيعة البشرية: مقاربة تحليلية في ضوء الفلسفة والعلم التجريبي Platonic Text within the Christian Culture: Augustine as a Model. families and societies) and the ways through which we answer Mohammed Ghaly, biology (especially genetics and genomics) and Islamic ethics. كان أكثر الطلاب في المدارس الثانوية الإسلامية يواجهون الصعوبة في استخدام المعجم العادية مثل Universitas Islam Negeri Maulana Malik Ibrahim Malang ​20 HRD Indonesia, especially for the Muslim Ummah, is the correct answer. This research research and development (R D) based on model from Borg and Gall. seoauditing.ru › DSpaceDBProject › romorreport. seoauditing.ru › tawjehipalestine. seoauditing.ru › sitemap_doros.

نموذج اجابة الاحياء 2019 نموذج ب.

عمليات البحث ذات الصلة seoauditing.ru › seoauditing.ru › didaktika › oai.

  نموذج اجابة الاحياء 2019 نموذج ب Ethereum block header

نموذج اجابة الاحياء 2019 نموذج ب

  نموذج اجابة الاحياء 2019 نموذج ب

مجموعة توجيهي انجاز فلسطين – Telegram

  نموذج اجابة الاحياء 2019 نموذج ب  

نموذج اجابة الاحياء 2019 نموذج ب. بنك الاسئلة اللغة الانجليزية الشهادة السودانية (الجزء الأول)

  نموذج اجابة الاحياء 2019 نموذج ب  青 鬼 ダウンロード 5 2

نموذج اجابة الاحياء 2019 نموذج ب

It is worthy to mention the efforts that are made by those in charge of the office to preserve and support these ingredients for revitalizing tourism development in the state. This research aims to highlight the importance of career integration between Islamic financial institutions where two financial institutions were adopted, namely the Islamic Bank and the Islamic Financial Market.

Due to their great importance to the economy through mobilizing idle resources and re-employing them to serve the economic development of the country, we concluded that this integration, should be activated During the establishment of an Islamic financial market that in turn enables Islamic banks to engage practically in the market, by either issuing legal securities or by investing in financial and in-kind products offered, as well as benefiting from market advantages in controlling liquidity problems with the Islamic banks and encourage real investment to achieve economic efficiency.

This research aims at emphasizing the importance of the means of social control in achieving environmental security through showing the role of the mosque as a social control institution in consolidating the values of internal environmental security. The study concluded that the mosque has a very important role in teaching Muslims the provisions and principles of the Islamic religion related to protecting the environment. Worshipers go to the mosque to perform the obligatory prayer, listen to the speeches in Fridays prayers and occasions.

The mosque provides lessons in environmental education. All of this includes orders and prohibitions related to environmental conservation and covers moral values that consolidate environmental security values for the Muslims. The purpose of this research was attempting to explain the morphosyntactic disorders in specific language impairment in light of the neurolinguistic approach.

Crosslinguistic studies of SLI have shed important light on causal explanations for the linguistic impairment. Two competing frameworks can be distinguished. The first is represented by processing accounts, which consider limitations in general processing capacity to be the source of the difficulty.

The alternative viewpoint is linguistically based and presumes the impairrnent in SLI to stern from deficits in underlying linguistic knowledge or representation. This research concluded that the results of studies carried out on grammar in SLI children do not fully apply to Arabic.

The causal mechanisms of morphosyntactic deficits in SLI children, whether neurological or linguistic, remain the same, but the difference lies in the manifestations of this disability, which differs from one language to another.

This is due to the difference in grammar among languages, especially given the grammatical characteristics of Arabic and the intricate morphological system it has. The woman is exposed to physical and mental violence from her husband in different ways. For the purposes of this study we leaned on the clinical method using the case study. The training of teachers during service is an important factor of development and increase productivity. It is therefore an investment expense that makes a significant returning to the economy and the social growth, reflecting the concern teachers for the work of the professional growth.

This study aims to identify the training of teachers during the service as well as its forms and obstacles to the trainees, its consequences and possible solutions. And concluded to mention several obstacles, conserning the trainees or special training programs and the lack of means, and recommended a some solutions like preplanning, and and creating a grading program for it,. This study aims to identify the role of the deviations of family upbringing - the practice on the part of parents - in the emergence of violent behavior among children within the family, by studying the case of a sample of parents, mothers and grandparents who complain about the violence of their children within the family, of which there are 38 children.

The results of the study concluded that the deviant behaviors of family upbringing that some parents depend upon, such as the use of excessive physical punishment, which is considered effective behavior, increases the potential for aggressive behavior or teach them a male culture that allows them, according to the values of masculinity, to prove themselves and their independence by practicing violent behavior even against the closest people To them as parents.

Aims the searching to study raved the problematic succession in the companies family, which the big challenges consider from which faced the kind from the companies raved threatening her stay and her continuity in the collapse.

The searching empowers also on the family companies as social builder complicated course in inheriting of royal intergenerational yields for. Clarifies that the scientist raved the kind from the companies essential one the formed for the economic regime in most of vines.

Arrival of the searching to importance of presence plan the strategic tall extension to the coming succession for the generations moved, with status the automatic corollary for the moving in the succession intergenerational with specification valuable and the occupational principles for the company and understandable necessity of adoption aalHwkmt for her continuity and her protection from the collapse.

In-depth interview and observation tools were used in conjunction with government and international reports and documents, and the results of the study found that the study community has undergone profound shifts in public social construction due to deportations and resettlement, and permanent engagement with the tourism process keywords: Petra, AL Bedoul, Umm Sayhoun, Social Change, Tourism.

Abstrac Algerians first year French students, encounter enormous language problems, especially that related to language autonomy. Therefore, focusing our study on the problem of the development of the language autonomy of these new students of French license placed in a situation of collaboration and interaction, our investigation should allow us to better understand the extent to which the collaborative strategy contributes to the development of the language autonomy of these learners.

The sample includes reading course students who were divided into two groups consisting of experimental group 40 students and the control group 40 students. The reading texts required in the course were taught to the students using conceptual maps. Before starting the implementation of the study, the pre-test was conducted and after the end of the teaching period using the conceptual maps, the post - test was conducted to know the differences between the reading comprehension pre-test and the post- test results.

The data was analyzed using SPSS, the results revealed that there are differences in the results of the post-test due to the method of teaching based on the use of conceptual maps. In light of these results, the study recommended to use conceptual maps in teaching reading for its effectiveness and positive impact on the development of students reading comprehension. Environmental crimes are considered to be one of the most important newly emerged crimes, which have developed due to their rapid spread and their negative effects on the environment and human life.

Algeria, like other countries, has put in place a set of sanctions in the event that this type of crime is committed against the environment were causing damage, and even helping to do so, in accordance with the developments and foreign legislation which has made crimes against environment an important, and common subject for the entire international community.

Scientific research has contributed to the development of this kind of emerging crime, due to the destructive acts that had to accompany the emergence of the industrial revolution, which has a negative impact on an individual's life and the whole society. Therefore, the present research paper aims to shed light on this type of crime by highlighting the occurring areas, and its impact on people's health, and the environment, with reference to some mechanisms to deal with it in Algeria.

For this study, we choose the most countries affected by the coronavirus in the world which are Italy, China, UK ,France and the USA as examples, and we took the first quarter of as a time field for the study. The results illustrated that despite the negative effects of COVID on e- commerce, the Internet sales increased in all this countries ,while retail sales have fallen ,and that the e-commerce was the lifeline for enterprises during the crisis.

Benaissa Farida,. To do so, we used the SCLR. The results revealed the presence of signs of depression, anxiety and psychosomatic symptoms. Furthermore, it is important to plan in advance a prevention plan of action concerning psychological education. As a result, the physical and mental well-being of the student would have a positive impact on his performance and academic success.

Key words:Mental health,student, SCLR, psychological assessment, psychological disorders, psychological distress. In practical terms, the study aims to understand the proper application of law in order to reach the issuance of valid judicial judgments, in form and content. The descriptive approach was used to study and use the questionnaire form tool to collect data from an intended sample of officials in the university administration.

The study concluded that Alarbi-Tebsi University is one of the institutions that organizational development requires it to be, and it does not follow a specific strategy and plan in advance, with a set of problems and obstacles that hinder the process of organizational development and hinder it. This study has come up to a set of results, the most important of which point out that the nature of the coverage of the Al-Khabar newspaper consists in political issues and the presentation of facts and all related developments.

The present study aims to know the relationship of maternal attachment to the family climate in the surroundings of the brothers and sisters of a mentally handicapped child, and the descriptive and analytical method was used in the study, and it was conducted on a sample consisting of 80 brothers and sisters of mentally handicapped children in the psychological educational centers of mentally handicapped children.

The paper covers two hypotheses. First, the speech of the Constantine adolescents is thought to lack the use of proper euphemistic language when describing certain cases of personal appearance that might provoke negative connotations and interpretations.

Second, those adolescents are unaware of euphemism as a language skill and its importance in social interactions. To examine the aforementioned hypotheses, a survey was administered to Algerian adolescents living in Constantine, Algeria. Socio-cultural linguistics is the model according to which the notion of euphemism will be investigated. The findings suggest that the use of euphemistic expressions were used more than the use of non-euphemistic ones. The findings have also showed that the informants, based on their answers, are not aware of the concept of euphemism and its indispensability.

On the 15th Decembre , a battalion of the presidential guard fought residential neighbourhoods in the capital Juba, Republic of South Sudan. This caused violence between two factions of the presidential guard, which hide, in fact, political and tribal enmity, between president Silva Kiir Mayardt of the Dinka tribe and his deputy, Riak Machar of the Nuer tribe, who are the main parties in this conflict, which was caused by a dispute over power-sharing in the State of South Sudan.

The civil war continued from to January , with the implementation of the last peace agreement between the two sides of the war, with regional mediation carried out by the Intergovernmental Authority on Development IGAD. This article examines the reality of the conflict in the State of South Sudan, its major causes and the direct and indirect parties involved in it, whether they are internal, regional or international.

It also concludes in a prospective vision that, according to historical and tribal factors, and to the divergent agendas of the conflict parties, the implementation of recent peace agreement will not last for long.

The article aims to reveal the developments and challenges faced by banks, especially in terms of determining the requirements and structure of capital, liquidity and asset composition, which requires the drafting of modern procedures and rules by the Basel Committee to keep pace with local and international financial events in order to achieve financial stability.

That's why we have submitted a study on The societe General of France because it is committed to the implementation of Basel3, using the descriptive analytical approach in data collection and analysis. Melody and aberration have been spread within the Arabic environment as it was an intensive danger. After the Arabs, after a while, were speaking their innate and temper language; they were needless to grammar; to adjust their language. However, after the coming of the Islam, they mixed out with the foreigners so that the melody had spread.

After that, the language Jealous were afraid of their language to be corrupted. As a result, they thought to put rules to maintain the tongue and the pen and save them from mislead. This latter, made it a necessity to know the grammar and its rules.

Moreover, the linguists took this hard mission into their part and their sources and raw materials was the pottery. Grammarians had a significant role in this later, until it had spread among them and the poets on one hand, and the critics in other hand, a danger conflict and struggle claiming that they are not in charge to deal with this discipline to criticize the pottery.

Moreover, this study also aims to shed light on the aspects and causes of the conflicts that arose between grammarians and poets on the one hand, and between grammarians and critics on the other hand. The research is divided into five sections, the first one which is devoted to the extremism of the linguists and grammarians, as they used to revolt against anything that contradicts their established rules.

As for the second part, I put it into discounts of Farazdaq, because he was the biggest poet in conflict with the grammarians, and the third section is devoted to the disputes and rivalries of the poet Bashar Ibin Barad with the linguists. The university student is seen as an essential tool for development and an important link in the commitment to social responsibility, and with the emergence of the term quality of life, which is concerned with how to help individuals to emit positive behaviors, it has become imperative to take more care of the quality of life of the university student in order to ensure the process of his transition and a rapid adaptation to his new environment to ensure his effectiveness, efficiency.

This study aims to clarify social responsibility, analyze the quality of life, determine its dimensions and the methods of its measurement. Thus, certain statistical tools were used in the analysis of an exploratory study of the reality of the quality of life among the University of Khenchela students. The research aims to identify the extent to which the Algerian economic establishment has the necessary regulatory requirements consisting of structure, culture, leadership, and technological environment.

Which constitutes an important context for the conduct of various internal and external knowledge through processes creation, storage, marketing, localization and to verify this study and test its hypotheses, prepared a questionnaire consisting of 52 questions, distributed to 95 individuals from the study community, where the SPSS program was used and tested T-Test to choose the hypotheses, and the study concluded that this institution suffers from a lack of culture that encourages the exchange of knowledge and the absence of influence for leadership, with the presence of flexible structures to a moderate degree despite having a strong technological structure.

It has achieved that virtual societies represent a social and life sphere that expresses the real community. Practicing some behaviour and applying some ideas. The study aimed to know the reality of applying the quality standards of higher education at the University of Bordj Bou Arredij from the faculty members' point of view.

The study found that there is a low level in the responses of faculty members about the reality of applying the quality standards of higher education at the University of Bordj Bou Arreridj, and it also found that there are no statistically significant differences about the reality of applying the quality standards of higher education according to the gender variable, while there are differences according to the experience variable.

For the benefit of more experienced individuals. An exploratory descriptive approach was used that is appropriate to the nature of the study. The study aimed to determine and study the relationship of organizational culture and empowerment as a managerial tool.

It has been studied some algerian banking institutions in Tebessa to stand up its organizational culture properties and its relationship to administrative empowerment using the questionnaire. The study concluded that there is a correlation and influence between organizational culture and empowerment.

Features of the organizational culture dimension contributed to the lack of empowerment, especially each of the guidance, management support, identity, revenue systems and conflict tolerance. The organizational culture of Algerian banks is bureaucratic, which obscures the possibility of establishing the concept of empowerment.

This study aims to know the extent of the psychological suffering of a single mother in Algerian society. We took a case study approach, and it was for one of the single mothers who was dropped off at a specialist health center. We relied on the application of clinical interview. The study came to the following conclusion: The single mother suffers psychologically to a high degree in Algerian societ.

It is ADN testing and the law in Algeria that determine the assignment of a child to a single mother Keywords: Single mother, mental suffering, Algerian society, social rejection. Elbechir Yaqot,. The purpose of this study is to analyse gender bias in the teacher-learner interaction inside EFL classroom in the Algerian secondary school. Findings revealed that gender bias can be found in teacher-student interaction in the classroom despite teachers positive attitudes of gender.

EFL teachers believe that students knowledge, personality and classroom participation are factors that affect teacher-student interaction regardless any gender consideration. Teachers should be conscious of their interactions with students regarding gender to deconstruct all sorts of gender bias inside classroom. Abstract: Dividend distribution policy is considered among the strategic financial decisions exercised by the Corporation and influenced by a number of factors, the most important of which is the financing behavior.

Therefore, this study aimed to test the effect of financing behavior on the dividend policy of a sample of 13 economic companies listed in the Dow Jones Industrial Index during between and To answer the problem and test the hypotheses, we rely on cross-sectional time series data. Panel Data. The study found that there is a positive and statistically significant effect of long-term debt on the dividend policy expressed in per share per dividend distributed to economic institutions included in the DJIA index.

The results also indicated that there was no statistically significant effect of short-term debt and total debt on the dividend per share of the dividends to the studied sample. The principle in concluding public deals is to observe the general provisions for concluding administrative contracts and to follow legally defined methods and procedures to ensure the good choice of the contracting dealer with the contracting interest, which can dispense with the formalities required for concluding and resort to other adapted procedures in concluding their deals according to the emerging circumstances that must be taken into account And most of them are represented in urgency, as well as the spread of epidemics such as the Corona epidemic that must be prevented and fought.

For this purpose, we distributed a questionnaire to a sample of 42 employees of this rank. The results indicate that the MBWA is practiced to a high degree among the employees of the administrators of the University of Constantine2; and the Effective Communication dimension comes first in terms of importance.

Keywords : scientific research, social sciences, scientific research ethics, citation, scientific theft. This study aims to examine the reality of the sub-Saharan region and the Sahel, in the context of competition for major international powers. We proceeded in our study from a major problem, according to which: Understanding the most important determinants that enabled the major international powers to build competitive strategies and arrangements towards the sub-Saharan region and the Sahel.

And what are the implications of this competition for the security and stability of the region? In the end, we concluded that the major powers are seeking, through competition for southern Sahara and the Sahel, to achieve two geostrategic bets, and the second a geo-security bet. The study aims to identify the standards for evaluating the quality of educational research adopted in social studies in general and to find the most important indicators to demonstrate the quality and relevance of educational research to the level of scientific and cognitive progress and to the extent of changes in the flow and social change movement in line with contemporary trends challenging research Fields of education and higher education in particular.

The study of educational quality standards was reviewed as one of the basic determinants of the progress of scientific research, which indicates that the quality of scientific research is consistent with the quality of application and use of these standards in research in its various fields The research results, the development of the level of performance and accreditation of universities and the improvement of the level of their scientific and academic quality assurance.

Most importantly, the best use and application results of this educational research in all fields of life are being used. The study also shows the link between the elements of the communication process and the dimensions of social capital. Lahmer Mokhtaria,. More specifically, it will offer an overview of the developments brought to the Higher education field since the independence time. The paper will detail with facts and data about the progress of the internationalization process at the Algerian university level.

Overall, the researcher attempts to track the achievements and the shortcomings of the progress within a specific time frame. We aim at providing an answer to the question raised about which extent these factors lead to procrastination. We used a questionnaire to collect the necessary data since it was more inclusive.

The results revealed that anxiety and time management have a great role in academic procrastination along with lack of self-regulation. Students if not emotionally stable and regulated in terms of time management can undergo severe academic failure. Delay in completing given tasks successfully and on time may result in low grade and failed or repeated semesters.

Activating the work of communication, information and advertising technology and updating the various internal channels of the public hospital institution and modernizing it is extremely important and inevitable, as the article discusses the position of modern technologies in communication, information and advertising and their role in improving the image of the hospital institution in Algeria, which Unfortunately, it suffers from a bleak outlook.

And to ensure the validity of the hypothesis that communication, information and advertising technology contributes to improving the performance and image of the hospital service and consequently changing that negative image inherent to the Algerian public hospital hospital as a whole.

If both jurisprudence and the judiciary have agreed long time ago that there is no civil liability without damage occurrence , it is somewhat different for error , since we are encountering a long and , sometimes , a fierce debate about whether error is a component or an element of civil liability or it is not that necessary , thus , civil liability is established in isolation.

This research aims to identify the role of regulatory justice in establishing citizenship behavior among the faculty members of the Faculty of Economics, Business and Management Sciences University of Constantine 2. It has been found that regulatory justice in its procedural justice section has an impact on establishing citizenship behavior among faculty members, It has also been concluded that faculty members have high citizenship behavior, While the regulatory justice prevailing in college is moderate in their view.

This study aimed to identify the impact of inflation on the reliability of financial statements, as well as the accounting methods that were used to exclude its impact on the financial statements, and to achieve this goal a questionnaire was constructed as it was distributed to a sample of university professors who practice Accounting.

The study concluded that when inflation is not taken into consideration while preparing the financial statements, it leads to their impartiality and is not sincere, and the accounting methods that were presented when applied lead to their application leading to the disclosure of the financial statements in an honest manner.

Abstract : Through this research, we aim to clarify how the audit process is performed at the level of company complexes in light of the application of the Algerian standards for auditing, and to clarify the role of the account governor as the one in charge of this process, especially in light of the reforms that Algeria has known of the audit profession.

It was concluded that the auditing of the consolidated financial statements is carried out by relying on the reports of the accounts'governors of the collector companies, and this is what dictates that the financial statements of each branch are prepared in accordance with the accounting principles and methods of evaluation and disclosure adopted by the collector. Abstract: The effects of the Coronavirus were not limited only to the health sector; they affected important sectors in Algeria such as the Small and Medium Enterprises sector.

The impact of the pandemic and the preventive measures taken in various areas are the cause of the sharp decline in SME revenues and the decline in economic activity. This article aims to shed light on the impact of the coronavirus Covid on the Algerian economy, pointing to the SME sector and how it is affected by the virus. The result of this article shows that the coronavirus Covid had negative effects on SMEs.

Algeria has taken steps to overcome the crisis and is trying to further promote and encourage this sector. To this end, we propose the establishment of an emergency system that can benefit the economy and especially national SMEs. ABSTRACT : Migrants have faced many challenges since the beginning of the migration journey whether it is legal or illegal, up to the ultimate stability in the downstream receiving countries on several material levels related to the quality of life and a value related to freedom of belief and respect for it.

This research paper aims to focus on the threats that have worsened with the emergence and sweep of the global epidemic, Covid As is the case with other fields,migrants suffered from health systems failure, even developed countries, to be able to confront the epidemic and avoid human losses.

They also suffered from racism and discrimination in accessing health care and other security challenges, such as being arrested and losing legal status, especially in light of the closure of international borders. Using SPSS, the hypotheses and results were tested, the most important of which are: That the organization is committed to applying organizational justice and that there is an effect of this commitment at the level of job burnout, as the model showed the existence of an inverse relationship between the variables of organizational justice and the level of job burnout.

This is an unimaginable human tragedy. The study used a quantitative content analysis to analyze tweets collected from Al-Jazeera , from the period of October 1st to October 15th of The results indicated that Al-Jazeera posted tweets about political news. Also, the results indicated that there is a strong correlation between the type of news and the number of retweets. Political news gets the greatest number of retweets and more replies than other type of news. This study hopes to contribute to investigate the type of content used in Twitter feeds, as well as the type of news on Twitter feeds in breaking news from Al-Jazeera news channel.

We believe that this study will provide important insights for future research on Twitter. This study aims to identify of the contribution of continuous improvement Kaizin in promoting organizational creativity it is through the field study That is done at the Condor Foundation Cuisson and PEM — Bordj Bou Ariridj. Abstract: This study aims to highlight the role of the governor in preserving the public health from of the spread of Corona epidemic Covid 19 ,that poses a serious threat to the public health, and as this epidemic is an exceptional and unexpected circumstance it obligates the administrative authorities to take exceptional preventive measures to protect public health from the risk of infection.

As the governor is the representative of the central administration, the legislator has granted him wide powers and discretionary authority to take any measures to limit the spread of the Corona-virus and preserve the public health which is one of the the purposes of administrative police. Rather, the main objective of it is to combat the epidemic and reduce its spread in order to protect public health.

However, the governor is obligated when practicing this Powers to respect the legal texts regulating his powers. This study aims to deal with the question of codification of the electronic press in Algeria through the definition of researchers; Europeans and Arabs by giving its specificities and types.

We studied deeply the organic code of information in particular its articles managing the electronic press and the important remarks which are linked to. We also discussed the future of codification of this press in Algeria through what was said in Algerian mass media about National Workshop of Electronic Press in Algeria which was held on February 20, Our study aimed to find out the relationship between the blood group and the energy production systems of the athlete, Our study relied on the descriptive approach, so that the study sample consisted of some athletes in eloued city 40 athletes, They are divided into four groups , The sample was subjected to three different physical tests in terms of the summoned system, and that after determining the blood groups of the athletes.

After statistical treatment of the results of the tests according to each blood group, we concluded: The absence of statistically significant differences in the results of the alactic- anaerobic system test between groups of blood groups for athletes, the absence of statistically significant differences in the results of the test for the lactic- anaerobic system between groups of blood groups of athletes, and the absence of statistically significant differences in the results of the test of the aerobic system between groups Blood groups for athletes.

The main objective of this article is to examine the relationship between unemployment and economic growth in Algeria. We consider the duration of study between and The model adopted to test the relationship is the error correction model VECM. Empirical results show that economic growth has no significant influence on the unemployment rate variable.

In addition, the causality test confirms the absence of a relationship between the unemployment rate and economic growth. The study aimed to know the nature of the relationship between education as a strategy of human resource development and social mobility within the Algerian society, and in order to achieve the objectives of the study, a questionnaire was developed consisting of 25 items distributed into three areas: the field of education, the economic dimension, and the cultural dimension.

The study sample consisted of professor of El-oued University, and the results of the study showed that there is a relationship between the education strategy and social mobility in the Algerian society from theviewpoint of the sample members, and it was a moderate positive relationship in the cultural field, as well as a moderate positive relationship in the economic field.

Thus, the results showed the nature of the relationship between education strategy and social mobility, which was moderately positive.

The youth group is the most important age group in society and is the most capable of achieving development. A group of parties gave opportunities for young people to represent them in the legislative elections in the state of Tlemcen.

The element is like the Socialist Forces Front, but the youth group was represented in the National People's Assembly only by two deputies out of 12 representing the Tlemcen Province. This study aims at presenting another aspect of reforming the accounting environment in Algeria, which is represented in framing the accounts auditing profession, after enacting a law regulating the profession and issuing auditing standards as a reference that controls the principles and rules of the profession, then creating a practical guide that is considered as a unified model for performing the auditing profession.

Abstract Strategic maps are among the modern management models that have proven their success in activating strategic management in the organization, as they balance and link the various operational and strategic objectives of the various aspects of the organization and the various actors in it, as well as aiming to transform intangible assets into tangible results for the sake of Create sustainable value.

Hence, this study aimed to propose a model for a strategic map for a health institution a university hospital center based on the four main aspects which are the patient axis, the financial axis, the internal operations axis, and the apprenticeship and learning axis.

The research recommends the importance of health institutions following strategic maps in implementing their strategy Keywords : Strategic Map, Balanced Scorecard, University Hospital Center. This study addresses the phenomenon of Cybercrime, by focusing on the causes of their growth in light of the Coronavirus Covid and the targeted sectors.

The study found that the measures and procedures imposed by the Coronavirus Covid on governments and people especially : Increased Telework, rising use of the Internet and search through it for information about the virus and ways to prevent it, are the main reason behind the increase in cybercrime rates in light of the Coronavirus Covid- 19, Because it provided the enabling environment for committing this type of crime, and The most important sectors targeted were: the health sector, the financial sector, the oil sector, conference platforms, video meetings and chats, electronic gaming platforms.

This study aimed to know the effect of using cooperative learning strategy on learning the skill of simple transmission in volleyball. The researcher used the experimental approach on a sample of 40 students who were divided equally, the first experimental taught by the cooperative learning strategy and the second a control studying in the traditional manner, the results showed that all From the cooperative learning strategy and direct leadership style has a positive impact on performance with the superiority of the cooperative learning group.

The results of the study concluded that the measure of teacher commitment in the Algerian environment has reliable indicators of reliability and validity that allow its application in Algeria. This study sought to discover the audiovisual professions and their characteristics in Algerian cinema. So he considered his answer for a few brief seconds.

But Ben-Gurion took his silence to be a "No. Humanism Today. Retrieved 17 January Burns John Logie Baird, Television Pioneer. Even Baird's conversion to agnosticism while living at home does not appear to have stimulated a rebuke from the Reverend John Baird. McArthur and P. Retrieved 14 May Joseph Henry Press. John's mother, Althea, had been reared in the Quaker tradition, and his stepmother, Ruth, was Catholic, but John was resolutely secular throughout his life.

With religion, one can get answers on faith. Most scientists leave them open and perhaps unanswerable, but do abide by a code of moral values. For civilized society to succeed, there must be a common consensus on moral values and moral behaviour, with due regard to the welfare of our fellow man. There are likely many sets of moral values compatible with successful civilized society. Cornell University Press. He had remained steadfast in agnosticism and therefore, as Mabel took comfort in remarking, "he never denied God.

He and Mabel occasionally attended Presbyterian services and sometimes Episcopalian, at which Mabel could follow the prayer book. Since otherwise she depended on Alec's interpreting, their church goings were rare; but their children attended Presbyterian services regularly. In Bell came across a Unitarian pamphlet and found its theology congenially undogmatic. Harper Collins Publishers Ltd. Alec, a skeptical Scot whose family never attended church, gently informed her that he believed "[m]en should be judged not by their religious beliefs but by their lives.

For example, the Jew, Emile Berliner, the late inventor, called himself agnostic. Simmons Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. Upon his death on February 10, , Bernard received a state funeral - the first French scientist to be so honored.

The procession ended at Pere Lachaise cemetery, and Gustave Flaubert described it later with a touch of irony as "religious and very beautiful. Michael Bishop. Semiotica, Volume MacHale's biography calls George Boole 'an agnostic deist'. MacHale does not repress this or other evidence of the Boole's nineteenth-century beliefs and practices in the paranormal and in religious mysticism.

There is no absolute knowledge. Marcelo Suarez-Orozco, ed. NYU Press. The Origins of Modern Spain. Cajal was a liberal in politics, an evolutionist in philosophy, an agnostic in religion Sharon Bertsch McGrayne. Ulysses Press. He did not attend church and was considered an agnostic.

The life of the Hon. Henry Cavendish: including abstracts of his more important scientific papers, and a critical inquiry into the claims of all the alleged discoverers of the composition of water. Printed for the Cavendish Society. A Fellow of the Royal Society, who had good means of judging, states that, "As to Cavendish's religion, he was nothing at all. The only subjects in which he appeared to take any interest, were scientific From what has been stated, it will appear that is would be vain to assert that we know with any certainty what doctrine Cavendish held concerning Spiritual things; but we may with some confidence affirm, that the World to come did not engross his thoughts; that he gave no outward demonstration of interest in religion, and did join his fellow men in worshipping God He died and have no sign, rejecting human sympathy, and leaving us no means of determining whether he anticipated annihilation, or looked forward to an endless life He did not love; he did not hate; he did not hope; he did not fear; he did not worship as others do.

Marie Curie. London: Collins. Unusually at such an early age, she became what T. Jamil Ragep, ed. Biographical Encyclopedia of Astronomers. In my most extreme fluctuations I have never been an Atheist in the sense of denying the existence of a God.

I think that generally and more and more as I grow older , but not always, that an Agnostic would be the more correct description of my state of mind. VIII, p. New York, D. The Autobiography of Charles Darwin — With the original omissions restored. Edited and with appendix and notes by his granddaughter Nora Barlow. As far as I know, he never identified himself as a member of any formal church or religious faith, but neither did he reject religion.

Wolfgang Pauli, Heisenberg and Dirac took part in it. Among other things, Dirac said: "I cannot understand why we idle discussing religion. If we are honest — and as scientists honesty is our precise duty — we cannot help but admit that any religion is a pack of false statements, deprived of any real foundation.

The very idea of God is a product of human imagination. Basic Books. Dirac: "My husband wasn't an atheist. In Italy, once, he said, "If there is a God, he's a great mathematician. Interviewer: "Did you know Dirac was religious? His wife told me he believed in Jesus Christ. Some say there was never any such person in existence. He is emotional about nuclear weapons and questions about the Soviet Union, in the same way that Teller is In each case I felt that the person, Hungarian, with that sort of experience involving the Soviet Union was governed to such an extent by his emotional feelings and convictions that he was no longer rational when it came to discussing problems of that sort.

Rational enough on scientific matters, of course. Both Wigner and Teller are very able scientists But when it came to political matters the emotional factor overcame them. In the same way, Mrs. Dirac might be speaking from an emotional basis when she said he had believed in Christ, by saying something she would like to believe about Dirac.

Interviewer: "She also said she believed in telepathy — when she was thinking of her daughter, the daughter phoned, that sort of thing. His attitude towards religious belief as such can best be characterised as agnostic. Ridener, referencing a book by Lewis A. Coser, wrote: "Shortly after his traditional Jewish confirmation at the age of thirteen, Durkheim, under the influence of a Catholic woman teacher, had a shortlived mystical experience that led to an interest in Catholicism.

But soon afterwards he turned away from all religious involvement, though emphatically not from interest in religious phenomena, and became an agnostic. As quoted at stephenjaygould.

Ingersoll The Works of Robert G. Cosimo, Inc. Infidels have contributed their share, but never one of them has reached the grandeur of originality. Howard Florey, Penicillin and After. Hijiya Lee De Forest and the Fatherhood of Radio. Lehigh University Press. This was more than a gradual change, and it would cause de Forest to adopt of life of agnosticism, determinism, and Darwinism.

He began to believe that he is the master of his destiny, that science can explain all, rather than a god or an unseen divine force.

The Quiet Revolution: Hermann Kolbe and the science of organic chemistry. However, if we consider that Frankland was a "born- again" Christian during much of this period before he began to fall into agnosticism himself , that the term agnostic did not even exist at that time. He was right. Rosalind sent him a four-page declaration, eloquent for a young woman just over 20 let alone a scientist of any age A creator of what? Again, I see no reason why the belief that we are insignificant or fortuitous should lessen our faith - as I have defined it.

Notable Scientists from to the Present: D-H. Although Gabor's family became Lutherans in , religion appeared to play a minor role in his life. Buchtel, Aldo Badiani The hidden structure: a scientific biography of Camillo Golgi. As for Gell-Mann, he seems to see nothing to discuss in this entire God business, and in the index to The Quark and the Jaguar God goes unmentioned. Life he called a "complex adaptive system" which produces interesting phenomena such as the jaguar and Murray Gell-Mann, who discovered the quark.

Gell-Mann is a Nobel-class tackler of problems, but for him the existence of God is not one of them. They follow from the fundamental theory. They are what we call emergent properties. Life can emerge from physics and chemistry, plus a lot of accidents. The human mind can arise from neurobiology, and a lot of accidents.

The way the chemical bond arises from physics and certain accidents. I certainly felt bemused by the anomaly of my role as a Jewish agnostic, trying to reassure a group of Catholic priests that evolution remained both true and entirely consistent with religious belief. Elzinga, Matthew R. Ebenstein Hayek's journey: the mind of Friedrich Hayek.

Palgrave Macmillan Limited. He apparently composed the conclusion of the work on page , Hayek's "final word. Haldeman-Julius Publications. Retrieved 30 June He was equally distinguished in physics and physiology and was the discoverer of the law of the conservatism of energy.

Hilbert 2 ed. Perhaps the guests would be discussing Galileo's trial and someone would blame Galileo for failing to stand up for his convictions. Only an idiot could believe that scientific truth needs martyrdom; that may be necessary in religion, but scientific results prove themselves in due time. So I took thought, and invented what I conceived to be the appropriate title of agnostic. Appleton and Company, Hosted at the Secular Web. Retrieved 25 April When asked by the interviewer about his view of the universe and the design or non-design of the universe, Hooft replied, "Well absolutely amazing fact that it seems that the entire universe is now in grasp of theoretical physics.

It still highly premature to make theories that includes how the big bang originated as and things like that. Although, people are tying that every day As far as I'm concerned, everything seems to behave completely rationally. The laws of physics is all we need to understand how the universe got into being.

And then eventually we end up with this religious question as to why is the universe is the way it is and how can it be it is a place for humans to live in, that is a miracle. I don't have really any answers here, but as a physicist I've learn to appreciate the fact that everything seems to have totally rational explanations and as far as I'm concerned, I expect the entire universe now also to be something you can explain in completely rational terms. When asked by the interviewer about his belief in an afterlife, Hooft replied, "Well, such beliefs I think I related to religions of the past and I don't think that notions such as 'afterlife' has any Not in terms of modern science.

Retrieved 22 April Christianson Edwin Hubble: Mariner of the Nebulae. One morning, while driving north with Grace after the failed eclipse expedition of , he broached Whitehead's idea of a God who might have chosen from a great many possibilities to make a different universe, but He made this one.

By contemplating the universe, one might approximate some idea of its Creator. As time passed, however, he seemed even less certain: "We do not know why we are born into the world, but we can try to find out what sort of a world it is — at least in its physical aspects.

The world of pure values is one which science cannot enter, and science is unconcerned with the transcendent, however compelling a private revelation or individual moment of ecstasy.

Hubble Time. John terribly depressed, and asked Edwin about his belief. Edwin said, "The whole thing is so much bigger than I am, and I can't understand it, so I just trust myself to it, and forget about it. Theories, in his opinion, were appropriate cocktail conversation.

The Economist. June 16, The Future of Man. Random House LLC. We can hardly wonder, in the circumstances, that agnostics such as Sir James Jeans and Marcel Boll, and even convinced believers like Guardini, have uttered expressions ol amazement tinged with heroic pessimism or triumphant detachment at the apparent insignificance of the phenomenon of Life in terms of the cosmos— a little mold on a grain of dust It may be noticed in passing that the connection once made between Kolbe's cautious attitude to molecular structure and his alleged agnosticism in religion now seems thoroughly misplaced.

Keynes on Population. Like Nietzsche, the young Keynes was both very aware of religion, and hostile to it. Formally speaking, in religion he was an aggressive agnostic. But they did not like to say so.

He was so brilliant that he solved the most difficult problems of the science at the age of 19 and a few years later won the prize of the Paris Academy of Science and was appointed Director of the Berlin Academy. He served the Republic and was head of the Commission that installed the decimal system, and was ennobled by Napoleon. The Quintessence of Irving Langmuir. Pergamon Press. Harvard University Press. Michelson's biographers stress, that our hero was not conspicuous by religiousness.

His father was a free-thinker and Michelson grew up in secular family and have no opportunity to acknowledge the believe of his forebears. Barrow Morley was deeply religious. His original training had been in theology and he only turned to chemistry, a self-taught hobby, when he was unable to enter the ministry. On the religious question, Michelson disagreed with both these men.

He had renounced any belief that moral issues were at stake in The number of references he makes to religion is staggering, actually numbering over twenty-five hundred in his published corpus. Mises: The Last Knight of Liberalism. Ludwig von Mises Institute. The Life of Ludwig Mond. Schlessinger, June H. Schlessinger The who's who of Nobel Prize winners, 3 ed. Oryx Press. Nationality: British. Enric Brillas, Pere-Lluis Cabot, ed. Josep M. Costa on the Occasion of His 70th Birthday. Edicions Universitat Barcelona.

The minister, who had hidden himself in a closet, stepped forward to marry the couple in a ceremony from which Bowers had excised every reference to God.

Neither of us could decide about God," Bowers says. So where does that leave you? He had [also] looked around and decided that religion is responsible for a lot of trouble in the world. I may doubt these things as a scientist, as we cannot prove them scientifically, but at the same time we also cannot falsify disprove them.

For the same reasons, I cannot deny God with certainty, which would make me an atheist. This is a conclusion reached by many scientists. You asked me earlier if I believed in God and the hereafter. I would tend to say no but when one dies one could well be surprised.

The Outlook, Volume Outlook Co. Variational Principles in Dynamics and Quantum Theory 3 ed. Courier Dover Publications. This hypothesis is indeed crude and incomplete, because this supreme intelligence would be only a demigod; infinite in one sense, it would be limited in another, since it would have only an imperfect recollection of the past; and it could have no other, since otherwise all recollections would be equally present to it and for it there would be no time.

And yet when we speak of time, for all which happens outside of us, do we not unconsciously adopt this hypothesis; do we not put ourselves in the place of this imperfect God; and do not even the atheists put themselves in the place where God would be if he existed? What I have just said shows us, perhaps, why we have tried to put all physical phenomena into the same frame. But that can not pass for a definition of simultaneity, since this hypothetical intelligence, even if it existed, would be for us impenetrable.

Retrieved 10 April Classical Probability in the Enlightenment. Princeton University Press. He studied science because he considered that by doing this he could better understand the nature of the god that he believed in — he thought that a supernatural agent had created the laws of nature.

The same is true of virtually all the leading scientists in the Western world, such as Galileo and Newton, who lived after al-Haytham, until about the middle of the twentieth century. Taylor, Loretta Taylor Dale Seymour Publications.

Ramachandran , BBC Radio 4. Retrieved 12 May Like most scientists I'm agnostic. If you're talking about God in some very abstract sense, like in India the Dance of Shiva or in the Spinoza sense of the word God, then I'll say I have no problem with it. But if you're talking about an old guy there who's watching me and making sure I behave myself and that I pray to him every day and that I will be punished in Hell if I do something wrong, I don't believe in that.

Rayleigh was more tolerant. An Anglican with agnostic tendencies, he avoided direct questions as to his religious beliefs but when pressed would admit that he thought of Christ as a gifted man who could see further and truer than he.

Powell July 29, Discover Magazine. Retrieved 17 April Interviewer: So does your science leave space for untestable faith? Do you believe in God? Randall: There's room there, and it could go either way. Faith just doesn't have anything to do with what I'm doing as a scientist. It's nice if you can believe in God, because then you see more of a purpose in things. Even if you don't, though, it doesn't mean that there's no purpose. It doesn't mean that there's no goodness.

I think that there's a virtue in being good in and of itself. I think that one can work with the world we have. So I probably don't believe in God. I think it's a problem that people are considered immoral if they're not religious.

That's just not true. This might earn me some enemies, but in some ways they may be even more moral. If you do something for a religious reason, you do it because you'll be rewarded in an afterlife or in this world. As an adult, he became an agnostic, a freethinker and a Freemason, who was nonetheless fairly tolerant of his wife Amelie's continued faith. Matter and spirit in the Universe: scientific and religious preludes to modern cosmology.

OECD Publishing. Shapley was not committed to any particular model of the expanding universe, but he did have strong opinions about the relationship between astronomy and religion. Glass Revolutionaries of the Cosmos: The Astro-physicists. Although a declared agnostic, Shapley was deeply interested in religion and was a genuinely 'religious' person from a philosophical point of view.

I am not a particularly religious person, and this is the reason for my agnosticism. To be an agnostic simply means that I do not know and will keep seeking the answer for eternity. This is my response to questions about religion.

At college he began the gradual development of what might best be called positivistic agnosticism: a belief that the world could be known and explained by ordinary empirical observation without recourse to supernatural forces. Ultimate causation, he considered unknowable. A science World Wide Publications. Charles Proteus Steinmetz: a biography. This has placed him before the public as an atheist. Religion was not an issue in my family; indeed, it was never discussed.

My only religious training came because the Minta required that all students take classes in their respective religions. My family celebrated one holiday, the Day of Atonement, when we all fasted.

Yet my father said prayers for his parents on Saturdays and on all the Jewish holidays. We quote again from John Tyndall who, it should be said, was an agnostic: "I think that a good deal of Faraday's week-day strength and persistency might be referred to his Sunday Exercises.

He drinks from a fount on Sunday which refreshes his soul for a week. Faraday "drinks from a fount on Sunday which refreshes his soul for a week," said the agnostic Tyndall with obvious fascination -- and, perhaps, a trace of envy. Point of Inquiry Podcast.

Center for Inquiry. Sometimes I muse deeply on the forces that are for me invisible. When I am almost close to the idea of God, I feel immediately estranged by the horrors of this world, which he seems to tolerate The melting-pot revisited: twenty well-known Americans of Polish background. The scientific a rankings of the most influential scientists, past and present.

Carol Publishing Group. Prisoner's Dilemma. American Mathematical Soc. But Johnny had earlier said to his mother, "There probably is a God. Many things are easier to explain if there is than if there isn't. Robert Oppenheimer: A Life. He had been completely agnostic for as long as I had known him.

As far as I could see this act did not agree with the attitudes and thoughts he had harbored for nearly all his life. Key Ideas in Economics. Nelson Thornes. My Life. A record of events and opinions.

I soon became intimate with him, and we were for some years joint investigators of spiritualistic phenomena. Andrew Szanton, ed. The Recollections of Eugene P. Wigner As Told to Andrew Szanton. Neither did I want to be a clergyman. I liked a good sermon. But religion tells people how to behave and that I could never do.

Clergymen also had to assume and advocate the presence of God, and proofs of God's existence seemed to me quite unsatisfactory. People claimed that He had made our earth. Well, how had He made it? With an earth-making machine? He still has a fondness for the Church, so this book should not offend Christians. Retrieved 26 September I am also atheist or agnostic I don't even know the difference. I've never been to church and prefer to think for myself. The Outline of Parapsychology. I can only say that when we more and more understand the wonderful structures in the nature, no matter whether we directly or indirectly ask the question, there does exist the question you ask: is there someone or God who takes charge of all?

I think it is a question that will never be finally answered. The reporter asked: 'Is it because what man knows is too limited? Monica Bellucci. Retrieved 12 June I am an agnostic, even though I respect and am interested in all religions. I was Catholic, raised Catholic. I had certain issues about that.

I consciously lapsed. I made a conscious decision to avoid it. I'm agnostic. I'm not saying I don't have faith; I absolutely have faith but don't necessarily have faith in God. I have faith in humanity. Japanese spiritualism holds that there is kami spirit in everything, and that's closer to my own beliefs. Ingmar Bergman: Interviews. A religious reconciliation, for example, appears unlikely for Mr. Bergman, an agnostic. It now turns out that Berlin was an agnostic. Johannes Brahms: A Biography.

Liverpool University Press. Illegal Harmonies: Music in the Modern Age 3 ed. Black Inc. Guthrie, ed. Resonant witness: conversations between music and theology. Britten: War Requiem. My Father, Charlie Chaplin. Some scientists say that if the world were to stop revolving we'd all disintegrate. But the world keeps on going. Something must be holding us all in place--some Supreme Force. Arnold Dobrin similarly reported, "Aaron Copland has not followed the religion of his parents.

Benedikt Taschen. The Philip DeFranco Show. Retrieved 28 April Thomas Eakins and the Uses of History. University of Pennsylvania Press. Eakins's selection of this subject has puzzled some art historians who, unable to reconcile what appears to be an anomalous religious image by a reputedly agnostic artist, have related it solely to Eakins's desire for realism, thus divesting the painting of its religious content.

Yale University Press. Foster, Mark Bockrath The Revenge of Thomas Eakins. Who's Who in Hell. Barricade Books. Chilton Book Co. We have just said that Faure was not a religious man. Smith, Caroline Potter, ed. French music since Berlioz. Not an atheist but a doubter.

Neil Gaiman interviewed by Steve Whitaker. FA I think we can say that God exists in the DC Universe. I would not stand up and beat the drum for the existence of God in this universe.

  Account Options

This study has come up to a set of results, the most important of which point out that the nature of the coverage of the Al-Khabar newspaper consists in political issues and the presentation of facts and all related developments. The present study aims to know the relationship of maternal attachment to the family climate in the surroundings of the brothers and sisters of a mentally handicapped child, and the descriptive and analytical method was used in the study, and it was conducted on a sample consisting of 80 brothers and sisters of mentally handicapped children in the psychological educational centers of mentally handicapped children.

The paper covers two hypotheses. First, the speech of the Constantine adolescents is thought to lack the use of proper euphemistic language when describing certain cases of personal appearance that might provoke negative connotations and interpretations. Second, those adolescents are unaware of euphemism as a language skill and its importance in social interactions.

To examine the aforementioned hypotheses, a survey was administered to Algerian adolescents living in Constantine, Algeria. Socio-cultural linguistics is the model according to which the notion of euphemism will be investigated. The findings suggest that the use of euphemistic expressions were used more than the use of non-euphemistic ones.

The findings have also showed that the informants, based on their answers, are not aware of the concept of euphemism and its indispensability.

On the 15th Decembre , a battalion of the presidential guard fought residential neighbourhoods in the capital Juba, Republic of South Sudan. This caused violence between two factions of the presidential guard, which hide, in fact, political and tribal enmity, between president Silva Kiir Mayardt of the Dinka tribe and his deputy, Riak Machar of the Nuer tribe, who are the main parties in this conflict, which was caused by a dispute over power-sharing in the State of South Sudan.

The civil war continued from to January , with the implementation of the last peace agreement between the two sides of the war, with regional mediation carried out by the Intergovernmental Authority on Development IGAD. This article examines the reality of the conflict in the State of South Sudan, its major causes and the direct and indirect parties involved in it, whether they are internal, regional or international.

It also concludes in a prospective vision that, according to historical and tribal factors, and to the divergent agendas of the conflict parties, the implementation of recent peace agreement will not last for long. The article aims to reveal the developments and challenges faced by banks, especially in terms of determining the requirements and structure of capital, liquidity and asset composition, which requires the drafting of modern procedures and rules by the Basel Committee to keep pace with local and international financial events in order to achieve financial stability.

That's why we have submitted a study on The societe General of France because it is committed to the implementation of Basel3, using the descriptive analytical approach in data collection and analysis. Melody and aberration have been spread within the Arabic environment as it was an intensive danger.

After the Arabs, after a while, were speaking their innate and temper language; they were needless to grammar; to adjust their language. However, after the coming of the Islam, they mixed out with the foreigners so that the melody had spread. After that, the language Jealous were afraid of their language to be corrupted. As a result, they thought to put rules to maintain the tongue and the pen and save them from mislead. This latter, made it a necessity to know the grammar and its rules.

Moreover, the linguists took this hard mission into their part and their sources and raw materials was the pottery. Grammarians had a significant role in this later, until it had spread among them and the poets on one hand, and the critics in other hand, a danger conflict and struggle claiming that they are not in charge to deal with this discipline to criticize the pottery. Moreover, this study also aims to shed light on the aspects and causes of the conflicts that arose between grammarians and poets on the one hand, and between grammarians and critics on the other hand.

The research is divided into five sections, the first one which is devoted to the extremism of the linguists and grammarians, as they used to revolt against anything that contradicts their established rules. As for the second part, I put it into discounts of Farazdaq, because he was the biggest poet in conflict with the grammarians, and the third section is devoted to the disputes and rivalries of the poet Bashar Ibin Barad with the linguists.

The university student is seen as an essential tool for development and an important link in the commitment to social responsibility, and with the emergence of the term quality of life, which is concerned with how to help individuals to emit positive behaviors, it has become imperative to take more care of the quality of life of the university student in order to ensure the process of his transition and a rapid adaptation to his new environment to ensure his effectiveness, efficiency.

This study aims to clarify social responsibility, analyze the quality of life, determine its dimensions and the methods of its measurement. Thus, certain statistical tools were used in the analysis of an exploratory study of the reality of the quality of life among the University of Khenchela students.

The research aims to identify the extent to which the Algerian economic establishment has the necessary regulatory requirements consisting of structure, culture, leadership, and technological environment. Which constitutes an important context for the conduct of various internal and external knowledge through processes creation, storage, marketing, localization and to verify this study and test its hypotheses, prepared a questionnaire consisting of 52 questions, distributed to 95 individuals from the study community, where the SPSS program was used and tested T-Test to choose the hypotheses, and the study concluded that this institution suffers from a lack of culture that encourages the exchange of knowledge and the absence of influence for leadership, with the presence of flexible structures to a moderate degree despite having a strong technological structure.

It has achieved that virtual societies represent a social and life sphere that expresses the real community.

Practicing some behaviour and applying some ideas. The study aimed to know the reality of applying the quality standards of higher education at the University of Bordj Bou Arredij from the faculty members' point of view.

The study found that there is a low level in the responses of faculty members about the reality of applying the quality standards of higher education at the University of Bordj Bou Arreridj, and it also found that there are no statistically significant differences about the reality of applying the quality standards of higher education according to the gender variable, while there are differences according to the experience variable.

For the benefit of more experienced individuals. An exploratory descriptive approach was used that is appropriate to the nature of the study. The study aimed to determine and study the relationship of organizational culture and empowerment as a managerial tool. It has been studied some algerian banking institutions in Tebessa to stand up its organizational culture properties and its relationship to administrative empowerment using the questionnaire.

The study concluded that there is a correlation and influence between organizational culture and empowerment. Features of the organizational culture dimension contributed to the lack of empowerment, especially each of the guidance, management support, identity, revenue systems and conflict tolerance. The organizational culture of Algerian banks is bureaucratic, which obscures the possibility of establishing the concept of empowerment. This study aims to know the extent of the psychological suffering of a single mother in Algerian society.

We took a case study approach, and it was for one of the single mothers who was dropped off at a specialist health center. We relied on the application of clinical interview.

The study came to the following conclusion: The single mother suffers psychologically to a high degree in Algerian societ. It is ADN testing and the law in Algeria that determine the assignment of a child to a single mother Keywords: Single mother, mental suffering, Algerian society, social rejection.

Elbechir Yaqot,. The purpose of this study is to analyse gender bias in the teacher-learner interaction inside EFL classroom in the Algerian secondary school. Findings revealed that gender bias can be found in teacher-student interaction in the classroom despite teachers positive attitudes of gender.

EFL teachers believe that students knowledge, personality and classroom participation are factors that affect teacher-student interaction regardless any gender consideration. Teachers should be conscious of their interactions with students regarding gender to deconstruct all sorts of gender bias inside classroom. Abstract: Dividend distribution policy is considered among the strategic financial decisions exercised by the Corporation and influenced by a number of factors, the most important of which is the financing behavior.

Therefore, this study aimed to test the effect of financing behavior on the dividend policy of a sample of 13 economic companies listed in the Dow Jones Industrial Index during between and To answer the problem and test the hypotheses, we rely on cross-sectional time series data.

Panel Data. The study found that there is a positive and statistically significant effect of long-term debt on the dividend policy expressed in per share per dividend distributed to economic institutions included in the DJIA index.

The results also indicated that there was no statistically significant effect of short-term debt and total debt on the dividend per share of the dividends to the studied sample. The principle in concluding public deals is to observe the general provisions for concluding administrative contracts and to follow legally defined methods and procedures to ensure the good choice of the contracting dealer with the contracting interest, which can dispense with the formalities required for concluding and resort to other adapted procedures in concluding their deals according to the emerging circumstances that must be taken into account And most of them are represented in urgency, as well as the spread of epidemics such as the Corona epidemic that must be prevented and fought.

For this purpose, we distributed a questionnaire to a sample of 42 employees of this rank. The results indicate that the MBWA is practiced to a high degree among the employees of the administrators of the University of Constantine2; and the Effective Communication dimension comes first in terms of importance. Keywords : scientific research, social sciences, scientific research ethics, citation, scientific theft.

This study aims to examine the reality of the sub-Saharan region and the Sahel, in the context of competition for major international powers. We proceeded in our study from a major problem, according to which: Understanding the most important determinants that enabled the major international powers to build competitive strategies and arrangements towards the sub-Saharan region and the Sahel.

And what are the implications of this competition for the security and stability of the region? In the end, we concluded that the major powers are seeking, through competition for southern Sahara and the Sahel, to achieve two geostrategic bets, and the second a geo-security bet. The study aims to identify the standards for evaluating the quality of educational research adopted in social studies in general and to find the most important indicators to demonstrate the quality and relevance of educational research to the level of scientific and cognitive progress and to the extent of changes in the flow and social change movement in line with contemporary trends challenging research Fields of education and higher education in particular.

The study of educational quality standards was reviewed as one of the basic determinants of the progress of scientific research, which indicates that the quality of scientific research is consistent with the quality of application and use of these standards in research in its various fields The research results, the development of the level of performance and accreditation of universities and the improvement of the level of their scientific and academic quality assurance.

Most importantly, the best use and application results of this educational research in all fields of life are being used.

The study also shows the link between the elements of the communication process and the dimensions of social capital. Lahmer Mokhtaria,. More specifically, it will offer an overview of the developments brought to the Higher education field since the independence time. The paper will detail with facts and data about the progress of the internationalization process at the Algerian university level. Overall, the researcher attempts to track the achievements and the shortcomings of the progress within a specific time frame.

We aim at providing an answer to the question raised about which extent these factors lead to procrastination. We used a questionnaire to collect the necessary data since it was more inclusive. The results revealed that anxiety and time management have a great role in academic procrastination along with lack of self-regulation. Students if not emotionally stable and regulated in terms of time management can undergo severe academic failure.

Delay in completing given tasks successfully and on time may result in low grade and failed or repeated semesters. Activating the work of communication, information and advertising technology and updating the various internal channels of the public hospital institution and modernizing it is extremely important and inevitable, as the article discusses the position of modern technologies in communication, information and advertising and their role in improving the image of the hospital institution in Algeria, which Unfortunately, it suffers from a bleak outlook.

And to ensure the validity of the hypothesis that communication, information and advertising technology contributes to improving the performance and image of the hospital service and consequently changing that negative image inherent to the Algerian public hospital hospital as a whole. If both jurisprudence and the judiciary have agreed long time ago that there is no civil liability without damage occurrence , it is somewhat different for error , since we are encountering a long and , sometimes , a fierce debate about whether error is a component or an element of civil liability or it is not that necessary , thus , civil liability is established in isolation.

This research aims to identify the role of regulatory justice in establishing citizenship behavior among the faculty members of the Faculty of Economics, Business and Management Sciences University of Constantine 2. It has been found that regulatory justice in its procedural justice section has an impact on establishing citizenship behavior among faculty members, It has also been concluded that faculty members have high citizenship behavior, While the regulatory justice prevailing in college is moderate in their view.

This study aimed to identify the impact of inflation on the reliability of financial statements, as well as the accounting methods that were used to exclude its impact on the financial statements, and to achieve this goal a questionnaire was constructed as it was distributed to a sample of university professors who practice Accounting. The study concluded that when inflation is not taken into consideration while preparing the financial statements, it leads to their impartiality and is not sincere, and the accounting methods that were presented when applied lead to their application leading to the disclosure of the financial statements in an honest manner.

Abstract : Through this research, we aim to clarify how the audit process is performed at the level of company complexes in light of the application of the Algerian standards for auditing, and to clarify the role of the account governor as the one in charge of this process, especially in light of the reforms that Algeria has known of the audit profession. It was concluded that the auditing of the consolidated financial statements is carried out by relying on the reports of the accounts'governors of the collector companies, and this is what dictates that the financial statements of each branch are prepared in accordance with the accounting principles and methods of evaluation and disclosure adopted by the collector.

Abstract: The effects of the Coronavirus were not limited only to the health sector; they affected important sectors in Algeria such as the Small and Medium Enterprises sector.

The impact of the pandemic and the preventive measures taken in various areas are the cause of the sharp decline in SME revenues and the decline in economic activity. This article aims to shed light on the impact of the coronavirus Covid on the Algerian economy, pointing to the SME sector and how it is affected by the virus.

The result of this article shows that the coronavirus Covid had negative effects on SMEs. Algeria has taken steps to overcome the crisis and is trying to further promote and encourage this sector. To this end, we propose the establishment of an emergency system that can benefit the economy and especially national SMEs.

ABSTRACT : Migrants have faced many challenges since the beginning of the migration journey whether it is legal or illegal, up to the ultimate stability in the downstream receiving countries on several material levels related to the quality of life and a value related to freedom of belief and respect for it. This research paper aims to focus on the threats that have worsened with the emergence and sweep of the global epidemic, Covid As is the case with other fields,migrants suffered from health systems failure, even developed countries, to be able to confront the epidemic and avoid human losses.

They also suffered from racism and discrimination in accessing health care and other security challenges, such as being arrested and losing legal status, especially in light of the closure of international borders.

Using SPSS, the hypotheses and results were tested, the most important of which are: That the organization is committed to applying organizational justice and that there is an effect of this commitment at the level of job burnout, as the model showed the existence of an inverse relationship between the variables of organizational justice and the level of job burnout.

This is an unimaginable human tragedy. The study used a quantitative content analysis to analyze tweets collected from Al-Jazeera , from the period of October 1st to October 15th of The results indicated that Al-Jazeera posted tweets about political news. Also, the results indicated that there is a strong correlation between the type of news and the number of retweets. Political news gets the greatest number of retweets and more replies than other type of news.

This study hopes to contribute to investigate the type of content used in Twitter feeds, as well as the type of news on Twitter feeds in breaking news from Al-Jazeera news channel. We believe that this study will provide important insights for future research on Twitter.

This study aims to identify of the contribution of continuous improvement Kaizin in promoting organizational creativity it is through the field study That is done at the Condor Foundation Cuisson and PEM — Bordj Bou Ariridj.

Abstract: This study aims to highlight the role of the governor in preserving the public health from of the spread of Corona epidemic Covid 19 ,that poses a serious threat to the public health, and as this epidemic is an exceptional and unexpected circumstance it obligates the administrative authorities to take exceptional preventive measures to protect public health from the risk of infection.

As the governor is the representative of the central administration, the legislator has granted him wide powers and discretionary authority to take any measures to limit the spread of the Corona-virus and preserve the public health which is one of the the purposes of administrative police. Rather, the main objective of it is to combat the epidemic and reduce its spread in order to protect public health. However, the governor is obligated when practicing this Powers to respect the legal texts regulating his powers.

This study aims to deal with the question of codification of the electronic press in Algeria through the definition of researchers; Europeans and Arabs by giving its specificities and types. We studied deeply the organic code of information in particular its articles managing the electronic press and the important remarks which are linked to.

We also discussed the future of codification of this press in Algeria through what was said in Algerian mass media about National Workshop of Electronic Press in Algeria which was held on February 20, Our study aimed to find out the relationship between the blood group and the energy production systems of the athlete, Our study relied on the descriptive approach, so that the study sample consisted of some athletes in eloued city 40 athletes, They are divided into four groups , The sample was subjected to three different physical tests in terms of the summoned system, and that after determining the blood groups of the athletes.

After statistical treatment of the results of the tests according to each blood group, we concluded: The absence of statistically significant differences in the results of the alactic- anaerobic system test between groups of blood groups for athletes, the absence of statistically significant differences in the results of the test for the lactic- anaerobic system between groups of blood groups of athletes, and the absence of statistically significant differences in the results of the test of the aerobic system between groups Blood groups for athletes.

The main objective of this article is to examine the relationship between unemployment and economic growth in Algeria. We consider the duration of study between and The model adopted to test the relationship is the error correction model VECM. Empirical results show that economic growth has no significant influence on the unemployment rate variable.

In addition, the causality test confirms the absence of a relationship between the unemployment rate and economic growth. The study aimed to know the nature of the relationship between education as a strategy of human resource development and social mobility within the Algerian society, and in order to achieve the objectives of the study, a questionnaire was developed consisting of 25 items distributed into three areas: the field of education, the economic dimension, and the cultural dimension.

The study sample consisted of professor of El-oued University, and the results of the study showed that there is a relationship between the education strategy and social mobility in the Algerian society from theviewpoint of the sample members, and it was a moderate positive relationship in the cultural field, as well as a moderate positive relationship in the economic field.

Thus, the results showed the nature of the relationship between education strategy and social mobility, which was moderately positive. The youth group is the most important age group in society and is the most capable of achieving development.

A group of parties gave opportunities for young people to represent them in the legislative elections in the state of Tlemcen. The element is like the Socialist Forces Front, but the youth group was represented in the National People's Assembly only by two deputies out of 12 representing the Tlemcen Province. This study aims at presenting another aspect of reforming the accounting environment in Algeria, which is represented in framing the accounts auditing profession, after enacting a law regulating the profession and issuing auditing standards as a reference that controls the principles and rules of the profession, then creating a practical guide that is considered as a unified model for performing the auditing profession.

Abstract Strategic maps are among the modern management models that have proven their success in activating strategic management in the organization, as they balance and link the various operational and strategic objectives of the various aspects of the organization and the various actors in it, as well as aiming to transform intangible assets into tangible results for the sake of Create sustainable value.

Hence, this study aimed to propose a model for a strategic map for a health institution a university hospital center based on the four main aspects which are the patient axis, the financial axis, the internal operations axis, and the apprenticeship and learning axis. The research recommends the importance of health institutions following strategic maps in implementing their strategy Keywords : Strategic Map, Balanced Scorecard, University Hospital Center.

This study addresses the phenomenon of Cybercrime, by focusing on the causes of their growth in light of the Coronavirus Covid and the targeted sectors. The study found that the measures and procedures imposed by the Coronavirus Covid on governments and people especially : Increased Telework, rising use of the Internet and search through it for information about the virus and ways to prevent it, are the main reason behind the increase in cybercrime rates in light of the Coronavirus Covid- 19, Because it provided the enabling environment for committing this type of crime, and The most important sectors targeted were: the health sector, the financial sector, the oil sector, conference platforms, video meetings and chats, electronic gaming platforms.

This study aimed to know the effect of using cooperative learning strategy on learning the skill of simple transmission in volleyball. The researcher used the experimental approach on a sample of 40 students who were divided equally, the first experimental taught by the cooperative learning strategy and the second a control studying in the traditional manner, the results showed that all From the cooperative learning strategy and direct leadership style has a positive impact on performance with the superiority of the cooperative learning group.

The results of the study concluded that the measure of teacher commitment in the Algerian environment has reliable indicators of reliability and validity that allow its application in Algeria.

This study sought to discover the audiovisual professions and their characteristics in Algerian cinema. In other words, it aims to seek cinematographic careers through the stages of cinematography in Algeria, by studying the conditions of cinema. This is to better understand the conditions of cinematography in Algeria and to emphasize the importance of those responsible for crafts and working methods.

This descriptive and analytical study was based on the interview especially electronic via senders with professionals, in addition to the observation tool. The study concluded that the Algerian film professions sometimes reflect the independence of each profession and sometimes overlap between the professions. In addition, some have been canceled in some films, and there is a professional who plays several roles. He also concluded that the professions retained their roles and functions and had not changed.

The Study concluded that there is a positive impact of emotional intelligence on leadership practices at OEB University. This research aimed at understanding the nature of the potential crisis , based on the components and data of the current reality, and on the available statistics about them, as the analysis starts from a re-reading of the indicators indicating the likelihood of the occurrence of the crisis from the perspective of what international organizations and most researchers provide, in terms of reports, statistics and scientific approaches.

As a conclusion to this study the continuation of the new Corona pandemic, the lack of adequate information, the presence of many unknown variables, and the absence of clear indications of the timing of the pandemic's decline, the process of predicting the crisis is difficult. Social responsibility is one of the most important concepts circulating in financial and business circles around the world, and the importance of this proposition is underlined by the inclusion of the role that institutions play in the field of sustainable development and their attribution of a fundamental task in economic development which is directly reflected on the social level.

It has been demonstrated through several university studies the importance of exploiting social responsibility in business organizations as a tool to support the competitiveness of the institution and an important component of the advantages it obtains, as it guarantees its success in the markets, which guarantees its continuity and success and maximizes its value by reducing costs or providing product quality, which is a competitive advantage for the institution.

This paper aims at finding out the factors helping working women to realize professional compatibility at the socio-medical center in Sonatrach ,Skikda Province, relying on descriptive approach using form technique in data collection.

The study revealed that women a high level of professional compatibility, this has been shown through self-satisfaction , as well as the good relationship with colleagues and supervisors, safety measures, and labour system at workplace..

The research reaches a conclusion that, despite the difference in the biographical approach and the nature of writing about the ego, this contributed to opening the horizons of the critical lesson towards new approaches. The present study aims to discover methods of treating stressful situations in the elderly residing in the nursing home in the light of the epidemic of the Corona virus Covid in Algeria, in addition to knowing the differences in the treatment of these pressures according to the sex of the elderly.

To achieve the objectives of the study, a measure of methods to deal with the psychological pressures of the elderly was applied to 40 elderly, and we also adopted the descriptive analytical approach, and after the results were statistically treated by the Statistical Program SPSS , we found that the majority of seniors residing in the nursing home have a high level of treatment for stressful life situations and there is no difference in the management of these pressures according to the gender of our study sample.

After membership it has lasted for more than forty-seven years. Britain officially leaves the European Union, and this study aims to identify the most important economic shocks expected for both of them, and their implications for economic growth, financial markets and trade.

We have concluded that its exit has had several economic repercussions, both on Britain itself and on the European Union. Within the general framework of the Algerian university's approach to establishing a quality assurance system, universities have started an institutional self-assessment process as one of the main pillars of this system.

The objective of this research is first to define the self-assessment mechanism as one of the practical procedures of the quality assurance system. Next, examine the reality and challenges of the Algerian university's experience in applying this mechanism, in order to provide proposals for the management and implementation of the self-assessment mechanism in the light of these challenges.

Tourism has received great attention from the Algerian government for its tremendous ability to stir the wheel of growth. Algeria has endeavored to exploit all its potentials to develop tourism through the enactment of a set of laws and legislations that may improve the tourism offer, however the contribution of the tourism sector to the Algerian economy remains weak which has always kept Algeria in the lag ranks according to the tourism competitiveness index, therefore the Algerian government is compelled to reconsider the seriousness of executing the strategies and plans that were established within the tourism planning guidelines, horizons This study aims to provide a critical analysis of the location of the Maghreb economies Algeria, Tunisia and Morocco in global economic integration, and this is through two important approaches that underpin them: globalization, international trade and investment.

The study aimed at reviewing one of the recent trends in international shipping services, namely, sustainable shipping, as an imperative imposed by the reality on the countries of the world, including developing States, in view of the significant contribution of this sector to international trade and global markets on the one hand, and the implications Severe negative impacts on the environment, energy and climate change, on the other hand, as a result of its excessive dependence on fossil fuels, as well as the study's rationale for the transition to sustainable shipping in developing countries and the various effects of the transition.

The study found that the challenge now for all countries of the world, including developing countries, is to promote and foster sustainable transport policies, while the importance of this shift is even more important for developing countries that have the opportunity from the beginning to choose the path of sustainable development.

In order to answer this, I, the researcher, have conducted a field study over a sample estimated to university students, based on the survey method, using a questionnaire to collect data. The results were as such: The majority of respondents were able to form a public opinion towards the amendment when they discussed it; hence, they showed positive attitude towards voting.

Keywords: electronic public sphere, public opinion, electronic public opinion, attitude scale. Abstract: Cognitive review of human resources protection methods in different working environments in Algeria is considered as important topics especially when it comes to the safety of this resource of injury due to falling in professional accidents considered to be a human capital which must be preserved as well as his safety , more over to develop his capabilities and qualifications for the aim of raising safety professional levels and in the working environments in which he operates.

For this purpose, this research paper aims to highlight the subject of professional safety starting with a review of the concepts and theories and then, the foundations on which they are based and the liable organisation for it through which the determination of the required objectives,and the tasks that are carried out by the professional safety.

Finally, to draw attention to the recent recommendations of professional safety from the issuance of health and professional standards. ISO in late This study aims at knowing the role of the university programs in enhancing the dimensions of preventive education among the students and according to their assessment. To achieve that, this study relies on the descriptive method.

It also employs a questionnaire to collect data. This questionnaire involves 39 items distributed over 05 main dimensions which can be stated as follows: the first dimension is the safety education, the second is the health education, the third is the environmental education, the fourth is the social education, and the last one is the security education. It has been distributed on a proportional stratified random sample of students. The weighted average value of the questionnaire as a whole is 1.

In the third and last part, the effect of green marketing on the competitive forces of tourism agencies in Algeria is explained. This study attempts to bring the evidence on the effectiveness of consonant harmony and their meanings in the collection of "As I See" based on the connection between the characteristics of the sounds and the meaning they carry.

This study finally tries to arrive at the value of the phonitic meaning and its important role in the understanding of the meaning of texts, and the unveiling of their meanings, starting from the phonitic phenomena whisper - declaration. Acoustic Semantic, Consonants, Sonorous voiced , Voiceless. The study aimed to identify the effect of a proposed training program using small games on the development of psychological skills of handball players.

The study was conducted on an estimated sample of 15 players between the ages of 12 and 15 years, and representatives of school teams in the governorate of Tebessa chosen by the intentional method.

It is a team of Martyr Rice Muhammad Al-Said's middle school, and using the experimental approach, fter which we applied the proposed training program using a group of small games for a period of 08 weeks, and using the skill scale Psychological, after collecting measurements and data, after conducting statistical treatment, we concluded that there is a positive effect of the training program on developing psychological skills such as attention, self-confidence, relaxation because of its importance In the sports performance of players.

International financial reporting standards have achieved a global reach and acceptance, with different countries adopting them to meet international accounting requirements. The study found that international financial reporting standards help to implement the basic and supportive characteristics of financial information such as suitability, credibility, reliability, and comparability.

They had also a statistical impact on the quality of financial information, and the correlation between the two variables was both direct and strong; this is what the impact factor has confirmed. Keywords: International Financial reporting Standards, Financial information major characteristics, Financial Information supporting characteristics, Financial Information Quality.

Ulysses Press. He did not attend church and was considered an agnostic. The life of the Hon. Henry Cavendish: including abstracts of his more important scientific papers, and a critical inquiry into the claims of all the alleged discoverers of the composition of water. Printed for the Cavendish Society. A Fellow of the Royal Society, who had good means of judging, states that, "As to Cavendish's religion, he was nothing at all.

The only subjects in which he appeared to take any interest, were scientific From what has been stated, it will appear that is would be vain to assert that we know with any certainty what doctrine Cavendish held concerning Spiritual things; but we may with some confidence affirm, that the World to come did not engross his thoughts; that he gave no outward demonstration of interest in religion, and did join his fellow men in worshipping God He died and have no sign, rejecting human sympathy, and leaving us no means of determining whether he anticipated annihilation, or looked forward to an endless life He did not love; he did not hate; he did not hope; he did not fear; he did not worship as others do.

Marie Curie. London: Collins. Unusually at such an early age, she became what T. Jamil Ragep, ed. Biographical Encyclopedia of Astronomers. In my most extreme fluctuations I have never been an Atheist in the sense of denying the existence of a God. I think that generally and more and more as I grow older , but not always, that an Agnostic would be the more correct description of my state of mind. VIII, p. New York, D.

The Autobiography of Charles Darwin — With the original omissions restored. Edited and with appendix and notes by his granddaughter Nora Barlow. As far as I know, he never identified himself as a member of any formal church or religious faith, but neither did he reject religion. Wolfgang Pauli, Heisenberg and Dirac took part in it. Among other things, Dirac said: "I cannot understand why we idle discussing religion.

If we are honest — and as scientists honesty is our precise duty — we cannot help but admit that any religion is a pack of false statements, deprived of any real foundation. The very idea of God is a product of human imagination. Basic Books. Dirac: "My husband wasn't an atheist. In Italy, once, he said, "If there is a God, he's a great mathematician. Interviewer: "Did you know Dirac was religious? His wife told me he believed in Jesus Christ. Some say there was never any such person in existence.

He is emotional about nuclear weapons and questions about the Soviet Union, in the same way that Teller is In each case I felt that the person, Hungarian, with that sort of experience involving the Soviet Union was governed to such an extent by his emotional feelings and convictions that he was no longer rational when it came to discussing problems of that sort.

Rational enough on scientific matters, of course. Both Wigner and Teller are very able scientists But when it came to political matters the emotional factor overcame them. In the same way, Mrs. Dirac might be speaking from an emotional basis when she said he had believed in Christ, by saying something she would like to believe about Dirac.

Interviewer: "She also said she believed in telepathy — when she was thinking of her daughter, the daughter phoned, that sort of thing. His attitude towards religious belief as such can best be characterised as agnostic.

Ridener, referencing a book by Lewis A. Coser, wrote: "Shortly after his traditional Jewish confirmation at the age of thirteen, Durkheim, under the influence of a Catholic woman teacher, had a shortlived mystical experience that led to an interest in Catholicism.

But soon afterwards he turned away from all religious involvement, though emphatically not from interest in religious phenomena, and became an agnostic. As quoted at stephenjaygould. Ingersoll The Works of Robert G. Cosimo, Inc. Infidels have contributed their share, but never one of them has reached the grandeur of originality.

Howard Florey, Penicillin and After. Hijiya Lee De Forest and the Fatherhood of Radio. Lehigh University Press. This was more than a gradual change, and it would cause de Forest to adopt of life of agnosticism, determinism, and Darwinism. He began to believe that he is the master of his destiny, that science can explain all, rather than a god or an unseen divine force.

The Quiet Revolution: Hermann Kolbe and the science of organic chemistry. However, if we consider that Frankland was a "born- again" Christian during much of this period before he began to fall into agnosticism himself , that the term agnostic did not even exist at that time.

He was right. Rosalind sent him a four-page declaration, eloquent for a young woman just over 20 let alone a scientist of any age A creator of what? Again, I see no reason why the belief that we are insignificant or fortuitous should lessen our faith - as I have defined it. Notable Scientists from to the Present: D-H. Although Gabor's family became Lutherans in , religion appeared to play a minor role in his life. Buchtel, Aldo Badiani The hidden structure: a scientific biography of Camillo Golgi.

As for Gell-Mann, he seems to see nothing to discuss in this entire God business, and in the index to The Quark and the Jaguar God goes unmentioned. Life he called a "complex adaptive system" which produces interesting phenomena such as the jaguar and Murray Gell-Mann, who discovered the quark. Gell-Mann is a Nobel-class tackler of problems, but for him the existence of God is not one of them. They follow from the fundamental theory. They are what we call emergent properties.

Life can emerge from physics and chemistry, plus a lot of accidents. The human mind can arise from neurobiology, and a lot of accidents. The way the chemical bond arises from physics and certain accidents. I certainly felt bemused by the anomaly of my role as a Jewish agnostic, trying to reassure a group of Catholic priests that evolution remained both true and entirely consistent with religious belief.

Elzinga, Matthew R. Ebenstein Hayek's journey: the mind of Friedrich Hayek. Palgrave Macmillan Limited. He apparently composed the conclusion of the work on page , Hayek's "final word. Haldeman-Julius Publications. Retrieved 30 June He was equally distinguished in physics and physiology and was the discoverer of the law of the conservatism of energy.

Hilbert 2 ed. Perhaps the guests would be discussing Galileo's trial and someone would blame Galileo for failing to stand up for his convictions. Only an idiot could believe that scientific truth needs martyrdom; that may be necessary in religion, but scientific results prove themselves in due time. So I took thought, and invented what I conceived to be the appropriate title of agnostic. Appleton and Company, Hosted at the Secular Web.

Retrieved 25 April When asked by the interviewer about his view of the universe and the design or non-design of the universe, Hooft replied, "Well absolutely amazing fact that it seems that the entire universe is now in grasp of theoretical physics. It still highly premature to make theories that includes how the big bang originated as and things like that.

Although, people are tying that every day As far as I'm concerned, everything seems to behave completely rationally. The laws of physics is all we need to understand how the universe got into being.

And then eventually we end up with this religious question as to why is the universe is the way it is and how can it be it is a place for humans to live in, that is a miracle.

I don't have really any answers here, but as a physicist I've learn to appreciate the fact that everything seems to have totally rational explanations and as far as I'm concerned, I expect the entire universe now also to be something you can explain in completely rational terms.

When asked by the interviewer about his belief in an afterlife, Hooft replied, "Well, such beliefs I think I related to religions of the past and I don't think that notions such as 'afterlife' has any Not in terms of modern science. Retrieved 22 April Christianson Edwin Hubble: Mariner of the Nebulae. One morning, while driving north with Grace after the failed eclipse expedition of , he broached Whitehead's idea of a God who might have chosen from a great many possibilities to make a different universe, but He made this one.

By contemplating the universe, one might approximate some idea of its Creator. As time passed, however, he seemed even less certain: "We do not know why we are born into the world, but we can try to find out what sort of a world it is — at least in its physical aspects.

The world of pure values is one which science cannot enter, and science is unconcerned with the transcendent, however compelling a private revelation or individual moment of ecstasy. Hubble Time. John terribly depressed, and asked Edwin about his belief.

Edwin said, "The whole thing is so much bigger than I am, and I can't understand it, so I just trust myself to it, and forget about it. Theories, in his opinion, were appropriate cocktail conversation. The Economist. June 16, The Future of Man. Random House LLC. We can hardly wonder, in the circumstances, that agnostics such as Sir James Jeans and Marcel Boll, and even convinced believers like Guardini, have uttered expressions ol amazement tinged with heroic pessimism or triumphant detachment at the apparent insignificance of the phenomenon of Life in terms of the cosmos— a little mold on a grain of dust It may be noticed in passing that the connection once made between Kolbe's cautious attitude to molecular structure and his alleged agnosticism in religion now seems thoroughly misplaced.

Keynes on Population. Like Nietzsche, the young Keynes was both very aware of religion, and hostile to it. Formally speaking, in religion he was an aggressive agnostic. But they did not like to say so. He was so brilliant that he solved the most difficult problems of the science at the age of 19 and a few years later won the prize of the Paris Academy of Science and was appointed Director of the Berlin Academy.

He served the Republic and was head of the Commission that installed the decimal system, and was ennobled by Napoleon. The Quintessence of Irving Langmuir.

Pergamon Press. Harvard University Press. Michelson's biographers stress, that our hero was not conspicuous by religiousness. His father was a free-thinker and Michelson grew up in secular family and have no opportunity to acknowledge the believe of his forebears.

Barrow Morley was deeply religious. His original training had been in theology and he only turned to chemistry, a self-taught hobby, when he was unable to enter the ministry. On the religious question, Michelson disagreed with both these men. He had renounced any belief that moral issues were at stake in The number of references he makes to religion is staggering, actually numbering over twenty-five hundred in his published corpus.

Mises: The Last Knight of Liberalism. Ludwig von Mises Institute. The Life of Ludwig Mond. Schlessinger, June H. Schlessinger The who's who of Nobel Prize winners, 3 ed. Oryx Press. Nationality: British. Enric Brillas, Pere-Lluis Cabot, ed. Josep M. Costa on the Occasion of His 70th Birthday. Edicions Universitat Barcelona. The minister, who had hidden himself in a closet, stepped forward to marry the couple in a ceremony from which Bowers had excised every reference to God.

Neither of us could decide about God," Bowers says. So where does that leave you? He had [also] looked around and decided that religion is responsible for a lot of trouble in the world. I may doubt these things as a scientist, as we cannot prove them scientifically, but at the same time we also cannot falsify disprove them. For the same reasons, I cannot deny God with certainty, which would make me an atheist.

This is a conclusion reached by many scientists. You asked me earlier if I believed in God and the hereafter. I would tend to say no but when one dies one could well be surprised. The Outlook, Volume Outlook Co. Variational Principles in Dynamics and Quantum Theory 3 ed.

Courier Dover Publications. This hypothesis is indeed crude and incomplete, because this supreme intelligence would be only a demigod; infinite in one sense, it would be limited in another, since it would have only an imperfect recollection of the past; and it could have no other, since otherwise all recollections would be equally present to it and for it there would be no time.

And yet when we speak of time, for all which happens outside of us, do we not unconsciously adopt this hypothesis; do we not put ourselves in the place of this imperfect God; and do not even the atheists put themselves in the place where God would be if he existed? What I have just said shows us, perhaps, why we have tried to put all physical phenomena into the same frame. But that can not pass for a definition of simultaneity, since this hypothetical intelligence, even if it existed, would be for us impenetrable.

Retrieved 10 April Classical Probability in the Enlightenment. Princeton University Press. He studied science because he considered that by doing this he could better understand the nature of the god that he believed in — he thought that a supernatural agent had created the laws of nature. The same is true of virtually all the leading scientists in the Western world, such as Galileo and Newton, who lived after al-Haytham, until about the middle of the twentieth century.

Taylor, Loretta Taylor Dale Seymour Publications. Ramachandran , BBC Radio 4. Retrieved 12 May Like most scientists I'm agnostic. If you're talking about God in some very abstract sense, like in India the Dance of Shiva or in the Spinoza sense of the word God, then I'll say I have no problem with it. But if you're talking about an old guy there who's watching me and making sure I behave myself and that I pray to him every day and that I will be punished in Hell if I do something wrong, I don't believe in that.

Rayleigh was more tolerant. An Anglican with agnostic tendencies, he avoided direct questions as to his religious beliefs but when pressed would admit that he thought of Christ as a gifted man who could see further and truer than he. Powell July 29, Discover Magazine. Retrieved 17 April Interviewer: So does your science leave space for untestable faith? Do you believe in God? Randall: There's room there, and it could go either way.

Faith just doesn't have anything to do with what I'm doing as a scientist. It's nice if you can believe in God, because then you see more of a purpose in things. Even if you don't, though, it doesn't mean that there's no purpose. It doesn't mean that there's no goodness. I think that there's a virtue in being good in and of itself. I think that one can work with the world we have.

So I probably don't believe in God. I think it's a problem that people are considered immoral if they're not religious. That's just not true. This might earn me some enemies, but in some ways they may be even more moral. If you do something for a religious reason, you do it because you'll be rewarded in an afterlife or in this world.

As an adult, he became an agnostic, a freethinker and a Freemason, who was nonetheless fairly tolerant of his wife Amelie's continued faith. Matter and spirit in the Universe: scientific and religious preludes to modern cosmology. OECD Publishing. Shapley was not committed to any particular model of the expanding universe, but he did have strong opinions about the relationship between astronomy and religion. Glass Revolutionaries of the Cosmos: The Astro-physicists.

Although a declared agnostic, Shapley was deeply interested in religion and was a genuinely 'religious' person from a philosophical point of view.

I am not a particularly religious person, and this is the reason for my agnosticism. To be an agnostic simply means that I do not know and will keep seeking the answer for eternity. This is my response to questions about religion. At college he began the gradual development of what might best be called positivistic agnosticism: a belief that the world could be known and explained by ordinary empirical observation without recourse to supernatural forces.

Ultimate causation, he considered unknowable. A science World Wide Publications. Charles Proteus Steinmetz: a biography. This has placed him before the public as an atheist. Religion was not an issue in my family; indeed, it was never discussed.

My only religious training came because the Minta required that all students take classes in their respective religions. My family celebrated one holiday, the Day of Atonement, when we all fasted. Yet my father said prayers for his parents on Saturdays and on all the Jewish holidays. We quote again from John Tyndall who, it should be said, was an agnostic: "I think that a good deal of Faraday's week-day strength and persistency might be referred to his Sunday Exercises.

He drinks from a fount on Sunday which refreshes his soul for a week. Faraday "drinks from a fount on Sunday which refreshes his soul for a week," said the agnostic Tyndall with obvious fascination -- and, perhaps, a trace of envy. Point of Inquiry Podcast. Center for Inquiry. Sometimes I muse deeply on the forces that are for me invisible. When I am almost close to the idea of God, I feel immediately estranged by the horrors of this world, which he seems to tolerate The melting-pot revisited: twenty well-known Americans of Polish background.

The scientific a rankings of the most influential scientists, past and present. Carol Publishing Group. Prisoner's Dilemma. American Mathematical Soc. But Johnny had earlier said to his mother, "There probably is a God.

Many things are easier to explain if there is than if there isn't. Robert Oppenheimer: A Life. He had been completely agnostic for as long as I had known him. As far as I could see this act did not agree with the attitudes and thoughts he had harbored for nearly all his life.

Key Ideas in Economics. Nelson Thornes. My Life. A record of events and opinions. I soon became intimate with him, and we were for some years joint investigators of spiritualistic phenomena. Andrew Szanton, ed. The Recollections of Eugene P. Wigner As Told to Andrew Szanton. Neither did I want to be a clergyman. I liked a good sermon. But religion tells people how to behave and that I could never do. Clergymen also had to assume and advocate the presence of God, and proofs of God's existence seemed to me quite unsatisfactory.

People claimed that He had made our earth. Well, how had He made it? With an earth-making machine? He still has a fondness for the Church, so this book should not offend Christians. Retrieved 26 September I am also atheist or agnostic I don't even know the difference. I've never been to church and prefer to think for myself.

The Outline of Parapsychology. I can only say that when we more and more understand the wonderful structures in the nature, no matter whether we directly or indirectly ask the question, there does exist the question you ask: is there someone or God who takes charge of all?

I think it is a question that will never be finally answered. The reporter asked: 'Is it because what man knows is too limited? Monica Bellucci. Retrieved 12 June I am an agnostic, even though I respect and am interested in all religions. I was Catholic, raised Catholic. I had certain issues about that. I consciously lapsed. I made a conscious decision to avoid it. I'm agnostic. I'm not saying I don't have faith; I absolutely have faith but don't necessarily have faith in God.

I have faith in humanity. Japanese spiritualism holds that there is kami spirit in everything, and that's closer to my own beliefs. Ingmar Bergman: Interviews. A religious reconciliation, for example, appears unlikely for Mr. Bergman, an agnostic. It now turns out that Berlin was an agnostic. Johannes Brahms: A Biography. Liverpool University Press. Illegal Harmonies: Music in the Modern Age 3 ed.

Black Inc. Guthrie, ed. Resonant witness: conversations between music and theology. Britten: War Requiem. My Father, Charlie Chaplin. Some scientists say that if the world were to stop revolving we'd all disintegrate. But the world keeps on going.

Something must be holding us all in place--some Supreme Force. Arnold Dobrin similarly reported, "Aaron Copland has not followed the religion of his parents. Benedikt Taschen. The Philip DeFranco Show. Retrieved 28 April Thomas Eakins and the Uses of History.

University of Pennsylvania Press. Eakins's selection of this subject has puzzled some art historians who, unable to reconcile what appears to be an anomalous religious image by a reputedly agnostic artist, have related it solely to Eakins's desire for realism, thus divesting the painting of its religious content.

Yale University Press. Foster, Mark Bockrath The Revenge of Thomas Eakins. Who's Who in Hell. Barricade Books. Chilton Book Co. We have just said that Faure was not a religious man. Smith, Caroline Potter, ed. French music since Berlioz. Not an atheist but a doubter. Neil Gaiman interviewed by Steve Whitaker. FA I think we can say that God exists in the DC Universe. I would not stand up and beat the drum for the existence of God in this universe. University of Texas Press. Barnes Music Festival.

But give them an opening. New York: Broadway. I really don't know. I just don't know. We're not quite sure 'what' we are, but I know that we're more agnostic than atheistic. We shall not at this juncture risk analyzing an agnostic Magritte haunted perhaps by thoughts of ultimate destiny.

Raabe to cite Mahler's supposed conversion from Judaism to Catholicism. In both law and common understanding, a choice made under duress is discounted as lacking in free will. Mahler converted as a mere formality under compulsion of a bigoted law that barred Jews from directorship of the Vienna Hofoper. Mahler himself joked about the conversion with his Jewish friends, and, no doubt, would view with bitter amusement the obtuseness of Ms.

Raabe's understanding of the cruel choice forced on him: either convert to Christianity or forfeit the professional post for which you are supremely destined.

When Mahler was asked why he never composed a Mass, he answered bluntly that he could never, with any degree of artistic or spiritual integrity, voice the Credo. He was a confirmed agnostic, a doubter and seeker, never a soul at rest or at peace.

Gustav Mahler: A Life in Crisis. Mahler had followed the common path of assimilationist Jews, particularly those who were German-speaking and university-educated: toward a dignified job, a position in the community, and a respectable income. Besides the fact that anti-Semitism was rife in Vienna, the post Mahler sought was a government position and normally open only to those who declared themselves to belong to the state religion, Catholicism.

Mahler's superior, the intendant of the opera, reported directly to the emperor. Like the many Jews who were candidates for lesser government jobs, Mahler was officially baptized on 23 February Why Mahler?

In January Mahler is told that "under present circumstances it is impossible to engage a Jew for Vienna. He is the most reluctant, the most resentful, of converts. Mahler is letting it be known for the record that he is a forced convert, one whose Jewish pride is undiminished, his essence unchanged. At one point he converted to Catholicism, purely for the purpose of obtaining a job that he coveted -- director of the Court Opera of Vienna.

It was unthinkable for a Jew to hold such a prestigious position, hence the utilitarian conversion to the state religion. On Ecstasy. Melbourne Univ. Martin J. Anderson, ed. Klemperer on Music: Shavings from a Musician's Workbench. London: Toccata Press. Mahler was a thoroughgoing child of the nineteenth century, an adherent of Nietzsche, and typically irreligious.

Macmillan Encyclopedia of Death and Dying. Retrieved 29 June From the beginning, Mahler declared that his music was not for his own time but for the future. An agnostic, he apparently saw long-term success as a real-world equivalent of immortality.