The Hybrid Approach Of Inflation Targeting:What Opportunities For An Emerging Economy Like Tunisia?

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The Nash Ambassador used this arrangement in the model year. Garcia, Carlos J. Categories : Automotive lamps. Minh Nhat Phan.

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FRED data. My bibliography Save this article. Registered: Hella Guerchi Mehri. After economic crises happening in many emerging countries, flexible exchange rates became a required theoretical condition helping to target inflation. Many countries stopped using exchange rate as an anchor for monetary policy and started using inflation targeting framework.

They are against high volatility of interest rate allowing speculative attacks and causing free fluctuations of their national currency. To avoid uncontrolled market movements, they have to choose between active and public exchange rate management and tight inflation targeting. Therefore, the difference in active optical area and overall beam light content no longer necessarily exists between US and ECE beams.

Dual-beam HID headlamps employing reflector technology have been made using adaptations of both techniques. In this system a filament is located at one focus of an ellipsoidal reflector and has a condenser lens at the front of the lamp. A shade is located at the image plane, between the reflector and lens, and the projection of the top edge of this shade provides the low-beam cutoff. The shape of the shade edge and its exact position in the optical system determine the shape and sharpness of the cutoff.

Such optics are known as BiXenon or BiHalogen projectors. If the cutoff shade is fixed in the light path, separate high-beam lamps are required. The condenser lens may have slight fresnel rings or other surface treatments to reduce cutoff sharpness. Modern condenser lenses incorporate optical features specifically designed to direct some light upward towards the locations of retroreflective overhead road signs.

Hella introduced ellipsoidal optics for acetylene headlamps in , but following the electrification of vehicle lighting, this optical technique wasn't used for many decades. The first modern polyellipsoidal projector automotive lamp was the Super-Lite , an auxiliary headlamp produced in a joint venture between Chrysler Corporation and Sylvania and optionally installed in and full-size Dodge automobiles. It used an watt transverse-filament tungsten-halogen bulb and was intended as a mid-beam, to extend the reach of the low beams during turnpike travel when low beams alone were inadequate but high beams would produce excessive glare.

Projector main headlamps appeared in on the Audi Quartz, a concept car designed by Pininfarina for Geneva Auto Salon.

The first electric headlamp light source was the tungsten filament , operating in a vacuum or inert-gas atmosphere inside the headlamp bulb or sealed beam. Compared to newer-technology light sources, tungsten filaments give off small amounts of light relative to the power they consume.

Also, during the normal operation of such lamps, tungsten boils off the surface of the filament and condenses on the bulb glass, blackening it. This reduces the light output of the filament and blocks some of the light that would pass through an unblackened bulb glass, though blackening was less of a problem in sealed beam units; their large interior surface area minimized the thickness of the tungsten accumulation.

For these reasons, plain tungsten filaments are all but obsolete in automotive headlamp service. Tungsten-halogen technology also called "quartz-halogen", "quartz-iodine", "iodine cycle", etc.

At equal luminosity, the halogen-cycle bulbs also have longer lifetimes. European-designed halogen headlamp light sources are generally configured to provide more light at the same power consumption as their lower-output plain tungsten counterparts.

By contrast, many US-based designs are configured to reduce or minimize the power consumption while keeping light output above the legal minimum requirements; some US tungsten-halogen headlamp light sources produce less initial light than their non-halogen counterparts.

There was an improvement in seeing distance with US halogen high beams, which were permitted for the first time to produce , candela cd per vehicle, double the non-halogen limit of 75, cd but still well shy of the international European limit of , cd.

After replaceable halogen bulbs were permitted in US headlamps in , the development of US bulbs continued to favor long bulb life and low power consumption, while European designs continued to prioritise optical precision and maximum output. The H1 lamp was the first tungsten-halogen headlamp light source. It was introduced in by a consortium of European bulb and headlamp makers. This bulb has a single axial filament that consumes 55 watts at H2 55 W H1 still sees wide use in low beams, high beams and auxiliary fog and driving lamps , as does H3.

The H2 is no longer a current type, since it requires an intricate bulb holder interface to the lamp, has a short life and is difficult to handle. For those reasons, H2 was withdrawn [86] from ECE Regulation 37 for use in new lamp designs though H2 bulbs are still manufactured for replacement purposes in existing lamps , but H1 and H3 remain current and these two bulbs were legalised in the United States in In , the Americans created their own standard for a bulb called HB2: almost identical to H4 except with more stringent constraints on filament geometry and positional variance, [90] [91] and power consumption and light output expressed at the US test voltage of It is a The is rated for 65 watts high beam and 45 watts low beam at A further development of the tungsten-halogen bulb has a dichroic coating that passes visible light and reflects infrared radiation.

The glass in such a bulb may be spherical or tubular. The reflected infrared radiation strikes the filament located at the center of the glass envelope, heating the filament to a greater degree than can be achieved through resistive heating alone. The superheated filament emits more light without an increase in power consumption. High-intensity discharge lamps HID produce light with an electric arc rather than a glowing filament.

The high intensity of the arc comes from metallic salts that are vaporized within the arc chamber. These lamps have a higher efficacy than tungsten lamps. Because of the increased amounts of light available from HID lamps relative to halogen bulbs, HID headlamps producing a given beam pattern can be made smaller than halogen headlamps producing a comparable beam pattern. Alternatively, the larger size can be retained, in which case the xenon headlamp can produce a more robust beam pattern.

Automotive HID may be called "xenon headlamps", though they are actually metal-halide lamps that contain xenon gas. The xenon gas allows the lamps to produce minimally adequate light immediately upon start, and shortens the run-up time. The usage of argon , as is commonly done in street lights and other stationary metal-halide lamp applications, causes lamps to take several minutes to reach their full output.

The light from HID headlamps can exhibit a distinct bluish tint when compared with tungsten-filament headlamps. When a halogen headlamp is retrofitted with an HID bulb, light distribution and output are altered. In Europe and the many non-European countries applying ECE Regulations, even HID headlamps designed as such must be equipped with lens cleaning and automatic self-leveling systems, except on motorcycles. The AC ballast is about the size of a building brick. This was the only system to operate on DC , since reliability proved inferior to the AC systems.

HID headlamp bulbs do not run on low-voltage DC current, so they require a ballast with either an internal or external ignitor. The ignitor is integrated into the bulb in D1 and D3 systems, and is either a separate unit or part of the ballast in D2 and D4 systems. The ballast controls the current to the bulb.

The ignition and ballast operation proceeds in three stages:. HID headlamps produce between 2, and 3, lumens from between 35 and 38 watts of electrical power, while halogen filament headlamp bulbs produce between and 2, lumens from between 40 and 72 watts at The D stands for discharge , and the number is the type designator. The final letter describes the outer shield. The arc within an HID headlamp bulb generates considerable short-wave ultraviolet UV light, but none of it escapes the bulb, for a UV-absorbing hard glass shield is incorporated around the bulb's arc tube.

This is important to prevent degradation of UV-sensitive components and materials in headlamps, such as polycarbonate lenses and reflector hardcoats. They have an opaque mask covering specific portions of the shield, which facilitates the optical creation of the light-dark boundary cutoff near the top of a low-beam light distribution. The correlated color temperature of factory installed automotive HID headlamps is between K and K [ citation needed ] while tungsten-halogen lamps are at K to K.

The spectral power distribution SPD of an automotive HID headlamp is discontinuous and spikey while the SPD of a filament lamp, like that of the sun, is a continuous curve. Studies have shown no significant safety effect of this degree of CRI variation in headlighting. In a headlamp optic designed for use with an HID lamp, it produces more usable light. Studies have demonstrated drivers react faster and more accurately to roadway obstacles with good HID headlamps than halogen ones.

Luminous efficacy is the measure of how much light is produced versus how much energy is consumed. HID lamps give higher efficacy than halogen lamps. The highest-intensity halogen lamps, H9 and HIR1, produce to lumens from approximately 70 watts at The average service life of an HID bulb is hours, compared to between and hours for a halogen lamp.

Vehicles equipped with HID headlamps except motorcycles are required by ECE regulation 48 also to be equipped with headlamp lens cleaning systems and automatic beam leveling control. Both of these measures are intended to reduce the tendency for high-output headlamps to cause high levels of glare to other road users. In North America, ECE R48 does not apply and while lens cleaners and beam levelers are permitted, they are not required; [] HID headlamps are markedly less prevalent in the US, where they have produced significant glare complaints.

The disposal of mercury-containing vehicle parts is increasingly regulated throughout the world, for example under US EPA regulations. Newer HID bulb designs D3R, D3S, D4R, and D4S which are in production since contain no mercury, [] [] but are not electrically or physically compatible with headlamps designed for previous bulb types.

HID headlamps are significantly more costly to produce, install, purchase, and repair. The extra cost of the HID lights may exceed the fuel cost savings through their reduced power consumption, though some of this cost disadvantage is offset by the longer lifespan of the HID bulb relative to halogen bulbs.

Automotive headlamp applications using light-emitting diodes LEDs have been undergoing very active development since The high beam and turn signal functions used filament bulbs. The headlamp was supplied by Koito. This works because the LED high beams are split into numerous individual light-emitting diodes.

High-beam LEDs in both headlights are arranged in a matrix and adapt fully electronically to the surroundings in milliseconds. They are activated and deactivated or dimmed individually by a control unit. In addition, the headlights also function as a cornering light. Using predictive route data supplied by the MMI navigation plus , the focus of the beam is shifted towards the bend even before the driver turns the steering wheel.

As of , LED headlamps such as those available on the Toyota Prius were giving performance between halogen and HID headlamps, [] with system power consumption slightly lower than other headlamps, longer lifespans and more flexible design possibilities.

Before LEDs, all light sources used in headlamps tungsten, halogen, HID emitted infrared energy that can thaw built-up snow and ice off a headlamp lens and prevent further accumulation. LEDs do not. Some LED headlamps move heat from the heat sink on the back of the LEDs to the inner face of the front lens to warm it up, [ citation needed ] while on others no provision is made for lens thawing.

A laser lamp uses mirrors to direct a laser on to a phosphor that then emits a light. Laser lamps use half as much power as LED lamps. They were first developed by Audi for use as headlamps in the 24 Hours of Le Mans. In , the BMW i8 became the first production car to be sold with an auxiliary high-beam lamp based on this technology.

Automatic systems for activating the headlamps have been available since the mids, [ citation needed ] originally only on luxury American models such as Cadillac, Lincoln, and Imperial. Modern implementations use sensors to detect the amount of exterior light. UN R48 has mandated the installation of automatic headlamps since 30 July With a daytime running lamp equipped and operated, the dipped beam headlamp should automatically turn on if the car is driving in less than 1, lux ambient conditions such as in a tunnel and in dark environments.

While in such situations, a daytime running lamp would make glare more evident to the upcoming vehicle driver, which in turn would influence the upcoming vehicle driver's eyesight, such that, by automatically switching the daytime running lamp to the dipped-beam headlamp, the inherent safety defect could be solved and safety benefit ensured.

The Citroen 2CV was launched in France with a manual headlamp leveling system, controlled by the driver with a knob through a mechanical rod linkage. This allowed the driver to adjust the vertical aim of the headlamps to compensate for the passenger and cargo load in the vehicle. The first vehicle to be so equipped was the Panhard Dyna Z.

Beginning in the s, Germany and some other European countries began requiring remote-control headlamp leveling systems that permit the driver to lower the lamps' aim by means of a dashboard control lever or knob if the rear of the vehicle is weighted down with passengers or cargo, which would tend to raise the lamps' aim angle and create glare. Such systems typically use stepper motors at the headlamp and a rotary switch on the dash marked "0", "1", "2", "3" for different beam heights, "0" being the "normal" and highest position for when the car is lightly loaded.

Internationalized ECE Regulation 48, in force in most of the world outside North America, currently specifies a limited range within which the vertical aim of the headlamps must be maintained under various vehicle load conditions; if the vehicle isn't equipped with an adaptive suspension sufficient to keep the headlamps aimed correctly regardless of load, a headlamp leveling system is required.

Such vehicles must be equipped with headlamp self-leveling systems that sense the vehicle's degree of squat due to cargo load and road inclination, and automatically adjust the headlamps' vertical aim to keep the beam correctly oriented without any action required by the driver. Leveling systems are not required by the North American regulations. A study, however, suggests automatic levelers on all headlamps, not just those with high-power light sources, would give drivers substantial safety benefits of better seeing and less glare.

These provide improved lighting for cornering. Some automobiles have their headlamps connected to the steering mechanism so the lights will follow the movement of the front wheels. Czechoslovak Tatra was an early implementer of such a technique, producing in the s a vehicle with a central directional headlamp. The American Tucker Sedan was likewise equipped with a third central headlamp connected mechanically to the steering system.

At that time US regulations required this system to be removed from those models sold in the U. The D series cars equipped with the system used cables connecting the long-range headlamps to a lever on the steering relay while the inner long-range headlamps on the SM used a sealed hydraulic system using a glycerin-based fluid instead of mechanical cables. The cables of the D system tended to rust in the cable sheaths while the SM system gradually leaked fluid, causing the long-range lamps to turn inward, looking "cross-eyed.

The glasses have thin stripes on their surfaces that are heated by the headlight beams; however, the ducted warm air provides demisting when the headlamps are not turned on.

The glasses' stripes on both D and SM cars appear similar to rear windshield glass electric defogger heating strips, but they are passive, not electrified [ citation needed ]. Beginning in the s, there was a resurgence in interest in the idea of moving or optimizing the headlight beam in response not only to vehicular steering and suspension dynamics, but also to ambient weather and visibility conditions, vehicle speed, and road curvature and contour.

A task force under the EUREKA organization, composed primarily of European automakers, lighting companies and regulators began working to develop design and performance specifications for what is known as Adaptive Front-Lighting Systems, commonly AFS.

Rather than the mechanical linkages employed in earlier directional-headlamp systems, AFS relies on electronic sensors, transducers , and actuators. Other AFS techniques include special auxiliary optical systems within a vehicle's headlamp housings.

These auxiliary systems may be switched on and off as the vehicle and operating conditions call for light or darkness at the angles covered by the beam the auxiliary optics produce. A typical system measures steering angle and vehicle speed to swivel the headlamps.

Even when conditions would warrant the use of high-beam headlamps, drivers often do not use them. General Motors introduced the first automatic headlight dimmer called the 'Autronic Eye' in on their Cadillac , Buick , and Oldsmobile models; the feature was offered in other GM vehicles starting in An amplifier module was located in the engine compartment that controlled the headlight relay using signals from the dashboard-mounted tube unit.

This pioneering setup gave way in to a system called 'GuideMatic' in reference to GM's Guide lighting division. The GuideMatic had a more compact dashtop housing and a control knob that allowed the driver to adjust the system's sensitivity threshold to determine when the headlamps would be dipped from high to low beam in response to an oncoming vehicle. By the early s, this option was withdrawn from all GM models except Cadillac , on which GuideMatic was available through The photosensor for this system used an amber lens, and the adoption of retro-reflective yellow road signs, such as for oncoming curves, caused them to dim prematurely - possibly leading to their discontinuation.

Ford - and Chrysler -built vehicles were also available with the GM-made dimmers from the s through the s. Though the systems based on photoresistors evolved, growing more compact and moving from the dashboard to a less conspicuous location behind the radiator grill, they were still unable to reliably discern headlamps from non-vehicular light sources such as streetlights. They also did not dip to low beam when the driver approached a vehicle from behind, and they would spuriously dip to low beam in response to road sign reflections of the vehicle's own high beam headlamps.

American inventor Jacob Rabinow devised and refined a scanning automatic dimmer system impervious to streetlights and reflections, [] but no automaker purchased the rights, and the problematic photoresistor type remained on the market through the late s.

In , the inventor Even P. Bone developed a system where a vane in front of each headlight moved automatically and caused a shadow in front of the approaching vehicle, allowing for high beam use without glare for the approaching driver. The system, called "Bone-Midland Lamps," was never taken up by any car manufacturer. Present systems based on imaging CMOS cameras can detect and respond appropriately to leading and oncoming vehicles while disregarding streetlights, road signs, and other spurious signals.

Camera-based beam selection was first released in on the Jeep Grand Cherokee and has since then been incorporated into comprehensive driver assistance systems by automakers worldwide. The headlights will dim when a bright reflection bounces off of a street sign. Intelligent Light System is a headlamp beam control system introduced in on the Mercedes-Benz E-Class W [] which offers five different bi-xenon light functions, [] each of which is suited to typical driving or weather conditions:.

Adaptive Highbeam Assist is Mercedes-Benz ' marketing name for a headlight control strategy that continuously automatically tailors the headlamp range so the beam just reaches other vehicles ahead, thus always ensuring maximum possible seeing range without glaring other road users.

The range of the beam can vary between 65 and meters, depending on traffic conditions. In traffic, the low beam cutoff position is adjusted vertically to maximise seeing range while keeping glare out of leading and oncoming drivers' eyes. When no traffic is close enough for glare to be a problem, the system provides full high beam.

Headlamps are adjusted every 40 milliseconds by a camera on the inside of the front windscreen which can determine distance to other vehicles. Since some Audi models with Xenon headlamps are offering a similar system: adaptive light with variable headlight range control. A glare-free high beam is a camera-driven dynamic lighting control strategy that selectively shades spots and slices out of the high beam pattern to protect other road users from glare, while continuously providing the driver with maximum seeing range.

The dynamic shadowing can be achieved with movable shadow masks shifted within the light path inside the headlamp. Or, the effect can be achieved by selectively darkening addressable LED emitters or reflector elements, a technique known as pixel light. The first mechanically controlled non-LED , glare-free high beam was Volkswagen's "Dynamic Light Assist" package, [] which was introduced in on the Volkswagen Touareg , [] Phaeton , [] and Passat.

See LED section. Headlamp systems require periodic maintenance. Sealed beam headlamps are modular; when the filament burns out, the entire sealed beam is replaced. Most vehicles in North America made since the late s use headlamp lens-reflector assemblies that are considered a part of the car, and just the bulb is replaced when it fails.

Manufacturers vary the means by which the bulb is accessed and replaced. Headlamp aim must be properly checked and adjusted frequently, for misaimed lamps are dangerous and ineffective. Over time, the headlamp lens can deteriorate. It can become pitted due to abrasion of road sand and pebbles and can crack, admitting water into the headlamp. This is due to oxidation of the painted-on lens hardcoat by ultraviolet light from the sun and the headlamp bulbs.

If it is minor, it can be polished out using a reputable brand of a car polish that is intended for restoring the shine to chalked paint. In more advanced stages, the deterioration extends through the actual plastic material, rendering the headlamp useless and necessitating complete replacement.

Sanding or aggressively polishing the lenses, or plastic headlight restoration , can buy some time, but doing so removes the protective coating from the lens, which when so stripped will deteriorate faster and more severely.

Kits for a quality repair are available that allow the lens to be polished with progressively finer abrasives, and then be sprayed with an aerosol of ultra violet resistant clear coating. The reflector, made out of vaporized aluminum deposited in an extremely thin layer on a metal, glass, or plastic substrate , can become dirty, oxidised, or burnt, and lose its specularity.

This can happen if water enters the headlamp, if bulbs of higher than specified wattage are installed, or simply with age and use. Reflectors thus degraded, if they cannot be cleaned, must be replaced. Dirt buildup on headlamp lenses increases glare to other road users, even at levels too low to reduce seeing performance significantly for the driver.

Some cars have lens cleaners fitted even where the regulations do not require them. Lens cleaning systems come in two main varieties: a small motor-driven rubber wiper or brush conceptually similar to windshield wipers , or a fixed or telescopic high-pressure sprayer which cleans the lenses with a spray of windshield washer fluid. View Download 8. Tags: led navigation lamps search lamps fluorescent lamps strip lamps led spot lamps series position lamps bulb navigation lamps halogen interior lamps.

For over 80 years, Hella marine has been a leading lighting manufacturer. About Hella marine Hella marine is a worldwide marine lighting specialist represented in over 40 countries. Today Hella marine is headquartered in New Zealand - a country with a rich maritime history of boat building and yacht racing success. Hella New Zealand was founded in to manufacture, market and distribute products. Today our company designs and manufactures innovative lighting solutions for the marine, commercial transport and automotive sectors using advanced LED technology.

Over a decade of LED expertise is now being channelled into sophisticated navigation and lighting systems. With these products, Hella marine is a supplier to yacht and powerboat manufacturers, marine re-sellers and commercial fleets around the world.

Auckland, New Zealand. For more details visit www. Approved lamps carry a RINA type approval number. This IMO compliance, together with supplementary national requirements, is listed with each navigation lamp series throughout the catalogue.

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Note Not for road use as light pattern is for right-hand side traffic. The Hella Beamsetter is a precision workshop instrument designed to accurately check vehicle headlamps. It was developed especially for use in professional workshops and vehicle testing stations. The Hella Beamsetter provides high accuracy in lighting checks and is also able to test the latest technology headlamps.

The Beamsetter box, the heart of the unit, is constructed of impact-resistant, corrosion proof plastic which even withstands the aggressive fluids used in workshops. Its functional design allows quick, precise and simple headlamp adjustment. Digital indication of illuminance.

Laser alignment. Height adjustment lever complete with spirit level for uneven floors. Open navigation menu. Close suggestions Search Search. User Settings. Skip carousel. Carousel Previous. Carousel Next. What is Scribd? Uploaded by auricom Document Information click to expand document information Description: hella lighting catalog automotive.

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Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services. Economic literature: papers , articles , software , chapters , books. FRED data. My bibliography Save this article. Registered: Hella Guerchi Mehri. After economic crises happening in many emerging countries, flexible exchange rates became a required theoretical condition helping to target inflation.

Many countries stopped using exchange rate as an anchor for monetary policy and started using inflation targeting framework. They are against high volatility of interest rate allowing speculative attacks and causing free fluctuations of their national currency.