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Each para- graph is followed by a row of index letters that associate the paragraph with the pertinent glyphs on the Saros Dial Scale. Albanesische Grammatik, Leipzig, Again, an Athenian who happened to leave Attica in 3,. The ancient o Thus standa-.

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See questions and answers. Customer reviews. How are ratings calculated? Instead, our system considers things like how recent a review is and if the reviewer bought the item on Amazon.

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Similar documents. Last4SSN: More information. Hf Cd Na Nb Lr. Ho Bi Ce Eu Ac. Uut Rh K N. Sb At Md H. Excel Invoice Format. Casting porno italiano grasso dal cazzo piccolo. My audition turned into a porno shoot. Wild hot pornstar brynn tyler squirting all over porno dan. Black college chick gangbang in porno theater. Vintage amateur porno with cumlicking asian. Petite teen masturbating in vintage porno. Aohaeic fl, then for Achaeic oa, while 11 was retained unaltered, as: fwHI..

AtheniaD achoolmaaters also BaW the ezpediency of such conwntional aymbols and 10 adopted the Ionic fl aDd for oompenaated or theti. In this way, every poatpositive I, especially when prevocalictherefore every intersoDl. Ilt , aDd thUB effect or indicate metrical position in the form of 'natunl 'length. The eoneequence of such a confueion was that the said, began to be freely dropped or freely ineerted 30" t:.

For fuller partieulan aee. The relative inlluence of theory prosody and physiology on the orthographic system developed, eTen in the dialects, ever since historical times, is Btrikingly illustrated by the Tarious methods adopted in. Achaeic especially in its BoeotiaD form , the mCllt oonservative of all dialects.

Here we find: 1 originally poBitional or 'thetic' 11 developed first into ar. Attic 11 T4AaS,. Attic" Tt",,.. Attic -tl:. The procea jail; deHDeeted Ihowa then thM the above nnltant.

Y applied, it. Regarding the adoption of the symbol" as a separate TOWel, the promoters of the spelling reform were evidently animated by the wish to remove an ambiguities and anomalies in matters of law GGrote Gr. AooordiDgly that partioular was tnDscribed by, which, thoup Dot diphthongized to hyaterogenooua" Attio and Ionic AV Dori.

ButDorio and Attio: p,. Ionic x4Ip,, , ". I9c The rapid spnad from the outset of the qmbol 'I-not.. H -1 but.. This frequent ooncurrence of 'I and.. Aa espeoted. At the same time the novel symbols were reprded, for a long time 41 , aa a sort of aliens and mere graphio alternatives for the ancestral e and 0 respectively PI.

This circumstance alao aooounta for the striking phenomenon that, whereas the primordial aDd traditional E and 0 are used times without number for 'I and OJ re..

I' Compare PL Orat. Po 19 , the symbol8 'I and OJ aN. To sum up, in Greek sonantism, as exhibited in cIa. The succe88ive stages of this evolution can be distinctly tra. Here we can distinguish four broad phases of spelling: the primitive, the scholastic, and the phonetic, out of which arose the fourth or received post-Euclidian orthography current in our texts. See App. I'Wrov tnlcia. In other words, the new or scholastic spelling was not the result of previoul phonetic growth, but the very t:atult of the aubaequent post-Eucleidian phonetic aystem.

It is therefore misleading to start from the B8Bumption, for primordial Greek, of sounds which were not symbolized, and to treat them as concrete teata by the side of the old symboll for phonetic research is aurely a false method. I'm ,. But when we descend to classical Attic, we find a very ditferent phenomenon: the process of COfItmction as represented in b appears fully and systematically developed, and the so-called hiatus, either within a word or between two consecutive words, is generally avoided.

Now 88 non-contraction d. This is also proved by the fact that no diphthong ever shows a partial elision 14Ib , and the papyri-unlike the inscriptions, which were engraved not phonetically but at first in.. Further very conclusive evidence is afforded by the inscriptions of the Delphian hymns to Apollo composed after B. TIiA, Maam. So again in Bull.

HelL xviii. This theory however, though simple and prepo! E8lling, is a fanciful explanation. Eucleidian combinations '1' or 11 and "" or ,,-naturally preSUppo a long period during which the first vowel BOund must have struggled with the 88COnd for the preponderance bUp4Tflll ['I, a period of slurred pronunciation which ought to have shown a confusion of the two contending vowel-BOunds: 11 and " 0 and v, and" 0 and..

Such a progreBBive-regreBBive or oscillating proceaa moreover militates against the very constitution of a 'diphthong' where the first vowel always predominates over the 88CODd vowel, which latter thus aBBUDl88 a l8Dlivocalic or rather consonantal function ESievers ; KBrugmann Gr. We have before us three di1Imm. Again, an Athenian who happened to leave Attica in 3,.

See Id'. L Diphthonp la which the prepoeitiYe vowel has overpowered aDd. Diphthongs in whioh the poatpoaitive , has orverpowered and abeorbed ita prepositive auooiate, as in.

To do this adequately we must constantly bear in mind the following four fundamental prinoiples :I. Beside Sanskrit, Greek is the moat; inftectional of all languages whether dead or living; hence it exhibits aD infinite number of au8ixes aDd prefixes ; op 16b [1.

Of the five original vowel sounde 16 b , fl is the relatively strongest, Den comes 0, then U, then.. It was the accent, aoting as a dynamie agent from MriOUS point. For it will be remembered that in a given word the root or atem ia the primitive element, while the sulBxes and prefixes are hyaMrogeneous aeeretioDL! When in proceaa of time primary mostly RIftixalj and binary tmoatlyprefixal accretions began to smplify the words to polysyllables-a case so common in Greek-these bysterogeneouI accretions naturally fell under the Iwayof the accent and so led to the development of the system of triayllabio accentuation trisyllabotony , peculiar to Greek.

Va3e: ,. On this principle we have, taking into account simple words only and indicating the seat of the aooent by a capital letter :'Afpt 'AfptW but Uptn a. I'iia AtAllwila ". The above illu8tration. It becomee olear then that the monophthongization of the diphthongs AI I1 01 YI ay HI 0 1 was not, as generally believed, e1fected by a I slow and gradual' prooeee, witneeeed within historioal or even 'poato1uBioal' timea ; it rather points to the conourrence in primordial Greek of diphthongs with an alternative accentuation cii a: at, It a: it, 6'1 a: ill [6ti a: il1I], etc.

Acoord ingly there was no intermediate gradual proceea, no compromise or blend ing of the two vowel BOunds, no progreasive or oeoillating phonetic proceu which led on the one hand to the proper, and on the other to the spurious diphthongs, but both forme are virtually oo-eval and 80 back to primordial antiquity. At tbe same time the monophthongization in question W8B not efl'eeted all at once, but the proceea afFected each diphthong in each cue or word separately and at a diJferent time, though all certainly in preclueica1 antiquity.

Durerent ie the cue of the diphthongs a Here we find that either vowel has retained its individual sound. The following inscriptional data will illustrate the nature and frequency of their confusion and the degree of consequent homophony among them.

But cp. E' , 10, 1. CIA U. J",or CIA ii. CIA ii. IVt B. Hell vii. Hell m. H' , 9. Ur ib. TfI ib. I 1,37 Kprtrl w.

Ccirou ib. For maDY other examples see GMeyerl Dealing with the sound of u, it is diftloult to trace the physiological procesa which led to its change from its original "BOund J6b to its preeent i-sound.

Still, BB in the absence of any explanation that of tHl-i being a fanciful hypothesis irreconcilable with Greek phonology even conjectures are allowable, I believe that we can detect a plausible explanation of the phenomenon in the generalization of the above principle of the monophthongiZlltion of the diphthongs 33b 1r. We have Been there that, under the BtI'8llll of accent, the ptepoeitive vowel of the diphthonga.. With this change of every original DU to and every V'l B.

XoipuAos Bull Corr. IIIf B. IC'os Bull. Aias ib. II-ml A.. IJMpa for 8upa , IIp2 A.. BflSwdPX'ls for -Bv. CWeasely N. Jfjqll ib. AplTfpor for ;',,- ib. CWessely PlOl. For the former authorities are mialed by the palatal BOund of the preceding" Y cp. Under Aeolic particularly Boeotiu? So, 7. SI, 7. I70i Myol for ". Texts p. Imf"'pal , TVaW'l" Gr. I, ii. I, due to the influence of the adjectives -lir, -U, -i.

Meyer' lJO. Bee 26, 28 fl'. CIA i. KaptlPqs lb. Hell Stud.. Megalopolia E 23, twice. Lo1m'8 Pap. SS, ll-IS, thrice. IJ:If' B. IS, IS. C1W CIA ii. PatJNPwr Bull. KaAovNcnor for Calvisius Bull. TtttUp'or CIG FBlaas HermeD. IJa, Gr. FGKenyoD C1aas. TextS p. Berlin ,32 beside 'Aprra r ib. Berlin ,3. Berhn , Cii,f", OD a coin! Imhoof-Blumer Abhd!. Berlin A,m lToSIt, i. Nniar Berl Aka. Col Kvpl! Ntr"lM Aaroupyla from A",r. The mMt u.

I-t- ItaIltC". U Tltoot and Ha.. Compare Heqah. J[, PbiL XVI. Dt either of the aepiration 72 d or of quantity' 28 ft. See 26 f. This phenomenon has already been fully investigated in 28 ft'. Regarding the almost regular practice in Latin of transliterate ing 'I by. HelL p.

OIl HCollitz. IS29t 2H. III' A. I' Gr. II ib. VUlt A. Hesiod', line ".. IIIriUen even.. A llmilar oollooatioD ADC,..

Al'II rhet. W "", Jvnpoc riAa, lB AawlIN w. So fmtber "pGI'la for I" cA". OplOf ib. The argument for the monophthongal pronunciation ef 01 in. J2; olotlllCono Xen. For the strikingly frequent interchange of 01 and v in G-B times see 29 and The phonetic interrelation of DC and , in tile yt B. KMeisterhansl 26 ; cp. GMeyer' , where H stands for E. This aaaociatiOB of termiDal I would be UDaCCOuntable for A, if we were to aaaume anothe rlndependent I before it, that is if the , of the preceding diphthong contained a distinct poatpoeitive i-sound.

Bl'jO"Ctur, Un,. Orrc for dlTf. So further M3U1 elL iv. Spinll for -'r' ib. Texts A or t1"eely dropping every interaonantio I 20". A pnaral survey of the pronunciation ot the in t1Ia V-Vzta A. Here then we And ib.

FfWTa ib. J p. J j. Rohl Dial. Zll no. Alalor BulL Cor. Blaaor ih. ISO B. CIG UQ8'Aos Rev. It-mr A. ThEckinger Zelijpor ; z. J, 0' z 3zb, 3. This is also the natural result, in accelerated speech, of the original composite BOund au and flU cp. GMeyer' ft:. The prevalent transcription of Greek 't 11 through Latin V ,, , and conversely of Latin V through Greek 't-then of Greek B S through Latin B b and conversely-repreaente the traditional or historical apel.

Aspiratae mad Mediae. Mo As there is no real dispute about the pronunciation of the. The method to be applied cannot be identical with that adopted in the case of the 80na. But we can arrive at safe results by remembering the principle of syllabication 91 fr.

A sometimes symbolized by. But auch arguments cannot be seriously entertained in the face of the following data: I Latin I is always transclibed in Greek b1. A 72 if. See also Bekk. X we" reaDy spoken.. Priaoian i. In 'l'8aoomo ape. Dclalos, aElfflpa, yapbpll,;, 1JapbI The latter proDUJl. On the other hand, easily paaaea to tlOiced y gA or 3 before a tIOice4.

At the same time it may be reaaoaably averred that g, d, b being actually established as medial limpk sounds 57 , cannot be declared jJUUJmjuible at tite beainJaiq of a WON as traditioniata that the claim , unless OB the plea of absolute nece. Aa a matter of fact, both pronOllciatiou , tl 6 a. Leaving aside all theoretical speculation, the traditional.

Before a liquida,. A inacriptiou; KlIeisterhana' CoIDpare f'tuother since B. ThEckinger 8'. Llkewi8e such miaapelliDp 88 ItAIor and '. IIoDd before the paJa.

This is moreover conceded by Eraam. Da invariably as d and b respectively, while traditioniata sound them as buzzes or voiced tA and tI, except after a nasal, where J? See also f. In the particular case of J which, above all consonants, has been the aubject of controverar, there is conclusive evideDce of ita having had the twofold pronuncIation of b and tI in claaaical Greek.

For the former. The only reasonable objection that could be raised is that the spelling Jij fj. Jrij ,. On the other hand, for the pronunciation of fJ as labiodental tI, a whole aeriez of evidence can be adduced.

First, the common. TpnnlallOv Gr. Berlin 68 t1I , I For A oompan: 'A",. It, 6 P3 Boo. Though there is no dispute aa to the nature of the BOund of the above consommta, it will be advantageous to consider them briefly here. It ia unanimou81, ' conceded FBl Pron. Sg that the ancient Greeks, like their deecendants now, pronounced , with the tip of the tongue. PL Crat. D ore De comp. This is al80 ahOWll by the fact that in verae it very often makes position, and, what la equallyaigni1icant, in the ICri.

BlABB L , op. KBrugmann" When, however, through composition, it happened to come after a vowel, the original trilling or double ,!

So too 1I,,",r, BolITlar. X6hnerBlaaa i. But if it, or ftIther n. Before fJ y a '" the apirant IT changes to ' Many more eumplea in GMeyeri 2:z6.

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Initially the evidence that was brought to bear on these questions was limited to the readings of the surviving glyphs. In Freeth et al. See also Anastasiou et al. Relying on readings and interpretation of the transcription of the BPI that he offered as the product of a collaboration with Charles Crowther, Freeth additionally argued for a layout of the BPI that was different from the one previously suggested by Jones.

Where Jones had hypothesized that all paragraphs relating to solar eclipses occupied the spaces along the right side of the Back Plate while those relating to lunar eclipses were along the left side, Freeth maintained that six solar paragraphs were inscribed in the spaces on both sides of the Saros Dial two on the left, four on the right and lunar paragraphs in the spaces on both sides of the Metonic Dial.

His reasons were as follows: 1. If it were that paragraph, line 5 would be its row of index letters, ending with omega, but Freeth contends that the single incompletely preserved letter on line 5, which would have been that final index letter, is not omega, but an omicron that cannot be an index letter.

He therefore hypothesizes that the missing paragraph was inscribed in the space at the upper left of the Saros Dial. The two paragraphs comprising lines 6—10 and 11—19, which together occupy the space at the upper right of the Saros Dial, are consecutive paragraphs according to the model. The next paragraphs with respect to physical location along the right side of the plate, in the space at the lower right of the dial, are those comprising lines 21—31 and 32— These too are consecutive paragraphs according to the model.

However, between the last index letter read by Crowther and Freeth in line 19 and the first index letter read in 31—which is not an ordinary alphabetic letter with or without a horizontal stroke above —the model predicts four index letters that therefore must have had their own paragraph logically intervening between 11—19 and 21— Freeth therefore hypothesizes that this paragraph was inscribed in the space at the lower left of the dial.

Hence, our lines 2—19 were numbered 1—18 in previous editions and discussions, and our lines 21—38 were previously numbered 19— Jones the layout of the inscription, however, the study retained the hypothesis that the solar paragraphs all ran down the right side of the Back Plate, though now sug- gesting that the lunar paragraphs occupied not only the spaces along the left side but also the uppermost space of the right side, to the upper right of the Metonic Dial.

To the left of the first index letter i. Hence, there was no logically intervening paragraph between 11—19 and 21—31, and the total number of solar paragraphs was five, not six.

Freeth has now rebutted most of the divergences of the reconstruction from that of his paper, accepting only that there is a single index letter preceding the special symbol in line 31, which he interprets as a second special symbol. In this paper, therefore, we offer a new critical text of the BPI based on reexamination of the CT and RTI data, and on its basis we will deduce a revision of the glyph distribution, the index lettering scheme, and the model according to which the solar groupings in the BPI were obtained.

As Freeth has persuasively argued, these index letters on the BPI are not listed in alphabetical order, rather they are listed in order of decreas- ing mean lunar latitude, whereas the corresponding index letters on the Saros Dial start at alpha and run in alphabetical order to omega; then, they repeat this, only this time each index letter is topped with an overline to distinguish it from the non- barred index letters.

Since much of the Saros Dial is missing, the index letters on the Back Plate Inscription are an important piece of evidence to ascertain how many, and in what cells, the Saros Dial had solar eclipse glyphs. Fragment A preserves the ends of lines 1—10 and most of lines 11— I can find only one example of it being used in connection with eclipse directions of obscuration POxy.

Fragment 24 preserves the beginnings of lines 15—18 as mirror offsets, while Fragment 25 has mirror offsets of lines 10—17; they can be read in CT and in PTM files AK02b 24 and AK02a Finally, Fragment F preserves in its interior lines 21—38 and can only be read in CT. For a full description of these, the reader is advised to consult the edition of Anasta- siou et al.

Note that in that edition and in the previous editions in Price , Freeth et al. Date: fin. It appears to be very unlikely that any part of the lambda could be present since the plate is broken away there. The upper horizontal of gamma does have a pronounced extension to the left of the vertical hasta as it does elsewhere, such as at line 26 and the glyphs in cells 13 and , but it is too short to belong to a tau and its thickness and depth on the left end is not the same as a full letter stroke.

That this is a gamma and not a tau is also shown by the fact that it is also too close to the preceding vertical hasta of dotted eta if it were a tau, the top horizontal would need to extend well into the top of eta—see especially PTM AK50a, and compare with iota followed by tau in the line below for normal spacing of vertical stroke followed by tau.

Jones lower tip of the vertical of dotted upsilon, high in the line where it should be, on PTM AK50a and photographs. The inscriber seems to use the nu-movable when there is space; cf.

The loop is much larger and flares out to the right, nor does it connect at the top, precluding any other round letter such as omicron and phi. Medici peri Chroias 8. The dotted pi is blurry, but the two vertical hastae seem present. The vertical of the first iota is present on the CT and most of the left side of the sigma the right side is lost in a large crack.

At the end of the line, the left half of tau is present on the CT and a part of the upper right horizontal in photographs, while the lower left diagonal of dotted alpha is also visible in photographs.

The dotted iota is complete, but it is along a break to the right that epi- graphically speaking could belong to other letters. Only the lower tip of the left diagonal of dotted mu is present on Fragment E.

This is fol- lowed by the middle horizontal of epsilon that is visible on the CT, while the upper horizontal and left vertical on visible on PTM AK50a. The sigma is a bit distorted, only a part of the upper branch is missing, making the reading assured. At the end of the line, the left half of omega is preserved on the CT, and the right half is visible on PTM AK50a, making the reading assured.

This also indicates where Fragment E joins, or nearly joins, to Fragment A. The alpha with crossbar and overline is clear in CT see Fig.

The space between alpha and nu, as well as those between the other letters in the line, is of just normal breadth. There is a large crack at the bottom of dotted lambda, which theoretically means delta cannot be ruled out. Above it, there seems to be a piece of the overline that intersects with the lower right tip of the lambda in the line above. Jones owing to the large crack. The phi at the end of the line is clear on the CT. Its ver- tical hasta extends all the way up next to the right edge of the final nu in the line above, and the overline appears to be there, next to the nu.

Line The vertical hasta and a part of the horizontal hasta of dotted gamma are there, but epigraphically speak- ing they could belong to pi.

In line 14, the second pi is entirely present on the mirror offsets of Fragment The left vertical of eta is very clear there too, but Fragment 25 ends at this point. However, a piece of the crossbar of eta is clear in photographs typically located low on the vertical as well as the right vertical, making the reading assured.

Much of the lambda is present on PTMs AK45a, AK46a, and photographs, but there is damage through the middle, and epigraphically speaking, it could belong to an alpha. In line 15, the nu and mu are clear on the CT data of Fragment This is followed by the lower left corner of epsilon in a photograph. Anastasiou et al. The rhos are faint but visible on the CT crowded against each other the entire vertical hasta and a bit of the lower loop of the first rho are visible on the PTMs AK45a and 46a.

While the center of the theta is missing, the size of the letter means it cannot be an omicron, which is consistently smaller. The overline is also very evident. The top horizontal and upper left corner of sigma are preserved on the CT with no overline evident and a bit of the lower horizon- tal, followed by the faint outline of the loop of rho, followed by the chi the chi is very clear in photographs.

Line This line is ignored by all previous editors first read by A. For more on this line, see Commentary and Analysis sections. The lower tip of the right diagonal of dotted alpha is present. A trace of the tips of the upper left diagonal and lower vertical of dotted upsilon are visible. The lower tip of the dotted tau is visible along with a bit of the left tip of the upper horizontal.

The kappa is entirely there and the lower left diagonal and a piece of the crossbar of alpha. The upper left tip of the left diagonal and the lower tip of the vertical of dotted upsilon are visible. The left vertical and a bit of the upper left corner of dotted pi are visible at the break; it could also be a gamma.

The upper left corner of dotted epsilon and some of the upper horizontal are present; it could also be gamma. The final let- ter can be nothing other than omega. For more on the cursive omega and hooked alpha, see Commentary. The loop and vertical of rho are somewhat indistinct, but visible.

The crossbar of the final alpha is faint, but there. The overlines over eta and rho are clear. There does not seem to be any trace of a letter after the rho.

Cells 73—74 See apparatus criticus. In the drawing above Fig. In line 2, the final dotted alpha could also conceivably be a delta.

In line 2, the crossbar of alpha is very evident. In line 1, there is a faint but visible sigma, nu, and the lower vertical hasta of upsilon above it in ligature.

The beta in line two seems reasonably certain, although it could possibly be epsilon. Cells 73— As Anastasiou et al.

Based on earlier photographic evidence, there should be a gap of about one cell between them the gap is that which had cell 14 and most of cell 73, both which should contain glyphs in all reconstruction schemes. Here we report that it appears that the line dividing cells 73 and 74 seems to be preserved, but no certain letters can be made out in cell In line 2, the iota is clear, and in line 3 the gamma is clear.

In line 1, the upsilon is clear. In line 2, a piece of the lower serif of the vertical hasta of beta is evident on Fragment E, while the rest of beta is clear on Fragment A. Jones et al. In line 3, the epsilon with overline is a bit blurry, but it can be read in its entirety. In line 3, the entire zeta is clear in photographs. The stigma at the end of line is clear. The letters are all clear in photographs, except for part of the lower left angle of the index letter sigma.

Detail from British Museum , plate 18 Fig. Gregg Schwendner previously suggested that was a hooked cursive alpha that stands for the numeral 1, on papyri, and in fact it would be easy to compile many examples of Greek papyri from throughout the Hellenistic period in which 1, is written very similarly to the symbol in the BPI e. We may anticipate some outcomes that have paleographical significance. In other words, this is simply how the engraver chose to make omegas when they came up as index letters in the BPI, and by implication, prob- ably also on the Saros Dial Scale.

Secondly, it can be shown that the first two index letters in 31 must belong to cells and , right at the end of the Saros cycle. The barred omega is the last letter of the second alphabetic sequence; hence, it is the index letter of cell and of the 48th glyph.

Our other evidence for the eclipse sequence allows for an alternative reconstruction for the final cells: Either of the cells and was the final two containing glyphs, or cell also had a glyph. With the former option, it would make sense to assign to cell an index letter alpha, modified so as to appear as belonging to a third alphabetic sequence even if this sequence turns out to go no further! This amounts to further confirmation that the is to be understood as hooked alpha, while simultaneously eliminating cell as a candidate for a glyph.

While these letter forms are more common at the end of the third and through- out the second-century BCE, they are attested on inscriptions all the way to the mid- dle of the first-century BCE. The flaring of the strokes also prevents the hastae from sloppily running over each other, especially at angular corners such as on sigmas and mus. To sum up, the extremely small size of these letters is a big factor in their shape, and in any case all these letters could have been employed anytime from the end of the third to the middle of the first-century BCE.

We have discussed elsewhere why we think the Mechanism dates closer in time to the shipwreck, or ca. This can be seen by consulting the dodecagonal windrose diagram in Fig. This also has the effect of making the starting points on the north half of the windrose symmetrical with each other. As Fig.

Furthermore, given the small magnitude of the eclipses refer- enced, we would expect a dark color. Thus, we could posit there is a missing line above the first pre- served line. As noted above, Freeth has argued that the solar eclipses were described on each side of the Saros Dial and that the lunar eclipses, which probably numbered 38, on each side of the Metonic Spiral.

Alternatively, Anastasiou et al. Freeth , on the other hand, recently reiterated his support for his ver- sion, by arguing that: 1. Lines 1—4 were not part of an Index Letter Group as is the case on the rest of this inscription, but possibly some sort of introductory text.

The traces at the beginning of line 31 do not support Anastasiou et al. There was a solar glyph in the non-extant cell , contrary to Anastasiou et al. There is not enough room for the all the solar eclipses on the right side of the Saros Dial, nor the 38 lunar eclipses on the left side of the Saros Dial, as Anasta- siou et al. Of these points, 4 and 5 are valid, but the others are not. Point 1. It has also been shown that the spac- ing of the new line 1 is consistent with the very likely wind to be mentioned.

The collocation of all these facts inclines strongly to reading lines 1—4 as part of an Index Letter Group. Point 2. Jones on the Mechanism. The first index letter in line 31, however, is, in fact, a clear, completely preserved cursive omega. Ironically, Freeth himself draws it as a fully preserved cursive omega in Figs. There is thus no doubt what letter strokes are preserved there, nor is it at all plausible that these letter strokes belong to any other letter besides a cursive omega.

Consequently, epigraphical considerations indicate that the remains of the letter at the end of line 5 belong to a cursive omega, as Anastasiou et al. Since the cursive omega appears to have been employed only as an index letter, this strongly, if not decisively, indicates that lines 1—5 are part of an Index Letter Group.

In addition to the positive epigraphical arguments for cursive omega and the clear parallel of the cursive omega in line 31 as an index letter, there are also numerous other contextual problems with not reading the last letter in line 5 as an index letter and instead interpreting it as an omicron.

In every other instance on this inscription, the magnitude is followed by the color, which is then followed by a line of index letters. Furthermore, on this inscription there are only two other places where two successive lines have large vacats at the end of them—that is at the ends of lines 9 and 10 and at the ends of 30 and In each of these two other cases, the first line ends with the color followed by a vacat, and the second line has index letters followed by a vacat.

Given the formulaic nature of this inscription, it is highly probable, therefore, that the letter at the end of line 5 is an index letter. There are, however, very few ancient Greek words in the Attic-Ionic dialect that end in omicron. But numbers are not found elsewhere on the Back Plate Inscription and there is no good explanation for one appearing here.

All these considerations, both epi- graphical and contextual, taken together mean that it is overwhelmingly likely that this letter is not an omicron, that it is a cursive omega, and that it is an index letter.

Point 3. In Fig. See the apparatus criticus above for more on these readings. Jones Point 4. We have seen this line is to be read vac. However, the first of the three letters read by Anastasiou et al. You may use non-programmable calculators. You may. Totally independent from PC platform; 2.

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