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You can use this interface to enable or disable sets of cookies with varying functions. We Recommend. Welcome to YesAsia. Collectibles Japanese Korean Chinese. Comics In Japanese In Chinese. Free Shipping. CD Series. Important information about purchasing this product: This product is accepted for return under certain conditions. For more details, please refer to our return policy. Sign in to rate and write review Write a Review. The corpus collected for analysis as layer 1 of the research design contained texts with a total of loanwords in hiragana, as some texts contained more than one loanword.

The data collection procedure and analysis for the descriptive statistical analysis of the corpus is described in the following sections. Layer 1: Data Collection To identify the typical features of loanwords in hiragana, it was first necessary to gather a large corpus of texts which contained these words.

A pilot study was used to identify potential sites of loanwords in hiragana, such as the labels of products, and the names of businesses. The texts were collected in one of two ways, either from online sources or through fieldwork in Japan.

Online data was collected through 24 one-hour sessions of online browsing that took place during The online sources included commercial websites and social media sites, primarily facebook and twitter. Miller The print club images were also important as they were one of the few sources of handwritten texts in the corpus, as the images are decorated with a stylus on the screen of the booth Social networking sites were another useful resource as the data-sharing culture of social media meant that besides the message posts themselves, which sometimes contained loanwords in hiragana, users included links to other websites such as those related to anime series, restaurants or celebrities, for example, which were also followed up during these browsing sessions.

In this way, a relatively broad range of text genres could be accessed remotely from Australia. Data sourced in this way were recorded by taking a screenshot of the text, or downloading an image of the item. The majority of the data came from the second source, fieldwork expeditions. The first was a ten day pilot study which was conducted in June and covered Osaka, Wakayama, Hyogo and Tokyo prefectures.

This initial broad sweep was vital in refining the fieldwork plan for the main data collection, leading to a more structured list of locations in which to seek loanwords in hiragana. The main data collection took place in February , which took 18 days and covered Osaka, Hyogo, Kyoto, Chiba and Tokyo prefectures. The fieldwork plan was designed to more fully encompass a range of locations representing different demographics in terms of age, gender, and socio-economic status in order to cover the widest range of possible sources.

The fieldwork data was collected by taking photographs with a digital camera. Efforts were made to keep disruption to the public to a minimum; for example, when collecting data in supermarkets, the busy afternoon times were avoided, and the researcher ensured that data collection did not interrupt other shoppers or staff.

This was particularly important when collecting examples of bar signage in the red light districts, as customers may not have wished to have their visit on record. These areas were avoided during their busy evening hours for this reason, as well as considerations of the personal safety of the researcher. The following sections describe what was included in the corpus and how these decisions were justified.

As stated in the introduction section 1. A decision was made to focus on types rather than tokens of loanwords in hiragana, in order to more fully account for the breadth of use rather than the popularity of certain texts which used this device. Since the pilot study suggested that the largest categories of referential meaning in the data would be occupied by product names and shop names, these kinds of texts were likely to be met in fieldwork expeditions on a number of occasions, for example the same product being sold in different shops, or a chain restaurant being encountered in more than one location.

Conflating types and tokens would therefore have led to some words, through their association with marketing texts, being over represented in the data. While the extent of the popularity of businesses or products with hiragana names is lost by not counting tokens, it was felt to be outside the scope of this study. However, these are clearly different products, seemingly produced under licence by different companies. In these cases, a decision was made to include up to 3 variations on the same type.

This aimed to capture some of the variation of these product lines without allowing the data to be swamped with examples of any one instance. A decision was made to exclude POS material produced by the manufacturer of the product such as in figure 3. From the above explanation, it can be seen that data selection was already part of the collecting process.

These are various tokens of the same Chain restaurant appears in Count once type, and are produced by the same various locations agent. These are various tokens of the same Product appears in various Count once type and are produced by the same shops agent. Variation in products is relevant, but Brand name appears across Count first 3 including all instances will cause some various products instances only brands to be over-represented.

POS material produced by the Including POS material created by the same agent accompanies a Exclude same agent would over-inflate the product appearance of this example. POS promotional material POS material created by a different created by a different agent Include agent is of relevance.

Variation in the accompanies a product use of script occurs. The online browsing sessions and fieldwork expeditions therefore served to collect examples of loanwords in hiragana from a broad range of sources.

However, other potential sites of loanwords in hiragana such as manga, song lyrics, and personal communication were not investigated. These are suggested as potential sites of further research in chapter 8. Data collected on the trip to conduct follow-up interviews layer 4 , as well as two private visits to Japan were also included in order to capture data across the greatest range of time, and from different seasons.

What grammatical class do they take? What donor language are they from? Are there any instances of language play? How many occur in a whole text? Are vowels lengthened with a bar like katakana words, or with an extra vowel like hiragana words? Which loanwords most frequently occur in hiragana? Do the texts display any other inconsistencies in orthography of loanwords?

Furthermore, some prefectures such as Wakayama were only represented in the pilot study data. Language play has also been specifically cited as a function of loanwords in Japanese Hoffer, ; Honna, The language domains described are adapted from the SFL approach to language and meaning making described by Eggins , with important differences as described below.

The final column in table 3. The coding categories will be demonstrated using the text pictured in figure 3. Word Class The grammatical class of a word for example, noun, verb or adjective was investigated at the word level because the data contained not only single words examples, but sometimes consecutive loanwords in hiragana, which necessitated coding for each word.

Word frequency Frequency counts were made at the word level to see if certain words appeared in the corpus more regularly than others. The most frequently occurring words were also examined for patterns such as thematic content and period of introduction to the Japanese language.

Languages represented by more than one unit in the corpus were coded into the categories English, Dutch, French, German, Italian, Latin, and Portuguese. Four types of language play appeared in other examples in the corpus. The first two, homonyms and paronyms near homonyms , are quite similar; representing cases where two different meanings arise from the same or similar sets of phonemes.

Another type of language play was a lexical blend, where two words, typically a Japanese words and a loanword, were clipped and combined into a new lexical item. A final type of language play evident in the corpus was the existence of a concealed word, for 42 Renner argues that all lexical blends are instances of wordplay due to their intrinsic formation process, as described in section 2.

Truncating of loanwords is common in Japan see section 2. This ensured an emic view of the data, as the truncated versions are often more familiar in Japan than their complete versions. Coding repetition separately to units allowed for a more fine-grained understanding the extent of hiragana loanword use within a single text. Genre This coding category related to the second research question, which is designed to ascertain in what contexts loanwords in hiragana are usually found.

Multimodality, SFL, and social semiotics all stress the importance of context in constructing meaning; therefore it was important to understand the types in genre in which loanwords in hiragana commonly appeared.

Genres identified in the corpus included product packaging, menus, and business signs, for example. Inconsistency This category was used to investigate any inconsistencies in how loanwords in hiragana were transcribed, and involved three different types of inconsistency found within the corpus, although none occurred in the web page shown above. The second type of inconsistency related to the same kind of variation, but between related texts, usually product packaging and POS signage. Each of the texts in the corpus was coded for the above categories.

The full list of coding categories can be found in appendix 1. The results on the genres represented in the corpus also relate to the second research question, which aims to describe the contexts in which these words commonly occur. Aspects of a particular function of loanwords in hiragana, language play, can also be found in the corpus analysis, and therefore contribute to addressing the third research question. The results of the descriptive statistical analysis of the corpus are presented in chapter 4.

Finally, this layer of analysis was also used to guide those which followed; as the findings informed the selection of prompts for the case studies layer 2 , survey layer 3 and interviews layer 4.

A range of texts that were both typical and atypical of the corpus were therefore able to be included at each level, and the reasons for the unusualness or infrequency of particular examples examined in the interviews and focus groups. The relevance of the case studies to the other layers of analysis is represented in table 3.

The case studies thus complement the corpus study by providing insights that go beyond figures and percentages, and looking more deeply into the process of meaning making within individual texts.

The case studies were most relevant to addressing the third research question, which seeks to understand why loanwords appear in hiragana. The particular strength of a multimodal analysis is that it takes into account the interaction between modes of the texts that are overlooked in a traditional corpus study, such as colour, font, and the other scripts used in the text, as well as images and the layout of the text as a whole see section 2. The first two layers of the research design therefore include both quantitative data the descriptive statistical analysis , and qualitative data the case studies from the corpus of loanwords in hiragana.

The case studies are also used to triangulate the findings from the other layers of the analysis, for example the non-language cues such as font and image identified in the case studies also mentioned by survey respondents layer 3 and discussed by participants in the interviews and focus groups layer 4. The data collection and analysis procedures for the case studies will now be described in the following sections. Business signs, product packaging and social media posts were common genres within the corpus, leading to the selection of one example of each text for the case studies.

Print club images were also common in the corpus, but since these texts are associated with a specific demographic young women , a more generally accessible social media text was chosen as these same texts would also be used in the survey layer 3.

The selection of individual texts within the corpus was based on their typicality and atypically in terms of the findings of the statistical analysis layer 1. The texts used in the case studies are shown in table 3. Product packaging and business signage were two of the most common genres of text represented in the corpus according to layer 1 of the analysis, and the texts chosen show other typical features such as using the loanword in hiragana as the business name, containing a single loanword in hiragana, and having English as its source language.

The social media post was also from English, but featured an atypical transliteration of the well-known greeting. The sticker was from an unusual genre of text where the words themselves formed part of the product, rather than the packaging, for example. This text was also unusual in featuring a verb in hiragana, as nouns and adjectives were more common overall, and using the hiragana loanword as part of an English sentence.

Text on product I can furai!! Sticker I can fly!! The strengths of each approach will be described below. As explained in section 2. The four levels of typography identified are microtypography, mesotypography, macrotypography, and paratypography. The choice of Japanese script hiragana, katakana, or kanji would also be the domain of microtypography. The authors describe how the visual elements in a multimodal text can contribute to the message given by the text as a whole, and link these back to the metafunctions of language described by Halliday The same use of distance can be seen in the depiction of objects or buildings; the degree of closeness to the viewer can suggests intimacy or distance.

Angle can also suggest relative power; a high angle puts the viewer of the text in a privileged position, while a low angle suggests the power or status of the item depicted. Another aspect of modality is the degree of abstraction, which refers to how realistically a subject is portrayed.

Abstract art, for example, can represent an extreme of this continuum. Images with high modality can be said to suggest they are to be taken more literally, as true representations, that those with lower modality. Finally, textual function can be expressed through the composition of an image, and applies both to single pictures as well as composite texts made up of smaller visual elements.

In advertising, this is frequently where a picture of the actual product is shown, as well as information such as the ingredients or where it can be purchased. This framework has been utilized with Japanese texts in the past eg.

The centre suggests importance or permanence, while the marginal elements suggest ancillary or dependent elements. This can be done in a number of ways, including size, larger elements being more noticeable; placement, as items in the foreground are more salient than those in the background; and contrasts in tone or colour, for example a bright splash of colour in an image of reduced tonal contrast can catch our attention.

Combinations of the above features can represent a part of an image or text as more noticeable, and therefore carrying information of more relative importance.

Framing is a further element which contributes to the textual metafunction; frames can be made with abstract lines or with elements of an image, such as a window frame.

Framing suggests that elements within it belong together in some way; a dividing frame line, on the other hand, shows elements that are distinct or different from each other. Background colour can also serve a dividing function. Frames can also differ in their degree of salience, they may be clear cut or the parts of the image may blur into each other; these cues also make statements about the relationships between the elements as either permanent or permeable.

In addition, different functions can be achieved by the same element, the celebrity image may be shot at close range, suggesting a close or friendly relationship with the viewer though the interpersonal function. These approaches are therefore felt to be complementary in expanding the social semiotics of language described by Halliday to other semiotic resources in a written text, in this case, to Japanese texts containing loanwords in hiragana. As the analytical approaches described above have come from writing traditions outside of Japan, the findings of the case studies were all reviewed by a native speaking Japanese researcher to ensure the applicability of the framework to the current data, and the validity of the interpretations.

Layer 2: Summary of research design To summarize this section, the case studies allowed a detailed analysis of how loanwords in hiragana function as parts of cohesive texts, which complemented the quantitative findings of the statistical analysis of the corpus layer 1. This involved recognising loanwords in hiragana as one semiotic resource amongst many used in the text, including typefaces, images and layout, and analysing what meanings each of these items contributed to the multimodal whole.

The findings from this layer were most useful in answering the third research question, which investigates why loanwords appear in hiragana. While the case study texts layer 2 were analysed methodologically through the framework described above, many of the survey respondents layer 3 and interview participants layer 4 also drew on the effects of these other resources such as colour and typeface in explaining their views on loanwords in hiragana.

This reinforced the multimodal nature of meaning making, and also assisted in triangulating the findings between these layers. Its position within the research framework is depicted in table 3. Selected findings of the survey were also integrated into the questions used in the interviews and focus groups layer 4 , further allowing the findings relating to this research question to be explored in a variety of ways. The advantages of using surveys to gather data are that they are efficient in terms of both time and cost in collecting data from a large number of respondents.

In addition, there is a lack of interviewer bias, and they can be completed at a time and place that suits the individual Gray, However, a critical approach to the perception data from both the survey and interviews layer 4 needed to be maintained, as respondents may have felt pressured to provide an answer, and invented a plausible reply. The data collection procedure and analysis for the survey is described in the following sections.

It is presented in two sub-sections; survey design and survey administration. Survey design The following sections describe the questions and the rationale for their inclusion as part of the survey.

Where relevant, changes made after the initial pilot study are also described. The survey was drafted in English, and then translated to Japanese in consultation with two native speaking Japanese researchers to ensure the survey appeared clear and natural to the Japanese research population.

A hard copy version of the online survey, in Japanese with an English translation, can be found in appendix 2. For the sake of brevity, only English translations of the questions will be used in this section. Each of these sections will be described below. When potential respondents accessed the link to the online survey, the initial screen gave a brief overview of the research goals, where it was stated that the aim of the research was to investigate what people thought of different ways of writing loanwords in Japanese.

The estimated time to complete the survey was given as 10 minutes, and participants were assured their answers and personal details would be kept secure and not be passed on to third parties. They were then asked whether they wished to participate in the research Q1. The questions on age range and native language status were necessary to ensure that respondents were both over 18 years of age and identified as native speakers of the language, which were the target population for the survey. Respondents were also asked if they would be interested in participating in an interview on the same topic at a later stage Q8.

Participants were asked: What impression do you have of hiragana? When you see hiragana, what kinds of things do you think of?

Write your answer in the free space below. Q9 Below this prompt a text box was provided for them to input their answer. Although these kinds of script impression studies have been conducted by other researchers in the past eg. As described in section 3. They represented a business name on shop signage, and a product name on product packaging, which accounted for the two most frequently occurring types of referent and genre of text.

They were also typical in that they were both nouns, from English, appeared singularly see results section 4. As described above, using the case study texts in the survey allowed for triangulation of the findings between layers 2 and 3 of the analysis. In addition, the data from these questions provided an insight into the connotations of other scripts used for loanwords.

Besides being adapted into the Japanese mora sound system, this particular example seems to have entered the language through aural transmission, as many Meiji period loans were, rather than through the written medium, leading to its unusual transliteration.

Although judgements of appropriateness were not the main focus of the current research, this question was designed to prompt participants to engage with their reactions to the texts, in the lead up to the follow up question: Please tell us the reason for your answer. Q14 This was therefore an open-ended question, and participants could type their answer into the open-response box below. Q15 This was also followed by an open-response box. A screenshot of part of the survey can be seen in figure 3.

As explained above, the survey in its Japanese version and English translation can be found in appendix 2. Potential participants could then access the survey through the link and complete it on their computers or mobile phones.

No time limit was set for answering each question. A progress bar at the top of each page showed how much of the survey had been completed see figure 3. Results were received up until 3rd August, and the survey remained open until 25th October.

The data was collected in cloud-based software, and the results downloaded in spreadsheet files. Response rates for each question varied between and for the questions on the associations of the scripts and the sample texts, and therefore the number of responses for each question is reported in the findings in chapter 5.

Layer 3: Data Analysis This section will describe how the survey data was analysed, and is divided into the three sections of the survey; background information, impressions of the scripts, and examples of writing. Email addresses for those who expressed an interest in participating in an interview Q8 were saved securely according to the research ethics guidelines.

These were open-ended questions, and therefore the responses needed to be coded in order to generate quantitative data. The three responses presented in table 3. As Bloomberg and Volpe , p. For example, the previous studies on the associations of the Japanese scripts provided potential codes for this data, such as hiragana being associated with children, see section 2.

Codes were regularly reviewed, and collapsed or separated where necessary. Results were compared, and differences in coding were discussed until a consensus had been reached. For example, responses for 51 Although the nuances of these two kanji are noted, their meanings were considered similar enough to be collapsed into a single category for the purposes of this study.

Finally, the code names were translated into English with the assistance of a native speaker where necessary, and appear in their English versions in the findings section 5. For the open-ended questions on the reason for this choice, Q14, 17, 20, 23, 26 and the perceived motivation for the use of script Q15, 18, 21, 24, 27 , it was necessary to code the responses. A similar approach used for the script association questions Q9,10,11,12 was used for these questions and is demonstrated in the following paragraphs.

As above, responses were coded in Japanese, however translations are provided here in order to explain the coding process. The three sample responses in table 3. For this reason, the number of tokens is necessarily more than the number of responses, and both figures are given in the results of the survey in chapter 5. A difficulty which arose in analysing the data from question asking why the text was in appropriate Q14 was the presence of contradictory answers.

Their answers relating to the other texts, if consistent, were allowed to remain. The coding process described above was also conducted on the responses for the question that asked for the perceived reasons for writing happiness in hiragana Q The differences were few, and are also discussed in the results of the survey in chapter 5. Layer 3: Summary of research design The online survey was used to obtain data directly related to research question 3, which examines the functions of loanwords in hiragana.

The survey responses also triangulated the findings of the descriptive statistics of the photo corpus layer 1 , for example, many respondents mentioned the genre of the text or the referential meaning of the loanword in hiragana in their answer. A reason for a judgement of appropriateness was sometimes linked to the fact that the loanword featured in the name of a product, for example, which according to the results of the corpus analysis was a common use of these words.

As the survey used three of the case study layer 2 texts, it could also be used to triangulate and expand on the findings of this layer. Finally, the results of the survey were used to inform the design of the interviews layer 4 , with the texts judged to be most appropriate and most inappropriate being discussed as part of the session as described in the following section.

Their position as part of the research design as a whole is illustrated in table 3. As described in the previous section, in order to investigate the functions of loanwords in hiragana, the opinions of native speakers of Japanese were sought through two methods, an online survey described above in section 3.

One-to-one interviews may allow people to speak their opinions more freely, as they do not need to worry about what other members in the group may think. This is particularly relevant in the Japanese context where the harmony of the group is often seen as paramount. Interviews also allow more freedom to pursue topics that are of particular interest to individuals.

Finally, this format may be preferred by people with shy dispositions. Focus groups, on the other hand, have the advantage of allowing the topic of discussion to be explored by the participants themselves. Individuals can describe their impressions, and other members can expand on them or disagree, providing alternative impressions. For this reason, the role of the researcher is minimized in this format, as they are less of a participant in the discussion.

In this study, participants were given a choice as to whether they would like to be interviewed individually, or take part in a focus group. This was particularly useful in triangulating the results of the survey, as sometimes the brevity of the responses made them unclear. Interviews and focus groups also allow participants time to reflect on the questions by talking through their answers, rather than feeling pressured to commit a response in writing. This is especially true of group interviews, where participants can explore their answers together.

Layer 4: Data Collection The data gathering procedure for the interviews and focus groups is described in the following sections: participant recruitment, question design, and procedure. They were also asked whether they would like to bring a friend or colleague to the interview, either creating a 2-person focus group or adding to a larger group.

This final question was added with the aim of reducing anxiety for the participants as well as increasing numbers in the interviews. Responses were requested after a period of 10 days, and a further 10 days after that a follow up email was sent to those who had not yet replied.

These were targeted to counteract the imbalanced demographics of respondents to the survey, as more females than males responded, and the majority were in their 20s and 30s see section 5. For this reason, some participants in the interviews and focus groups had not taken the online survey. Details of the interview and focus group participants can be found in the following tables 3.

This format results in qualitative data that which complements the quantitative data obtained from the survey. Each session contained 7 topics, and each topic was accompanied by colour photographic images or screenshots of examples of loanwords in hiragana related to that topic on laminated A5 cards, which were taken from the corpus.

Like those used in the survey, images which made the context clear to the viewer were selected wherever possible, such as a product appearing on a supermarket shelf. Context is vital in understanding how meaning is made, as research in social semiotics, multimodality, and SFL and suggests see sections 2. A range of these picture prompts can be seen in figure 3. Refine 1. Yuzu Lemon 2. Various soups 3. Towel Muffler 4. Splash Island 5. Life Assist Bashamichi 7.

Hug Me 8. Floria 9. Snack Shin Topic 2 9. Unicorn Business names Lounge Chiaki Spring Penguin Idol Overall Man I love you Topic 3 Volleyball Print club Fuck you Family New Zealand Topic 4 Yes I am Social media Happy birthday Happy valentine Topic 5 Mix juice sour Number of consecutive words Spice Ice Cocoa Tomato Topic 6 Lip cream Inconsistencies Cabbage for salads

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How can loanwords in hiragana be characterised? In what contexts are loanwords in hiragana usually found? Why do loanwords appear in hiragana? The first layer involves descriptive statistics of a corpus of texts containing hiragana loanwords collected by the researcher, in order to illustrate the general characteristics of these words and the contexts in which they are found. The second layer of analysis takes selected examples from this corpus as case studies, analysing them multimodally in order to highlight how the meanings ascribed to the use of hiragana for loanwords are supported and sometimes challenged by the other semiotic resources in the text.

The third layer seeks the opinions of native Japanese speakers on loanwords in hiragana through an online survey. The survey collects data on the associations or connotations of each of the Japanese scripts, as well as asking respondents to engage with the texts used as case studies in layer two. The final part of the research design, layer four, consists of interviews and focus groups, which expand on the survey by allowing participants to discuss examples of loanwords in hiragana in more depth.

The current research therefore aims to contribute to the field of social semiotics by describing how loanwords in hiragana function as semiotic resources.

It also adds to our understanding of how texts function multimodally, by investigating how Japanese script interacts with the other modes used in a text. Finally, the current project highlights a novel aspect of how loanwords operate as translingual resources, being re-purposed in different cultural contexts in the orthographic repertoires of their users.

While the sentiment which it is expressed is acknowledged, its unwieldy nature, as well as its failing to acknowledge loanwords from non-English languages, makes it unsuitable for use in this study.

The scope of this definition will further be narrowed in two ways. The transition of Chinese loanwords into Sino-Japanese words is noted as a topic worthy of future study see section 8. A further type of text is excluded from the scope of this study; texts aimed at young children unfamiliar with the katakana script.

As noted above, loanwords are conventionally written in hiragana, or glossed with this script, in books and signage for example, at a kindergarten associated with young children. While these examples do, in a sense, contribute to understanding why loanwords are written in hiragana, this is a well-established function, and does therefore not offer any new contributions to the current investigation of loanwords in hiragana.

However, longer phrases and sentences in Japanese are simply be presented as an English translation, with the original Japanese appended as a footnote. The captions of tables and figures are presented in English only for the sake of brevity. Loanwords in hiragana, the central topic of this thesis, are further identified by being underlined, allowing readers unfamiliar with the Japanese scripts to recognize them, especially in phrases and sentences. Underlining is not used when hiragana loanwords occur as captions to figures and tables, and within tables themselves, to ensure clarity for the reader.

Chapter two contains a review of the relevant literature, beginning with an explanation of social semiotics, which forms the basis of the theoretical background of the study, and the related fields of multimodality and systemic functional linguistics. The chapter will then review the literature on loanwords in Japanese, as well as other related topics such as non-standard orthography, the role of typography, and finally the translingual flows of language through which loanwords in hiragana can be understood.

Following this, the findings are presented in three separate chapters; chapter four presents the findings from the statistical corpus analysis and case studies, chapter five discusses the findings from the survey, and finally chapter six contains those from the interviews and focus groups. The findings from all four layers are brought together in chapter seven, the discussion. Finally, chapter eight will present conclusions drawn from the findings in relation to the research questions, and describe the academic contributions made by this project.

The thesis concludes with critical reflections on the current study and suggestions for further research. Since this project is the first to investigate the marked use of hiragana for loanwords, it is necessary to engage with a range of diverse fields in order to interpret this hitherto undescribed phenomenon.

First, social semiotics, the theoretical framework which forms the basis of the current research design, will be reported on, along with the related fields of multimodality and systemic functional linguistics SFL. The chapter moves on to investigate the socio- historical associations of each of the Japanese scripts, in order to provide context for the shift from katakana to hiragana.

Next, the literature on loanwords in Japanese will be analysed, noting the history of language contact in Japan, as well as the functions and perceptions of loanwords today. A review of other non-standard orthographical practices and their functions will also be presented, followed by the specific example of non-standard orthography for the purposes of language play. Relevant literature on typography will also be introduced in this chapter, as the choice of script in Japanese has many parallels to the choice of font or typeface.

The chapter will end with a brief discussion of translingualism, as loanwords are prime examples of the flows of language across the globe.

As a derivation of semiotics, this discipline also has as its heritage the work of Ferdinand Saussure. Saussure also gave little weight to how context could affect both the choice of particular signifiers, and how these might be interpreted, arguing that signs could be understood without their surrounding context.

Hodge and Kress were two of the early proponents of social semiotics, and argued for an alternative model of semiotics to that proposed by Saussure.

Social semiotics is therefore a post-structuralist approach, and considers language and other sign systems to be constantly evolving, and influenced by individual users. This is a key difference to Saussure, who, as a structuralist, saw semiosis as a stable system kept in place by the conventional use of these signs by society. In social semiotics, forms and meanings are not organized in an abstract series of relationships waiting to be drawn upon by individuals; rather, signs are created by individuals in and for particular social contexts, and therefore situated in time and place: Traditional semiotics likes to assume that the relevant meanings are frozen and fixed in the text itself, to be extracted and decoded by the analyst by reference to a coding system that is impersonal and neutral, and universal for users of the code.

Social semiotics cannot assume that texts produce exactly the meanings and effects that their authors hope for: it is precisely the struggles and their uncertain outcomes that must be studied at the level of social action, and their effects in the production of meaning. Hodge and Kress, , p. Since signs are motivated, it is possible to ask what influences a sign-maker to combine particular forms with particular meanings.

While the interest of the sign-maker contributes to the choice of which form is selected for combination with which particular meaning, in a social semiotic framework the context in which the sign making occurs is also a major influence. As signs are created by individual at the moment of sign-making, they are intrinsically linked to a particular time, place and communicative event.

As Jewitt explains, it is the situated use of semiotic resources which allows us to investigate… …the non-arbitrary and motivated character of the relationship between language and social context The context shapes the resources available for meaning-making and how these are selected and designed. Jewitt , p. The conventional use of semiotic resources leads to what Pennycook , p. The extent to which certain loanwords in hiragana are showing signs of sedimentation is discussed in section 7. However, writers such as Machin still question the usefulness of applying this metaphor to images.

The visual grammar proposed by Kress and van Leeuwen will therefore be drawn upon in interpreting the case studies layer 2 to investigate how loanwords in hiragana are integrated into their multimodal texts. In summary, a social semiotics approach to meaning making involves three main tenets.

Firstly, signs are motivated, not arbitrary combinations of form and meaning. Multimodality therefore acknowledges that meaning is made through the interaction of semiotic resources, each of which has its own affordances and limitations.

Halliday describes the communicative functions of language in terms of three metafunctions; the ideational metafunction is used to describe the world around us. The interpersonal metafunction creates relationships between the sign maker and receiver, as well as the object being represented. Multimodality extends these metafunctions to resources other than language, for example gesture or font.

Kress , p. Other modes noted by Kress include speech, writing, music, and both still and moving images. This distinction is useful for the current study, as the orthographic shift from katakana to hiragana is only present in the written medium, but, as will be seen, can have an impact on the sound or pronunciation of written words see section 7.

For example, the Japanese writing system, with its different script options hiragana, katakana and kanji for writing has an affordance that the English writing system does not have. As discussed above, multimodality focuses on what meanings are being made from the interaction of the various modes in a multimodal text, and how these meanings are created.

Its key premises are that meaning is made through different modes or semiotic resources which combine to form multimodal wholes; and further that meaning cannot be fully understood without attending to all the semiotic resources involved Jewitt et al. Multimodality is therefore useful in understanding loanwords in hiragana, as the functions of script as a mode or semiotic resource must be taken into account when understanding these orthographic choices within the Japanese writing context.

As mentioned in the previous sections, Halliday argued that language makes three kinds of meaning simultaneously; ideational, interpersonal and textual. Furthermore, the choices in the system must be discrete, in other words, a traffic light must display only one colour at a time.

Additionally it is the oppositions not the substances in the 15 Jewitt , p. The connection between form and meaning within these systems is best understood by considering the language realising context shown in figure 2.

Figure 2. The meanings of these elements of language are brought out at the discourse semantics level, and the three types of meaning, ideational, interpersonal and textual are represented as the three points of the white triangle in figure 2. Ideational meaning relates to information or ideas about the world; interpersonal meaning represents the relationship between those in the act of communication, including degrees of power or familiarity as well as modality truth value ; while textual meaning refers to the makeup of the text, including ordering and placement.

Fields can include planning a social activity, or selling a product, for example. Genres can therefore be described as sedimented language practices, and texts are usually recognizable as belonging to a particular genre by members of that culture for example, a romance novel, or a horoscope Eggins, Beyond this, the greater context of culture also plays a role in the meanings associated with different forms. Without context, meanings may not be recoverable from the language given.

Inoue, ; Tranter, In the summary of connotations presented in table 2. The relationship between katakana and foreign western terms is reinforced by it being the typical script for writing loanwords today.

Reaction times in a lexical judgement test, where participants were asked if the presented stimuli were real words or not, resulted in no significant differences for script. He also notes that katakana brings attention to a different or particular kind of sound, which is why this script is used for both foreign loanwords and onomatopoeia.

These themes of familiarity, impact, and sound, reappear at various points in the data for the current study, and are brought together in the discussion chapter, section 7.

He argues that as the script changes the image of the word itself, writers may be trying to avoid the associations of hiragana or kanji respectively, as described in table 2. A follow up analysis demonstrated that these associations could not be explained by lexis or grammar constraints of the word choices. This section has described how each of the Japanese scripts holds distinct nuances and associations for users of the language, which are a product of socio-historical factors relating to their development and use.

Because of the different and often opposing connotations of hiragana and katakana in particular, the examples of loanwords in hiragana investigated in this study are significant examples of a marked orthographic choice, and a worthy topic of linguistic research.

This section will be divided into four parts. The first section reviews the history of foreign language contact in Japan, in order to place the phenomenon of loanwords in hiragana within its historical context. The second describes the changes necessary in adapting foreign words into loanwords in the Japanese language.

The third section reviews some commonly cited functions of loanwords within Japanese, which provides an important background from which to investigate the functions of loanwords in hiragana, the topic of the third research question.

Finally, the fourth section discusses some commonly held perceptions of these foreign words, which will also be taken into account in interpreting the reactions of the native speakers of Japanese on the topic of loanwords in hiragana.

Different systems were favoured at different times and for different sociolinguistic reasons, although many of these changes were gradual, and alternative ways of writing were likely to coexist at any one time. The different periods of language contact are summarized in table 2. Japan had a trade relationship with Portugal from to , and words associated with European food and clothing, as well as the religious vocabulary of the missionaries who accompanied the traders, entered the Japanese language.

The Tokugawa government, feeling threatened by the work of the missionaries in converting the Japanese population and fearing a political takeover by foreign powers, closed the country to almost all foreign contact in They also banned Catholicism and destroyed bibles and other texts, and for this reason very few loanwords associated with religion survive today.

It is possibly for this third reason that it usually appears in katakana today. Upon re-opening its doors to the world, a period of mass modernization and an enthusiasm for all that the west could offer followed. At this time, the Japanese kanji lexicon was so extensive that new coinages could be easily made, and while the influx of new concepts from the west was great, it was still gradual enough for these new kanji calques to be created, disseminated, and understood.

As mentioned above, the changes in the preferred script were gradual, and many orthographic variants were likely to have been present at any one time. This varying history of transcription is perhaps one of the reasons this word was a frequent topic of discussion in the interviews see section 6. The positive associations of English words being fashionable or modern were considered a problem by the Japanese government when war was declared with America.

At this time newspapers also reverted to the phonetic kanji readings for the names of countries Loveday, During the occupation and post-war period, another major period of loanword uptake began. However, at this time loans were almost exclusively written in katakana, rather than with kanji calques. Loveday suggests that the sheer volume of loans introduced at this time meant calquing new compounds for each word was impractical, while Honna reasons that following the war, kanji compounds were unpopular as they had associations of military propaganda and wartime slogans.

Both Honna and Loveday also cite the effects of the introduction of English as a compulsory subject at schools; this meant people were more familiar and comfortable with English words, whereas in the past, a kanji calque that represented the meaning of the new word was more transparent Inoue, Advocates of script reform and the limitation of the numbers of characters in use had been active in Japan since the Meiji restoration Akizuki, , however the ultra-nationalist spirit of the war years had made it difficult and dangerous for these sentiments to be expressed too openly Gottlieb, Honna and Loveday suggest that with this decrease in the number of characters available for use in official texts, it was therefore also more difficult to create kanji calques for new western concepts.

At the same time, the growing familiarity with English meant that katakana loanwords were in an ideal position to take over as the preferred method of rendering these new terms. Fukuda also notes that new kanji were rarely made in the Taisho and Showa — periods.

It is quite likely that both sides are correct, and that the gradual disfavour for rendering loanwords in kanji was cemented by the language changes brought about at the end of the Second World War. However, despite or perhaps because of the widespread consensus of the use of katakana for loanwords, alternative orthographic choices are often the topic of general interest articles in newspapers and language-related blogs.

These kinds of general-interest texts highlight two important and seemingly contradictory points. Firstly, variation does occur in the way loanwords are transcribed; and secondly, katakana is the conventional script for loanwords, as it is only against this backdrop that the variation described above is noteworthy and topical. The departure from convention in writing loanwords in hiragana is another such variation.

The policies of MEXT, 18 The answer provided explains that it is acceptable for this stage in their linguistic development, and they will gradually master the rules of script use as they learn katakana, and later, kanji. Kay , p. The use of hiragana to highlight a non-standard transcription of a loanword which more closely reflects a native-English norm is discussed in sections 6. While katakana and hiragana both represent the same set of sounds, a difference in the way vowels are lengthened in each script occurs.

For a detailed explanation see Irwin Other features of loanwords in Japan, also common in other language contact situations, are semantic narrowing, semantic widening, and semantic shift Honna, ; Kay, However, the Japanese examples are interesting in using hiragana to mark the grammatical stem, while the rest of the word remains in katakana. This is further discussed in section 2. A further subset of this category are Japan-made acronyms based on English words, with the pronunciation of each letter adapted to the Japanese sound system as described above.

There has been much discussion on the role of katakana script in the adaption of loanwords into the Japanese language. Many scholars acknowledge the ease with which katakana allows the Japanese to introduce foreign words into their native language Kay, ; Rebuck, ; Stanlaw, There is no need for consensus or official approval of a kanji calque before a word becomes widely used, as there was in the past see section 2.

Honna , p. Heitani , p. Because of the perceived role of katakana in preventing loanwords from fully assimilating into Japanese, the presence of loanwords in hiragana represent an important area of study. Like katakana, hiragana offers a straightforward method of representing foreign words in Japanese, but these words no longer retain this orthographic marker of foreignness, being written in the script associated with Japanese words.

Perhaps one of the earliest motivations to incorporate English words into Japanese was to fill a lexical gap Hoffer, ; Loveday, ; Rebuck, It can be argued that these words, representing social issues, may also have a euphemistic function over a more literal or direct kanji equivalent.

While the Japanese word has negative connotations of spending more than one can afford to, it is argued that the loanword is more opaque and carries positive, modern connotations, suggesting a planned financial strategy. Loanwords can also be used to give a modern or international image to an item, even when there is a Japanese equivalent. A final function of loanwords relevant to the current study is that of word or language play, which is also often listed in the functional taxonomies of loanwords along with the categories described above by researchers such as Hoffer and Honna This topic is of direct relevance to one of the functions of loanwords in hiragana, and is therefore explored in a separate section, 2.

This was attempted, however, by Ishikawa and Rubrecht in their analysis of loanwords used in television programs. The debate is also a long running one, and the attitudes present in studies conducted in the s such as those by Loveday and Tomoda are still present today. Hosokawa investigated attitudes to loanwords by analysing over letters to the editors on this topic, which were published in two major newspapers. She noted that both proponents and opponents of loanwords based their arguments on the history and tradition of the Japanese language, but interpreted in very different ways.

While older generations are often said to be those who have the greatest difficulty in understanding loanwords, a study by Daulton included only young Japanese adults, and still found that that a quarter of the loanwords used in the Mainichi newspaper were not understood by this research sample.

Loveday , p. He found that both wago and kango have similar associations of being nostalgic, familiar, and old-fashioned; while the loanwords were frequently associated with modernity. However, he also noted that these associations varied with the particular word, as well as the individual respondent. The use of hiragana for loanwords investigated in this study, it is argued, can be seen as a further nativising device.

The perceptions of loanword by both language experts and the general public described above highlight the complexities surrounding the place of these words within the Japanese language. Loanwords in Japanese perform a number of important functions, and yet the reliance on these terms is seen by some as a threat to the integrity of the Japanese language.

As the current research investigates a particular class of these loanwords, the aforementioned attitudes and perceptions need to be taken into account when understanding this topic. To conclude this section, loanwords occupy an important and well-established place within the Japanese language. Katakana is often cited as being an effective method for adapting foreign words into Japanese Kay, ; Rebuck, ; Stanlaw, , although it is also noted as preventing the complete integration of these terms into the Japanese language Hosokawa, ; Kay, ; Loveday, ; Rebuck, This thesis aims to show that writing loanwords in hiragana is not uncommon in particular genres, and therefore a topic worthy of investigation.

Jaworski , p. Davies notes two general trends in the unconventional spellings she discusses; one toward simplification, by removing unnecessary letters, for example; and the other towards elaboration, using unusual letters or combinations of them. These traits identified by Davies will be discussed in relation to the product and business names in the corpus in chapter 4, section 4.

Non-standard orthography can also be found in personal writing; the characters produced by young Japanese women have taken various forms in recent decades, and have become a topic of linguistic as well as public interest. He suggests that young women use these strategies to convey an emotional stance and reciprocity of feeling in their writing.

Maru-moji and the other paralinguistic features described by Kataoka , were also found in some of the hand-written texts containing hiragana loanwords in the corpus, such as hand-made signs and print-club images.

The images discussed by L. Print club are therefore not just a site of girlish playfulness, but a way for young women to critique and rebel against conventional models of femininity.

Miller, ; Miyake, ; Tranter, Gyaru-moji took advantage of the full range of characters and symbols available in CMC, including letters of the roman, Greek and Cyrillic alphabets, and mathematical symbols to recreate Japanese hiragana, katakana, and sometime kanji characters.

Scholars such as L. Miyake notes this habit as being particularly popular amongst female high school students, and describes a number of functions of these half-size letters.

Many represent faces expressing different emotions, but also include an expansive range of icons including those representing sports, modes of transport, and food. Features of spoken language, such as a particular pronunciation, or accent, can also be encoded with non-standard spelling. Olivo noted how the non-standard spellings used in the lyrics to rap songs were used to graphically represent features of African American Vernacular English AAVE , for example.

In the Japanese corpus investigated by Joyce et al. One aspect of spoken language that orthography can be used to represent is the presence of a non-native accent. In Japan, the use of katakana for words usually transcribed in hiragana or kanji has become a device for marking the speech of a non-native speaker of Japanese, both in the telop30 on Japanese television, as well as in manga. In an analysis of manga featuring non-native speakers, Roberston notes the use of katakana to index less fluent speakers of the language.

They differ from subtitles aimed at the hard of hearing in being only a selection of the spoken dialogue, and the variety of colours, fonts and sizes utilized for these transcriptions. The orthographic representations of foreign-ness and nativeness were also explored in a study of German punk fanzines 31 conducted by Androutsopoulos , p.

On the other hand, the same strategy of indigenized orthography can be used to mark the speech of the uninitiated of the subculture, representing a cultural gap between the in-group and the out-group. This is discussed in section 6.

The examples of non-standard orthography described in this section cover a range of different aspects of writing systems and appear in different genres. However, the sophisticated linguistic commentary on these commercials by young viewers suggested that this demographic held a nuanced understanding of the stylistic affordances of text-speak, rather than being evidence of language decline. Gottlieb b , in writing about the Japanese context of CMC in particular, also suggests that individuals are able to compartmentalize their language practices, and know what kinds of language use are appropriate in different circumstances Gottlieb, b.

However, there are cases where the line between appropriate and inappropriate contexts for the use of non-standard orthographical devices is not so clearly defined. To conclude this section, non-standard orthographic choices are used in a number of different genres of text, to perform a variety of different functions. In commercial product and business names, they may be used to invoke particular connotations or to give their referents an eye- catching quality.

In texts produced by individuals, they may align the writer with a particular social group, as in the case of the maru-moji or gyaru-moji used by young Japnaese women. Non-standard orthography can also be used to approximate verbal and facial cues missing from CMC, or represent an accent or particular voice quality. In fact, it is because individuals understand the standard writing practices that these examples are clever, interesting, or funny Crystal, a; Gottlieb, a.

Miller , although neither of these authors explored the meanings attached to these forms. Sometimes these deviations can be a form of language play used for ludic or humorous effect. She argues that the large number of homophones in the Japanese language provide a rich basis for puns and word play, often utilising substitutions of kanji to add extra layers of meaning.

These verbal strategies described by Nomura can be compared to the use of marked hiragana script for loanwords to highlight the presence of a pun, operating as a similar attention-drawing device, and are discussed in section 7. Other instances of word play appear in marketing slogans or business names; Honna , p. Hoffer , p. Puns can also be found representing English sentences; Hoffer notes two examples, which he sees as significant as the reading follows the English grammatical order.

Similar bilingual puns have been found in German newspapers. He 33 Honna does not describe in which script s this phrase was written. Knospe , p. Some of the loanwords in hiragana collected for this study also contain this type of word play, which is only perceptible in the written form, and are described in section 4.

The role of hiragana loanwords as markers of language play is discussed across all layers of the findings in section 7. Like the choice of script in Japanese, the choice of typeface can add an extra layer of meaning to the linguistic information encoded in the word. Of course, creators of Japanese texts can also choose from a variety of typefaces besides their choice of script; these choices may support or re- contextualize the connotations associated with the script used as highlighted by the case studies described in section 4.

While typography is not often considered relevant to the field of linguistics, some scholars have argued that these disciplines have much to offer each other. Typography also operates on the interpersonal level; it can indicate the nature of the communicative contact between writer and recipient, or refer to the emotional state of the writer. Headings in a document are often marked by larger and more creative font, for example.

In some situations, the connotative power of a typeface may even carry more meaning than the words it depicts. They noted that many onomatopoeic expressions formed part of the image rather than being contained in speech bubbles, and were therefore left untranslated in the English versions.

Huang and Archer argue that this practice is unlikely to pose a problem for readers unfamiliar with Japanese, as the meanings of these expressions are expressed via the choice of lettering, for example the jagged or puffy shapes, rather than the actual words. The connotative power of particular typefaces has not been lost on those in the marketing industry, with many companies taking the choice of a font to represent their business or product very carefully.

Typography has also been used in branding tourist districts, representing them as authentic sites for cultural experiences.

In Japan, the use of a bold calligraphic font is often used in advertisements promoting tourism in areas associated with Japanese history and tradition. Besides the typeface itself, superfluous diacritics have often been used to create a foreign or exotic brand image, described by Jaworski , p. These are not far from the intentions of the Jewish founder of the brand, Reuben Mattus, who created the fictional name hoping it would sound Danish, as both a marketing strategy and a nod to Denmark and its sympathetic treatment of Jews during World War II Nathan, This reflects the social semiotic understanding of meaning making described in section 2.

What is particularly interesting about blackletter typefaces is the variety of associations ascribed to them. These 36 Hitler was actually persuaded that gothic Fraktur types were of Jewish origin, and ordered all documents to be printed in roman typefaces Flood, An investigation of these factors is therefore an integral part of the current research design, described in section 3. The use of calligraphic typefaces to reinforce traditional connotations for hiragana loanwords is discussed in section 4.

Japanese letterforms, of course, can also be pictorial, and Shelton and Okayama argue that the ideographic kanji characters in particular blur the boundary between pictures and writing. These examples, the authors argue, are more than simple rebuses, they highlight the ambivalent status of Japanese kanji characters between pictures and language.

As stated at the beginning of this section, an investigation of the connotative uses of typography is at best a parallel case to the associations produced by the Japanese scripts. However, there is at least one example of a particular typeface being used to mark foreign words, in the same way katakana is used for loanwords in Japan.

Flood , p. In these cases, the foreign elements are marked by the katakana script, while the native Japanese elements appear in hiragana. A and M. A often suggest that foreign words be set in an italic typeface to signal to the reader that they are not a misprint. This quite banal practice is possibly the closest modern example of how typography is used to distinguish words of foreign origin, in a similar way to how katakana is used to distinguish foreign words in the Japanese writing system.

Two domains of use most relevant to the current research project are computer-mediated communication CMC and marketing. There are other examples of the translingual use of English use in Japan; as early as , for example, Haarmann noted that English was used in fashion magazines even in connection with items associated with Japanese culture such as kimonos.

Pennycook argues that the appropriation of the English language is not imperfect copying from a native- speaker standard, but that through the act of repetition, new local meanings situated in local practices are being created.

Furthermore, these activities are parts of bundled practices, and as such they are always social, always historical, and always local. Pennycook, , p. Loanwords in hiragana therefore represent a significant aspect of translingual language practice, a theme which will be drawn upon throughout the current research project, and revisited in the discussion chapter, section 7. Social semiotics, and the related fields of multimodality and SFL, all share an emphasis on the social basis of meaning making, as well as the importance of context in understanding the meanings being made.

For this reason, it was important to investigate the opinions of native Japanese language users, as the intended audience of these texts, in understanding the meanings created by loanwords in hiragana. In addition, an understanding of multimodality acknowledges how texts convey meaning through many ways other than just the choice of words on a page.

Loanwords in hiragana represent a marked use of this semiotic resource, and therefore the particular connotations and meanings associated with this script are brought into focus in the texts investigated in this study. Systemic functional linguistics offers a model of language from the smallest units of meaning, graphemes; through lexico-grammar structures, to discourse-semantics, as well as illustrating the relationships to the contexts of situation and culture.

The literature on the Japanese writing system and on loanwords in particular serves to situate this study in its historic and linguistic context. While script use is relatively prescribed in Japan today, it is important to remember that loanwords have been represented in many different ways throughout the course of Japanese history. Marked language can show group solidarity in personal communications, or be used to highlight particular pronunciation or voice quality in written texts.

It can also be used to draw attention to the presence of language play, as the large number of homonyms in Japanese make the language fertile ground for puns, and are reflected in texts as diverse as classical literature and contemporary marketing slogans. While Japan is unusual in that it has a variety of scripts to choose from, each with different histories and associations, a review of the typography literature was useful in demonstrating a parallel context in which letter forms can be pictorial, and influence the associations of a piece of text.

Finally, the changing status of English in the increasingly globalized world represents the greater context in which loanwords in hiragana are occurring. As English becomes increasingly used around the world, indigenized varieties gain acceptance, and embrace their local traits with more confidence.

Given the theoretical concerns outlined above, this study seeks to address the research questions stated previously in section 1. The research design and methodology that have been developed to address these research questions are outlined in the following chapter. While Jewitt , p. These suggestions have guided the design of the current research project, which will be illustrated in the following sections.

Firstly, a brief explanation of relevant terminology is given. This is followed by the epistemological background of the study, which justifies the choice of a mixed-methods approach, and describes its application in the current research project.

An overview of the research design as a whole is then given, before the data collection and analysis procedures for each of the layers are described. These include a corpus analysis of a collection of texts containing loanwords in hiragana layer 1 , a set of case studies of individual texts layer 2 , an online survey layer 3 , and a series of interviews layer 4. As this study takes a social semiotic approach to understanding how meanings are made, terms describing signs and their forms should be interpreted within this context.

Knowing which of these epistemologies the researcher identifies with will indicate the research paradigms relevant to the study, and suggest methodologies to best achieve the goals of the research project. An objectivist position holds that reality exists independently of consciousness; research aligned with this epistemology sets out to find an objective truth.

There can therefore be multiple interpretations reflecting the same object or phenomenon Gray Researchers interested in investigating how different individuals understand the worlds in which they live would be likely to adopt a qualitatively oriented approach to research design, so that the nature of individual differences can be explored in depth.

Social semiotics section 2. Despite claims of their fundamental irreconcilability see Gray [] for examples , combining qualitative and quantitative methodologies through the use of a mixed-methods approach can provide both breadth and depth of understanding with respect to the phenomena under investigation. A mixed-methods research design which contained elements of both quantitative and qualitative research approaches was therefore chosen for the current study as it would provide the most comprehensive understanding of issues of the representation and interpretation of loanwords in hiragana.

With no previous research having been conducted on this phenomenon, it was vital to approach this topic from various angles, to obtain the fullest understanding of this practice. All of these elements are included in the current study, and will be described in the following section.

The following research questions are proposed: 1. The model of language proposed by Halliday described in Eggins, provides a useful contextualization of the research questions, and is reproduced again below in figure 3. The hiragana characters, or graphemes, in combination with particular lexical items, loanwords, form the focus of this study.

Figure 3. These aspects relate to the lexico- grammatical level of the above diagram. At the innermost level, another graphological feature of loanwords in hiragana can be examined, which contributes to describing typical features of these words.

This relates to the lengthening of vowel sounds; namely whether they are lengthened with an extra vowel, in the manner of Japanese words in hiragana, or with a bar as loanwords in katakana usually are. In order to investigate these graphological and lexico-grammatical features of loanwords in hiragana, a corpus of texts containing these words was assembled and examined.

Descriptive statistics were the main form of data output from this part of the analysis, making this a quantitative aspect of the overall study. The second research question is designed to ascertain the contexts in which loanwords in hiragana are usually found. This relates to the outermost triangle in diagram 3. SFL defines genres as sets of register variables which co-occur regularly in a culture and have become sedimented and are thus easily identifiable by members of that culture Eggins, The third research question addresses the reasons loanwords appear in hiragana.

Corpus based studies such as those conducted by Joyce et al. One method of investigating the use of hiragana for loanwords was the use of case studies of individual texts from the corpus layer 1.

Case studies allow a deeper understanding of a given process or text than other methods such as surveys can provide Woodside, The case study data therefore complements the quantitative descriptive statistics of the corpus produced in layer 1, which could not take these individual contexts into account.

The case studies are referred to as layer 2, and are described in section 3. The involvement of members of the Japanese public in interpreting the meanings behind loanwords in hiragana also aligns with the social semiotic understanding of meaning making that is central to this research, and for this reason it was important to look beyond the texts themselves to their intended audience. The opinions of native Japanese speakers were gathered via two data sources, an online survey layer 3 and interviews and focus groups layer 4.

The main purpose of the online survey layer 3 was to gather opinions from a large number of respondents on three texts containing loanwords in hiragana.

These texts were selected from those used in the case studies layer 2 in order to triangulate the findings between these two layers. The survey findings represent quantitative data, and illustrate common associations of each of the Japanese scripts, as well as the kinds of meanings suggested by the use of hiragana for loanwords.

The survey is explained in detail in section 3. To complement the survey data, interviews and focus groups layer 4 were also conducted, which collected data from a smaller number of people about a larger number of examples. The design of the questions used in the interviews and focus groups drew on the findings from the previous layers, namely the corpus study, case studies, and survey.

The interviews therefore generated qualitative data, and were used to complement the quantitative findings of the survey. Details of the interview design and procedure can be found in section 3. The case studies layer 2 also contributed to answering this question. To summarize this section, the current study uses four different approaches to investigate loanwords in hiragana; a corpus analysis, four multimodal case studies, an online survey, and a series of interviews and focus groups.

The strengths of a mixed method design include the fact that statistics drawn from large numbers of texts or participants can illustrate general trends, while qualitative analyses allow a deeper understanding of the topic as important details do not go unnoticed.

Furthermore, the research design approaches the phenomenon of loanwords in hiragana from two distinct angles; firstly by investigating the texts themselves, and secondly by investigating the opinions of the population who interacts with those texts. The mixed-methods approach to the multiple data sources can be summarized in table 3. For each layer, a justification for the particular research tool will be given, followed by an explanation of the data gathering procedure, and a description of how the data was analysed.

The place of layer 1 in the research design as a whole is indicated in table 3. Table 3. This connection between form and meaning is central to understanding the use of hiragana for loanwords. Corpus studies can reveal general trends in the ways a particular language feature is being used, and are therefore useful in describing typical features of the object of investigation, in this case, loanwords in hiragana.

This quantitative analysis of the corpus can describe features such as the domains loanwords in hiragana typically occur in, how many words usually occur at one time, and what foreign languages are represented in hiragana. This baseline information was used to inform the selection of texts for the following layers of analysis, including the case studies layer 2 , survey layer 3 and interviews layer 4.

The corpus collected for analysis as layer 1 of the research design contained texts with a total of loanwords in hiragana, as some texts contained more than one loanword. The data collection procedure and analysis for the descriptive statistical analysis of the corpus is described in the following sections. Layer 1: Data Collection To identify the typical features of loanwords in hiragana, it was first necessary to gather a large corpus of texts which contained these words.

A pilot study was used to identify potential sites of loanwords in hiragana, such as the labels of products, and the names of businesses. The texts were collected in one of two ways, either from online sources or through fieldwork in Japan. Online data was collected through 24 one-hour sessions of online browsing that took place during The online sources included commercial websites and social media sites, primarily facebook and twitter.

Miller The print club images were also important as they were one of the few sources of handwritten texts in the corpus, as the images are decorated with a stylus on the screen of the booth Social networking sites were another useful resource as the data-sharing culture of social media meant that besides the message posts themselves, which sometimes contained loanwords in hiragana, users included links to other websites such as those related to anime series, restaurants or celebrities, for example, which were also followed up during these browsing sessions.

In this way, a relatively broad range of text genres could be accessed remotely from Australia. Data sourced in this way were recorded by taking a screenshot of the text, or downloading an image of the item. The majority of the data came from the second source, fieldwork expeditions. The first was a ten day pilot study which was conducted in June and covered Osaka, Wakayama, Hyogo and Tokyo prefectures.

This initial broad sweep was vital in refining the fieldwork plan for the main data collection, leading to a more structured list of locations in which to seek loanwords in hiragana. The main data collection took place in February , which took 18 days and covered Osaka, Hyogo, Kyoto, Chiba and Tokyo prefectures. The fieldwork plan was designed to more fully encompass a range of locations representing different demographics in terms of age, gender, and socio-economic status in order to cover the widest range of possible sources.

The fieldwork data was collected by taking photographs with a digital camera. Efforts were made to keep disruption to the public to a minimum; for example, when collecting data in supermarkets, the busy afternoon times were avoided, and the researcher ensured that data collection did not interrupt other shoppers or staff. This was particularly important when collecting examples of bar signage in the red light districts, as customers may not have wished to have their visit on record.

These areas were avoided during their busy evening hours for this reason, as well as considerations of the personal safety of the researcher. The following sections describe what was included in the corpus and how these decisions were justified.

As stated in the introduction section 1. A decision was made to focus on types rather than tokens of loanwords in hiragana, in order to more fully account for the breadth of use rather than the popularity of certain texts which used this device. Since the pilot study suggested that the largest categories of referential meaning in the data would be occupied by product names and shop names, these kinds of texts were likely to be met in fieldwork expeditions on a number of occasions, for example the same product being sold in different shops, or a chain restaurant being encountered in more than one location.

Conflating types and tokens would therefore have led to some words, through their association with marketing texts, being over represented in the data. While the extent of the popularity of businesses or products with hiragana names is lost by not counting tokens, it was felt to be outside the scope of this study. However, these are clearly different products, seemingly produced under licence by different companies. In these cases, a decision was made to include up to 3 variations on the same type.

This aimed to capture some of the variation of these product lines without allowing the data to be swamped with examples of any one instance. A decision was made to exclude POS material produced by the manufacturer of the product such as in figure 3.

From the above explanation, it can be seen that data selection was already part of the collecting process. These are various tokens of the same Chain restaurant appears in Count once type, and are produced by the same various locations agent. These are various tokens of the same Product appears in various Count once type and are produced by the same shops agent. Variation in products is relevant, but Brand name appears across Count first 3 including all instances will cause some various products instances only brands to be over-represented.

POS material produced by the Including POS material created by the same agent accompanies a Exclude same agent would over-inflate the product appearance of this example. POS promotional material POS material created by a different created by a different agent Include agent is of relevance.

Variation in the accompanies a product use of script occurs. The online browsing sessions and fieldwork expeditions therefore served to collect examples of loanwords in hiragana from a broad range of sources. However, other potential sites of loanwords in hiragana such as manga, song lyrics, and personal communication were not investigated. These are suggested as potential sites of further research in chapter 8. Data collected on the trip to conduct follow-up interviews layer 4 , as well as two private visits to Japan were also included in order to capture data across the greatest range of time, and from different seasons.

What grammatical class do they take? What donor language are they from? Are there any instances of language play? How many occur in a whole text? Are vowels lengthened with a bar like katakana words, or with an extra vowel like hiragana words? Which loanwords most frequently occur in hiragana? Do the texts display any other inconsistencies in orthography of loanwords? Furthermore, some prefectures such as Wakayama were only represented in the pilot study data.

Language play has also been specifically cited as a function of loanwords in Japanese Hoffer, ; Honna, The language domains described are adapted from the SFL approach to language and meaning making described by Eggins , with important differences as described below.

The final column in table 3. The coding categories will be demonstrated using the text pictured in figure 3.

Word Class The grammatical class of a word for example, noun, verb or adjective was investigated at the word level because the data contained not only single words examples, but sometimes consecutive loanwords in hiragana, which necessitated coding for each word.

Word frequency Frequency counts were made at the word level to see if certain words appeared in the corpus more regularly than others. The most frequently occurring words were also examined for patterns such as thematic content and period of introduction to the Japanese language. Languages represented by more than one unit in the corpus were coded into the categories English, Dutch, French, German, Italian, Latin, and Portuguese.

Four types of language play appeared in other examples in the corpus. The first two, homonyms and paronyms near homonyms , are quite similar; representing cases where two different meanings arise from the same or similar sets of phonemes. Another type of language play was a lexical blend, where two words, typically a Japanese words and a loanword, were clipped and combined into a new lexical item.

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Audiences are diverse, thinking is diverse, as are the environments data is being gleaned from by both the student and the teacher. Apps and mobile devices can not only support curation, but can do so better than even the most efficient teacher might hope to do. By design, these technologies adapt to learners, store files, compare and evaluate, publish thinking, and connect learners, making curation a matter of process rather than ability.

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