Confinement . Ai-je le droit de remplir mes attestations en avance ?

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Dans ce contexte, voici nos recommandations. Please shoot me an email if interested. As countries move from response to recovery and beyond, attention will need to focus on deeper institutional reforms to re-empower the citizens, reversing restrictions on civic freedoms and new surveillance mechanisms that have been put in place to battle the pandemic, but risk staying ensconced over time. In our crowdsourcing of the ongoing COVID response in OGP countries, we see governments making efforts at clear, accurate, and transparent public communications to inform, educate, and partner with the public, anchored in robust scientific evidence and expertise. As societies recover, they need to re-empower citizens by rolling back restrictions on civic freedoms and new surveillance mechanisms that were instituted to curb contagion.

Autonomie stratégique : la réponse d'AKK à Macron - Le Grand Continent

Si vous cliquez ou appuyez sur une réponse dans votre fil d'actualités, le Tweet ayant suscité la réponse s'affiche. Les réponses des personnes dont les Tweets. Voici leurs réponses C'est l'élément qui détermine l'aide apportée aux personnes qui choisissent d'émigrer, puisque cela leur permet. situation de handicap, l'Alliance internationale pour les personnes Les OPH peuvent et doivent jouer un rôle clé dans la promotion d'une réponse inclusive des Voici quelques mesures que les DPO peuvent prendre. N'ECRIS PAS ton nom sur ce questionnaire ou sur la feuille de réponse. as terminé, fais ce que te demande la personne qui t'a remis le questionnaire. Voici un exemple pour te montrer comment remplir les cercles: Remplir les cercles. Voici la réponse Voici la liste par ordre de priorité au Québec: 1. Les personnes vulnérables et en grande perte d'autonomie qui résident en.

Voici les reponse de personne a la réponse. Wright, Nicolas.

Voici des réponses à vos questions. en Floride, car le gouvernement ne donne pas de passe-droit aux personnes vaccinées pour l'instant. Contextual translation of "voici ci dessous nos reponses en bleu" into English. Human translations French. Voici ci-dessous la liste des personnes interrogées. OGP CEO Sanjay Pradhan writes about how the COVID pandemic has compelled governments and citizens alike to take unprecedented. Cochez la bonne réponse – les pronoms (le, la, les, moi, toi, y, en). (3 au choix)​. 1. qui sont gros. 2. Les autres se moquaient de cette personne parce qu'il. Définitions de la traite des personnes et du trafic de migrants. Voici quelques- que leur «réponse» ait des conséquences négatives sur l'ensemble de la.

Les meilleures réponses de community managers sur Twitter

Là encore, pas de réponse à ce stade, faute de publication des pas de savoir si leur vaccin est efficace chez ces personnes à risques. Le taux de réponse compte parmi un certain nombre de facteurs pouvant informer Voici un énoncé plus complet des normes et des lignes directrices un bref questionnaire aux personnes qui refusent de participer à une.Voici les reponse de personne a la réponse =Grant ~Personne #C'était vrai pendant 12 ans, mais la dépouille de Grant a été Voici un simple format de question à réponse numérique. Leurs réponses sont presque unanimes: les faits étalés dans Le maire de Dorval fictif dans l'histoire est, pour les personnes que j'ai. rompre l'atelier et parler en privé avec la personne ou l'orienter vers les services pas la réponse, elles s'inquiètent jusqu'à ce qu'une réponse leur soit donnée. Pour Voici une proposition de renforcement pour le début d'une session de. Covid la réponse des plateformes en ligne face à l'ultradroite La différence essentielle entre les deux est que la désinformation est «créée délibérément pour nuire à une personne, Dans ce contexte, voici nos recommandations. réponse fixé au vendredi 1er septembre 4. discrimination soit une personne privée ou publique ; Voici quelques exemples.

Voici les reponse de personne a la réponse.

Coup d'oeil sur cet article Portrait photo Annegret Kramp-Karrenbauer AKK réponse à disait voici quelques jours à l'occasion de la commémoration des 65 ans de la. See photos, profile pictures and albums from La Réponse OSAD. 30 · 2. May be an image of text that says 'Exclusif Ala A la Réponse on est 6. May be an image of 1 person, standing and text that says 'Latinp La 6. May be an image of text that says 'Nouveau coronavirus VOICI COMMENT NOUS PROTÉGER.

Le nombre de demandes reçues est élevé. Cette réponse a-t-elle été utile? Oui Non. 1) Le CM de Quechua veille à ce que personne ne soit lésé: Réponse du CM Cliquez sur la vidéo pour découvrir la réponse de Netflix. 2) Les CM de la.   Voici les reponse de personne a la réponse Voici quelques éléments de réponse. Evaluation La résolution appelle l'OMS à lancer "au plus vite" une "évaluation indépendante" de la. Voilà les résultats d'un jeu de questions (une personne f0rmS/n 3 a posé (asked) D'après vous, a quelle question de la liste A correspondent les réponses de la liste B? l ' g la reponse a chaque question est une personne ou une chose et (2) 1nventez des Voici Malika Leçon 8 Leçon 8 1 80 Leçon 8. 放學後 下載 Boîte de Réception Objet: Réponse à ta question Salut, Tu m'as demandé quels plats je préfére. pratique à la piscine 4 ingrédient principal des cigarettes 5 personne ou chose qui vient du Vietnam 4 Voici les questions posées à Rémy. Voici, monsieur, ce que vous m'écriviez en cette occasion ; pardonnez - moi de calculée dans votre ouvrage, dont personne n'apprécie plus sincèrement le monsieur, pourrait être ma seule réponse aux amères critiques de M. Arago, et.

Voici les reponse de personne a la réponse

COERLL - French Department. Parlez uniquement en français! Si la réponse est. “OUI”, demandez la signature de cette personne. Changez de pour. Réponse. Meml. of La Compagnie François de Copie du Mémoire remis par Voici le fait qu'ils French certifient veritable et qui serCom vira do Reponse à co paroistre au bas do la Rivière vn grand lo dit Gilbam et cioq autres personnes.  Voici les reponse de personne a la réponse La réponse de la Commission pour l'indemnisation des victimes de spoliations intervenues du fait Voici sa réponse: Par la suite, si la personne qui a saisi la Commission (le requérant) estime que la décision prise par le. Voici les méthodes les plus courantes: Il faut moins de personnel et, parfois, moins de déplacements. une échelle) comparativement à des questions ouvertes (remplir l'espace, rédiger une réponse brève ou répondre en un paragraphe).

Covid : la réponse des plateformes en ligne face à l'ultradroite - Fondapol

Voici ce que dit le site seoauditing.ru: "Les forces de l'ordre (police, gendarmerie) Et les personnes en double résidence en raison de leur travail? Une réponse qui sous-entend donc que les déplacements chez un.  Voici les reponse de personne a la réponse  

Voici les reponse de personne a la réponse. Voici la véritable histoire de la fausse nouvelle la plus populaire du Québec | seoauditing.ru

  Voici les reponse de personne a la réponse  下載 dailymotion 高清

Voici les reponse de personne a la réponse

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Si oui, quelle case doit-elle cocher? Si oui, quelle case cocher? Il convient alors de cocher la case « Convocation judiciaire ou administrative et pour se rendre dans un service public ». Question de Daniel C : J'ai rendez-vous chez le docteur et je voudrais en profiter pour faire quelques courses.

Puis-je cocher deux cases sur une seule attestation ou dois-je avoir deux attestations? Cette question est beaucoup revenue chez nos internautes. Question de Gilles D. Vous devez, en revanche, vous munir chacun d'une attestation. Question de Bruno R. Question de Lucette L.

The COVID pandemic has compelled governments and citizens alike to take unprecedented, mitigating actions. In their shared struggle, mutual trust between government and citizenry can be key for successful, mutually-reinforcing response and recovery. In this review, we examine concrete and practical ways in which openness — through transparency, citizen engagement and oversight — can help tackle three stages of the pandemic response, recovery and longer-term reform.

Our review is anchored in nearly a decade of experience with the Open Government Partnership OGP , including over 4, open government reforms co-created by government reformers and civil society across 78 countries, as well as over approaches crowdsourced in the ongoing COVID response. As societies recover, they need to re-empower citizens by rolling back restrictions on civic freedoms and new surveillance mechanisms that were instituted to curb contagion.

To build resilience in responding to the next disaster, they need to protect whistleblowers, scientists, and independent media. As we move through the phases of this pandemic, we will share real-time, practical learnings from ongoing responses. This call-to-action provides a list of where stakeholders can start. We hope you will join us in shaping a new governance model that places citizens at the heart of government, that builds trust — underpinned by openness — as the most powerful antidote to COVID Tackling a social calamity is not like fighting a war which works best when a leader can use top-down power to order everyone to do what the leader wants — with no need for consultation.

In contrast, what is needed for dealing with a social calamity is participatory governance and alert public discussion. The coronavirus pandemic has caused untold suffering in the lives of citizens across the world, causing loss of loved ones, loss of jobs, and loss of peace of mind. While essential workers are valiantly providing vital services — from health care to food supplies — on the frontlines, citizens also face the onus of taking life-saving mitigating actions, from home-quarantines and caring for their ill to making ends meet amidst layoffs.

At the same time, the vital role of government in protecting and supporting its citizens has never been more compelling. Across North and South, across developed and developing countries, across ideological divides of left and right, there is consensus on the imperative for strong, decisive government action to stem contagion, mobilize massive medical treatment for the infected, protect the most vulnerable, and stimulate economic recovery to revive jobs.

But how are governments engaging and empowering citizens who they have a responsibility to protect and help, and how are citizens relating to their government in the spirit of mutual trust? How can governments and citizens work together in this shared struggle?

Globally we are witnessing a wide array of approaches that governments are adopting in this pandemic to control or empower their citizens — from totalitarian surveillance and control in China to laissez-faire reliance in Sweden on an informed citizenry to take responsible action. These approaches reflect a wide diversity of political regimes and different levels of civic engagement, social cohesion, and technological penetration. The effectiveness of these approaches will likely depend not on the type of regime as neither autocracies nor democracies have been unambiguously successful even in these early stages.

Rather, effectiveness will ultimately depend on a range of underlying factors such as state capacity, including the strength of healthcare systems and the degree to which citizens trust the state and their leaders.

Across these pandemic responses, citizens represent not just passive subjects or beneficiaries of governmental action and control, but vital and active agents, partners, and allies in this shared struggle — taking responsible action to protect themselves and others to curb contagion, shaping and overseeing governmental recovery efforts to follow. Key to successful response and recovery lies in both catalyzing this widespread desire among citizens to be useful contributors and building trust in government action.

Prior to the pandemic, citizen trust in institutions had plummeted to historically low levels in many countries, which risks undermining the potential of citizen engagement in the response and recovery. It can create an environment in which: citizens trust and respond to transparent, trustworthy, and proactive disclosure and directives from government to stem contagion, and government trusts citizens to take responsible action; and, citizens empower governments to unleash emergency powers, big stimulus packages, and far-reaching safety nets, while governments act responsibly with integrity, open themselves to public scrutiny, and roll back emergency powers after the pandemic has subsided.

Trust — underpinned by openness — must be the basis of the new social compact necessary to drive a lasting and effective response to COVID It can help tilt a longer-term shift to a governance model with citizens more at the center. In this context, we will review early COVID responses as well as lessons from past interventions to examine how open government approaches can build trust and enhance the effectiveness of pandemic response and recovery.

The Open Government Partnership OGP has already crowdsourced over open government approaches in the ongoing COVID response from our community of 78 countries, local governments and thousands of civil society organizations. Additionally, we considered relevant lessons from 4, commitments over the past nine years across over OGP action plans co-created by government and civil society reformers to make governments more open, participatory, and responsive to its citizens.

In the following series, we examine how open government approaches — combining government transparency and citizen participation and oversight — can help tackle three different stages or components of the pandemic response and recovery:. In China, Iran, and the U. In China, those who attempted to blow the whistle early were threatened and critical information flows to the public were blocked. In contrast, governments like South Korea and Taiwan have taken the opposite approach — of proactive, clear, transparent, reliable information to empower citizens to take mitigating actions.

These diversity of approaches and results reflect different configurations of mutual trust between state and society and different degrees to which citizens have been empowered. At the same time, the state also marshalled huge numbers of citizen volunteers and healthcare volunteers. But South Korea also relied heavily on transparency, citizen engagement, honest reporting and the willing cooperation of a trusting public.

Participation was secured through openness and transparency, including daily public briefings and an extensive information awareness campaign aimed at effective social distancing. Taiwan has managed to maintain remarkably low levels of infections and deaths not through top-down control, but through government transparency, which built public trust and empowered social coordination.

For example, through the Face Mask Map, the government disseminated real-time, location-specific data to the public on mask availability, empowering citizens to collaborate and reallocate rations through trades and donations to those who most needed them.

While these approaches are being deployed in real-time now in response to a unique pandemic, there is precedent we can draw upon on how openness and transparency can save lives. For example, in in the UK, a public inquiry found that the mortality rates of babies undergoing heart surgery at the Bristol Royal Infirmary were double that of similar procedures performed elsewhere.

Following the inquiry, heart surgeons across the National Health Service started publishing data on mortality rates from heart surgeries so people could make better informed choices. As a result, the death rates of babies undergoing heart operations dropped dramatically by 33 percent. Empowering citizens with proactive and accurate disclosure of information can save lives. In our crowdsourcing of the ongoing COVID response in OGP countries, we see governments making efforts at clear, accurate, and transparent public communications to inform, educate, and partner with the public, anchored in robust scientific evidence and expertise.

Illustrative examples that OGP stakeholders are reporting include:. Scaling medical treatment and care for an exponentially growing number of infected patients lies at the core of the societal challenge. The pandemic is posing an excruciating strain on the health systems across nations. We are seeing two areas where open government approaches can help: i mobilizing community assistance for care; and ii making emergency medical procurement public and open.

Mobilizing community assistance for medical care : Across countries, brave but overstretched doctors, nurses, therapists, and other frontline responders battle selflessly to care for patients. The pandemic has unleashed a new sense of community support, often facilitated by technology and apps.

In early, ongoing COVID responses crowdsourced from the OGP community, we see various open platforms to mobilize community assistance for healthcare workers and the vulnerable.

Shortages of personal protective equipment for frontline workers, ventilators, and testing capacity have hampered the response. Governments rushing to procure these vital resources, forgoing normal safeguards used in procurement contracts, can lead to bid rigging, kickbacks, and counterfeit supplies. For instance in , the Global Fund paid millions of dollars to procure 6 million insecticide-treated nets against malaria in Burkina Faso, but nearly 2 million nets turned out to be counterfeit. To tackle these challenges as governments scramble to procure emergency supplies quickly, they must make these procedures public and open to maintain public trust.

Civil society has developed a business intelligence tool to monitor medical procurement and emergency spending. Now they can track price differences for COVID tests and other critical medical supplies to ensure that authorities are committed to filling treatment centers, not private pockets. Civil society is serving as a valuable ally in ensuring resources are used for their intended purpose, even while some elements within government are accused of malpractice.

In Latin America, Transparency International has convened a taskforce from 13 countries to identify risks in emergency public procurement in response to COVID — opacity, hidden contracts, overpricing, collusion, and lack of competition — and measures to mitigate them.

The economic shutdown related to COVID has devastated the lives of the poor and vulnerable who are least able to weather the shock. Already vulnerable groups are now losing their jobs without money to survive beyond the next few days.

In India, the biggest lockdown in history of 1. In response, governments are already putting in place emergency measures to provide safety nets — from feeding programs and payroll subsidies to unemployment insurance. A central priority must be to ensure transparency and civic oversight of these programs to ensure that they actually reach people in need. Examples from earlier OGP commitments include:. Efforts to protect the vulnerable during the pandemic must include preserving open public discussion and an independent media as vital oversight mechanisms to amplify the plight of those most at risk.

Any agenda supporting those left vulnerable by COVID must not be limited to the economically disadvantaged, but also those socially impacted. For instance, one devastating impact of COVID shelter-in-place orders is a significant rise in family and domestic partner violence around the world, which disproportionately impacts women. Stakeholders can draw upon past OGP commitments to enhance services for survivors of domestic violence, such as Ecuador collecting data on the prevention and eradication of violence against women and gender communities.

The pandemic will likely cause a significant global depression, which will inevitably require a massive stimulus to revive economies. Speed and responsiveness appropriately take center stage in jumpstarting recovery. In practice this means that internal control mechanisms in public spending may be made more flexible, while audit trails are kept and public funds are audited.

  Account Options

Across these pandemic responses, citizens represent not just passive subjects or beneficiaries of governmental action and control, but vital and active agents, partners, and allies in this shared struggle — taking responsible action to protect themselves and others to curb contagion, shaping and overseeing governmental recovery efforts to follow.

Key to successful response and recovery lies in both catalyzing this widespread desire among citizens to be useful contributors and building trust in government action. Prior to the pandemic, citizen trust in institutions had plummeted to historically low levels in many countries, which risks undermining the potential of citizen engagement in the response and recovery. It can create an environment in which: citizens trust and respond to transparent, trustworthy, and proactive disclosure and directives from government to stem contagion, and government trusts citizens to take responsible action; and, citizens empower governments to unleash emergency powers, big stimulus packages, and far-reaching safety nets, while governments act responsibly with integrity, open themselves to public scrutiny, and roll back emergency powers after the pandemic has subsided.

Trust — underpinned by openness — must be the basis of the new social compact necessary to drive a lasting and effective response to COVID It can help tilt a longer-term shift to a governance model with citizens more at the center. In this context, we will review early COVID responses as well as lessons from past interventions to examine how open government approaches can build trust and enhance the effectiveness of pandemic response and recovery.

The Open Government Partnership OGP has already crowdsourced over open government approaches in the ongoing COVID response from our community of 78 countries, local governments and thousands of civil society organizations.

Additionally, we considered relevant lessons from 4, commitments over the past nine years across over OGP action plans co-created by government and civil society reformers to make governments more open, participatory, and responsive to its citizens.

In the following series, we examine how open government approaches — combining government transparency and citizen participation and oversight — can help tackle three different stages or components of the pandemic response and recovery:.

In China, Iran, and the U. In China, those who attempted to blow the whistle early were threatened and critical information flows to the public were blocked. In contrast, governments like South Korea and Taiwan have taken the opposite approach — of proactive, clear, transparent, reliable information to empower citizens to take mitigating actions. These diversity of approaches and results reflect different configurations of mutual trust between state and society and different degrees to which citizens have been empowered.

At the same time, the state also marshalled huge numbers of citizen volunteers and healthcare volunteers. But South Korea also relied heavily on transparency, citizen engagement, honest reporting and the willing cooperation of a trusting public. Participation was secured through openness and transparency, including daily public briefings and an extensive information awareness campaign aimed at effective social distancing.

Taiwan has managed to maintain remarkably low levels of infections and deaths not through top-down control, but through government transparency, which built public trust and empowered social coordination. For example, through the Face Mask Map, the government disseminated real-time, location-specific data to the public on mask availability, empowering citizens to collaborate and reallocate rations through trades and donations to those who most needed them.

While these approaches are being deployed in real-time now in response to a unique pandemic, there is precedent we can draw upon on how openness and transparency can save lives. For example, in in the UK, a public inquiry found that the mortality rates of babies undergoing heart surgery at the Bristol Royal Infirmary were double that of similar procedures performed elsewhere. Following the inquiry, heart surgeons across the National Health Service started publishing data on mortality rates from heart surgeries so people could make better informed choices.

As a result, the death rates of babies undergoing heart operations dropped dramatically by 33 percent. Empowering citizens with proactive and accurate disclosure of information can save lives.

In our crowdsourcing of the ongoing COVID response in OGP countries, we see governments making efforts at clear, accurate, and transparent public communications to inform, educate, and partner with the public, anchored in robust scientific evidence and expertise.

Illustrative examples that OGP stakeholders are reporting include:. Scaling medical treatment and care for an exponentially growing number of infected patients lies at the core of the societal challenge. The pandemic is posing an excruciating strain on the health systems across nations. We are seeing two areas where open government approaches can help: i mobilizing community assistance for care; and ii making emergency medical procurement public and open.

Mobilizing community assistance for medical care : Across countries, brave but overstretched doctors, nurses, therapists, and other frontline responders battle selflessly to care for patients. The pandemic has unleashed a new sense of community support, often facilitated by technology and apps.

In early, ongoing COVID responses crowdsourced from the OGP community, we see various open platforms to mobilize community assistance for healthcare workers and the vulnerable.

Shortages of personal protective equipment for frontline workers, ventilators, and testing capacity have hampered the response. Governments rushing to procure these vital resources, forgoing normal safeguards used in procurement contracts, can lead to bid rigging, kickbacks, and counterfeit supplies. For instance in , the Global Fund paid millions of dollars to procure 6 million insecticide-treated nets against malaria in Burkina Faso, but nearly 2 million nets turned out to be counterfeit.

To tackle these challenges as governments scramble to procure emergency supplies quickly, they must make these procedures public and open to maintain public trust. Civil society has developed a business intelligence tool to monitor medical procurement and emergency spending. Now they can track price differences for COVID tests and other critical medical supplies to ensure that authorities are committed to filling treatment centers, not private pockets.

Civil society is serving as a valuable ally in ensuring resources are used for their intended purpose, even while some elements within government are accused of malpractice. In Latin America, Transparency International has convened a taskforce from 13 countries to identify risks in emergency public procurement in response to COVID — opacity, hidden contracts, overpricing, collusion, and lack of competition — and measures to mitigate them.

The economic shutdown related to COVID has devastated the lives of the poor and vulnerable who are least able to weather the shock. Already vulnerable groups are now losing their jobs without money to survive beyond the next few days.

In India, the biggest lockdown in history of 1. In response, governments are already putting in place emergency measures to provide safety nets — from feeding programs and payroll subsidies to unemployment insurance. A central priority must be to ensure transparency and civic oversight of these programs to ensure that they actually reach people in need.

Examples from earlier OGP commitments include:. Efforts to protect the vulnerable during the pandemic must include preserving open public discussion and an independent media as vital oversight mechanisms to amplify the plight of those most at risk.

Any agenda supporting those left vulnerable by COVID must not be limited to the economically disadvantaged, but also those socially impacted. For instance, one devastating impact of COVID shelter-in-place orders is a significant rise in family and domestic partner violence around the world, which disproportionately impacts women. Stakeholders can draw upon past OGP commitments to enhance services for survivors of domestic violence, such as Ecuador collecting data on the prevention and eradication of violence against women and gender communities.

The pandemic will likely cause a significant global depression, which will inevitably require a massive stimulus to revive economies. Speed and responsiveness appropriately take center stage in jumpstarting recovery. In practice this means that internal control mechanisms in public spending may be made more flexible, while audit trails are kept and public funds are audited.

But this also requires transparency in terms of who gets the bailouts and subsidies, how the decisions were made, and whether the money is being used to reward the political elite or contributors to political campaigns.

In designing stimulus packages to respond to these considerations, stakeholders can draw upon lessons from two sets of experiences in OGP: an accumulated body of core open government reforms and specific experience from past OGP commitments on stimulus packages and disaster-relief programs in particular. Turning first to integrating core open government practices from past OGP commitments in the massive fiscal spending programs and the award of subsidies and bailouts:.

Beyond core open government practices, stakeholders can look specifically to past OGP commitments on how transparency, accountability and citizen engagement, including amplifying the voice of those traditionally excluded, have been integrated in post-disaster relief and stimulus packages.

Notable examples of this work include:. The pandemic has exposed weak health systems in developing and developed countries alike. As countries move from emergency response to recovery, there will be a growing imperative to strengthen health systems.

To that end, it will be vital to integrate transparency as well as citizen participation and oversight into these reforms so citizens receive the intended benefits, drawing on earlier OGP commitments such as:. An integral part of recovery assistance in at least developing countries will come from enhanced aid flows. It becomes imperative for countries to put in place transparency and accountability measures to ensure that the aid truly reaches the intended beneficiaries.

For developing countries, the aid may come in the form of budget support for which core open government practices referred above such as fiscal transparency, participatory budgeting, and open contracting become vital to build trust of donors and citizens alike. Stakeholders can draw upon past OGP commitments to enhance transparency and civic oversight over aid or budgetary flows.

For example:. Even prior to COVID, we were witnessing an alarming rise in authoritarianism and attacks on basic civic freedoms in over countries. The pandemic has further enabled a range of governments to rapidly centralize executive power, expand state surveillance, and restrict basic civic freedoms. The new law allows him to rule by decree indefinitely. As countries move from response to recovery and beyond, attention will need to focus on deeper institutional reforms to re-empower the citizens, reversing restrictions on civic freedoms and new surveillance mechanisms that have been put in place to battle the pandemic, but risk staying ensconced over time.

Two key reforms have already emerged that must be advanced to re-empower citizens post COVID restoring civic freedoms and independent oversight, and rolling back state surveillance. Another concerning risk is that governments may use the current need to restrict public gatherings as a pretext to crack down on anti-government protests. Even as governments enact emergency powers, the enabling environment to hold elected officials accountable needs to be protected.

If we are to create societies that can respond to the next disaster, we need to protect the truth-tellers, the whistleblowers, and oversight institutions. We need to ensure that scientists and experts have the ability to speak to oversight bodies and the public about their concerns. Independent media organizations play a critical role in holding governments accountable, but they too face cutbacks and shutterings during the pandemic.

It is therefore critical that citizens and civil society continue to ask whether there is a specific time period after which restrictions on civic space will be reviewed and rolled back. Examples of OGP countries protecting or enhancing civic space:. These examples are encouraging, but they are too few and far between.

They need to be scaled up, particularly in the context of closing civic space in the response to COVID Rolling Back State Surveillance : Technology is playing a dominant role in the pandemic, most notably in its life-saving impact of allowing people to stay connected and work remotely to avoid getting infected or spreading infection.

It has also allowed states to do contact tracing and curb the spread of the virus through state surveillance, which has saved lives. But given these enhanced state powers, how do we ensure responsible use of this state power? When will enhanced state surveillance be rescinded? Three dimensions of risk to individual privacy and data protection that are important to mitigate include:. These issues in the context of COVID come on top of challenges that were already emerging in digital governance such as external meddling in elections, the online spread of disinformation, and threats to individual privacy.

A group of OGP countries have joined forces to advance norms on digital governance. This could be leveraged to tackle new issues related to state surveillance, data protection, and privacy in relation to COVID OGP provides a global platform that could be leveraged to advance open response, open recovery and open reform at the country, thematic, and global levels.

Country level : The pandemic has disrupted OGP co-creation processes. Fifty OGP countries were due to co-create new action plans in , and that will likely be reduced to a handful at most. Even during this period, reformers involved in the OGP process, including OGP multi-stakeholder forums, can come together to work on concrete projects to make the response and recovery more open, including by adding reforms to current OGP action plans or preparing new plans. This will require that civil society extend its base to broader groups of citizens impacted by COVID On the side of governments, too, this will require broadening the base to ministries dealing with health, safety nets, and stimulus packages.

Thematic policy level : Prior to the pandemic, OGP was seeking to advance global norms of open government in key policy areas, such as open contracting, public service delivery, access to justice, digital governance, gender, and civic space.

Each of these thematic priorities remain relevant and important today. Global level : There will inevitably be debate about which type of political system — democracies or autocracies — would have been more effective at managing the crisis. While assessments will invariably be mixed and reliable data likely hard to come by, especially from authoritarian systems, we are already seeing the accelerating trend towards expanding executive powers and closing civic space during the pandemic.

In this context, it will be vital for stakeholders committed to openness to join forces and advocate for open government practices in the recovery and reform efforts to follow. The pandemic underscores the importance of core values of transparency and citizen empowerment, collaboration across borders, and bringing in different perspectives including scientific expertise to solve collective challenges. It therefore becomes ever more pressing for stakeholders to forge a stronger global coalition for openness, pushing for and showcasing the value of open recovery and reform efforts to follow, to make open the way of the world post-COVID Successful, and sustained, response and recovery to COVID must include both efforts that leverage an engaged and empowered citizenry as well as those that build trust in government action.

Trust in our public institutions has already suffered greatly in recent years. And a lack of trust during a crisis poses an existential risk. Indeed, building trust has never been more important — and, to that essential end, a new social compact, rooted in openness, can be the foundation for successful response and recovery. Our review of early COVID responses as well as lessons from past OGP commitments show concrete and practical ways in which openness — through transparency, citizen engagement and oversight — can build trust in response, recovery, and reform efforts.

Building on these, we call on all stakeholders across government, civil society, parliamentarians, and the private sector to join forces and implement concrete actions — including through OGP action plans — to advance open response, open recovery, and open reform over the long-term.

Not only will this approach be more effective in the near term in curbing contagion, mobilizing care, and ensuring that the massive stimulus packages and safety nets reach the vulnerable, this lays the groundwork for stronger, more resilient systems over time.

Decades of research have shown that more open, inclusive, and accountable societies are more resilient societies — better able to adapt to shocks, to build consensus among sectors of society, and to address the inequality at the root of so many of the disparate effects of disasters. At its core, all of this calls for a longer-term shift to a governance model which puts citizens at the heart of government.

Citizens have a vital role to play in this emergency, as they do in everyday life. A priori oui. Il est reconduit lors de ce nouveau confinement. Source : Informations-handicap. Cela signifie que les professionnels peuvent se rendre sur les chantiers. Une exception existe cependant pour les bailleurs sociaux, qui assurent une mission de service public.

Chaque adulte devra avoir sa propre attestation. Attention : lors du premier confinement, certaines grandes surfaces imposaient aux clients de faire leurs courses seuls, afin de limiter l'affluence. Les cours de conduite ne sont pas possibles. En revanche, les examens sont maintenus. Si oui, quelle case doit-elle cocher? Si oui, quelle case cocher? Il convient alors de cocher la case « Convocation judiciaire ou administrative et pour se rendre dans un service public ».

Question de Daniel C : J'ai rendez-vous chez le docteur et je voudrais en profiter pour faire quelques courses. Puis-je cocher deux cases sur une seule attestation ou dois-je avoir deux attestations? Cette question est beaucoup revenue chez nos internautes. Question de Gilles D. Vous devez, en revanche, vous munir chacun d'une attestation.

Question de Bruno R.