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Retrieved December 4, CB Insights. Center for Technology Innovation at Brookings. The Washington Post 25 February Infotrac Newsstand. National Science Foundation. He recognized that this was only a conjecture, since one could never disprove b. Yet he considered the disjunctive conclusion to be a "certain fact". Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved 27 April Russell ; Peter Norvig Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach 3rd ed. An introduction to the philosophy of mathematics.

Cambridge University Press , From 2. AI Magazine The Washington Post. ISSN AI Matters. Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. Here are 5 reasons not to worry. Tech Insider. Fast Company. Crevier , pp. Acculant Publishing. Moral Machines , Oxford University Press. Archived from the original on 11 June Searle's original formulation was "The appropriately programmed computer really is a mind, in the sense that computers given the right programs can be literally said to understand and have other cognitive states.

Searle's original presentation of the thought experiment. Searle Retrieved 14 February Ethics and Information Technology. Science Fiction Studies.

JSTOR July Computer IEEE. Retrieved 29 December Hutter, Marcus Universal Artificial Intelligence. Berlin: Springer. Luger, George ; Stubblefield, William Neapolitan, Richard; Jiang, Xia Contemporary Artificial Intelligence. Nilsson, Nils Artificial Intelligence: A New Synthesis.

Morgan Kaufmann. Russell, Stuart J. Computational Intelligence: A Logical Approach. New York: Oxford University Press. Winston, Patrick Henry Artificial Intelligence. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. Rich, Elaine Bundy, Alan Artificial Intelligence: An Introductory Course 2nd ed.

Edinburgh University Press. ISBN X. Peters, Ltd. Newquist, HP New York: Cambridge University Press. Asada, M. Archived from the original PDF on 4 October Retrieved 30 August Goodman, Joanna Ark Group. Albus, J. In Gerhart, G. Artificial Neuroconsciousness: An Update. Archived from the original on 2 March Bach, Joscha IOS Press. Retrieved 3 February Brooks, Rodney Robotics and Autonomous Systems. Archived PDF from the original on 9 August Brooks, R. In VanLehn, K. Architectures for Intelligence.

Buchanan, Bruce G. AI Magazine : 53— Archived from the original PDF on 26 September Butler, Samuel 13 June Letters to the Editor. The Press. Christchurch, New Zealand. Retrieved 16 October — via Victoria University of Wellington. Archived from the original on 19 February Dennett, Daniel Consciousness Explained.

The Penguin Press. Diamond, David December Archived from the original on 18 May Dowe, D. Dreyfus, Hubert What Computers Can't Do.

Dreyfus, Hubert ; Dreyfus, Stuart Oxford, UK: Blackwell. What Computers Still Can't Do. Dyson, George Darwin among the Machines. Allan Lane Science. Edelman, Gerald 23 November Talking Robots. Archived from the original on 8 October Edelson, Edward The Nervous System. New York: Chelsea House. Fearn, Nicholas New York: Grove Press. Gladwell, Malcolm New York: Little, Brown and Co. Some basic theorems on the foundations of mathematics and their implications.

Gibbs Lecture. In Feferman, Solomon , ed. Oxford University Press. Haugeland, John Artificial Intelligence: The Very Idea.

Cambridge, Mass. Hawkins, Jeff ; Blakeslee, Sandra On Intelligence. Henderson, Mark 24 April We're getting carried away". The Times Online. Hernandez-Orallo, Jose Journal of Logic, Language and Information. Hernandez-Orallo, J. Artificial Intelligence Journal. Hinton, G. Trends in Cognitive Sciences. Hofstadter, Douglas Holland, John H. Adaptation in Natural and Artificial Systems. University of Michigan Press. Howe, J. November Hutter, M. Theoretical Foundations of Artificial General Intelligence.

Atlantis Thinking Machines. James, William Kahneman, Daniel ; Slovic, D. Judgment under uncertainty: Heuristics and biases. Katz, Yarden 1 November The Atlantic. Retrieved 26 October Retrieved 25 October Koza, John R. Kleine-Cosack, Christian October Archived from the original PDF on 28 May Kolata, G. Kumar, Gulshan; Kumar, Krishan Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing. Kurzweil, Ray The Age of Spiritual Machines. Penguin Books. The Singularity is Near.

Basic Books. Langley, Pat Machine Learning. Law, Diane June University of Texas at Austin. CiteSeerX Legg, Shane; Hutter, Marcus 15 June A Collection of Definitions of Intelligence Technical report. Lenat, Douglas ; Guha, R. Building Large Knowledge-Based Systems. Lighthill, James Artificial Intelligence: a paper symposium. Science Research Council. Lucas, John In Anderson, A. Minds and Machines. Archived from the original on 19 August Lungarella, M.

Connection Science. Maker, Meg Houston Dartmouth College. Retrieved 16 October Archived from the original on 26 August McCarthy, John ; Hayes, P. Machine Intelligence. Archived from the original on 10 August McCarthy, John 12 November Minsky, Marvin Computation: Finite and Infinite Machines. Englewood Cliffs, N. The Emotion Machine. Moravec, Hans Mind Children.

Harvard University Press. Norvig, Peter 25 June Peter Norvig. Archived from the original on 19 October National Academy Press. Needham, Joseph Science and Civilization in China : Volume 2. Caves Books Ltd. Newell, Allen ; Simon, H. Communications of the ACM. Archived from the original on 7 October AI Magazine. O'Brien, James; Marakas, George Management Information Systems 10th ed.

O'Connor, Kathleen Malone University of Pennsylvania. Oudeyer, P-Y. Penrose, Roger Picard, Rosalind Lay summary — Abstract. Poli, R. A Field Guide to Genetic Programming. ISBN — via gp-field-guide. Los pronombres interrogativos se colocan en principio de la frase, y al final se anade ka. El signo de interrogacion es el mismo que en espanol. Al final de una frase interrogativa, hay que subir el tono. A continuacion senalamos las mas usadas en la conversacion.

Anadido al final de la frase, convierte la frase en una afirmacion suave. El preludio para una conversaci6n telefonica. Historia Por desconocerse su origen y relaciones con otras lenguas del mundo, se la incluye en el grupo de las no clasificadas.

El japones moderno es el resultado de una fusion y adaptacion de ambas, aunque con notable predominio de la hablada.

Su numero es enorme, calculandose en 3. Se puede escribir de arriba a abajo, de derecha a izquierda aunque en el presente se tiene tendencia a escribir uniformemente de izquierda a derecha.

Otra curiosidad del japones, nacida sin duda de la ceremoniosidad de este pueblo, es la existencia de dos lenguajes: uno que se usa cuando se trata entre iguales en edad o jerarquia, y que tiene la particularidad de presentar variaciones segun sea hombre o mujer el que lo emplea; y otro de respeto, empleado con los ancianos, superiores y desconocidos.

Anatomia m. Aritmetica Arquitectura Mar. Marina Mec. Mecdnica art. Medicina Metal. Metalurgia aux. Meteorologia Biol. Biologfa Bot. Botanica Cir. Cirugia Col. Coloauial Com. Comercio conjuncion Eel. Eclesiastico Elect. Electricidad familiar Farm. Militar Min. Mineria Mus.

M usica Naut. Nautica Om. Omitologfa Pint.

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They successfully practiced a surgeon with a robot, rather than a human. The team supervised an autonomous robot performing a soft-tissue surgery, stitching together a pig's bowel during open surgery, and doing so better than a human surgeon. Advancements in AI have contributed to the growth of the automotive industry through the creation and evolution of self-driving vehicles. As of , there are over 30 companies utilizing AI into the creation of driverless cars.

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A platform or " computing platform " is defined as "some sort of hardware architecture or software framework including application frameworks , that allows software to run". As Rodney Brooks pointed out many years ago, [] it is not just the artificial intelligence software that defines the AI features of the platform, but rather the actual platform itself that affects the AI that results, i.

A wide variety of platforms has allowed different aspects of AI to develop, ranging from expert systems such as Cyc to deep-learning frameworks to robot platforms such as the Roomba with open interface. Amazon, Google, Facebook, IBM, and Microsoft have established a non-profit partnership to formulate best practices on artificial intelligence technologies, advance the public's understanding, and to serve as a platform about artificial intelligence.

The corporate members will make financial and research contributions to the group, while engaging with the scientific community to bring academics onto the board.

Widespread use of artificial intelligence could have unintended consequences that are dangerous or undesirable. Scientists from the Future of Life Institute , among others, described some short-term research goals to be how AI influences the economy, the laws and ethics that are involved with AI and how to minimize AI security risks.

In the long-term, the scientists have proposed to continue optimizing function while minimizing possible security risks that come along with new technologies. Machines with intelligence have the potential to use their intelligence to make ethical decisions. Research in this area includes "machine ethics", "artificial moral agents", and the study of "malevolent vs. The development of full artificial intelligence could spell the end of the human race. Once humans develop artificial intelligence, it will take off on its own and redesign itself at an ever-increasing rate.

Humans, who are limited by slow biological evolution, couldn't compete and would be superseded. A common concern about the development of artificial intelligence is the potential threat it could pose to mankind. This concern has recently gained attention after mentions by celebrities including Stephen Hawking , Bill Gates , [] and Elon Musk.

In his book Superintelligence , Nick Bostrom provides an argument that artificial intelligence will pose a threat to mankind. He argues that sufficiently intelligent AI, if it chooses actions based on achieving some goal, will exhibit convergent behavior such as acquiring resources or protecting itself from being shut down. If this AI's goals do not reflect humanity's - one example is an AI told to compute as many digits of pi as possible - it might harm humanity in order to acquire more resources or prevent itself from being shut down, ultimately to better achieve its goal.

For this danger to be realized, the hypothetical AI would have to overpower or out-think all of humanity, which a minority of experts argue is a possibility far enough in the future to not be worth researching. Concern over risk from artificial intelligence has led to some high-profile donations and investments. The goal of the institute is to "grow wisdom with which we manage" the growing power of technology.

Musk also funds companies developing artificial intelligence such as Google DeepMind and Vicarious to "just keep an eye on what's going on with artificial intelligence. Development of militarized artificial intelligence is a related concern. Many people concerned about risk from superintelligent AI also want to limit the use of artificial soldiers.

Joseph Weizenbaum wrote that AI applications can not, by definition, successfully simulate genuine human empathy and that the use of AI technology in fields such as customer service or psychotherapy [] was deeply misguided.

Weizenbaum was also bothered that AI researchers and some philosophers were willing to view the human mind as nothing more than a computer program a position now known as computationalism. To Weizenbaum these points suggest that AI research devalues human life. Martin Ford, author of The Lights in the Tunnel: Automation, Accelerating Technology and the Economy of the Future , [] and others argue that specialized artificial intelligence applications, robotics and other forms of automation will ultimately result in significant unemployment as machines begin to match and exceed the capability of workers to perform most routine and repetitive jobs.

Ford predicts that many knowledge-based occupations—and in particular entry level jobs—will be increasingly susceptible to automation via expert systems, machine learning [] and other AI-enhanced applications.

AI-based applications may also be used to amplify the capabilities of low-wage offshore workers, making it more feasible to outsource knowledge work. This raises the issue of how ethically the machine should behave towards both humans and other AI agents. This issue was addressed by Wendell Wallach in his book titled Moral Machines in which he introduced the concept of artificial moral agents AMA.

The field of machine ethics is concerned with giving machines ethical principles, or a procedure for discovering a way to resolve the ethical dilemmas they might encounter, enabling them to function in an ethically responsible manner through their own ethical decision making.

In all cases, only human beings have engaged in ethical reasoning. The time has come for adding an ethical dimension to at least some machines.

Recognition of the ethical ramifications of behavior involving machines, as well as recent and potential developments in machine autonomy, necessitate this. In contrast to computer hacking, software property issues, privacy issues and other topics normally ascribed to computer ethics, machine ethics is concerned with the behavior of machines towards human users and other machines.

Research in machine ethics is key to alleviating concerns with autonomous systems—it could be argued that the notion of autonomous machines without such a dimension is at the root of all fear concerning machine intelligence.

Further, investigation of machine ethics could enable the discovery of problems with current ethical theories, advancing our thinking about Ethics. Political scientist Charles T. Rubin believes that AI can be neither designed nor guaranteed to be benevolent. Hyper-intelligent software may not necessarily decide to support the continued existence of mankind, and would be extremely difficult to stop. This topic has also recently begun to be discussed in academic publications as a real source of risks to civilization, humans, and planet Earth.

Physicist Stephen Hawking , Microsoft founder Bill Gates and SpaceX founder Elon Musk have expressed concerns about the possibility that AI could evolve to the point that humans could not control it, with Hawking theorizing that this could " spell the end of the human race ". One proposal to deal with this is to ensure that the first generally intelligent AI is ' Friendly AI ', and will then be able to control subsequently developed AIs.

Some question whether this kind of check could really remain in place. Leading AI researcher Rodney Brooks writes, "I think it is a mistake to be worrying about us developing malevolent AI anytime in the next few hundred years. I think the worry stems from a fundamental error in not distinguishing the difference between the very real recent advances in a particular aspect of AI, and the enormity and complexity of building sentient volitional intelligence.

If an AI system replicates all key aspects of human intelligence, will that system also be sentient — will it have a mind which has conscious experiences? This question is closely related to the philosophical problem as to the nature of human consciousness, generally referred to as the hard problem of consciousness. Computationalism is the position in the philosophy of mind that the human mind or the human brain or both is an information processing system and that thinking is a form of computing.

This philosophical position was inspired by the work of AI researchers and cognitive scientists in the s and was originally proposed by philosophers Jerry Fodor and Hilary Putnam. The philosophical position that John Searle has named "strong AI" states: "The appropriately programmed computer with the right inputs and outputs would thereby have a mind in exactly the same sense human beings have minds. Mary Shelley 's Frankenstein considers a key issue in the ethics of artificial intelligence : if a machine can be created that has intelligence, could it also feel?

If it can feel, does it have the same rights as a human? The idea also appears in modern science fiction, such as the film A. This issue, now known as " robot rights ", is currently being considered by, for example, California's Institute for the Future , although many critics believe that the discussion is premature. Are there limits to how intelligent machines — or human-machine hybrids — can be? A superintelligence, hyperintelligence, or superhuman intelligence is a hypothetical agent that would possess intelligence far surpassing that of the brightest and most gifted human mind.

If research into Strong AI produced sufficiently intelligent software, it might be able to reprogram and improve itself. The improved software would be even better at improving itself, leading to recursive self-improvement. Science fiction writer Vernor Vinge named this scenario " singularity ". Because the capabilities of such an intelligence may be impossible to comprehend, the technological singularity is an occurrence beyond which events are unpredictable or even unfathomable.

Ray Kurzweil has used Moore's law which describes the relentless exponential improvement in digital technology to calculate that desktop computers will have the same processing power as human brains by the year , and predicts that the singularity will occur in You awake one morning to find your brain has another lobe functioning. Invisible, this auxiliary lobe answers your questions with information beyond the realm of your own memory, suggests plausible courses of action, and asks questions that help bring out relevant facts.

You quickly come to rely on the new lobe so much that you stop wondering how it works. You just use it. This is the dream of artificial intelligence. Robot designer Hans Moravec , cyberneticist Kevin Warwick and inventor Ray Kurzweil have predicted that humans and machines will merge in the future into cyborgs that are more capable and powerful than either.

In the s artist Hajime Sorayama 's Sexy Robots series were painted and published in Japan depicting the actual organic human form with lifelike muscular metallic skins and later "the Gynoids" book followed that was used by or influenced movie makers including George Lucas and other creatives. Sorayama never considered these organic robots to be real part of nature but always unnatural product of the human mind, a fantasy existing in the mind even when realized in actual form.

Edward Fredkin argues that "artificial intelligence is the next stage in evolution", an idea first proposed by Samuel Butler 's " Darwin among the Machines " , and expanded upon by George Dyson in his book of the same name in Thought-capable artificial beings have appeared as storytelling devices since antiquity. The implications of a constructed machine exhibiting artificial intelligence have been a persistent theme in science fiction since the twentieth century.

Early stories typically revolved around intelligent robots. Later, the SF writer Isaac Asimov developed the Three Laws of Robotics which he subsequently explored in a long series of robot stories. Asimov's laws are often brought up during layman discussions of machine ethics; [] while almost all artificial intelligence researchers are familiar with Asimov's laws through popular culture, they generally consider the laws useless for many reasons, one of which is their ambiguity.

Dick , tells a science fiction story about Androids and humans clashing in a futuristic world. Elements of artificial intelligence include the empathy box, mood organ, and the androids themselves. Throughout the novel, Dick portrays the idea that human subjectivity is altered by technology created with artificial intelligence.

Nowadays AI is firmly rooted in popular culture; intelligent robots appear in innumerable works. HAL , the murderous computer in charge of the spaceship in A Space Odyssey , is an example of the common "robotic rampage" archetype in science fiction movies.

The Terminator and The Matrix provide additional widely familiar examples. In contast, the rare loyal robots such as Gort from The Day the Earth Stood Still and Bishop from Aliens are less prominent in popular culture. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 6 February For other uses, see AI and Artificial intelligence disambiguation. Logic Mathematics. Classical Modern Applied. Experimental Theoretical.

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Networks [show]. Evolution and adaptation [show]. Artificial neural networks Evolutionary computation Genetic algorithms Genetic programming Artificial life Machine learning Evolutionary developmental biology Artificial intelligence Evolutionary robotics Evolvability. Pattern formation [show]. Spatial fractals Reaction-diffusion systems Partial differential equations Dissipative structures Percolation Cellular automata Spatial ecology Self-replication Spatial evolutionary biology Geomorphology.

Systems theory [show]. Nonlinear dynamics [show]. Game theory [show]. Prisoner's dilemma Rational choice theory Bounded rationality Irrational behaviour Evolutionary game theory. Main articles: History of artificial intelligence and Timeline of artificial intelligence. Main articles: Knowledge representation and Commonsense knowledge. Main article: Automated planning and scheduling.

Main article: Machine learning. Main article: Natural language processing. Main articles: Machine perception , Computer vision , and Speech recognition. Main article: Robotics. Main article: Affective computing. Main article: Computational creativity.

Main articles: Artificial general intelligence and AI-complete. Main articles: Cybernetics and Computational neuroscience. Main article: Symbolic AI.

Main articles: Search algorithm , Mathematical optimization , and Evolutionary computation. Main articles: Logic programming and Automated reasoning.

Main articles: Classifier mathematics , Statistical classification , and Machine learning. Main articles: Artificial neural network and Connectionism. Main article: Deep learning. Main article: Recurrent neural networks. Main article: Intelligent control.

Main article: List of programming languages for artificial intelligence. Main article: Progress in artificial intelligence. Main article: Applications of artificial intelligence.

Main article: Competitions and prizes in artificial intelligence. Main articles: Philosophy of artificial intelligence and Ethics of artificial intelligence. Main article: Existential risk from advanced artificial intelligence. Main article: Computer Power and Human Reason.

Main article: Machine ethics. Main article: Friendly AI. Main article: Artificial consciousness. Main articles: Computationalism and Functionalism philosophy of mind.

Main article: Chinese room. Main article: Robot rights. Main article: Superintelligence. Main articles: Technological singularity and Moore's law. Main article: Transhumanism. Main article: Artificial intelligence in fiction. Other definitions also include knowledge and learning as additional criteria.

AI magazine. She writes: "I like to think of artificial intelligence as the scientific apotheosis of a venerable cultural tradition. Back and forth between myth and reality, our imaginations supplying what our workshops couldn't, we have engaged for a long time in this odd form of self-reproduction. McCorduck , pp. The Advent of the Algorithm. Harcourt Books. ISBN OCLC Marvin Minsky quote: Minsky , p. BBC News. Retrieved 1 October Bloomberg News. Retrieved 23 November After a half-decade of quiet breakthroughs in artificial intelligence, has been a landmark year.

Computers are smarter and learning faster than ever. See list of cognitive biases for several examples. Luger et al. See Dreyfus' critique of AI Gladwell Gladwell's Blink is a popular introduction to sub-symbolic reasoning and knowledge. McCarthy recently reiterated his position at the AI 50 conference where he said "Artificial intelligence is not, by definition, simulation of human intelligence" Maker Shapiro ed.

The representation of the cumulative rounding error of an algorithm as a Taylor expansion of the local rounding errors. Master's Thesis in Finnish , Univ. Helsinki, Who Invented the Reverse Mode of Differentiation?. Applications of advances in nonlinear sensitivity analysis. In System modeling and optimization pp. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. Deep Learning.

MIT Press. Neural Networks. Learning while searching in constraint-satisfaction problems. Aizenberg, Joos P. Vandewalle Cybernetic Predicting Devices. Kiev: Naukova Dumka. Retrieved 23 October Biological Cybernetics. PMID Retrieved 30 January Generalization of backpropagation with application to a recurrent gas market model" Neural Networks 1, Robinson and F.

The utility driven dynamic error propagation network. Williams and D. Gradient-based learning algorithms for recurrent networks and their computational complexity. In Back-propagation: Theory, Architectures and Applications. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, Institut f. Informatik, Technische Univ. Advisor: J. Neural Computation. Connectionist temporal classification: Labelling unsegmented sequence data with recurrent neural nets.

Deep Speech: Scaling up end-to-end speech recognition. Long Short-Term Memory recurrent neural network architectures for large scale acoustic modeling. Proceedings of Interspeech Le Sequence to Sequence Learning with Neural Networks. Exploring the Limits of Language Modeling. Multilingual Language Processing From Bytes. Aletras; D.

En este diccionario, las siguientes silabas estan escritas como se detalla a continuacion. Mientras los dos primeros son alfabetos silabicos, los kanjis son ideogramas. Ademas, cada uno de estos tres alfabetos tiene una funcion especffica dentro de la escritura japonesa.

Esta complejidad de la escritura japonesa se debe al desarrollo que en principio tuvo el japones como idioma oral sin una escritura propia.

A partirde la simplificacion de los kanjis hacia el siglo X, nacen los dos alfabetos silabicos hiragana y katakana. Despues de la Segunda Guerra Mundial el katakana se reserva para escribir las palabras introducidas directamente de idiomas extranjeros.

Los que hablan espafiol no suelen tener demasiadas dificultades, dado que las cinco vocales espanoias corresponden a las cinco s c a le s japonesas. S olo hay que tener cuidado con algunas consonantes que no tienen su equivaiente en espanol. En los esquemas siguientes estan senaladas en negrita. H- Com o la h inglesa en hello, happy. R- En japones no existe la distincion entre r y I, W- Es un sonido entre u y o. Ver nota ampliatoria en el prologo.

X Gramatica. Ver apartado de la posposicion y su im portancia en el japones p. El nom bre sustantivo Los nom bres japoneses se pueden dividir en tres grupos segun su origen etimologico, que determina tambien el alfabeto con el que se escribe la palabra. Se escriben en un solo ideograma o en hiragana e j. Sin excepcion se escriben con los kanjis e j. Los casos excepcionales son algunas palabras de origen portugues u holandes que fueron introducidas al japones durante la Edad Media e j.

Este se indica anadiendo: A un adverbio de cantidad. Solo se indican cuando es necesario, utilizando los prefijos que determinan el genero. Estos prefijos son los siguientes. Gallo ej. Hay que tener en cuenta las caracteristicas siguientes: A Son invariables independientemente del genero o del numero. C Cuando desempenan una funcion predicativa se conjugan igual que los verbos.

En cuanto a los tiempos verbales, solo una forma de expresar e La p o s p o s ic io n y su im p o rta n cia en el id io m a iapones. La posposici6n es un componente muy importante y peculiar este id io m a. Segun la posposicion que le siga, un sustantivo se entiende como sujeto, objeto, posesion del mismo sustantivo o como un adverbio igual que ocurre en espanol con los sustantivos precedidos de preposiciones. XVI Gramatica. He dejadolacarteraencasa. Regreso en autobus.