Touhou Eiyashou ~ Imperishable Night. - VGMdb

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In this section, we discuss PT and the distinctive characters exhibited in PT through a comparison be- tween these two glossaries. How to Cope with Rejection [76]. III, Paris,, pp. Super Ninja Force Inazuma!

(PDF) Reflecting Mirrors: Perspectives on Huayan Buddhism | Imre Hamar - seoauditing.ru

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Navigation Kokusai toho gakusha kaigi kiyo 国際東方学者会議紀要/ Transactions of the Choe In Hwan 蔡印幻韓国華厳祖師海印寺希朗: “Kankoku kegon soshi Kaiinji Kirō​” [On ch'o” 華嚴一乘法界圖硏究抄[Some research on the Hwaŏm ilsŭng pŏpkyedo, 第二丗年中説空宗般若破執相患:・・如来十二年後、丗年中説大品等経通教. Download date: May. 般若抄經 (T ) such as huàchéng 化成, huàfó 化佛, huàhuàn 化幻, huàrén 化人, huàxiàn 化現, and 復自破骨,持髓與之。 在東方。師名曇無竭,當為. 我 [] 說般若波羅蜜。 saying: “This.

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On the other hand, in the lexicon section, the notation of Chinese writing varies, sometimes 1 vertical, sometimes 2 horizontal reading from left to right , or 3 the combination of these two ways reading vertical lines from top to bottom continuing from the left line to the right line.

Although there are some exceptions for ancient inscriptions on bones and tortoise shells, since the Zhou dyn- asty ca. Even in the case of horizontal calligraphy, the line goes from right to left as if each line only has one letter. These styles of notation is a result of accommodating the Tibetan writing system that consistently reads left to right.

We also note that, from the perspective of Chinese orthography, PT includes many variants in its Chinese entries in both the text- title listing and lexicon sections. Letters within are left- or right-side radicals.

All Chinese letters listed here are not the exact same glyphs that appear in PT These written lines after the text-title list section are not a col- ophon, as the following analysis demonstrates, despite the recent discussion of these lines by Galambros and Van Schaik in Manu- scripts and Travellers However, because there was no monastic title added to individual names in this list, it is difficult to determine if the name in PT corresponds with either of these two monks.

In the second line, the text title of a Chinese commentary is written fol- lowed by the partial copy of its opening sentences, continuing on to the third line. As no damage observed at its recto side, this little patch may not be for mending. He then departed Changan and travelled to sev- eral provinces of Western China before finally staying in Dunhuang.

The other instances 3, 4, and 6 in verso are also all written verti- cally with having the binding part to be right. On the other hand, due to the fact that the writing of case 1 appears on the recto of folio 4 and the writing in verso cases 2, 3, and 5 are all in same direction vertical writing with making the binding part right side , there is the possibility that these writings were added after the manuscript had been bound and completed its original purpose.

However, this title is not included in the lDan dKar ma, the oldest Tibetan Buddhist text catalogue. Thus, its Tibetan translation had not been made before the early 9 century. According to several Euro- North American scholars and indigenous Tibetan scholars, such as Skyogs ston rin chen brka shis ca.

In the analysis of Dunhuang manu- scripts, Stein and a number of Japanese scholars e. The- se orthographic features22 include: consistent use of tsheg before a shad; the use of double tsheg punctuation23; the palatalisation of ma by ya btags before vowels i and e e.

In brief, the orthographic features of the Tibetan writing found in both the title list section and lexicon section of the manuscript point toward a copy of writing prevalent during 21 See texts listed in above introduction. Note that each end of a visible line has a double shad throughout the documents.

In later inscriptions that usage is very rare. The Chinese has a number of archaic features as well, although these are not found in the lexicon section but in the text-title listing section. Red lines form unevenly distributed columns vertically across the folios and separate individ- ual sets of Tibetan-Chinese terms. In analyzing the seven folios of the bi-lingual Tibetan-Chinese terminology it is clear that the document was initially created with a baseline of Tibetan terms.

As previously mentioned, this is indicated by the fact that all the Tibetan terms in the lexicon section of the document are written in trim order while a number of the Chinese terms are written in a haphazard fashion with some Chinese terms being written vertically and others written hori- zontally.

The following image demonstrates this point. Folio 5a IDP 09 , Line 6 Tibetan terms were written first, then Chinese terms were filled in, as there are columns or sections of the lexicon section that have only Tibetan terms and also do not have any Chinese equivalent terms written above them.

Tibetan terms that occur where a corresponding Chinese equivalent term is not filled in constitute around 8 percent of the total number of the terms. As outlined by Kimura , the lexicon section of PT is comprised of three different categories of Buddhist terms. Yet, these three categories are not written in an orderly fashion. Rather, terms in each category are written in loose frames, which often share a folio page with other categories, e. This could indicate a lack of structural organization at the initial stage of composition.

The first category is constituted by terms itemized through numerical correspondence found in Folios 1a, 6a, 7a, 9a, and 10a. In a couple of instances the same Tibetan term appears with two different mean- 29 Although there is no Tibetan term written in this case Folio10a L8C5 , the space itself is not a blank but three slashes are filled in for some reason unlike the blank space where a Chinese term is not filled in.

See the following images: No Tibetan term filled in: F10aL8C5 ; No Chinese term filled in: F8a L4C4 30 As mentioned in the previous section relating to the fragments, we have assumed that there could be pages that were taken out leaving only their bottom-portions onto this manuscript. These fragments are located, according to IDP images, between images 13 folio 7 and 21 folio 8 , whose terminology belong to both numeric and miscellaneous categories. Thus, PT shows a lack of coordination between its translation terms while demonstrating a Tibetan interest in both Chinese based Chan terminology and Indic terminology.

This may indicate that the lexicon was not well organized or was haphazardly put together in its initial composition during a confusing time period before the im- perial decrees of CE. But the co-occurrence of Indic and Chinese based Tibetan translation may also reflect cultural conditions leading up to the Samye bsam yas debate in Tibet between Indian and Chi- nese Buddhists that occurred between CE. List 8 at the end of this section includes Chinese terms of the third category of PT but not exactly the same as their corre- sponding terms in the Jieshenmi jing.

These Chinese terms are underlined in the list added at the end of this section. On the other hand, there is only one term in the Jieshenmi jing, which corresponds to one in PT, but closer to the corresponding Tibetan terms in meaning.

The total number of Chinese and Tibetan text-titles in the listing section are different: 86 Chinese and 85 Tibetan titles. Unlike the lexicon section, the Chi- nese writing in this section is unified according to the traditional system of notation which is vertical continuous from right to left.

Thus, in reading the Chinese text titles, the folio-direction is in a way that the binding side is placed on the left side. On the other hand, the Tibetan writing system is the same as the one in the lexicon section, the binding side placed in the bottom.

Although the folio-directions for Chinese and Tibetan writing are different, Chinese titles are al- ways written at the right side of their correspondent Tibetan titles or on the upper side of the Tibetan lines when the binding side is placed at the bottom.

See the following image comparison. List of Images 10 Comparison of folio-direction Text-title listing section Folio 2a, Lexicon section Folio 1a, IDP IDP 03 01 34 Total 9 titles in the text-title listing section and one title that seems to be a later addition outside its stipulated framework.

The addition also includes a temple name and a name of a monk followed by the two lines of the content of the text added see 1. This point is indicated by the following facts: 1 Each folio has fine ruled-lines. The first line of Tibetan titles in each folio of the title listing section starts from the first line of the original ruled-lines, and the beginning of each line in Tibetan starts in accord with the right side of the ruled-line when placing the bind- ing side as the bottom.

On the other hand, the first line of the Chinese titles in each folio of the title-listing section starts from outside of the original ruled-lines, and the beginning of each line in Chinese does not necessary start from the right side of the ruled-line in an orderly manner when placing the binding side as the bottom.

In terms of line spacing, es- pecially in the folio 2a IDP 03 , the first folio of this section, the first four lines of Tibetan titles are written in single-space lines, then, starting from the fifth line throughout the end of this text-title section, the Tibetan titles are written in double-space lines as if a scribe re- membered the need of space for Chinese correspondent titles to be filled in. On the other hand, the placements of the cor- respondent Chinese titles are not in an orderly manner but rather uneven.

Also, the spaces between the Chinese titles in each line are not even in or- der to place the beginning of each Chinese title at the correspondent Tibetan title See Image D in List This is because the Tibetan line starts from the first line of the original ruled-lines, so that the first line of Chinese titles in each folio, which is written outside of the first ruled-line, does not have enough space See images A, B, and C in List This reinforcing tape was possibly attached after the Tibetan lines were written and before the Chinese corresponding lines were filled in.

This is because the first Chinese lines of folios 2a and 3a were superscribed on the reinforcing tape See images E and F in List This fact indicates that those who initiated this project already had these Buddhist scripture-titles in Tibetan at hand. After a Tibetan scribe copied these titles on each folio, then Chinese scribe s filled in the corresponding Chinese titles.

However, the order of the title-list of PT almost follows the one in the Neidianlu and this particular title is listed at the very beginning portion in both PT and the Neidianlu. The Tibetan listing of this title appears with both a Sanskrit transcription Ang. Scherrer-Schaub The following is a list of terms that indicates differences of the titles in PT and the Neidianlu.

Considering the differences found in this list, as well as the facts indicated above, the claims that Akamat- su has made regarding the close textual relation between the text- title section of PT and the Neidianlu does not seem to be certain. However, he reserves his final conclusions while waiting for further findings of Tibetan texts in Dunhuang. Another approach is the presence of sBa Sang shi — a son of the sBa family and a head of a delegation sent to China which brought back Buddhist scriptures from the capital Changan.

This individual was later called rBa dPal dbyangs and be- came ring lugs after Ye shes dbang po. Moreover, as W. There is a possibility that an ar- chetype of the PT title-list, which was in Chinese, could be relat- ed to Tankuang and his community of followers. The other approach indicates a totally different route from the previous approach, in which the text-title listing, if not the collection of texts, was transmitted to possibly Central Tibet by a Tibetan del- egation that visited to Changan, China, in the mid-eighth century.

The texts or text-titles were brought to Dunhuang to specify correct equivalent Chinese titles for a certain purpose. Although both of the above scenarios may be plausible, there currently is not enough evi- dence to provide a definitive conclusion for the exact historical ori- gins of the title list.

A common characteristic of PT in both the lexicon and text- title sections is that Tibetan titles and vocabularies were written down first followed by the corresponding Chinese. This characteris- tic is most likely due to the fact that a group or community of Tibe- tans needed to acquire the Chinese equivalent vocabularies and text- 40 The episode is based on the sBa bzhed: R.

Stein Une chronique ancienne de bSam- yas. His name was also Khri gzigs or Khri bsher san ci, who was called as Ratna, as well. He became ring lugs after Ye shes dbang po. Chan became popular in Tibet. Based on this argument, San ci is dPal dbyans according to Yamaguchi. If San ci who brought Buddhist texts to Tibet is dPal dbyangs, then, this manuscript should be attributed to dPal dbyangs.

The fact that the extant sBa bshed interchanges the name of dPal dbyans to San ci, as well, indicates a certain relation between dPal dbyans and San ci. Unlike the Neidianlu, the text-title listing of PT was not for cataloguing per se, but a tool of communica- tion to gain information of Chinese terminology and text-titles which was initiated by a group of Tibetans.

Returning to our analysis to the text-title listing section, twenty- five of the Tibetan titles among the 85 Tibetan titles are found almost identical to those listed in Tibetan Kanjurs42 while thirty-six titles are different from those found in Tibetan catalogs or registers. The translation is, however, not from Chinese translation, but from Sanskrit See Hakamaya Koza tonko 6 p. In this section, we discuss PT and the distinctive characters exhibited in PT through a comparison be- tween these two glossaries.

There seem to be several hands in the writing of Chinese terms. Tibetan terms are mostly on the left side of the respective Chinese terms in a horizontal manner that places the rolled part at the bottom. Many Chinese terms are written in semi-cursive or cursive styles. It is presumed based on the Catalogue of Khri-sron-lde-bcan? This text was transcribed by Fanggui Li They seem to be records of distribution of goods to the clergy see Li Also, the same names repeatedly appear in multiple lists.

Thus, the records may be an internal document used in a certain monastery. However, based on viewing the actual manuscript of PT, there are a couple points that could contradict her assumption, which are indicated by 1 the composition of the scroll and 2 the nature of the Tibetan terms. He appears there as a plain monk without any title… it is perhaps reasonable to suppose that at that time the account were written, he was a young monk performing his duties together with many oth- ers.

In this manuscript, the top edge of the lexi- con side is even and that of the listing records is uneven. This fact indicates how the compiler s made this scroll. Suppose that some- one pastes pieces of paper-sheets of different heights together to make a scroll sheet.

At that time, it is natural that he pastes these pieces together in a way that its top-edge becomes even and uses the surface side of the even top-edge. After the use, if one would re-use the verso of the document, he should use the document up-side down because in this way, the rest of the rolled paper is on his left side and he does not have to unfold the scroll or roll again in oppo- site direction.

Although in this way the rolled part is on the backside, there is no extra effort needed to unfold and re-roll the document. The writer just simply used the verso of the scroll up-side down. Buddhist texts translated into Tibetan before the edict, then, started to be revised accordingly. As previously mentioned, on the same side of the lexicon, there are several lines of records, in up-side down and blotted out in black, that were written before the paper-sheets were used to make the scroll.

A central question is why the person who wrote the lexicon on the scroll did not use the blank-side, which should have been blank, but uses the side that has some lines already written.

This may be because this glossary was intended for only temporary and private use from the very beginning, the use of its verso was already anticipated, so that, the verso that was preserved is totally blank. Nevertheless, either way, whether the lexicon was documented first or the name-listing document first, the nature of the lexicon of PT is obvious in comparison with PT First, PT was a scroll of used paper-sheets whose height was not even, thus one- edge of the scroll was rather bumpy and less tidy.

This composition of the scroll indicates that it was probably for temporal and private use and not for official or monastic communal purposes. The condi- tion of PT is rather deteriorated. The beginning portion of this scroll has extensive damage, so that, there could be a missing portion at the beginning. Also, in terms of the writing style, both Chinese and Tibetan writ- ing seem to be quite cursive, in particular, some Tibetan words are extremely cursive, look like scrawls, so that some are illegible.

Also, there are more than several places of terms that were blotted out in black. Their marks are so obvious that it is hard to think that this manuscript possessed a certain communal value among monastics within a temple. In terms of composition, the paper- sheets used for PT were of similar size and shape a trapezoid figure as if they manufactured only for the purpose of this lexicon.

Although there are some text-titles written on the verso of PT, these sheets were not re-used wastepaper. In terms of its state of preservation, PT shows additional special care and treatment several times after the manuscript was initially composed. For ex- ample, each page of the text-titles list has a reinforcement tape added to its top edge to protect it from damage. After binding together, a shiny bamboo stick was added to the front page for reinforcement of the binding.

Although the manuscript was not directly bound to the cover, the cover itself has a shiny bamboo stick on its backside. PT also does not have any portion where the Chinese or Tibetan is blotted out, unlike what we observed in PT Along these lines, PT seems to be treated well as if it is a valuable property in a certain monastic community that was furbished with rare accessories, such as shiny bamboo sticks and a large size dyed cover.

What made PT so special? The key point is that the manu- script was a Tibetan—Chinese lexicon. And, our analysis indi- cates that this lexicon was initiated from the Tibetan side.

The Tibet- an community needed to access and equip themselves with Chinese terminology equivalent to Tibetan terminology. This glossary could have been a draft of an official document that was offered to high ranking Chinese monks by Tibetan authorities in order for both par- ties to communicate on topics related to Buddhism. In any case, the purpose of PT was not for individual private use considering the valued treatment of this manuscript.

Rather, tak- ing material composition, writing style, and the condition of preser- vation into consideration, this manuscript was highly valued and important for the Tibetan imperial monastic authorities who sup- ported it. Our initial analysis of this manuscript has established sev- eral definitive and basic points. The manuscript is comprised of two different documents, a list of texts and a list of terms, which were bound to- gether into a single manuscript.

The copyists of both the list of terms and the list of texts wrote down the Tibetan first followed by the Chinese. Around eight percent of Tibetan terms are listed without Chinese equivalents and the Chinese terminological entries are writ- ten in approximaely seven different hands of writing.

This may indi- cate that the lexicon section of the manuscript was copied and circu- lated by Tibetans among Chinese monks in Dunhuang in order for Tibetan monastic authorities to gain knowledge of Chinese equiva- lents for Tibetan terms. The Tibetan terminology list is comprised of translation terms in Old Tibetan, terms that are before the imperially decreed standardization of CE. The list of texts has two primary possibilities for its source.

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