Etienne-Jules Marey was well-known in the second half of the nineteenth century for his chrono- photographs about the movement of men and animals. This analogy is widely used in literature and film and touches the reader or spectator emotionally, inspiring fear and aggres- siveness, insecurity, or even a feeling of liberation. This concerns the canonical acceptability of jargon and the conceptual atmosphere of stable thinking in defined social frameworks. If we turn from ethics and action to epistemology, the body remains emblematic of human ambiguity.
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The answer is that ecological engagement is based on the ontological as- sumption that everything within a community enjoys connectivity and continuity the continuity between mind, body and world with each other. Community may vary according to different geological and spatial scales, from a small pond to a mountain area, from the planetary earth to the entire universe.
Ecoaes- thetics should rest its philosophical base on this ecological worldview. An important part of ecological literacy, which includes an enhanced respect for and deeper feeling of connectivity with the different parts of the natural world, should be cultivated by ecological education.
With the ontological assumption and world- view just described in mind, to engage with something ecologically means to be able to experience compassion for all life, human and non-human. The answer to this ques- tion is that we should be aware of and appreciate the great transformational processes of the universe. This means that the perception of a landscape is not simply the awareness of scenery but of the complex and dynamic fields of energy transformation that are present.
We have arrived at a new model of nature appreciation. Endnotes 1. Simon C. George Sessions ed. Arne Naess, Ecology…, p. Laura S. Ronald and Matthew C. Is art political or not?
If it is, is it always political? Is it politi- cal or politicized? When we inquired why, the answer was: in the very same week in which we published Biermann, Conference on Security and Co-Operation in Europe was taking place in Belgrade at that time the capital of Yugoslavia. Slovenian and Yugoslav politicians feared that the East German participants of the Belgrade confer- ence would get the impression that Yugoslavia had published Biermann to provoke — for whatever reason — their country and its representatives at the Belgrade meeting.
His artistic activities were related to his political beliefs and were interdependent with them in a direct way, as in social and critical realism, i. Lit- tle is known today that his work underwent a series of contradictory and mutually excluding ideological and political interpretations. In the fifties Kafka was not published in Czechoslovakia or, for that matter, elsewhere in the East bloc.
Although he was published in the sixties in Soviet Union the editors of the edition tried hard to persuade the reader that reading Kafka would be a waste of time. In Liblice Kafka and his literary works thus served as proof that under socialism too alienation and reifica- tion occur.
It was only later, in , that Deleuze and Guattari published their book on Kafka Toward a Minor Literature , that was concerned not with ideological and political issues so typical for previous interpretations and evaluations of Kafka and his oeuvre.
It was only after the sixties that Kafka became an object of non-politicized literary studies. Was this newly acquired autonomy good or bad? Was it better or worse than the previous heteronomy? Art is never only autonomous or heteronomous but both, but to different extent. Should it be regarded from a class perspective or from a universally human one — and, either way, what does this mean? Is all art a part of the class struggle or is it a part of the relatively autonomous superstructure?
Is it a form of ideology but if it is, how is it possible as Louis Althusser claimed that art also makes ideology visible? From the sixties and well into the early eighties of the previous century — which is the time frame of dilemmas confronting us under circumstances described above — art and politics, as well as politics and philosophy, existed in a permanent uneasy relationship that often erupted into conflict.
This happened because art, theory, and in particular philosophy were some of the rare venues wherein critical positions and questions could be enunci- ated or implied, all of them revealing themselves as symptoms of chaotic and disorganized relations within socialist societies, thereby allowing various conflicts or divergences to appear or at least be hinted at. While art and philosophy — and thereby aesthetics as philosophy of art — were always drifting between the always the same two seasons — from winter to spring and back — they at the same time revealed and constituted the unre- solvable internal and external political limits of these politicized societies within which every segment of the social field was subsumed to politics.
On the other hand, this situation invested art and artists with importance they hardly possessed in other kinds or realms of society. In this respect the outstanding situation was that of transition of socialism into postsocialism that in period that in most countries lasted one or two decades. Within this period art, philosophy etc.
The dominant forms of twentieth-century aesthetics that were related to politics were of course content-oriented aesthetics — whose ideal was realism in art — and formalist aesthetics — whose ideal was modernism in art. The former was defended by Marxist critics and the latter by modernist and modern theorists and critics.
Since aesthetics was predominantly viewed as a philosophical discipline, aimed at defining art and beauty, it was not surprising that a large seg- ment of leftist authors doing aesthetics attempted to find an ideal balance between content and form: too little content purportedly led to undesir- able formalism, while too little form led to raw art and to the defense of the motif or plot at the expense of the aesthetic and well-structured work.
In all such instances aesthetics represented a part of a philosophical system: its purpose was to develop an intellectual edifice that could help determine what an art work was or should be, for such aesthetics was mostly after art.
Neverthe- less, there existed an inherent and self-generating paradox encountered everywhere where Marxism was the official ideological and thereby the semi-official philosophical line: in all such cases Marxism remained the infinitely distant ideal, never to be reached and attained, and never to be subjected to theoretical scrutiny and empirical verification and evaluation.
The same went for political ideology and for class adherence of art, culture, and aesthetics. In United States and United Kingdom issues related to aesthetics or art and politics and ideology carried a different and a more academic mean- ing. Usually they were unrelated to political struggles within individual countries or philosophical orientations. With postmodernism issues such as art or aesthetics, for that matter and politics drifted into the background, such course of events being caused by the end of ideologies which seemed to include modernist ideas that gave semblance of simple myths.
The other reason for the growing import of art and aesthetics, was the emergence of new forms of capitalism that effectively sidelined all oppositional thought, even though this was not done by traditional weapons. Yet another, although indirect theory involving art and via art also aes- thetics and politics was that of Claude Lefort.
Such situation turned art into a special social creation for within a totalitarian society it carried special social and political sig- nificance. In such context speech acquires a special function. But the whole question, then, is to know who possesses speech and who merely possesses voice. This middle region, then, in so far as it makes manifest the modes of being of order, can be posited as the most fundamental of all.
It is not the catastrophic overflow of art into politics. It is the originary knot that ties a sense of art to an idea of thought and an idea of the community. Some kinds of contemporary art are of course also involved in this relation, only that today, contrary to art of modernism, they focus on micro issues and not on the global, totalizng and revolutionary ones.
In this way art too escapes the traditional unproductive division into art vs. Gerald Raunig, Art and Revolution. Transversal Activism in the Long Twentieth Century, trans.
Aileen Derieg, Los Angeles: Semiotext e , , p. Steven Corcoran, London: Polity, , p. On Politics and Aesthetics, ed. Steven Corcoran, London: Continuum, , p. Michel Foucault, The Order of Things. Gabriel Rockhill, London: Continuum, , p. In developing this view, Wellmer sets out from the everyday communica- tive competencies of both makers and receivers of artworks. Both artists and audience members are, in this view, socialized individuals who have histories of participating in everyday practices of communication, both oral and written and increasingly, televisual and digital.
Their everyday competencies include a range of functions, from pragmatic, instrumen- tal uses to aesthetically, emotionally, and existentially expressive uses of language, images, performative acts, and other signs.
Their multifaceted participation in everyday communication will have shaped, to a greater or lesser degree, their abilities to use discourse consciously and make delibera- tive judgments about the discourse of others.
Moreover, not only do they gain communicative competences in performing and evaluating claims to truth in these differ- ent dimensions; even in the relatively loose contexts of everyday life, they may also have become aware of the potential for dissonance between these different dimensions of truth employed in discourse: what we know to be true factually may nevertheless, for example, be morally repugnant to us or inadequate to our personal, existential sense of who we are.
Lastly, as part of their own personal and professional biographies, individuals may have succeeded in composing and integrating these different truth-dimensions into larger, more coherent wholes that are characteristic of their characters and lives. Everyday discourse, however, tends to shift sequentially between these dimensions and connect them at most in only loosely coordinated ways.
It tolerates wide latitude for dissonance, bad faith, lack of awareness, and outright contradiction in the relations between these discursively embodied domains of truth. In taking up the question of how art relates to these different dimensions of truth, Wellmer makes two specifications.
This potential for truth in artworks is, however, related to a second specification: the claims to truth that artworks carry are related to their claims of aesthetic validity. PoM 22—23 Aesthetic reception attends to the intimate connection between the formal dimension of art works or works, events, and performances that, by virtue of compositional qualities have been assimilated to art and this reflexive work on a pluri-dimensional truth. Focused in this way, this conception of the aesthetic helps us to interpret in a more rigorous light certain loosely shared aspects and background mo- tivations of the critical, reflexive tendencies of modernist art and literature.
Modernism represents an intentional practice of composing artworks that aim to reorient the communicative life of their receivers, offering them new ways of making sense not only within the microcosm of the artistic encounter, but also within the broader parameters of their everyday communication.
Adorno, as noted in my earlier chapter, developed his aesthetic theory teleologically around its contemporary endpoint, to establish and justify the fragile possibility of a critical modernism in an age tending towards the abolition of art. Similarly, listening to a piece of atonal music, which has been emancipated from harmony as an organizing principle, we may perceive with new vividness various forms of local order that alternate throughout the longer piece: such musical means as repeti- tion and variation of rhythmic figures, sharp alternations between high and low pitches, surprising dissemination of motifs among instruments of contrasting timbres, and the ways that dissonances are heightened or mitigated by each of these.
Obviously, within the aesthetic experience of music, these various interacting forms of post-harmonic patterning call for different modes of attention and evaluation on the part of listeners. But new perceptual, affective, and cognitive intuitions originating in the experience of music need not remain encapsulated within the purely musical, but can extend by analogy to other dimensions of moral, existential, affective, and cognitive life.
Indeed, Adorno himself is an extreme example of the contrary, insofar as he carried his musical training into a whole new way of writing philosophy and conceiving the nature of philosophical reflection. Individual receivers of artworks are also social agents who live, act, think, work, and speak within a differentiated, plural set of social institu- tions, rules, and discourses.
The question of what sort of artwork might play a critical or even emancipatory role cannot be unilaterally determined by formal-materials features, rooted in artistic production. Describing the unaccustomed relations to the human body that the soundscapes of recent music establish, Wellmer evokes the utopian suggestion of a transfigured body that would be adopted to the textures and speeds of a virtual world: Many of these rhythms race more swiftly ahead and oscillate more rapidly than would ever be possible for the body; many have a strongly gestural character, yet correspond to no known bodily or linguistic movement.
Scheerbart describes the sonorous space of the double funnel-shaped asteroid-planet, Pallas, which is designed by the author as a kind of total musical environment in which the inhabitants, with their extraterrestrial alien bodies, are continuously immersed.
The planet itself is a kind of natural wind instrument, which has been adapted by the Pal- lasians into an enveloping musical and sound-space: Refined music resounded out of the depths of the funnel, including strange tones that were held and sustained for long periods of time.
This music ema- nated from the Central Hole connecting the north and south funnels. Here in the Center, where the funnel walls were steep and sometimes separated from each other by no more than half a mile, here in the very heart of the star, winds caused by the speedy descent of the cobweb-cloud at nightfall made the hole emit wonderful sounds.
These hides were stretched and mounted in such a way as to cause the tones brought forth by the steep cliff walls to vary in a marvelous fashion. The pieces of skin were set up so that they would be easy to move to different spots in the larger system The moveable skins created fantastical harmonies naturally amplified by the acoustics of the funnels.
Certain capacious metal instruments could even make the noises seem orchestral. Their harmony with such an environment implies that human bodies, such as we possess, would find it very, well, alien. For the duration of the musical experience, as for the duration of our reading of Scheerbart, our bodies are aesthetically stretched and compressed, broken and reassembled, in ways that give us a sensuous intuition of new bodies, a shimmering succession of virtual bodies evoked by the dissonances and tensions be- tween our natural bodies and the techno-compositional environments to which we have submitted ourselves.
Wellmer concludes that this temporary plunge into strangeness, into apparent senselessness or nonsense that is characteristic of avant-garde art, is the occasion for the production of new thought and feeling. Theodor W.
Pierre Boulez, Style or Idea? Jean-Jacques Nattiez, trans. It was then, for the first time, that the idea of a failed philosophical project became a basis for reorganising philosophy. Then, in the first half of the 20th century, the philosophy of Martin Heidegger was an attempt to find the essential potentiality of yet another important step for philosophy, there and then, in what was for him an unacceptable modernity.
Adorno, for instance, put it, do not ask. He diverts from the doxa of philosophers who do not pose those basic questions as important questions of philosophy, and instead constructs narratives or models for presenting thought within already established philosophical networks and methods. Those philosophies are quite close to the discourse of the philosophical hierarchy of power. This concerns the canonical acceptability of jargon and the conceptual atmosphere of stable thinking in defined social frameworks.
These frameworks disable writing or thinking about something or anything related to philosophy outside of jargon topics or objects of debate.
For Lacan, this meant moving the reality of the unconscious in any discourse, including philo- sophical. Those who have invoked Derrida and radicalised his offers and promises have either moved out of philosophy and into the domain of the material practice of writing, of which philosophy is only an instance, or, like others, who were never in philosophy in the first place, have embraced the possibility of performing the event of theorising and thereby pointed to the resistance of the materiality of theory to the illusory esoteric quality of philosophy.
After Derrida, there occurred quite diverse inter-textual and multidirectional rearrangements of the relationship between philosophy and theory, from literary critic Paul De Man, artist and theorist of culture Victor Burgin,8 to novelist and essayist Kathy Acker.
The theoretical was posited as the textual and theoretical labour as a more literal or less literal textual production of a critical discourse. Writings by French structuralists from the s and international post-structuralists from the early s advanced the critical position that philosophy should be essen- tially redefined.
That meant transforming philosophy as general thinking about sciences into a critical theory based on reflecting the material practice of signification whereby philosophic texts are produced. The practice of philosophy was thus interpreted as material production of specific social texts. Theoretical writing exceeds the boundaries between individual social and humanist sciences, pointing to forms of production, presentation, and expression in contemporary plural and global mass and media culture.
As a poly-generic practice, theory asks questions regarding the self-reflexive character of writing about the nature, conditions, paths, and concepts of gen- erating theoretical texts and their effects. Likewise important are questions regarding the critical character of the conditions and circumstances whereby a theory emerges, is exchanged, governs a certain or uncertain scene of writing or scene of presenting, and then experiences a crisis, disappears, or transforms.
But there also emerge psychoanalytical questions about how the desire for knowledge emerges, how pleasure occurs in a theoretical text or in a process with texts inter-textuality in media culture. This is the open and indeterminate conception of theory. It is open enough to encompass quite varied procedures: identifications, descriptions, explications readings , interpretations, and debates.
What distinguishes theory from all other cultural activities, disciplines, and institutions is the demand that any kind of speaking or writing aspiring to be theoretical must meet, and that is to ask what theory is, how it functions and identifies, describes, explains, and interprets itself as theory or theorisation within quite specific cultural and social practices.
Therefore, theory is not the opposite of practices, but the performance of an invariably specific material social practice that is posited in such a way that it problematizes — reflects, explains, interprets, produces — concepts, discourses, and representations of theory as a practice, from specific conditions and circumstances.
A cynic might conclude that in globalised times, everything — meaning culture and art — is politicised, except politics itself, which is depoliticised.
Philosophical universalism thereby enabled asking questions about acting responsibly for every social intervention and risk of intervention. For instance, the conflict, a sort of revival of the Cold War in in , between the United States and Russia is not a conflict between the liberal and the communist, that is, between capitalist and social property, but between two capitalist imperial models.
Moreover, this is not about opting between the local and the global, i. This concerns deriving a philosophical understanding of how global as universal power is realised in relating — naturalising the universal with the particular and, to be sure, conversely, the particular with the universal.
The relationship between the global and the universal is posited as a problematic and intriguing trap. In other words, the impor- tant philosophical question is how singularity produces universality and what it is that enables surveying and regulating that production not only behaviourally, but also epistemologically and existentially?
The critical question is this: can singularity produce universality? Interpreting the complex process of integrating hybrid and anti-es- sentialist theorisations into the neoliberal global system of power, some philosophers have suggested as an alternative, the potentiality of resisting global market capitalism by means of a universalistically posited philosophy.
Teodor Adorno, Filozofska terminologija: uvod u filozofiju, Sarajevo: Svjetlost, , p. Brian Wallis ed. Alain Badiou, Metapolitics, London: Verso, , p. Mouffe, The Return of the Political. Ernesto Laclau, Emancipation s , London: Verso, Alain Badiou, Metapolitics, pp. Gerald Raunig and Gene Ray eds. The idea of architecture was also spread through a great number of architectural exhibitions — some thirty-three shows organized in all the regions of Poland in the period — The exhibition was opened on 8th March; thus, Stalin had died three days earlier.
It was visited by It is a community of sense, or a sensus communis. In line with this strategy, the exhibition catalogue opened with photographs of the Wawel Royal Castle in Cracow and of Romanesque columns in the church of Strzelno.
In recent years, there has been a marked revival of interest in the history of architectural exhibitions; the Warsaw show serves here as an example of this research field. An exhibition of architecture is, in a sense, a mixed media representation of something that has already been built and of something that does not yet exist as an architectural and urban environment.
This kind of multimediality gives us an idea of architecture in the context of an art gallery space. In the Warsaw exhibition catalogue, Roman Piotrowski a Polish architect active in the interwar period and the Minister of Building of Cities and Housing Estates in the s emphasizes the social function of architecture exhibitions at the time of the extensive rebuilding of Poland. As he notes: Architecture works in the most intensive way as a complete building real- ized in its proper environment.
It is first of all a fold in the distribution of ways of doing and making as well as in social occupations, a fold that renders the arts visible. It is not an artistic process but a regime of vis- ibility regarding the arts.
As he argues: There is the revival of the Gesamtkunstwerk, which is supposed to be the apotheosis of art as a form of life but which proves instead to be the apothe- osis of strong artistic egos or a kind of hyperactive consumerism […]. Architects, painters and sculptors must learn to grasp the composite character of a building.
Only then will their work be imbued with the architectonic spirit which it has lost as «salon art». As Carl E. When the polis fell, the drama fragmented into the many arts which had composed it. The line of further tran- scriptions for example, from the theory of musical drama to the practice of architecture is too long to be discussed here in detail.
I tried to suggest that, on the contrary, this inquiry points to the tensions and contradictions which at once sustain the dynamic of artistic creation and aesthetic efficiency and prevent it from ever fusing in one and the same community of sense. The archaeology of the aesthetic regime of art is not a matter of romantic nostalgia. Thinking of architecture in terms of providing everybody with an affordable home or with public transportation is today often overshadowed by the principles of the neoliberal market which pro- motes corporate skyscrapers and luxury apartments.
See also: Regionalizm w architekturze. See: Regionalizm w architekturze…, p. Odpowiadamy na pytania w sprawie Powszechnej Wystawy Architektury. See: Architecture, Disciplinarity, and the Arts, eds. Leach, J.
Gabriel Rockhill, New York: Continuum, , p. Paul Zakir, London: Verso, , pp. When I use this term, I am not referring to the spectacular forms of revival of symbolist mythology and the dream of the Gesamtkunstwerk, as in the work of Matthew Barney. Hinderliter, W. Kaizen, V. Maimon, J. Mansoor, S. Horst Fuhrmans, vol. I, Bonn: H. Bouvier, , p. The authorship of this remark is not certain see: ibid.
Ulrich Conrads, trans. Architecture as Politics Carl E. William A. Ellis, Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, , p. It is especially appropriate that I am doing this in Po- land, which is where on a short visit during my Fulbright year in Berlin I first conceived the notion and name of the discipline called somaesthetics.
The passage of time can bring wonderful fruits such as the enriching growth of this idea, but time can also bring degeneration, decay and death to the bodies with which somaesthetics is concerned, mine included.
Will our bodies all be sufficiently fit for intercontinental travel and international lecturing eighteen years from now? I certainly hope so, but such fitness requires good fortune as well as the disciplines of somatic care.
We intellectuals in aesthetics have often neglected the body because of our passionate interest in the life of the mind and the creative arts. But the body the basic instrument of all human performance, our tool of tools, a necessity for all our perception, action, and even thought. The interdisciplinary field of somaesthetics is devoted to that project, a project of meliorative self-culture whose aim is also to improve the lived culture of the communities in which we live and likewise improve the physical and social environments that shape and nourish our existence.
Roughly defined, somaesthetics concerns the critical study and culti- vation of the experience and use of the living body or soma as site of sensory appreciation aesthesis and creative self-stylization. As a disci- pline of both theory and practice, it aims to enrich not only our abstract, discursive knowledge of the body, but also our lived somatic experience and performance. It seeks to enhance the meaning, efficacy, and grace of our movements but also the quality of the environments to which our movements contribute and from which they draw their energies and sig- nificance.
II The philosophical neglect of somatic cultivation is paradoxical first because such cultivation was central to the origins of philosophy and also because the body remains emblematic for expressing the essential ambiguity of human be- ing. Though Plato tends to give Socrates an idealistic interpretation, we know from other sources such as his student Xenophon that Socrates in fact insisted on somatic cultivation as an essential dimension of his defining philosophical goal of care for the self epimeleia heautou.
Besides, it is a shame to let yourself grow old through neglect before seeing how you can develop the maximum beauty and strength of body.
But leaving such historical origins aside, we should realize that cultivat- ing our humanity implies somatic cultivation because our bodies express the fundamental ambiguity of human existence.
First, it expresses our double status as object and subject, as something in the world, and as a sen- sibility that perceives and acts in that world of objects. I both am a body and have a body. When I consult the mirror, as I must daily do when shaving, the perceiving eyes of my subject soma sees the object of my face; and they are sadly shocked by how old and tired that face appears, including those very eyes that keenly perceive my aging.
Ageing poses challenges for a philosopher of somaesthetics who advocates philosophy as an art of living. But good philosophy is never easy, and ageing like dying is something we all must face in the very process of living. Somaesthetic mastery, I hope, can help us face these challenges with more skill, grace, calm, and courage.
The body expresses the ambiguity of human existence as both shared species being and individual difference. Philosophers emphasize rational- ity or language as the distinguishing essence of human kind.
But human embodiment seems equally essential. Try to imagine a human being, and you cannot help but call up the image of our bodily form. Yet, if our bod- ies unite us as humans, they also divide us into different genders, races, ethnicities, classes, and further into the peculiarly individuals that we are.
The commonality and difference of our bodies are deeply laden with social meaning. We appeal to our shared somatic form, experience, needs, and suffering when charitably reaching out to people of very different ethnicities and cultures.
But the body through its skin, hair, facial fea- tures and gestural behavior is conversely the prime site for emphasizing our differences and for uncharitable racism, sexism, and ethnic prejudice. Here in Krakow, we are not far from Auschwitz, where many of my people were ruthlessly exterminated because they belonged to the Jewish people. My father was born not far from here, near Lviv. When I came to Berlin as a Fulbright professor in the mid-nineties, my American born Japanese girlfriend left her job in the New York fashion world to be with me.
A former model, her beauty and striking racial differ- ence aroused far more attention expressed in aggressive staring than she wanted from ordinary passersby in Berlin, whose East Asian population at that time was very small and limited largely to the Vietnamese underclass and underworld.
After four uncomfortable months she decided to return to New York, where her beauty was also noticed but was not stared at with suspicion because of racial difference from the local Berlin ethnic norm.
A normal body is not always normal in all places. Somaesthetics explores how our bodies and our bodily perceptions are also socially shaped. The soma exemplifies many other crucial ambiguities of our human condition, our wavering, middle state between power and frailty, worthi- ness and shame, dignity and brutishness, knowledge and ignorance.
Bodily abilities also set the limits of what we can expect from ourselves and others, thus determining the range of our ethical obligations and aspirations. If paralyzed, we have no duty to leap to the rescue of a drowning child. Besides grounding our social norms and moral values, the body is the essential medium or tool through which they are transmitted, inscribed, and preserved in society. Ethical codes are mere abstractions until they are given life through incorporation into bodily dispositions and action.
Any properly realized ethical virtue depends not only on some bodily act speech acts included but also on having the right somatic and fa- cial expression, indicative of having the right feelings.
A stiffly grudging, angry-faced offering cannot be a true act of charity or respect, which is why Confucius insisted on the proper demeanor as essential to virtue. Ethics implies freedom to choose and act on that choice. We cannot act without bodily means, even if these means are reduced through the wonders of technology to pressing a button or blinking an eye to implement our choice of action.
Our most primal sense of freedom to act is the freedom to move our bodies, whether in locomotion or in simply opening the eyes to see, the mouth to breathe.
If we turn from ethics and action to epistemology, the body remains emblematic of human ambiguity. As both an indispensable source of per- ception and an insurmountable limit to it, the body epitomizes the human condition of knowledge and ignorance.
Because, as a body, I am a thing among things in the world, that world of things is also present and com- prehensible to me. Moreover, to see the world requires seeing it from some point of view that determines the meaning of left and right, up and down, forward and backward, inside and outside. The soma supplies that primor- dial point of view through its location both in the spatiotemporal field and the field of social interaction.
These limits become increasingly restrictive and frustrating as we age. Hearing typically goes before sight. If I often complained that my father was always too busy to listen to me when I was young, then I now can la- ment how it is even more painful today that he cannot even hear me well enough to have a proper phone conversation, despite the use of hearing aids. Soon he may not be able to hear or see me at all. But what should I expect from a centenarian?
I rejoice that he can still function as well as he does, and I hope I can perform just as well for just as long. The ever encroaching, inexorable limits of our somatic powers that culminate with our somatic end in death have made it very tempting for philosophers to reject the body and instead focus on the idea of an immortal soul or disembodied mind. The soma is not eternal and ideal.
It is full of imperfections and blemishes, including inevitable elements of ugliness, awkwardness, and pain in experience, appearance, and action.
But, realistically, we cannot live or think, create beauty or perform virtuous deeds without the soma; and so a pragmatist concludes that we should do the best we can to cultivate it in order to enhance our powers for creating beauty, increasing knowledge, and practicing virtue. III Somaesthetics emerged from American pragmatist philosophy, but it has grown into an international and transdisciplinary field of research.
Finally, Professor Wilkoszewska, our host from Krakow, takes somaesthetics beyond its connections with philosophical history and contemporary art practice, but also beyond its traditional human- ist focus. In a wide-ranging paper she highlights the transdisciplinarity of somaesthetics by focusing on its connection with natural science and technol- ogy3. She relates somaesthetics not only to the new technologies of remaking the body that inspire theories of posthumanism but also to the evolutionary sciences through which we can explore possible traces or features of prehu- man or nonhuman bodies such as those of plants and nonhuman animals still present in the human soma, and she suggests how understanding such affinities with nonhuman life can improve our existence in this world, a world which we share with nonhuman creatures, including the many microbes in our bodies that make our somatic life possible.
Xenophon, Conversations of Socrates, trans. In recent research in this field practical somaesthetic workshops in raising body consciousness have also been used for generating ideas.
My presentation will be divided into three sections. In the second section I will address how this classical theory was taken up and transformed in the 18th and 19th century Europe, thereby dealing with Johann Gottfried Herder, Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Konrad Fiedler. Aristotle is among those who most decisively influenced the Western conceptions of soma and aisthesis. Among all the senses, that of touch is not only primary, but also fundamental, in that somatic fineness is a disposition to a high intelligence.
The topic of the sensus communis was taken up by a variety of think- ers in the 18th century, including Rousseau and Herder. The daily programme is scheduled from 5am to 9. This retreat will be conducted in both Thai and English, and welcomes those who are not able to commit to all sessions due to time zone differences, work commitments, etc.
The post Attachment to thought is insecure appeared first on Amaravati Buddhist Monastery. How To Meditate: A Beginner's Guide to Peace Yuttadhammo Bhikkhu This audio book is meant to serve as an introduction on how to meditate for those with little or no experience in the practice of meditation, as well as those who are experienced in other types of meditation but interested in learning the practice of Satipatthana meditation.
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Its perceiver struggles with the need to grasp it perceptually and reflectively without being able to apprehend it. Anish Kapoor succeeded in Ascension to create a mystery that is at the same time here and elsewhere, that manifests itself without delivering its essence, and reveals itself, remaining at the same time inaccessible, a sign without clear signification.
This poietical engagement with the element air is quite common in music, where currents of air produce melodies by touching strings aeolian harp or mov- ing through pipes wind instruments. Aesthetic Participation, between Cognition and Immersion 31 between the wind and the strings but the tone produced by the vibrating wire followed by a sequence of overtones that are always harmonious from a mathematical perspective, but consonant in the lower register and disso- nant in the higher one.
The aeolian harp thus produces atmospheric music in several respects. In the case of wind instruments, it is the musician herself who produces and modulates intentionally the currents of air or, otherwise put, it is the subject who makes not only the instrument but also produces the wind. The aesthetic engagement becomes here the active use of natural elements, building them into the instrument and engaging physically in making music. To paraphrase Watsuji, the wind makes us rush into the temple and pray for protection in the typhoon season, but it also makes boats sail and flutes play.
Let us mention a technical and artistic experiment. Etienne-Jules Marey was well-known in the second half of the nineteenth century for his chrono- photographs about the movement of men and animals.
In he built a special aquarium in order to investigate the aquatic locomotion of the eel, and in he published a study of the velocity of fluids. From the water streams he then turned his camera to air currents.
He first documented his photographic research in Le vol des oiseaux and then he moved to the very medium for the flight of birds. We begin with the literary description of a residence that was built to protect its inhabitants from strong winds: Wuthering Heights is the name of Mr.
Pure, bracing ventilation they must have up there, at all times, indeed: one may guess the power of the north wind, blowing over the edge, by the excessive slant of a few, stunted firs at the end of the house, and by a range of gaunt thorns all stretching their limbs one way, as if craving alms of the sun.
Happily, the architect had foresight to build it strong: the narrow windows are deeply set in the wall, and the corners defended with large jutting stones. Therefore it would be short-sighted to consider that architecture builds only against the natural elements. As important as the protection from severe weather conditions is provision for open- ing oneself to outer space. Apart from border cases, such as bunkers or other exceptional capsules, buildings do not block but only regulate and filter communication with the environment.
Houses, like bodies, are open systems with various degree of permeability depending on the climate. In recent decades, architects opposed to the uniformity of modern interna- tional architecture have returned to the vernacular traditions of building that integrate the natural elements light, local building materials, air, etc. Thus artifacts do not only manifest make visible or audible the air streams; they also conduct the air and eventually shape it.
By means of artistic engagement the impossible gesture of grasping the wind is converted into various suc- cessful attempts to form and lend sense to the immaterial. Aesthetic Participation, between Cognition and Immersion 33 6.
Political commitment This vision may well be dismissed as the product of a poetical fantasy. However, a radical change of context occurs when we move to the last type of aesthetic engagement, political commitment. It has already been mentioned that this can be expressed indirectly by using stormy weather as an atmospheric symbol for swift political changes.
However, here again, as in perceptual engagement, aesthetics transgresses the realm of art to become, or rather to rediscover, its initial meaning as a theory of sensibility. As a matter of fact, all the forms of engagement mentioned above are based upon sensibility, if sensibility is not reduced to the receptivity to stim- uli of a passive subject but is understood as the faculty for reacting to the outer world and producing something new: new images, new emotions, new reflections, and new artifacts.
In the case of the wind, this stimulus activates various faculties of the subject, those of perceptual discrimination, emotional empathy, reflection, taste, and inventiveness. What eventually distinguishes the art of feeling, re presenting, symbolizing, and making the wind from any passive exposure to natural elements is precisely the attempt to capture the essence of the wind in a never-ending adventure. Cioran, Cahiers — , Paris: Gallimard, , p. Arnold Berleant, Sensibility and Sense.
Alfred Schutz, Fragments toward a phenomenology of music in Collected Papers, vol. IV, Dordrecht: Nijhoff, , pp. John 20,22; Acts of the Apostels 2,2. Watsuji Tetsuro, Fudo — Wind und Erde. Aby Warburg, Gesammelte Schriften, vol. I, Leipzig, Berlin, , p. However, wind speed may be measured also with acoustic methods, either using vibrating tuner forks, or a tone generator, or even directly by trained listeners cf.
Erwin Straus, Vom Sinn der Sinne. Aesthetic Participation, between Cognition and Immersion 35 Partha Mitter, loc. Sie verwandeln die Luft in Klang. Watsuji Tetsuro, Fudo — Wind und Erde…, p. Marta Braun, Picturing Time. For example, the refinery in Schwechat was built in the south of Vienna, given that the winds usually come from the north. New and Recent Essays, Burlington: Ashgate, , pp.
Nathalie Blanc Aesthetic Engagement in the City This article aims at showing how environmental aesthetics relates to the common environment, the ordinary environment that we discuss, share, and live in. Aesthetics has primarily been understood in relation to art and art history, but it has now been emancipated from this framework of interpretation. In the wake of John Dewey, aesthetics has become the problem of experience as ordinary sensitivity.
One can even think that it is a question of adequately defining the world of sensitivity that rests on the faculty of perception: both the capacity to perceive and the concept of the perceptual commons that follows from this. The forms that are perceived could then very well be understood as those we have in common and that we discuss in questions of policy formal commons. Arnold Berleant, in his essay The Aesthetic Politics of Environment, ex- plains: Such a vision brings us to the need for recognizing and shaping environ- ment.
It may be that the perceptual commons identifies the establishing conditions of the human environment, that is, of the human world, and that in shaping environment we are enhancing and making coherent all its participating constituents. The latter is often considered as an entirely artificial setting, but the presence of ecological dynamics shows that it remains a living environment for many species.
Experiencing the city, in fact, attests to a natural dimension that contributes to a renewed appreciation of the urban life setting. The numerous mobili- zations in favor of nature in the city are accompanied by an appropriation of the urban environment that has been encouraged by the awareness of overall ecological issues. The fact that urbanites are expressing a desire to reconnect with nature in the city is in keeping with the elimination of the subject-object dichotomy.
But before going any further, I would like to make several remarks about the debates around aesthetic engagement, environmental aesthetics, and eco-aesthetics.
First of all, it is important to stress the practical experience of the urban environment and the relationships that make it a framework for experienc- ing the city. This practice constitutes the heart of a vital process that we can term environmentalization, that is to say, the creation of environments proper to the human being. The sensory materiality of the city contrib- utes to this.
Consequently, the representation of the environment is the result of a process involving keen aesthetic engagement. The individuals and communities sharing such aesthetic engagement do not dissociate the urban experience as something appreciative, creative, central, and representational from the production of the urban environment.
Giving the urban setting its full meaning, this aesthetic engagement brings into play a learning experience, narratives, visions, landscapes, and panoramas. Second, this experience of the city has recently taken a new turn that might be termed aesthetic and environmental. City-dwellers have gradually become aware not only of the importance of nature in the urban setting but also of the environmental issues arising from the damages caused by human activities, locally and globally.
This growing awareness, through mobilizations, has gradually produced a change in the shaping of the city and has contributed to the creation of a new urban aesthetic especially visible in eco-neighborhoods and other such experiments.
Third, the idea of aesthetic engagement involves an active experience so that the aesthetic experience of environment increases the value of the environment and provides an opportunity to talk about it and about oneself at the same time.
By simultaneously enhancing the self and the environment or a particular aspect of it, aesthetic engagement constitutes a recognition of oneself in the environment. To cite one example, a contemporary analysis of aesthetic engagement inevi- tably refers to an experiential framework caught between the extremes of mobility and immobility.
This gives the city and its different urban spaces an uncertain appearance, like a kind of hesitation waltz between the extreme fixity of the spaces as setting and the great fluidity of the processes — a phe- nomenon that is tied at once to contemporary capitalism and a desire to make urban spaces physically safe. Such a reading takes into account phe- nomena of mobility roads and motorways, flows of data and persons, etc.
The particular aesthetic that emerges foregrounds the inhumanity of the situations encountered from the high- speed motorways of urban networks to the traffic jams of the city taken as machine.
In less than twenty years, we have gone from the hegemony of the automobile, in Western cities at least, to the renaissance of so-called friendly transport and the re-emergence of figures until now lost in modernity: the pedestrian, the cyclist, even the farmer.
This trend opposes two forms of disengagement. Here it must also be emphasized that the aesthetic experience, whether individual or collective, reflects forms of engagement in the environment that lead to understanding it in such a way as to resist normative injunc- tions concerning our ordinary behaviors. In this sense, turning the envi- ronment upside down means doing the same to ourselves. City-dwellers and their environment are closely interdependent on a conceptual level, which might be qualified as cultural ecology, and they perceive the depth of this interdependence.
Thus, the beauty of neglected urban neighborhoods claimed by certain residents raises questions of ethics, individual dignity, and environmental justice. The issue here is to elaborate an alternative way of understanding en- vironmental processes. This alternative path rejects the social construc- tionism that endows societies and individuals with a kind of pure power to shape the environment.
It also rejects a kind of naturalism or realism that would grant scientific objectification a higher power for revealing reality. This alternative path draws on research dealing with agency and intra-action. To begin by explaining these terms, we can say that the on- going relations human beings maintain with their environments lead them to jointly construct and elaborate a shared world as a frame of reference. Consequently, it is no longer possible to understand a given event without including the observational setup and even the ways in which the observation, the environment, and the actors are constructed.
A few examples will allow us to illustrate the way aesthetic engagement accompanies thinking about the city. The cockroach in the city: a shady animal The first example deals with a truly urban creature, the cockroach. Inter- disciplinary research on the population dynamics of this species in three French cities: Paris, Lyons, and Rennes, have demonstrated the usefulness of aesthetics to characterize the behaviors it sets off.
In this sense, we are studying the ecology and ethology of this species of insect by situating it in a context that has not often been studied, that of the representations and practices it engenders.
This pioneering study, in both its form and content, has led to appreci- ating the significance of the aesthetics of the cockroach and the practices that characterize our reactions to it. In addition to bringing out its formal qualities and the way it is perceived a dark insect with many feet, highly mobile, taking refuge in dirty places, fleeing human beings and light , the aesthetic experience of this creature includes a large place for the imagi- nation.
The same imagination is brought to bear on the aesthetics of the neighborhood and the people living there. This kind of insect contributes to a debate that makes its presence an element full of meaning, as an indi- cation, for example, of the stigmatization of disadvantaged neighborhoods in which they proliferate.
She is trying to improve her living conditions. In other words, it is a shady animal taking up residence in the recesses of the everyday. By extension, this animal of the shadows represents the foreigner, the other, who, in these housing blocks in the south of Rennes, a French city in Brittany with some , inhabitants, may be seen as a problem.
That must have come from somewhere. Once I was in Tunisia and went into a store and there were [cockroaches]. It seems that there are a lot of them in warm countries.
But what can one do in either case? The judgment that confers greater importance on one metaphor or another, to the point that some of them, like the sunset, seem perfectly obvious, rec- ognizes the universality of the aesthetic experience. The metaphor creates a link with reality, offers the possibility of increasing the value of certain places: when we attribute one term to another, we are not simply enhancing the description of the first but giving it a value.
The metaphor increases the value of an imaginative, poetic way of grasping the real; it manifests an awareness of relationships uniting us with the environment. By way of example, the etymology of the word cockroach in French — ca- fard — is a marvellous tracer of the metaphorical construction of relation- ships between human beings and things.
The two terms used to designate this insect in French, the scientific name Blatta and the common name cafard, bring out the fact that both refer to its nocturnal habits. This meaning was initially regional Normandy, Berry but spread into French as a whole by the nineteenth century.
Through the intermediary of scientific Latin, the naturalists of the second half of the eighteenth century established Blatta as a genus of cockroaches. Thus, if neither the ecological dimension of biodiversity nor the spatial dimen- sion of the continuity is clearly perceived, do we still have to conclude that there is no link between the attachment mentioned above and the existing biodiversity?
On the basis of the find- ings, these perceptions bring out an ecological dimension that, even if it is not consciously defined, is reflected nonetheless in the interest these spaces generate. On the average, users thus declare that they have seen between two and three animals and cite a total of nearly eighty species. Vegetal diversity is also perceived. This attention paid to animal and vegetable species is also part of the attractiveness of these spaces, and even more interestingly, of the well-being they may generate.
In terms of the link with nature, this does not just involve a spiritual re- connection but everything affecting city-dwellers, directly and physically. To that end, it is divided into four sections evoking the classical elements: air, earth, water, and fire. Memory, language, and emotion are so- licited by the cycle of the seasons and exchanges with the support staff. Strolling in the garden also provides a spatial and temporal frame of reference. Because it is outdoors and accessible to visitors, it is a place of openness and thus of mediation.
Aesthetic Engagement in the City 45 5. The senses and science A final example concerning atmospheric pollution demonstrates how the capacity of aesthetic engagement for enhancing the value of everyday experience is such that the scientific knowledge that might be associated with it is sometimes not even mentioned.
These elements were then compared with measures of air quality indoors and outdoors carried out by physi- cians and chemists. The findings of this study may be summarized in three main points: 1— The individuals queried paid little attention to information about air pollution. They relied on sense information odor, sight, noise to construct their understanding of the phenomenon. This was reinforced by an attachment to a concrete social context with which they identified.
The opposition between these two spheres of knowledge about the physico-chemical phe- nomena is striking. Some of those surveyed believed, for example, that the vegetation protected them from pollution. We can thus see that the cultures of nature, relying on an engaged aesthetic perception of the environment, play a fundamental role in understanding that environ- ment and, consequently, on the practices people follow.
Conclusion If it is essential to take aesthetic engagement into account in urban develop- ment, it is just as necessary to remain critically vigilant about the methods and objectives of this integration. But is it not possible to think of the city as an experience of discontinuity and syncopation? The light used to create striking night-time images of places that become impossible to miss, the greenery or the mix of city and nature all contribute to turning the city into a spectacle.
The city also becomes a mirror, a place reflecting a singular condition, a look- ing-glass. Urban policies, notably in France, tend to multiply sensory experi- ences to create a backdrop.
The Paris-Plages artificial beach is an example of this. Thus, the setting is increasingly understood as an attempt to improve urban well-being. The importance assumed by quality of life is symptomatic of this situation. Public authorities, but also representatives of civil society, are expressing a new demand for well-being that is deemed essential to the urban life of cities.
It thus marks the transition from an urban aesthetic space as setting to an urban aesthesis or sense perception urban environment as atmosphere , from a space of decors to a space of well-being. Urban strategies thus reflect this shift toward an ecological urbanism in the sense of a multitude of possible experiences. Certain places in the city would be able to produce emotions or new aesthetic experiences. It should be noted, however, that rep- resentatives of civil society, such as community garden movements, consider this environmental approach as a change of lifestyle.
Nonetheless, these various changes tend to enlarge the place for the sensory and the living in systems in order to increase the value of the urban environment.
Do our bodies now contribute to the environmental fashioning of urban space? In a broad sense, the development of these ecological events plays a de facto role in producing public space. Navigating between local development and political manipulation, the artist offers the potential of a new reading or experience of the sites. The urban space, formerly dedicated to specific urban functions services, production, etc.
Animals, vegetation, air, and climate are all part of this rereading of the city. Translated from French by Miriam Rosen Endnotes 1. Aesthetics is returned to its etymological origins by stressing the primacy of sense perception, sensible experience, and perception itself was reconfigured to recognize the mutual participation of all sensory modalities, including kinesthetic sensibility.
See also: A. Gell, Art and Agency. Horticultural therapy entails a comprehensive practical rehabilitation of the individual through gardening activities adapted to different kinds of handicaps physical, sensory, mental, or multiple. It may serve as a preventive practice or as a form of therapeutic education. Jale Erzen Aesthetic Engagement: Art Into Politics This paper is in three parts: first I will compare aesthetic and practical perception; second I will articulate ideas about the image and its engag- ing power; this will lead my argument to the investigation of how art and images can be effective in the symbolic ordering of our social relations.
Aesthetic and practical perception We can claim that all perception is aesthetic, actively involving a sensory response through which the imagination constructs meaning. Today, however, both media transmissions and the industrial and mechanical forms imposed on the environment inevitably create an uninvolving practical perception that abandons its objects as soon as a functional interpretation results that causes immediate action.
Many spaces, such as offices, coffee shops, supermarkets, shopping centers, airports, etc. An example is the traffic light, a sign on the perception of which a prac- tical response is given. Of course, traffic lights can also become aesthetic through artistic articulation, as seen in the above artwork.
Practical per- ception consumes its object and does not leave any option for seeing or interpreting symbols. Aesthetic perception, on the other hand, is open ended, leading to changing interpretations and the creation of symbols; it abandons itself to the different and myriad interpretations and meanings afforded by a mental commitment to the object. Looking at a work of art, reading a book involves us beyond time and space; we assume a kinship with an author from centuries past or from an unknown place.
Engagement is total abandonment through the senses to the object without critical judgments or analyses; one is involved with the whole. Life could be seen as a total engagement: engaging with the world, with others, with society.
Life is possible first through aesthetic engagement, through sharing the expressions of the world as our senses become involved with the objects of perception. It therefore rejects aesthetic experience and the presence of aesthetic value throughout human activity. Yet with the exception of mass media images, art images and images transmitted through the social media have a forceful effect in creating new spaces of solidarity, new concepts of the self and the other, new urban environments and social spaces.
The visual image, more than any kind of sensory form, gives one immediate credibility of the real. Therefore, today, no matter how much one discredits media transmissions, televi- sion, films, videos and photography are effective tools in conditioning our relationship to the world.
There are images that are seen, those that are revelations of the invisible, images in blindness, dream images, images created in the vast realm of art, and images of social or political references that pave the way to the solidarity of resistance. Aesthetics, as the investigation into the meaning of form rather than that of content or narration, emerges as a discipline and a regime of thought with the Enlightenment.
It is especially with Hegel that aesthetics begins to designate thinking related to art. According to Agamben, involvement today with an image or with art is simply critical and inquisi- tive. The image and its engaging power When we confront an image there is always a kind of shock at the first encounter. Seeing, confronting an image, especially images with the paint- erly touch, refuse any narrative explanation and lead to a silence.
Adorno has written that all real experience is accompanied by a shudder. An im- age creates a kind of total empowerment, as in confronting a work of art. He goes on to say that although we always read an image with thought, the moment we are hit by the image we can no longer think, calculate, or assess. We are engaged totally. Aesthetic engage- ment at first creates a kind of incapacity, whereas in practical perception we are led to immediate practice, a way out of engagement.
It is a process where the trance is then followed by the perception of intelligible order and form: This shift from one state to the other is typical of aesthetic engagement, which does not forsake its object but becomes open to continuous interpretations and sensory states. The symbol can never be consumed; it is open to myriad interpretations. Facing the strangeness of the image our language becomes enriched with new combinations and our thought with new categories.
Even in front of familiar images, there are breaks that emerge suddenly and put us in a state of be- wilderment. As the image emerges in our consciousness, it opens a break in our thinking and we enter a museum of empty words; it is impossible to find words for this experience. According to Didi-Huberman, the image is only worth as much as it can change our thinking.
On the other hand, images of the media do not emerge; they bombard us. Until now I have talked about the perception and involvement of the person who looks, of the spectator with the image or with the art work. The involvement and perception of the artist with the work of art is almost Dionysian, without any recourse to distancing and critical judgment.
In the experience of the work of art, man stands in the truth, that is, in the origin that has revealed itself to him in the poietic act. Sharing is also engagement in the most basic sense. For many people today aesthetic engagement is seldom possible; global culture industries subject people to alienating aesthetic conditionings through media imagery and through exposing people to spaces and phenomena devoid of meaning. Images of activist dynamics, images of how city spaces are turned into interactive communal areas, have had an immense power of engaging people.
All political uprising involve people mentally and ideologically, not only through concepts, but aesthetically through a sensory engagement that is triggered by images and sounds that are interpreted as symbols and stimulate one into direct response. The image engages us personally, both as a symbol that appears within our private mental space and as something that connects us to the world. Recent political actions have created their own ways of belonging to the city and claiming urban space.
Through these images we identify with the actors and engage in a com- mon cause. Arnold Berleant, What is Aesthetic Engagement? Jale Erzen, Paris: İna Editions, , p. Jacob Lund, Artistic Re-Appropriation…, p. Erzen — mixed media Image 2 Drawing by Jale N. Introduction With the aim of healing the earth and sustain a healthy ecosystem for all life forms, not humankind alone, ecoaesthetics emerges as a critique of Enlightenment mentality and of modern aesthetics as it is embodied in it.
This mentality contributes greatly to the global ecological crisis and to other problem areas, such as population, economic, political and religious ones. In my understanding of aesthetics, ecoaesthetics is defined as the theory of ecological aesthetic appreciation. The first is our shared theme, which is the critique of modern aesthetics.
The second reason is more complex for it involves the crucial question of the proper manner of aesthetic appreciation. From the perspective of ecoaesthetics, the contemplation of objects by a separated perceiver, an approach that is based on the modern philosophical dualism of subject and object, is unsatisfactory and inadequate. This emphasizes the ecological continuity or interrelated- ness between the human appreciator and objects.
Of course, any theory can occasion critique and development. This can be contrasted with Ecosophy T proposed by the Norwegian, Arne Naess, and with traditional Chinese aesthetic wisdom. In contrast with these, I would like to develop my own view of ecological understanding. His book Art and Engagement offers a detailed discussion about the idea and challenges the entire tradition of modern aesthetics, especially its dualism of subject and object.
Indeed, Berleant has received interna- tional attention for his work in the area of environmental aesthetics. So for Berleant, the central aesthetic issue now is not the difference between art and non-art but between aesthetic and non-aesthetic. The prevalent prac- tice of equating aesthetics with the philosophy of art is thus transcended.
Is it possible for us to interpret them from the per- spectives of scientific ecology, philosophical ecology, and ecosophy so as to support the ongoing project of constructing ecoaesthetics? Ecoshophy C will offer an answer to that question from the perspective of traditional Chinese aesthetic wisdom. Naess is most famous for the idea of deep ecology.
This question inevitably implies a philosophical pursuit rather than scientific inquiry into the place of humanity in nature. In response to this philosophical pursuit, Naess realized clearly the lim- its of ecology and proposed what he called ecophilosophy or ecosophy.
He encouraged his audience to develop his or her own systems of guides, say, Ecosophies X, Y, or Z. Inspired and encouraged by Naess, I propose my personal ecosophy, Ecosophy C. Confucianism, which I view as the cultural symbol of a global cultural ecosystem; 3. Continuity of being, the metaphysical and ontological promise of Chinese aesthetics; 4. Creating life, which is viewed as the great virtue of Heaven and Earth expressed significantly in one of the Chinese classics, The Book of Changes; 5.
Cheng Hao, a philosopher in the Song Dynasty, whose aesthetic thought represents the most systematic expression of ecological appreciation in Chinese aesthetics; 7. Community, a key term in ecology, based on which Leopold developed his idea of ecological con- science; and 8. Within the context of this paper, the following section only discusses points 3, 5 and 7.
In order to develop his land ethic, Leopold put the community concept in the central place. The single premise of all ethics is that an individual is a member of a community of interdependent parts. It implies respect for his fellow-members, and also respect for the community as such. It is wrong when it tends otherwise. There is no integrity or stability at all. However, philosophically speaking from the perspective of human civilization, humankind should take preserving the integrity and stability of the earth as its value orientation.
Only by doing so can humankind face the challenges of the global ecological crisis. Compassion generally means sympathetic pity and concern for the sufferings or misfortunes of others. This is how the fish enjoy themselves. How do you know the fish are enjoying them- selves?
If yes, how? Zhuangzi did not answer these questions directly. To some extent, it is a natural faculty of humans to understand or know this point. Briefly, the positive feeling of compassion is a kind of human ability and sensibility based on ecological ethics, which exemplifies the aesthetic intersubjectivity between human beings and non-human life. How, then, should we understand connectivity and compassion philosophically or metaphysically?
In his paper, Tu introduces Chinese visions of nature and asserts: The Chinese belief in the continuity of being, a basic motif in Chinese ontology, has far-reaching implications in Chinese philosophy, religion, epistemology, aesthetics, and ethics. This kind of metaphysical assumption is signifi- cantly different from the Cartesian dichotomy between spirit and matter. Aesthetic Engagement, Ecosophy C, and Ecological Appreciation 65 I define ecoaesthetics as the theory of ecological appreciation.
The basic assumption behind this working definition of ecoaesthetics is the follow- ing statement: we can appreciate something aesthetically and ecologically. So aesthetic and ecological engagement are the core of my ecoaesthetics. The following section of the paper will explain ecological engagement from the perspec- tive of ecosophy C. The answer is that ecological engagement is based on the ontological as- sumption that everything within a community enjoys connectivity and continuity the continuity between mind, body and world with each other.
Deconstructing Yourself Michael W. Taft Dimensions of Nonduality with Tina Rasmussen Host Michael Taft talks with meditation teacher and author Tina Rasmussen about ways to understand nondual awareness and the progress of nondual meditation, including her own unique comparison between the Formless Realms of early Buddhist meditation and the Boundless Dimensions taught by Hameed Ali aka Almaas of the Diamond Approach.
Tina Rasmussen, Ph. In , she completed a year-long solo retreat, was later ordained as a Buddhist nun and became the first Western woman authorized to teach by renowned meditation master Pa Auk Sayadaw. Tina has been studied by the Yale Neuroscience Lab, and is the co-author of Practicing the Jhanas, as well as several books on human potential. In this podcast, Yeshe Rabgye explains this last teaching in detail and brings the Buddha Dharma Series to an end. The Buddha gave several important teachings right before his death, and there is teaching contained in the very manner and fact of his passing.
In this episode I describe the Parinirvana Nehan ceremony in my lineage and discuss what we can learn from it. Audio Dharma AudioDharma. JoAnn Fox has been teaching Buddhism for 17 years and does so with kindness and humor. Since then, the grassroots initiative has matured into a nationwide movement with over 6 million supporters fighting to end gun violence.
Now the largest gun-prevention organization in the US, Moms Demand Action has had major successes at the ballot box, on school boards, city councils, in state legislatures, and in corporate America.
The classes generally begin with chanting the Metta Sutta, then receiving meditation instructions and meditating together, followed by asking questions and finally if time remains listening to a Dhamma talk. However, the layout can vary. Due to social distancing regulations, these weekly Tuesday night teachings are happening via Zoom from Bodhinyana Monastery.
To find and download more precious Dhamma teachings, visit the BSWA teachings page, choose the teaching you want and click on the audio to open it up on Podbean. Later, Dr. Read by Sean. Each episode of this podcast is a section of the book, and together they are a free audiobook version of Recovery Dharma!
Start at 1 and work your way up. It may not have been edited, so errors may exist. Can it be used as a panic room? What is its purpose? What do we need to know to practice it safely and successfully? In this sincere and tender dharma talk from December , Br. He describes honestly some of the challenges and questions we may face along that path, and emphasizes the importance of finding spiritual friends and spiritual community with whom to share our life and our practice.
This makes the practice more joyful, and helps us to support each other and overcome even the greatest difficulties along the way. Robert A. To learn more about the work and teachings of Sharon Salzberg, please visit her website: www. This podcast is a part of the Tibet House US Conversations series of dialogues between Bob Thurman and the leading hearts, minds and personalities bringing the ancient wisdom of Buddhism and Tibet into the modern mindful and compassionate revolution.
This verse explores emotional suffering through the five negative emotions, also known as kleshas, or the five poisons. Antidotes to these negative emotions are revealed through the Lojong practice along with the natural state of mind free from suffering. The episode culminates in one of the most misunderstood points of Mahayana Buddhism: that emptiness itself is empty of emptiness.
Due to the holiday, this week were sharing a previously recorded meditation. This podcast was recorded in front of a live audience in Chelsea, New York City, and includes an opening talk and minute sitting session. The guided meditation begins at To attend a Mindfulness Meditation online session in the future or learn more, please visit our website at RubinMuseum. To get in touch, send an email to podcast zen-of-everything. Zencast Zencast. Grace Dharma Talk by Rev. In this podcast, Wendy Shinyo Haylett, Holly Rockwell, Levi Shinyo Walbert, and Christopher Kakuyo Ross-Leibow meet to learn from each other and share how to discover and harness the light found in Buddhist and Christian teachings for everyday reflection and practice.
Could it be that this doesn't refer to Jesus as sorcerer but to Jesus or several people in a movement manifesting the Celestial Christ to participants in a pentecostal-like movement as per Stevan Davies? I am wondering what your translation philosophy was for the Pre-Nicene New Testament. What purpose do you think Luke serve? Also, I find the "afterward he went on through cities and villages. Finally, what do you make of the mention of the women traveling with Jesus and the twelve?
What of Joanna and Susanna who appear only in Luke? For example, John A. We are at the peak of the darkness. Having been a Buddhist monk himself for many years, Inda is able to reflect not just on the mood of lay protesters, but also at monasteries and among his monastic friends. It is a secular approach to meditation that requires no belief beyond our current understanding of science and psychology. These Tibetan Buddhist mind training techniques expand on the popular mindfulness approach to meditation to help us better understand our minds from the inside out, and build healthy mental habits that are the true causes of happiness.
Each week in discussions, guided meditations and interviews, we explore the vast variety of analytic meditation topics including love, compassion, sleep, tonglen, vipassana, stress, the body, meditation posture, anger, anxiety, addiction, grief, forgiveness, patience, confidence, loneliness, work, relationships, and more.
Time for a new episode and Happy New Year everyone. In this episode, we look at the issue of "evil" and how it is easy to misunderstand the significance of this teaching in Jodo Shinshu Buddhism. Take a listen while you enjoy a cup of coffee It sounds staged because one bird seemed to be interacting with me. Maybe it was just a beautiful connection.
Together, rooted in their deep love of truth and caring, they explore the tradition behind all traditions, how to anchor the transcendent in the world of time and space, the unexpected disruption that profound revelation can bring, and what it means to be rooted in the eternal. Who was the Buddha? And was does "Buddha" mean? In this episode, I talk about the founder of the Buddhist religion, and why his life story is important to us as Buddhists.
I would like to hear from you! You can find a link to the meetup group at adamasdel. Miscellaneous reflections on love, seen through the lens of Dharma. The Buddha, therefore, taught us not to be heedless.
We should endeavor to cultivate our inner virtues by being generous and moral, and making meditation practice a normal part of our everyday lives. If we can do this, in no long time we can realize the truth. The daily programme is scheduled from 5am to 9. This retreat will be conducted in both Thai and English, and welcomes those who are not able to commit to all sessions due to time zone differences, work commitments, etc.
The post Attachment to thought is insecure appeared first on Amaravati Buddhist Monastery. How To Meditate: A Beginner's Guide to Peace Yuttadhammo Bhikkhu This audio book is meant to serve as an introduction on how to meditate for those with little or no experience in the practice of meditation, as well as those who are experienced in other types of meditation but interested in learning the practice of Satipatthana meditation.
Become Your Own Therapist Ven. We need to develop an awareness of how our actions can affect others. Then we can see how those actions create our own experience. In , the Gyalwang Karmapa traveled to New Delhi and gave an extensive teaching on the Heart Sutra at the request of disciples from around the world. This was the first time that the Karmapa had taught directly on a sutra as opposed to a commentary.
Part One In this Awake in the World podcast Michael delves into the capacity of questioning to pull us back into our lives, but only if we can practice in the paradoxical space of not-seeking, not conceptualizing, and not clinging to our habits. Recorded on July 8, Next Episode The Watcher 2 Kush Single 1. Ackrite - Featuring Hittman 2. Ed-ucation featuring Eddie Griffin 4. Forget About Dre featuring Eminem 5. Light Speed - Featuring Hittman 8.
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