Figure 5. Infieflujunk so. This oval arca is subscqllcnlly simplified and the final result is a vowel diagram. Paris vakm an tods lids do Batista. In Spanish, on the other hund, the connectcd specch.
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All rights reserved. Pheromone dispensers , including organic polymer fibers, described in the crop protection literature: comparison of their innovation potential. Pheromone dispensers , although known in a variety of different designs, are one of the few remaining technical bottlenecks along the way to a sustainable pheromone based strategy in integrated pest management IPM.
Mating disruption with synthetic pheromones is a viable pest management approach. Suitable pheromone dispensers for these mating disruption schemes, however, are lagging behind the general availability of pheromones. Specifically, there is a need for matching the properties of the synthetic pheromones , the release rates suitable for certain insect species, and the environmental requirements of specific crop management.
The "ideal" dispenser should release pheromones at a constant but pre-adjustable rate, should be mechanically applicable, completely biodegradable and thus save the costs for recovering spent dispensers.
These should be made from renewable, cheap organic material, be economically inexpensive, and be toxicologically and eco-toxicologically inert to provide satisfactory solutions for the needs of practicing growers. In favourable cases, they will be economically competitive with conventional pesticide treatments and by far superior in terms of environmental and eco-toxicological suitability. In the course of the last 40 years, mating disruption, a non-toxicological approach, provided proof for its potential in dozens of pest insects of various orders and families.
Applications for IPM in many countries of the industrialized and developing world have been reported. While some dispensers have reached wide circulation, only few of the key performing parameters fit the above requirements ideally and must be approximated with some sacrifice in performance. A fair comparison of the innovation potential of currently available pheromone dispensers is attempted. The authors advance here the use of innovative electrospun organic fibers with dimensions in the "meso" high nano- to low micrometer region.
Due to their unique multitude of adjustable. Recent advances in inkjet dispensing technologies : applications in drug discovery. Inkjet dispensing technology is a promising fabrication methodology widely applied in drug discovery.
The automated programmable characteristics and high-throughput efficiency makes this approach potentially very useful in miniaturizing the design patterns for assays and drug screening. Various custom-made inkjet dispensing systems as well as specialized bio-ink and substrates have been developed and applied to fulfill the increasing demands of basic drug discovery studies.
The incorporation of other modern technologies has further exploited the potential of inkjet dispensing technology in drug discovery and development. This paper reviews and discusses the recent developments and practical applications of inkjet dispensing technology in several areas of drug discovery and development including fundamental assays of cells and proteins, microarrays, biosensors, tissue engineering, basic biological and pharmaceutical studies.
Progression in a number of areas of research including biomaterials, inkjet mechanical systems and modern analytical techniques as well as the exploration and accumulation of profound biological knowledge has enabled different inkjet dispensing technologies to be developed and adapted for high-throughput pattern fabrication and miniaturization. This in turn presents a great opportunity to propel inkjet dispensing technology into drug discovery.
Novel nanoscale pheromone dispenser for more accurate evaluation of Grapholita molesta Lepidoptera: Tortricidae attract-and-kill strategies in the laboratory. Nanotechnology has recently allowed the production of formulations for controlled release of active ingredients. In the present study, the electrospinning technique was used to produce nanoscale dispensers for attract-and-kill strategies.
Non-woven nanofibres containing insecticide cypermethrin and E -8, Z dodecenyl acetate and Z dodecanol 0. Male electroantennographic EAG responses and mortality tarsal-contact and attract-and-kill behavioural cages bioassays were performed for nanofibres with and without insecticide exposed for different periods 21, 42, 63 and 84 days in controlled and non-exposed conditions. There were no significant differences in G.
Nanofibres with pheromone only and with pheromone plus insecticide elicited equal EAG responses. In the attract-and-kill bioassays, mortality ranged from Incorporation of cypermethrin in nanofibres did not interfere with G. Both aspects of the strategy, the attractant and killing effects, were recorded using innovative nanofibres, and long-term effects suggest a controlled release of pheromone and insecticide.
The navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella Walker Lepidoptera: Pyralidae , is a key pest of almonds and pistachios and is sometimes controlled using mating disruption as part of a program of integrated management. The formulation used has a single, nonattractive compound [ 11Z,13Z -hexadecadienal] as the active ingredient that is emitted from timed aerosol dispensers. This study compared this nonattractive, single-compound formulation with two aerosol formulations also containing two additional compounds [ 11Z,13Z -hexadecadienol and 3Z,6Z,9Z,12Z,15Z -tricosapentaene] that are found in the pheromone glands, and that in combination with the aldehyde are attractive in wind-tunnel and field-attraction trials.
Both assays revealed a trend to greater suppression by the more complete pheromone formulations. Each of the formulations significantly reduced damage to Nonpareil almonds. In almonds, there were no significant differences among the formulations in disruption of sexual communication or in damage. These findings suggest that it may be possible to make mating disruption more cost-effective and to achieve higher levels of mating disruption by using attractive aerosol formulations to reduce the number of dispenser per ha.
Such a formulation, however, would be more expensive to register in the United States than pheromones meeting the definition of straight-chain lepidopteran pheromone , including the currently used aldehyde-only formulation.
All-printed capacitors with continuous solution dispensing technology. Printed electronics have been introduced into the commercial markets in recent years. Various printing technologies have emerged aiming to process printed electronic devices with low cost, environmental friendliness, and compatibility with large areas and flexible substrates.
The aim of this study is to propose a continuous solution dispensing technology for processing all-printed thin-film capacitors on glass substrates using a leading-edge printing instrument.
Among all printing technologies , this study provides concrete proof of the following outstanding advantages of this technology : high tolerance to inks, high throughput, low cost, and precise pattern transfers.
Ag nanoparticle ink based on glycol ethers was used to print the electrodes. To obtain dielectric ink, a copolymer powder of poly methyl methacrylate-co-benzoylphenyl methacrylate containing crosslinkable side groups was dissolved in anisole. Various layouts were designed to support multiple electronic applications. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy were used to investigate the all-printed capacitor layers formed using the proposed process. Additionally, the printed capacitors were electrically characterized under direct current and alternating current.
The measured electrical properties of the printed capacitors were consistent with the theoretical results. Acoustic droplet ejection ADE technology uses focused acoustic energy to transfer nanoliter-scale liquid droplets with high precision and accuracy. This noncontact, tipless, low-volume dispensing technology minimizes the possibility of cross-contamination and potentially reduces the costs of reagents and consumables.
To date, acoustic dispensers have mainly been used in screening libraries of compounds. In this paper, we describe the first application of this powerful technology to the rapidly developing field of synthetic biology, for DNA synthesis and assembly at the nanoliter scale using a Labcyte Echo acoustic dispenser.
We were able to successfully downscale PCRs and the popular one-pot DNA assembly methods, Golden Gate and Gibson assemblies, from the microliter to the nanoliter scale with high assembly efficiency, which effectively cut the reagent cost by to fold.
We envision that acoustic dispensing will become an instrumental technology in synthetic biology, in particular in the era of DNA foundries. Pheromone Signalling. Pheromones are chemicals used to communicate with members of the same species. First described in insects, pheromones are often used to attract mates but in social insects, such as ants and bees, pheromone use is much more sophisticated.
For example, ants use pheromones to make foraging trails and the chemical and physical properties of the…. Polymer dispensing and embossing technology for the lens type LED packaging.
This study presents a ring-type micro-structure design on the substrate and its corresponding micro fabrication processes for a lens-type light-emitting diode LED package. The dome-type or crater-type silicone lenses are achieved by a dispensing and embossing process rather than a molding process. Silicone with a high viscosity and thixotropy index is used as the encapsulant material. The ring-type micro structure is adopted to confine the dispensed silicone encapsulant so as to form the packaged lens.
With the architecture and process described, this LED package technology herein has three merits: 1 the flexibility of lens-type LED package designs is enhanced; 2 a dome-type package design is used to enhance the intensity; 3 a crater-type package design is used to enhance the view angle. Measurement results show the ratio between the lens height and lens radius can vary from 0. Three different prototype foam dispensing systems were.
A network collaboration implementing technology to improve medication dispensing and administration in critical access hospitals. We report how seven independent critical access hospitals collaborated with a rural referral hospital to standardize workflow policies and procedures while jointly implementing the same health information technologies HITs to enhance medication care processes. The study hospitals implemented the same electronic health record, computerized provider order entry, pharmacy information systems, automated dispensing cabinets ADC , and barcode medication administration systems.
We conducted interviews and examined project documents to explore factors underlying the successful implementation of ADC and barcode medication administration across the network hospitals.
These included a shared culture of collaboration; strategic sequencing of HIT component implementation; interface among HIT components; strategic placement of ADCs; disciplined use and sharing of workflow analyses linked with HIT applications; planning for workflow efficiencies; acquisition of adequate supply of HIT-related devices; and establishing metrics to monitor HIT use and outcomes. Cell dispensing in low-volume range with the immediate drop-on-demand technology I-DOT.
Handling and dosing of cells comprise the most critical step in the microfabrication of cell-based assay systems for screening and toxicity testing. Therefore, the immediate drop-on-demand technology I-DOT was developed to provide a flexible noncontact liquid handling system enabling dispensing of cells and liquid without the risk of cross-contamination down to a precise volume in the nanoliter range.
Liquid is dispensed from a source plate within nozzles at the bottom by a short compressed air pulse that is given through a quick release valve into the well, thus exceeding the capillary pressure in the nozzle. Droplets of a defined volume can be spotted directly onto microplates or other cell culture devices. We present a study on the performance and biological impact of this technology by applying the cell line MCF-7, human fibroblasts, and human mesenchymal stem cells hMSCs.
For all cell types tested, viability after dispensing is comparable to the control and exhibits similar proliferation rates in the absence of apoptotic cells, and the differentiation potential of hMSCs is not impaired. The immediate drop-on-demand technology enables accurate cell dosage and offers promising potential for single-cell applications. Insectivorous birds eavesdrop on the pheromones of their prey.
Chemical cues play a fundamental role in mate attraction and mate choice. Lepidopteran females, such as the winter moth Operophtera brumata , emit pheromones to attract males in the reproductive period. However, these chemical cues could also be eavesdropped by predators. To our knowledge, no studies have examined whether birds can detect pheromones of their prey. We performed a field experiment aimed to disentangle whether insectivorous birds can exploit the pheromones emitted by their prey for prey location.
We placed artificial larvae and a dispenser on branches of Pyrenean oak trees Quercus pyrenaica. In half of the trees we placed an O. We measured the predation rate of birds on artificial larvae. Our results show that more trees had larvae with signs of avian predation when they contained an O. Furthermore, the proportion of artificial larvae with signs of avian predation was greater in trees that contained the pheromone than in control trees.
Our results indicate that insectivorous birds can exploit the pheromones emitted by moth females to attract males, as a method of prey detection. These results highlight the potential use of insectivorous birds in the biological control of insect pests.
In this paper, we present a disposable inkjet dispenser platform technology and demonstrate the Lab-on-a-Printer concept, an extension of the ubiquitous Lab-on-a-Chip concept, whereby microfluidic modules are directly integrated into the printhead. The concept is demonstrated here through the integration of an inkjet dispenser and a microfluidic mixer enabling control over droplet composition from a single nozzle in real-time during printing.
The inkjet dispenser is based on a modular design platform that enables the low-cost microfluidic component and the more expensive actuation unit to be easily separated, allowing for the optional disposal of the former and reuse of the latter.
To limit satellite droplet formation, a hydrophobic-coated and tapered micronozzle was microfabricated and integrated with the fluidics to realize the dispenser. As a demonstration of the inkjet dispenser function and application, we have printed type I collagen seeded with human liver carcinoma cells cell line HepG2 , to form patterned biological structures.
Promising new technology for managing diamondback moth Lepidoptera: Plutellidae in cabbage with pheromone. Experiments were conducted in plantings of cabbage in spring and to evaluate a novel, new matrix system for delivering sex pheromone to suppress sexual communication by diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L. Field trapping experiments showed that the lure-toxicant combination was highly attractive to male moths for at least four weeks using as little as a 0.
Small field plots of cabbage were treated with the lure-toxicant-matrix combination using droplets of 0. There was no significant difference in the level of suppression of sexual communication of diamondback moth, as measured by captures of males in pheromone -baited traps located in the treated plots, versus moths captured in untreated control plots, among the treatments regardless of droplet size 0.
Plots treated with the smallest droplet size 0. The results indicate that the liquid, viscous, slow release formulation containing diamondback moth pheromone could be used to effectively suppress sexual. Queen pheromones. Group-living species produce signals that alter the behavior and even the physiology of their social partners. Social insects possess especially sophisticated chemical communication systems that govern every aspect of colony life, including the defining feature of eusociality: reproductive division of labor.
Current evidence hints at the central importance of queen pheromones , but progress has been hindered by the fact that such pheromones have only been isolated in honeybees. In a pair of papers on the ant Lasius niger, we identified and investigated a queen pheromone regulating worker sterility. The cuticular hydrocarbon 3-methylhentriacontane 3-MeC31 is correlated with queen maturity and fecundity and workers are also more likely to execute surplus queens that have low amounts of this chemical.
Experiments with synthetic 3-MeC31 found that it inhibits ovarian development in queenless workers and lowers worker aggression towards objects coated with it.
Production of 3-MeC31 by queens was depressed by an experimental immune challenge, and the same chemical was abundant on queenlaid eggs, suggesting that the workers' responses to the queen are conditional on her health and fecundity.
Together with other studies, these results indicate that queen pheromones are honest signals of quality that simultaneously regulate multiple social behaviors. Flexible manufacturing technologies for solid oral dosage forms with a continuous adjustability of the manufactured dose strength are of interest for applications in personalized medicine.
This study explored the feasibility of using microvalve technology for the manufacturing of different solid oral dosage form concepts. Hard gelatin capsules filled with excipients, placebo tablets, and polymer films, placed in hard gelatin capsules after drying, were considered as substrates.
For each concept, a basic understanding of relevant formulation parameters and their impact on dissolution behavior has been established. Suitable matrix formers, present either on the substrate or directly in the drug nanosuspension, proved to be essential to prevent nanoparticle agglomeration of the drug nanoparticles and to ensure a fast dissolution behavior.
Furthermore, convection and radiation drying methods were investigated for the fast drying of drug nanosuspensions dispensed onto polymer films, which were then placed in hard gelatin capsules. Changes in morphology and in drug and matrix former distribution were observed for increasing drying intensity.
However, even fast drying times below 1 min could be realized, while maintaining the nanoparticulate drug structure and a good dissolution behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. Development of a pheromone elution rate physical model. A first principle modeling approach has been applied to available data describing the elution of semiochemicals from pheromone dispensers. These data included field data for 27 products developed by several manufacturers, including homemade devices, as well as environmental chamber data collected on three semiochemical products.
The goal of this effort was to Advanced Medication Dispenser. Directory of Open Access Journals Sweden. Full Text Available Medication dispensing is an important activity that can have major implications if done improperly. Dispensing must be done in the correct time interval, at the correct user, with the correct drug and dose. We propose a smart medication dispenser that can satisfy these needs and provide a mechanism for supervision.
In order to ensure that the dispensing process is error free, the concept of a new smart medication container is used. Based on this information, the actual dispensing is done. In contrary to hormones, which are excreted in organism and have effect exclusively on organism that produced them, pheromones are excreted outside organism and effect on different individuals of the same species. Pheromones mediate nearly all aspects of honeybee colony life including social defence, brood care, mating, orientation, foraging and reproduction.
Pheromone investigation has high economic importance. With use of pheromones it is possible to manipulate with pest insects on crops or to direct honeybees during pollination on target plants. Perceptions of Dispensers Regarding Dispensing Practices in Methods: A qualitative study with snowball sampling technique was used to identify fifteen dispensers working in community pharmacies in Islamabad, Peshawar and Lahore.
Semi-structured interviews were conducted with the dispensers until the point of saturation was obtained. The interviews which focused on three Labelling of equipment dispensers. A new labelling system for use on medical equipment dispensers is tested.
This system uses one of the objects stored in each unit of the dispenser as the 'label', by attaching it to the front of the dispenser with tape. The new system was compared to conventional written labelling by timing subjects asked to select items from two dispensers. Images Fig. Methods: A qualitative study with snowball sampling technique was used to Semi-structured interviews were conducted with the dispensers until the Analysis of the Agrotis segetum pheromone gland transcriptome in the light of sex pheromone biosynthesis.
Moths rely heavily on pheromone communication for mate finding. The pheromone components of most moths are modified from the products of normal fatty acid metabolism by a set of tissue-specific enzymes. The turnip moth, Agrotis segetum uses a series of homologous fatty-alcohol acetate esters Z decenyl, Z dodecenyl, and Z -9 tetradecenyl acetate as its sex pheromone components.
The ratio of the components differs between populations, making this species an interesting subject for studies of the enzymes involved in the biosynthetic pathway and their influence on sex pheromone variation.
Much lower, but still visible, activity on 14C and 12C saturated acids may account for minor pheromone compounds previously observed in the pheromone gland.
The FAR characterized can operate on various unsaturated fatty acids that are the immediate acyl precursors of the different A. None of the putative acetyltransferases that we expressed heterologously did acetylate any of the fatty alcohols tested as substrates.
The massive sequencing technology generates enormous amounts of candidate genes potentially. The gregarious larvae of this pest cause damage by feeding on the tree sapwood, and adults emerge in spring each year.
The aim of this study was to optimize pheromone traps for operational use in management programs. This was achieved by investigating different pheromone blend combinations and trap types for efficacy under field conditions.
Our results confirm that the cross vane bucket funnel trap baited with a We also estimated the release rate and ratios of the pheromone compounds loaded into an artificial permeation dispenser through solid-phase microextraction sampling.
Results showed that the released blend of pheromone compounds mirrored the dispensed ratios relatively accurately and that release rates are affected by temperature. For Permissions, please email: journals. Candida albicans can stochastically switch between two phenotypes, white and opaque.
Opaque cells are the sexually competent form of C. In contrast, white cells cannot mate, but are induced — under a specialized set of conditions — to form biofilms in response to pheromone. In particular, we examined a network of six transcriptional regulators Bcr1, Brg1, Efg1, Tec1, Ndt80, and Rob1 that mediate conventional biofilm formation for their potential roles in pheromone -stimulated biofilm formation.
We show that four of the six transcription factors Bcr1, Brg1, Rob1, and Tec1 promote formation of both conventional and pheromone -stimulated biofilms, indicating they play general roles in cell cohesion and biofilm development. In addition, we identify the master transcriptional regulator of pheromone -stimulated biofilms as C.
Cph1 regulates mating in C. In contrast, Cph1 is dispensable for the formation of conventional biofilms. The regulation of pheromone - stimulated biofilm formation was further investigated by transcriptional profiling and genetic analyses. These studies identified genes that are induced by pheromone signaling during biofilm formation. One of these genes, HGC1, is shown to be required for both conventional and pheromone -stimulated biofilm formation.
Taken together, these observations compare and contrast the regulation of conventional and pheromone -stimulated biofilm formation in C. Short-chain alkanes synergise responses of moth pests to their sex pheromones.
The use of sex pheromones for mating disruption of moth pests of crops is increasing worldwide. Efforts are under way to augment the efficiency and reliability of this control method by adding molecules derived from host plants to the sex attractants in dispensers. We show how attraction of the European grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana Den.
The findings show the promise of using short-chain alkanes as pheromone synergists for mating disruption of insect pests of food crops. Alkane- pheromone combinations are expected to increase the competitiveness of dispensers with females, and to reduce the amount of pheromone needed for the control of these pests. Synthetic sex pheromone attracts the leishmaniasis vector Lutzomyia longipalpis Diptera: Psychodidae to traps in the field. Este tipo de articulaciones son frecuentes en castellano y conveniente distinguirlas nctamentc de las fricativas.
In the first examp "we" - "guitarra" we have to take into aecount two featurcs: a the Spanish sound is a plosive Le. In the second example "wood" - "bueno" it is important to remember that: a the Spanish sound is a plosive Le. So, none of these substitutions is acceptable. Nevertheless, there is a strong tendency to substitute English Iwl for Spanish Ibl when this sound is followed by Iv, u:1 01' even h:1 and ap..
In relation to the Spanish sounds 11, The main characteristics of Spanish liquids are: 1 they represent the maximum opening among consonantal sounds; 2 they dp! Liquids are made up of lateral s and vibrants "vibrantes". Figure 4.
So, Ihey dilTcr in Ihcir phonoloF. The Spanish speaker has to take into aceount that the first sound in the English word "yes" is radieally different fram the first sound in the Spanish word "yo".
In relation to English students, they should pronounce something like [Ij] "million" when trying to pronounce Spanish IIJ. PhoneticalIy, there are 2 allopnones: 1 simple [r] and 1 I. In English there is. So, the word "puerta" is normalIy represented with the archiphoneme IR! It is pronounced as such before vowels or [j], initial 1. It is pronounced as such before consonants, pauses, and Within RP, an English speaker may pronounce a tap in intervocallc [w]: "steel works, cold".
Considerably less devoicing. English phonetic systems:. Consonants occur a lirtle more rrequently in English than in Spanish. A phonetic count shows that Sp. This wOllld be particularly noticcable in IinaI position becausc Spanish words tend to end in vowels some of the slots could be 4.
Distributional table of English 5. Spanish [s] is normally dropped in pre-consonantal and final positions in Argentina, Chile, Central America, aad Andalusia and replaced by [h]. Colombian, Castilian , occurs only before voiced consonants "mismo" ['mizmo]. In the case of the sequences Itrl and! Catalans also produce a dark f. Somctimcs it is simplifico "u" , "qu" when followed by "e" or "i" and "k" foreign to [s]. Somctimes it IS. Here is a list of some common silent lerters:.
Match the initial sounds of each word in the left-hand column with the initial sound of a word in the right-hand column: 5. Match the final consonant of each word in the left-hand column 3. An example is given. What are the words? What are they? Kreidler, I Adapted from 9. Jedge think Ruth wet [b] ys. We wcnt rOl' a walk in lhc woods nellr lhc railway.
Gwen: Wasn't it cold on Wednesday? We wore warm [j] vs. Wendy: Yes. Further away from the railway it was very [b] vs. We counted twenty squirrels.
Twenty squirrels! And did you take lunch with you? About twelve we had veal sandwiches and 4. Ask a non-native speaker ofSpanish to read aloud the following sweet white wine, and we watched the squirrels.
Then, study the different realisations of the phonemes It was a very nice walk. Ask two non-nativc spcakcrs of English to rcad aloud the following dialogue. Fill in the following sentences with the suitable letters. Then, d. The sound Ir! English Irl is an sound and. There are pIaces in Spain and Latin America where 2.
Tanto ale el hom re cuanto vale su nom re. The voiced palatal fricative ] is realised as such when it. Nasals are also calletl. In the scale of prommence, are. Complcte the foIlowing: 9. FiIl in the blanks in the following text to obtain a summary of the major difficulties Spanish people have when producing English a. The Iwl and the Ijl are approximants in English and consonants. Brooks, 10 Spanish. I I does not exist in Spanish and is wrongly replaced by b.
The allophones [0,O,y] can be called or I I and I l. The English Irl is an whereas the consonants consonant clusters than Spanish, these only. Spanish Ir! Attempts to produce this cause difficulties for the Spanish speaker when they. Even a cluster af. Ihl docs not normally occur in and is lO.
Arc thc following statclllcnts trtlc or fldsc? Corn:ct any t'alsc statCI11cnt. The palato-alveolar I I does not occur in. ItI and Id! Whereas Spanish is a phonetic language, the relationship between J. For this reason, vowel sounds are generally learnt auditorily. X- ray photographs of the tongue are used to show the different positions of the tOI gue.
Differences in "yowel Quality," are due to variations produced by ehanging the shape of the mOllth resonator Finch and Ortiz Lira, This oval arca is subscqllcnlly simplified and the final result is a vowel diagram. Finch and Ortiz Lira 12 illustrate this in the foIlowing figures:.
For the tongue during the articulation of the vowels of a given language. AS the vowel sound system is small, we use a tTiangle like Spanish 76; ifit is Carr states: Jarge, we use a trapezium like English.
According to Mott, this English tendcncy towards diphthongisation exrlajns the development of some present-day English diphthongs. Mott Figure 2 ] ]9 expJains that:. The vowel sounds of English and Spanish share two common characteristics: they are voiced sounds i.
Thc l1]outh. In some cases, vowel sounds could be "devoiced" and origin 01' these diphthongs is to be found in diphthongisation 01' "nasalii'. Aspiration in English is heard as a kind 01' voiceless vowel. In relation to nasalization, we can find nasalized vowel sounds within words 01' at word boundaries in English.
This is possible when the vowel sound is followed 01' preceded. Vowels and Diphthongs Vowels and Diphthongs. SH Spanish by English speakers. So, they tend to diphthongise Spanish [-e] and [-o], or use [-i] instead of [-et.
Thus, "libre" ['li13re] is articulated as ['1 i: breI] Finally, English and Spanish vowels begin and end very differently. According to Mott : Figure 3. In the articulation of English vowels the vibration of the vocal rolds bcgins abruptly and dies away slowly.
On lhc olhcr hand, in 6. This means that In the fol1owing chart Finch and Ortiz Lira i 42 show some English vowels, especially syllable-initial ones, are preceded by a correspondences between the Spanish and the English vowel systems.
As it can be seen in the above ehart, there are some important differenees h. It is the typical.. The learner should take eare and vowels twelve vs. C'L 'r. This will imply the e 10, can be elieited by produeing opener and closer separation of qualities, e. According to Finch and Ortiz Lira , there are 3 important g 1'd,3 :,a:1 must be praetised with spread lips; lul with loosely points concerning vowel quality whieh any Spanish learner should take into account when leaming English vowels: rounded lips; with open lip-rounding, and with close lip-rounding.
Spelling r is to differences and the student will need good practice. The leamer will be pronounced only when a vowel sound follows it.
From a physiological or articulatory point ofview, Spanish vowels can be elassified according to the different functions ofthe articulatory organs as 2. English le 3 ,I,ul deserve special attention duc to the high well as the different. New vowel qualities can be taught 1. Manner of articulation: providing a sound at an intermediate point between two already known vowel qualities. English vs thirteen in Spanish. If the tongue keeps away from the palate, we get the vowels Icl and HO There are no miel-central vowcls in the Spanish vowel system.
If the tongue ke. In Spanish both lul and are back vowels "vocales posteriores o velares". I II Generally speaking, back vowels are usually pronounced with rounded or. Thus lul and are rounded, whereas liI, lel and la!
I j We can also take into account some other factors such as: nasalization,. Spanish vowels are oral, they can: be nasalizcd in ccrtain contexts. So, the vowel sdunds in words such as the Spanish set of vowe]s as we do for English.
The English language "infiel" or "mente" are nasalized. Finally, approximates to the palate, we talk about "front vowels" or only in very specific contexts can we talk about "relaxed vowels" palatal vowels. Length or quantity: Length is not a distinctive feature in the Spanish vowel system. The vowcl la! The English vowel inventory includes seven short vowels all pure and d "Cuando concurren dos vocales iguales de las que la primera es five long vowels.
Examples: 'free, beaf, peace, mean '. The lip position is neutral. Examples: normal tiende a suprimirse, apareciendo el sonido resultante con la misma 'hird, Jan, girl, pllrse'. Thc lips are held close together. Examples: 'board, fom, horse'. Vowels and Diphthongs. Clase to CY 2. Examples: 'ship, bit, pin,jish'. Examples: 'leg, bet, men, yes'. Examples: 'dog, pot, gone, eross'. Figure 5. Examplcs: 'eat, man, gas, bat'.
They are almost half-clase. Examples: 'put, pul! If a diphthong is closing that l1leans that the glide 11l0ves towards a. I1gs Vowc! All English diphthongs are generall ' falling. Spanish diphthongs can be falling or rising: all Spanish falling diphthongs are closing, and most Spanish rising diphthongs are opening. English diphthongs Mott, 67 : Figure 8.
There are two types of diphthongs in Spanish: 1 rising diphthongs Figure 6 "diptongos crecientes" and 2 falling diphthongs "diptongos decrecientes". Figure 7,. When there are three instead 01' just two consecutive vocalic elements in a In this way, we have the following rising diphthongs in Spanish: [ja, je, syllable, this is call a "triphthong" "triptollgo". When the articulatoria. On the other hand, falling diphthongs are described as Quilis and n.
In this way, Spanish scmivowcls b Closing diphthongs: Thcse diphthongs haJeI the characteristic that and semieonsonants are vowel allophones. The distinction between they al! This is possible in three main circumstances Gimson, :. As a separable element in a composite form: "nowadays" First of all, it has to be mentioned that the frequcncy 01' occtI! Secondly, whereas Spanish shows a high frequency of occurrence of the Ncvcrthelcss, there is a tcndency in rapid and advanccd RP to omit the three most open vowels la,e,ol totallillg This process is known as "smoothing".
We refer to this phenomenon as "hiatus" "hiato". This is also true for the sequences of vowels [eo,oe], [ea,oa,ae,ao]. Sach vowel in a sequence constitutes a syllabic nucleus, thus not forming a 6. Some examples are: "veo, poeta, lea, toalla, caer" ane! Frequently in casual speech those vowels that constitute the The most important allophonic vanatlons are related to differences in "hiatus" are pronounced together in a syllable.
In relation o he English vowcls, mio" alld "rcal". In this way, we can establish FinalIy, when two consecutive vowels belonging to two different words are pronounced together, that.
Regarding the three Spanish vowels la,e,ol, they undergo the following Whereas the relationship between phonology and orthography is quite quality variations: straightforward and predictable in Spanish, the situation is quite different in English. When followed by a consonant: "Ybarra'f. In word final position: "rey". In tbis context, it is prollOllllccd as a. At word final position you can use "i" or ''y''. Words ending in "y" have two possible plural forms: "-y es" and "-is".
If it uoeais! You also have a silcnt vowcllcttcr in Spanish. This is the leltcr "u" when preceded by "g" and followed by "e" and "i": "guerra" [gera], "guiso" [giso]. In c10sed syIlables, tense voweIs can be signaIled by the use of a voweI digraph92 before the final consonant: eat, meet, boot, boat, bgil, The relationship between sound and spelling is much more complex in boil, bawl, bowI This complexity is mainly due to the distinction between lax 4.
In open syllabIes, tense vowels are signalled through the use of a short and tense vowels long pure vowels and diphthongs.
In closed to Celce-Murcia, Brinton and Goodwin 91 there are four main syllabIes, tense vowels can be signalled with a vowel digraph ending mIes which heIp us to guess the pronunciation ofvoweIs: in w: howI, dawn, sewn. Lax sounds are often spelled with a vowel letter followed by at least To sum up, in English: one consonant lettcr VC. Tense vowels are often spelled with a vowel lettcr followed by a consonant plus a word-final sitent "e" a The same vowel phoneme is usually representcd by several VCe : spellings.
Example: "a": cute Iju:1 "that" and "many". There are nurncrolls 1 See also Dickerson A Put your own vowels in the first chart, using a set of words. Do YOll think that thcrc are homophones in Spanish. I f possibk name five provide the transcription :. Circle the English words that Compare the vowels in the English words "car, cart, calm, cat" to the vowels in the Spanish words "carpintero, cateto, camilla", do!
Is there any diffcrcncc? Now y Con! Do you notice something special in connection to the previous words? Each of the following transcriptions represents a set ofEnglish homophones, write the words they represent: else - Eddie - edgy - mine - ate - her.
Transcribe the following Spanish words: e. Yerno: f.. Ybarra: g. Say whether thc following statclllents are true or false: I k ' Brookes Pronollnce English. I:ml must not be assimilated tothe open, lax back vowel I l. It is very hard to define a syllabJe scientifically in phonetic terms because no one knows what physical action of the speaker creates a syllable.
So, most scholars W;ll try to define a syllable in phonological terms. But this is a phonological explanation, not a phonetic one. Gimson mentions different theories which try to define the syllable:,. Different languages have different kinds of syIJable structure.
When there is no coda that is an. A branching nuc! The verb "sit" is an example of a non-branching nucIeus and the veros "seat" and "sail" have Syllabic consonants are very common in English.
In contrast, we can a branching nllclellS. The peak and coda are ealled the rhyme. It is paradoxical that English speakers pronounce words such as "canoe" Delattre offers the following fcnlures for the four l11os1frcqtlcnt with a sy!
As Spanish Carr explains: "The English strllcturc important arc point dcfincd to be in made tcrms hereof ispcrmissiblc phono! According to the. In words such as "spray" thc 97 Only in rhotic accents.
As we may remember, 4. Coda consonants are much more likely to undergo loss of the sonority scale takes the following form articulation in the course of the historical development of languages than onset consonants. There are no known languages which have VC-type syllabIes but High vawels lack CV -typc syllables, whcreas the reverse is not the case Approximants N asals There are some important phonotactic restrictions in English: V oiced fricatives V oiceless fricatives l.
Voiced stops 2. Voiceless stops 3. The Maximal Onset principIe predicts that " IfJI and b. Finally: a. But the Maximal Onset principIe predicts that only i the first aptian is the correcto This principIe is connected with a universal i fact: "that syllables with an onset consonant are in some sense more basic than those withaut, and that presence of onset cansonants is in some 7.
CV-type syllabIes appear to be the syllablc types that human l. In contrast to these vowels which can 3. Languages which have both onset and coda consonants typically occur word finaJly are called "free" vowels. In Spahish they are called "vocal allow for a wider range of consonants to occur in onset position trabada" and "vocal libre". There are syIlable-initial position: "enthusiasm, argue, language".
But [Jj-] is preferred as in: "shriek, 1. English does not allow two labial consonants in initial groups: "pueblo, bwana, foie gras, voyeur". Machuca 65 : "ins. AIthough , -n, -r, -s, -8, -d, -xl can appear in. Ipr-, tr-, kr-, br-, dr-, gr-, fr-, p! W e can also find three-consonant clusters in English.
The most cornrnon word in which it occurs is square". FinaIly, in the same way that there are no groups Isl plus consonant in Spanish, there are not Isl plus two consonant clusters. Finally, final plosives of foreign words like "club, autostop, light, chip, spot" are either weakened or elided IOH Mott 1' Also at word boundaries: "las ranas". Also at word boundaries: "un a. CCY: If the second consonant is an "1" 01' an "r", both vino".
CV: If the second consonant is neither an "1" nor an "1''', pronounced as [afYo]. So, the first one is the coda of he preceding syIlaDe and the second is the Spanish very often simplifies intrasyllabic groups by weakening the first onset of the foIlowing syllable: "este" "es.
YCCCY: 2. VCnY: If two vowels are separated by a consonant cluster ,syJlable divisiol1 depends what consonants are in the cluster: a.
CnY: If the cluster is of the type which can occur word "comprar" "com. CY: Ifthe second consonant is an "s", the flrst and the is part of the syllable with the strong vowel: "decline" second are the coda o'f the preceding syllabIe: "inspirar" IdI. CCY: The flrst and the second consonant form a c. In English, when we flnd one or several consonants in an intrasyllabic position, we have to take into accoullt several rules in order to know how 7. VCV: immediately precede and follow it even at word boundaries.
CY: If one consonant occurs between two vowels and and In! On the other the second vowel is strOr. Finally, the IV Fernando Vidal M6ndez. IN rac an revista musical intitula- do Mariana.. Nuarferomas in jeres entre Ina deselp Se he impuesto el Intere-te esper. Ddam too OpocnA me be in loved a co.
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Interesante libror S. Cienfuegos y efftik eircuaindo prolun. Habeas me he bech c' rgo ju memory, do Idu Ira uys Xdmdas.. CU A product. U chora, senin i En ou noche do made brindulk nuestro inUximo Centro de diversion In nlIvom, suyas mediante much" en 1 "'. Tarabi6n durante Is comida Iss lia. Ang:i Blanco de animator Y Sin recargos Ving Marty orij y Re"rvaciones de means; at maltre Pida informes. Mid, I ' -Ll"on gordoe y coloredos. I Isar el ministry tie Agriculture me sim bolv iel-vigor de un6 Ta2d he dispuesto boy el intremo an Ia I i decors on lag playas.
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The jirst ten chapters 8. In fact, the first two chapters dea! Each chapter includes a final section of 9. Finally, the last 9. Her suggestions and ideas wcrc of grcat hclp. When a child acquires his Ll first language , he normally attains an excellent phonological competence. However, when an adult acquires his L2 a second or foreign language , it is possible that he may obtain a good phonological competence, but it is more than likely that he will have a noticeable foreign accent which will not disappear except in the case somc speakers, after many years of cxpcrience.
During lhe 's many studies showed the sleps which a speaker follows when learning an LI and an L2. There are several different theories, which complement each other rather than oppose each other. The first thing we have to take into account is that when a child goes to!
When a baby starts to talk, he do es so by hearing the sounds his I parents make and then imitating them. So, obviously, we can observe a I! A child develops his '1 pronunciatignJro1! Lhis developing perceptual system. At first, all babies I produce common babblings,lITespective of what language they hear. Six months later, they start to babble in a different way depending on the spec. But sound and Idl is a plosive voiced sound, in Spanish both of them are when a child says something Iike: "My mommy love me", he do es not dental sounds whereas in English they are aIveolar.
O'Connor also explains that the sounds of our native language do IlO! So, Ihe O! O'Connor compares these sOllnd-units habits of our native languagc have so strongly huilt up. We do to boxes ami explains that : this by establishing l1ew ways of using our speech organs, new speech habits.
O'Connor, ] Apart from the L2 and the 11, it is necessary to mention a third "type of Should this language be called an L2.? It is generally agreed that this language" called Interlanguage2 IL. According to Lightbown and' language is an L2 because mainly in phonology the acquisition of an L! Spada an IL can be defined as: is almost always completed when the child is 4 or 5 years old.
However, it is very difficult to reach a universal agreement about this. McLaughlin states that if a child acquires two languages before he is 3, it The leamer's developing second language knowledge. It may could be said that he has acquired two L! And if this have characteristics of the learner's first language, characteristics process takes place after he is 3, he would have acquired an Ll AND an of the second language, and some characteristics which seem to L2 in a succession.
But this is just one theory. There are cases of be very general and tend to occur in all or most interlanguage influences of an L1 over another language an L2?
That is why some authors say that 3 is too dynamic, continually evolving as leamers receive more input and late. The results showcd Ihat Spanish- dominan! The phonology ofthis IL is much simplcr than There are two types of acquisition of an L2: guidcd and non-guided or that of the L2.
So, we may find cases of substitutions of some natural. The first one is related to the learning of a foreign language in a sounds for others, elisions mainly consonants , insertions, etc. When b There are similarities between the ILs of different learners; in talking about this type of acquisition, so me authors use the term "to fact they can be grouped according to the L 1. The second s related to a natural context without a teacher c There are important differences in the pronunciation of the same or pedagogical orientation; in this context, the leamer belongs to the speaker.
This situation is similar to the d This process learning this L2 normally stops at some point and acquisition of an 11 and for this reason the term "to acquire" an L2 is we speak of fossilization. As Selinker states: normally used. In fact, some authors only use the term "second language" in this situation, that' is, when the student is living in the speech community of this, L2; andothey prefer to use the term "foreign.
The dirfercnccs betwecn thc two altcmativcs consistcd ofphoncmic contrasts cxisting 2This tcrm was first introduccd by Sclinkcr Scc also: Brown , in Catalan but not in Spanish. This is something typical of phonology and not eommon to syntax, a any L2 learner acquires voieed obstruents in initial position morphology or semanties.
Although we may be approaehing more and. English Ir! One way or the other, we must remember that there are consonants may pronour.. According to Major :4 : "oo.
Aeeording to Chomsky and his followers, Universal The term markedness is a key factor when talking about universals. It is Grammar. UG is composed of principies and parametcrs. Haegeman common to both Ll and L2 acquisition and it is based on implicational 14 postulates the following lwo properlies 01' UG: say that "x is more marked than y if the presenee 01' x implics the.
O UG eontains a set of absolute universals, notions and ,1 lhierarChies presenee ofandy frequency but not viee versa. For these phenomena. For example, in Ll aequisition, it seems that ehildren acquire properties a range of choiees is offered by UG. One parameter front unrounded vowels before front rounded ones and, in L2 acquisition, along which languages vary concems word-order. Spanish-speaking learners of English modify three-member onsets more frcquently than lwo-mcmbcr onscts Carlislc, We can find this process either!
It is a matter of fact that it will be much easier to learn I in consonant clusters 01' just in final consonants. For example I those elements which are similar to Ll positive transfer and much I more difficult to learn those which are different negative transfer. In the same way, cases 1. Tarone has found that both fact, this negative transfer 01' "interference" is the origin of the!
Onc cxamplc when cOll1paring the Spanish a! Haugen terrned sound substitution as simple identifieation. An English speaker would normally use the velar [ 1] when trying to' pronounce a Spanish clear  in 3 Elisions of unstressed syllables, reduplication 01' harmony are postsyIlabic position.
Contrary to what we find in the 3 Overdifferentiation: It refers to those cases where two acquisition of an, Ll, an L2 do es not start with very simple phonemes of Ll correspond to one single phoneme in L2. When the strvd:ure CV. They are dcscribcd in Major Spanish English 5 Reinterpretation of Distinctions: Whereas some features can be considered primary and distinctive, others can be regarded as [b] : bilabial, voiced, plosive In German, the opposite occurs, "bieten" [bi:t;m] vs. It 6 Phonotactic Intcrfcrcncc: It rcfers to differences in syllable seems that this one presents more problems than and word structures.
For example, although in English it is very overdifferentiation. For this reason, Wardhaugh proposed a to be an essential requisite in the development ofthis ability. Oller and Ziahosseiny speakers ofthe language being learnt. There are psycholinguistic Nowadays, there are still numerous studiesl3 which, although insisting reasons which support this idea. It isbelieved that human beings process on the importance of transfers, recognise other factors. AdditionaIJy, some authors such as Mackey or Tarone This situation is synonymous with a of learners.
Mackey shows h9W the non-existence of the person whose foreign accent is so heavy that he or she is onIy phoneme in the French and Spanish phonological system do es not using their L1 phonology; that is, the speaker is reaIly speaking explain the reason why some speakers produce Isl or IzJ and others ItI or the 11 with Lan words. Major, Idl when attempting to produce this sound. Apart from the native language, J.
These are: physically similar to one ofthe native language or is distributed similarly, it will not be a problem. But when a sound is different, it must be learned as a different sound. According lo this modcl, when a learner is trying to understand any aspect of the language, first of all he has to pay attenlion to it. Richard 12 This topic will be discussed at greater length in Ihe next seclion.
Thcrc is more. Schmidt supports the idea that every linguistic aspect we learn is first research against than in favour ofthis statement. Then we take each phoneme of the target iii Are the phol1emes and their variants similady distributed? Although i Does the native language have a phonetically similar phoneme?
So, it iii Are the phonemes and their variants similarly distributed? In the same way, although the combinations [sp,sk,st,sm,sn,sl] are possible both in English and Spanish, they do not occur initially in i Does the native language have a phoneticalIy similar phoneme?
If there is to the same syllable. For this reason, when the Spanish student of English similar phoneme from the native stock will be used by the leamer. That is tries to pronounce a word such as "study", he will produce "es-tudy". The Spanish speaker will normally omit it15 or substitute it for! Other new sounds for the Spanish student of English iv What is the functionalload of each phoneme? Sounds which are completely new and which cannot be We can say that a phoneme has a low functionalload when its occurrence compared to any sound Le.
That is the case of the language e. One example is the fricative aIlophone [ 5 ] of the Spanish plosive Id!. To conclude this section, let us look at the results of a very interesting In fact, the plosive realisation of the phoneme Id! But in English there are two phonemes and Id!
The results are shown in find minimal pairs such as "breeding" and "breathing". A Spanish Cuenca : speaker will probably pronounce both words with the sound . The best way to start this section is to offer Major's definition 3. Use of the paIatal affricate instead of the English palato-alveolar fricative: "she, share". The ovcrall impression 6. Use of the "think, dental 17plosive lhollght" 8.
L 'J,-'P. The besl wuy lo delccl u roreign or NN accenl is by lislening lo un 9. In contrast to this, in syntax or semantics it is Major names lhe example 01' Henry Kissingerl9, a German Use 01' lhe voiceless labio-dental fricative instead of the voiccd one: immigrant to the United States wel1 known for his eloquent use 01'.
Nevertheless, there seem to be contrastive views on. I -'-t ami Nozawa, ; Markham, 1 97 who claim lhal nalivclike. According to for a Spanish one whieh is rather similar. The Critical Period Hypothesis claims that a person must be exposed to a language during a certain period oftime also called Looking at this table, the first obvious concIusion is that adolescents and sensitive period for those more sensitive to the term critica!
Overall, it was order to acquire that language natively; otherwise, if exposed to the adolescents who reached the best levels of performance. As this that language after the critical period CP , nativelike competence seemed to chaIlenge the Critical Period Hypothesis, Snow and cannot be achieved. A large number of tasks was used: I pronunciation; 2 adults and adolescents if their exposure to the language', auditory discrimination test; 3 morphology; 4 sentence repctition; 5 takes place in contexts where they are surroundcd by the scntencc translation; 6 sentence judgement task; 7 Peabody Picture language on a daijy basis.
Adults and adolescents may V ocabulary test; 8 story comprehension task; and 9 storyteIling task. Lightbown and Spada show the rcsults or this prol'. Although the CP was first proposed for L1 acquisition, it was soon extended to explain L2 acquisition. Most studies carried out in this field Long, ; Major, ; Neufeld, ; Patkowski, suggest that there is a CP in phonology Le. However, there is no general agreement as to when this CP ends. Some authors say that it lasts up to puberty but others claim that this is too late and suggest the age of six 01' seven.
A1thQugh evidence is mixed regarding the existence 01' not of 20 They studicd English speakcrs Icarning Dutch. Evel1 though there may be a small l1umbcr of older 21 When they taok their first tests they had been working 01' attending schaal far '--" learners who attain nativelike phonology thus calling into no more than six weeks. H Fnr cxamplc: scnlcncc Irnnslntion or jlldgemcnt. Magen studied two nativc Spanish speakcrs of fluent but heavily accented English and tried to assess the contribution of various phonetic and phonological factors to the perception of global foreign accent.
The following factors were consideredto contribute to the perception of this 2. Teaching how stop voicing , and 4 those affecting stress Iexical stress and phrasal to pronounce an L2 is not a simple task and it demands especial artention stress. Somehow surprisingly, thc results revealcd that native English- I to both the functional and emotional factors that charactcrize the process of speaking.
Thcse consonant ll1anncr. When there is any kind of visual aid, whether wrirten or with images, we describe that speech as being controlled. The degree of control goes from minimal for example, whcn a speaker uses slides lo follow a line in a presentation to total when we read a tale to a child. This is an important aspect to remember bccDusc.
Such a long proeess in the case of the Ll really determines the way we 2. The Kelly considered pronunciation the "cinderelIa" of foreign same happens with the phonology of the language, the more we hear and language teaching.
The truth is that pronunciation has becn and stil1 is not practice some specifie sounds, the more prepared we are to produce those really considered important for language teachers who usual1y care more sounds.
That is the reason whylittle children go through a preparatory for the leaming of syntax and vocabulary. However, pronunciation process that begins with bubbling and passes through adaptation and teaching has a "place in the history" of pronunciation and different regularization processes where they mispronounce or shift syllables. In the folIowing Similar processes sholllcl be expectecl from lcarncrs of an 1.
First, the L2 is often considered a forcign languagc special trcatment shollld be given to the case of bilingunlisl11, bullhal willnol be our concern here. Many times, the foreign language is only used at school before it is actually Following the intuitive-imitative26 approach, teachers in the s and used in a real communicative situation.
First, the teacher was the constructed on the basis of the Ll. For example, many kids do not! AII these could listen to other sources of information. The main idea behind this special connotations: the functionality and the 1earning process of the L2 approach was that the L2 had to be learnt fol1owing natural mcthods that will determine how we approach the teaching of pronunciation.
In this course, wc wilI concentrate on how to teach the pronunciation of an L2 in the cIassroom. We will not, therefore, consider the case of biIingllals. We will analyse differcnt approaches and Illcthodologics and. Extralinguislic sounds can also communicate but they are not used lo make up words. In this sense, much of thc Codrastive Phonetics theory that we witnessed the first analytic-linguistic27 contribution to pronunciation.
Important phoneticians, such as Henry Sweet, Wilhelm Vietor :; pronunciation teaching, as we shall see. The last revision dates from This was, of course, done complementation of both the imitative and the analytic approaches. This at levels where students could already manage the written form In their complementation has increasingly developed new teaching own language. In the case of the English language, the alphabet is really methodologies that progressively integrate techniques inspired by both useful considering the gap that exists between thespelling and the perspectives.
The first one is traced in the United States with pronunciation. The teacher or a recording machine models a sound influenced pronunciation teaching enonnously and has created a whole that the student has to imitate and rcpeat. Howevcr, the teacher usualIy philosophy where the arca of Phonetics has also devcIoped incrcdibly.
This techniquc had such a huge impact on language teaching that they have modified the folIows the definition of the phoneme as being a distinctive sour:d unit w,hole concept of pronunciation teaching. The main consequence has Bloomfield and is used in both listening and speaking practice. In instructional settings, C1. Ouring this period, pronunciation in the sense that it was considered teaching was impossibk rOl" ,.
Phonology was seen as a rule-govemed behaviour , c! Considering that cognitive psychology Other approaches in pronunciation teaching are more related to the so- Neisser also defended the idea of an L1 goveming every area of called affective language learning. The so-called affective language linguistic competence, including phonology, this decade was not very learning approach takes into account emotional!
AfTcctive langllage learning, which is pragressivcly acquisition of syntactic and lexical structures. One of the reason for the o-. For the developing of speaking ski lIs, affective faetors are both listcning and rcading more than thc Jcarning of active skills very important if we acccpt the idea that spontaneous speaking transmits writing and, in our casc, spcaking. Lcarning to spcak and improve thc our most inner feelings and thoughts.
A methodological approach [hat student's pronunciation demands the creation of a more naturalistic do es not consider how to motivate, and enhance personal skills towards environment and the provision of real material, which challenge the communication is bound to fail. More and more, pronunciation teachcrs capabilities ofthe school organization. LQJl,Je c. Speaking is dircct and implies a interaction. If we want to make the most of our students'.
In the s teaching. Special attention is also paid to one's limitations and creativity. In this respect, the Silent Way mllst be considered very similar to Much of the philosophy that inspired affective language learning is also the Direct Mcthod. The main difference being that in this case, the bchind the present-day concern for both edllcationaJ authorities and teaeher does not rnakc use of the phonetie alphabet or any other lingllistic teachers to dcsign teaching programs that are learner-centred.
The explanalory aid: the attention is foclised on the sound system alone. Icarncr-ccntrcd tcaching emphasizes the necessity to shapc the tcaching Typical in this method are the sound-colour chart, the Fidel charts, word methodology so that is adapts to each student in particular Thus, charts, and colourcd rods that help represent both language and reality 29 particular capabilities, skills and levels of competence are considered,.
In the case of pronunciation teaching, as we will see in the rollowing section, ihis is imperative. I , he goals hey aim to. In the ficld 01' ,! The opposite can be true for another student. On the other hand, and as a consequence of what has just been said, our students will have different takes place. One specific element of A diagnostic test implies three different stages: pronunciation teaching that makes it radically different from other areas in the leaming of an L2 is the evaluation process.
In the case of pronunciation teaching, evaluation is not only a necessary tool, but it is i Design ofthe test present at every singlE? A diagnostic test usually consists of different exercises to check the The following section will analyse evaluation and, more specifically student's pronunciation of the L2.
How do we select the material to be initial evaluation, in the pronunciation classroom. Several elements must be considered:. J DlagJlostic tcsts intcrl11cdiatc, advanccd, cte.
As stated SR0t1! The objective of the diagnostic test is, therefore, in the country where the foreign language is spoken , to the double: instructional setting some courses are restricted to professionals, lo schoolchiJdren, etc. If source and the target systems. It particularly serves', to include concrete elements to be evaluated: some particular vowels, some Qi!
These elements. We must remember that the function of the. Tllc pllollclician allalyscs lllc sOlllld syslcl11 01' tllc Icarner in vcry gcncral phcnolllcna will bc considcrcd rol' hc ltIaterial lo be conlrast with tllc sound systcm 01' the larget language and cstablislles a includcd in the diagnostic test.
Thc rcsulls 01' Ihis inilial cvalualion will series of milestones to be achieved. That is, a typology of errors are determine which individual aspects' are reaJ]y weak points for our established that may prevent the acquisition of the target sounds by students and which ones are already.
This is the most difficult inscrling mothcr tongue sounds on a gradation. These errors can be of task: selecting exercises that will let our students freely show how they dilTcrcnt kinds: perform on difTerent aspects ofthe language, so that we can then establish a gradation that will let LISknow where the degree of aceeptabilily, the a Errors at the segrnental level Le.
Alter tlle constructs diagnostic test, we must be able to know whether an initial objective is b Errors at the suprasegmentaI level both stress rhythm and realistic or not, to what extent, lInder which circumstances, and not only intonation how each student perform each tested element. Depending on the age and level of our students, the prior.
J of the eourse: Novicc basie lose their advaneed-plus intcrrncdiate-low, novicc-low, Consonants foreign ofPhoneties, eommunieation, spccch V owcls novicc-mid, cte. Before we are even ready to start speaking our mother tongue, a lot of prior training has taken place in the fonn of passive activity i.
The same happens in the case ofthe foreign language leaming: young students must be exposed to a 10t of listening input. If we will have to face similar activities in the classraom, the diagnostic test is the moment when our students' listening skilIs will have to be evaluated. Listening requires as much training as speaking, but it is even more important.
Considering that we first necd to crcate 01' so it seems to general abstract patterns in our mind before we are uble to produce an output, the skill of pronunciation in the L2 demands a lot of listening so that we can:. The diagnostic test must also include both spontaneous and controlled speech activities.
As it happens with the dichotomy speaking vs. The most important part in the process of a diagnosis evaluation is that of The recording of the interview is necessary ,so that the teacher can the delivery of the test. This stage consists in' giving the evaluatc the studcnt's results afier the intervicw has actualIy takcn place.
For this stage, 1t is now when notes have to be taken. Many: teachers design specific affective-Ianguage learning factors will be seriously analysed, so that evaluation sheets where they annotate evt:ry single aspect on the student's we can be sure and certain that the data we are colIecting actually reflects performance. These sheets are usualIy very descriptive on which the the reallevel of competence of our students.
They should be designed in a way so that there can be established an easy comparison between students. That will help Experts usually advised on creating the ideal environment so that the in the process of redefining and specifying the course objectives.
This is not and objectives,which will be different from student to student. The possible ifthe data is not filed, thus allowing for revision and re-analysis.
The teacher should be careful with the layout ofthe recording learning. It is advisable to Consonant diserimination evaluate one student at a time students many times feel shy when they Vowcl Consonant discriminalion Consonant Word Intonation Prominence stress elustcrs diserimination Rhythm Reduced speeeh speak in front of their peer.
Thc student should not see this process as a prize-punishment exercise but rather as a fun and creative activity. They should not even know what is the purpose ofthe test beforehand. That will prevent a fiuent conversation between the teacher and the student as well as it will create a sense of severe criticism on what the student is performing even if the notes indicate a successful achievement!
However, continuous evaluation is essential if we can stay at the leamer-centred methodological point. Students will develop their skills in different ways and redirection and redefinition wiU be needed throughout the process.
The leaming of 3. Linguistics is that area of research that analyses human language and human communication, rrom any perspective. In our case, the interest is During final evaluation, the results of the initial test wiII be analysed and to study the sounds of the language.
So, in the following paragraphs, we wil! Phonology is the description of the systems and pattems of sounds that oecur in a language.
The systcm of sounds we already know means the set of sounds that are characteristic of each language, whereas the pattems of sounds means the combination of these sounds and other features related, for example, to intonation. Because each language presents its unique set of sounds, these sounds are said to be distinctivc sounds. To be distinctive means that e. For that reason, the first task of Phonology is to determine which sounds can convey a difference in meaning.
Sounds in this sense are also known as phonclIlcs. For example, in Spanish we can pronounce the word "solo" in 2 ways lit leas! I dex. So the ehange in this the articulation actually takes place. However, the same consonant is pronounced Phonetics. The phoneme is not a single sound, but a group a "family" of sounds. Phonemes are abstraet units.
Phonctics is, thcrcforc, closcr to what spcakcrs of English do whcn thcy Within Articulatory Phonetics rcsearchers lIsllal1y study the different pronounce English.
It is interesting to note, however, that English parts and activities of the vocal traet and the sounds that can be speakers are normally not aware of allophones. They would say that the produced there: vowels and consonants.
Using offer the following figure: wrong phonemes will make your English sound intelligible. Using wrong allophones will make your English sound foreign but sometimes also difficuIt to understand. Going on with our definition of Phonology, we must say that Phonology actually refers to a linguistic view of the nature of human sounds. It really concentrates on the production stage as seen in the previous section , where sounds are merely general distinctive. I The PA chart shows all possible symbols to rcprcscnt cvcry sound in every world language.
In this course we will make use of the phonetic symbols as they are represented in the IPA alphabet. The exereise of representing speeeh with sueh symbols is eaBed a transcription. Specific dctails are not shown. A phonemie representation is always made between solidi "j".
S il"'"' 1 Seuss's Thc Cat in the Hat. Not everybody uses the same symbols. If we go baek to the IPA ehart, we will find a special section We can say that allophones can be found in complementary distribution or in free variation: devoted to diacritics.
Here you have a list of commonly used diactitics: another. The different articulations are going to be [Y, ti ]: ccntralization conditioned by:. So, we can ,. They depend on regional or individual habits.
Without release out there [auJoea]: the ItI sound is dentalised. The vocalic nucleus has b-een occlIpicd by this sound: ';. Some cases of nasalization where the vowel can even substitute the Americans pronounce them: they sound exactly the same. For example, the aspiration of Ip,t,k! This "neutralized i" is reprcsentcd with the phonetie symbol [i , that is, a vowel that is neither short nor long. Consider the following forms and transeribe them phonctically: neutralized [u].
Fill in the featme matrices for "bin", "bid" and bit"; "pin " IS phonetic level we transcribe words exactly as they are spoken, shown as an exampJe: without any interruption, that is, one word after the other in scquence. Therc arc, howcvcr, spccial sYll1bols callcd diacritics lo rcprcscnl allophoncs. Place 5. There are exactly 6 segments five consonants and a vowel used in the four words. Y ou can practice doing some transcription at:. Reverse transcription: A reverse transcription is when you have the phonctic symbols and thcn Y0l!
What are the fom minimal pairs? Minimal pair iii : Minimal pair iv :. First of all the speaker has to arrange his thoughts into a J linguistic and phonological form in order to encode a message and then -i.. The study of each of these three stages corresponds to the three different.
But we have to are interdependent. Our utterances are conditioned by the physiological limitations Man's speech mechanism is made up of a series of organs and cavities: imposed by the capacity of our lungs and by the muscles: 1 we are obliged to pause in articulation in order to refill our lungs, i Respiratory apparatus: iungs and muscles ofthe chest.
Once the air leaves the lungs through the trachea or cavity , mouth oral cavity and nose nasal cavity. We can see all these organs and cavities in the following figure Kreidler, ii The larynx: Thc larynx is a sort ofbox within the throat fuI! It contains lwo little films coming from the thyroid to the two aritenoids. They, are subject to open and close easily, they are called vocal folds or' vocal cords Finch and Ortiz, : -.
On Figure 2 the other hand, there are certain languages African tribes in which thc nir ncccssnry for thc production of spccch is tukcn olllsidc inhaling it i. Thc vocal folds vibratc bctwecn Ji9ft pulatc. Thcse four different stages oftheJglottis can be seen in the following figure:.
In fact, if your nasal passage were congested a greeting such as "good moming" would sound like ['gud B 'b::J:dJg]. If we compared the human speech mechanism with a Spanish guitar, we could say that the vocal folds act as the strings and the supraglottalcavities as the hollow body which amplif!..
That is why thcy SI [p bJ m]. As Mott 38It norrnally precedes the energetic articulation 01' a vowel when emphasising explains "The acoustic effect ofusing the nasal cavity something: "co-education" [,bu? It also reinforces or even replaces as a resonator is to add, not a resonance; but anti-resonancc, thy plosive sounds [p, t, k] : "that" [ore?
The lips can be held apart in pendent uvula but others are.. The edges are called the are held in a relaxed position with a medium lowering of the tims. The tongue, thus, describes two main types of nrticulntion: 1. This is something obvious if we remember that English has a much more complex vocalic system.
But apart from that there three more. On 2 , trnchQo. Sometimes, the tip ofthe tongue may even touch the inner side 'of the upper teeth in Spanish, Apart from that, the. This is due to processes such as he velarisation in some consonants.
Contoids: Units produced with close d articulators. A vowel sound is one in the production of which the current air comes out through the mouth or mouth and nose in the case of nasalised In contrast to vocoids, which largely depend on very slight variations of sounds where it finds an open articulation.
But a complete analysis must consider the linguistic point of view, apart 1. In that view, which takes into account the behaviour 01' sounds in the language, a vowel is defined as From the phonetic point of view, the description of a consonantal sound the central element in the sylIable.
English and Spanish have "clicks", which are sounds sent with ingressive air, just in severa1 cases: 1 urging horses, The result is a problem between the phonetic and the linguistie paint al' 2 kissing, and 3 disagrceing. But thcse elieks are extralinguistic in English and Spanish.
Thc rcsult is thc crcation 01' two new words for the phonetic Vibration 01' the vocal folds is not a distinctive factor by itself because point ofview voiced sounds can be partially or completely devoiced in certain contexts. For this reason, there is a parallel distinction where consonant sounds are distinguished by the degree of breathand muscular effort involved in the articulation. Those consonants articulated with relatively weak energy are.
Ambos entran igualmente en el general ablandamiento discover that they differ greatly interms of their voice. In the case of adicional [ Normally, it is the voiced phoneme mucosas de la lengua [ En el gencral ablandamiento dcl the one which is missing. Ic;l:affricate, dental, voiceless. For this reason they are called c. Anyway, it has a voiced allophone [fi].
Certain eonsonantal sounds require a The chief points of articulation in the English and Spanish phonological Mcondary articulation for the complete produetion of the eonsonant systems are: eo-artieulation.
In order to pronounee English fhI. English Jjf4; Spanish le,], ]1, IJ. Ti1ere is a b loekage at some point in the vocal traet. We divide consonants into two main eategories according to this manner of American English this sound muy be articulated with the articulatian: tip of the tongue curled back pointing at the part of the hard palate immediately behind the alveolar ridge retroflex artieulation.
In addition to the bloekage of air in the vocal traet, the soft palate is raised so that the nasal traet is bloeked off. When the articulators come apart the air stream will be released in a smaII burst. If these artieulators are: a d. English down. So, the air can escape through the nase. Complete cl. There are two affricate sounds in articulators ; and 3 the release stage the air is released in a small burst.
A pproxlmatlOnstage.. Thcy are ea1Jed fricativc -. The result is a There are 14 fricative sounds in English and Spanish 9 in English and 5 continuant sound, with no stopping of air.
Friction stage. This is made by the muscular effort and the tension organs adopt. They can be tense or lax. Approximant open articulation 6. The sounds produced in this way are also called rrictionless devoicing. There is a phenomenon calIed aspiration which continuants. There are three46 main approximant sounds in English: the implies the devoicing ofthe folIowing vowel A gliding vowel is that in the production of which avariation or change of level takes place diphthongs.
Apure vowel does not change its original level when it is Ir. There are eight main factors which have to be taken into account when In order to provide a precise means of identifYing the vowel sounds of a describing a vowel sound. These are the following ones: language, Daniel Jones devised a set ofstandard reference points.
These standard points are called. In the same 1 way that the cardinal points of the compass indicate four basic points. Position of the soft palate: Phonologically speaking, it is normally nllscd iilEl1glish and Spanish.
From the phonetic l1orth, sOllth, cast and west which help YOll to locate YOllrscl f whcncver point of view we have to distinguish between oral and you are, the cardinal vowels can hclp you to identir,y any vowcl sOllnd 01' nasalised vowels.
These last ones are produced when the any language. Basically, these cardinal vowels are described using two 2 Part o[ thLtongue which raises most: We divide vowels parameters: 1 the part of the tongue which is being raised rront, central into: front, central and back. In both, English and Spanish, to the lowest position the tongue is capable of open position. The highest position of the. AdditionaIly, some authors see Catford, lowest CV5 back.
If the tongue is lowered from its highest position we also consider nasal consonants approximants for the same reason. Allhough it is back, the lips are neutrally open. A secondary series of voweJs the secondary cardinal vowels can be oblained by reversing the posilion of the lips ". Figures a - g illustrate al! Use a wavy line at the glottis ifthe sound is voiced and a straight line ifvoiceless.
Describe the consonants in the word "centenario" using the ehart C Circle the word that:. ClassifY the following saunds taking into aeeount the type of artieulators involved in their pronuneiation: 9. Pravide the appropriatc phonetie symbol for eaeh of the', fallowing sounds:. Spanish u. V oiceless, V oiccd,dental, oral stop alvcolar, oral stop. Complete each ofthe statements below:. IJIC E Aceording to Finch and Ortiz Lira there are four main difTcrcnecs whieh distinguish the Spanish and the English eonsonant phonemcs:.
English has l pair of affrieatc and 4 pairs of frieativc phonemcs; l. English makcs use of24 consnnan! Spanish has l single affricate and 5 single frieatives. Almost half the English phonemes Le. Ivl and Ibl are confused; sometimes Ibl replaees Ivl and sometimes the reverse. In English, Ibl must be a complete stop in all positions, and Ivl a lip-tecth friction saunu.
We have. In English, IdI must be a takes place: alveolar, bilabial, velar, etc. If the air is released through the complete alveolar stop in all positions, and a dental friction sound. Igl is often replaced by a similar friction sound; this does not sOllnd.
When talking about Spanish plosives it is very important to distinguish 5. The main difference between a fricative and a. Id31 and Itjl are confused, Icl being uscd for both. This does not enough air in your lungs.
These fricative realisations of the Spanish voiced plosives are usuaJIy transcribed as [0,5,'Y]. A1though it has traditionalIy be en assumed that 8. These fricative realisations are Ip,t,kl are not aspirated in Spanish. A plosive sound is a type of sound in the production of which there is a complete closure at. When this compres sed. Non-audible release: Before pauses; it is produced by a weak in initial position of a phonic group Le. Lateral release: When It,dI are followed by IV, both plosives are Another factor to take into account when dealing with the different normally released lateraIly.
It is never in initial o o. So, when a phoneme is in clusters: "play". Whenever a lenis plosive interven es it is realised as a fricative [OY ] In the prodllction of an English plosive we have to take into aceount that the release stage can takc place in five difTercnt ways: and [BoJ as in "Edgardo, abdicar" Nasill release: It,kl are the only two plosives l. Complete plosive: When 3 stagcs occur closllre, stop, releasc.
Pre-nasal lenis plosives This voice! Although the first phase Le. AlIophonically, then, "purse" is transcribed [lph3'S J closed in the production of an English plosive.
On the other hand, in Spanish, there is a vowel quality. So when air escapes, this comes only from the mouth. When an English speaker is trying to produce an accurate Spanish plosive he will have to avoid this aspiration.
English voiceless plosives are weakly aspirated in unaccented syllables he would do when producing a vowel in initial position. In the following and generally in word-final position: [lIp"]. A good practice is to boca boca hold a sheet of paper in front of your mouth: it will flap if you have asplralcd Finally, it can even As eXplained previously, many ofthe voieed counterparts disappeared in disappear and modifY the preeeding vowel making it more open : "dos.
This phcnomcnon is vcry eommon in somc arcas of Eastcrn where this phenomenon is mueh more evident. One example which is Andalusia. Many Spanish speakers still believe that this sound really exists in our language. This phenomenon is ealled hypercorrection. There are plaees in Spain and Latin America where speakers do not know voiced affrieate palatal sound [j] 01' [d3].
Some phoneticians treat lleLltralised and words such as "caza" and "casa" are pronounced in the the Itrl am! Idrl 0 ' words like "trial" am! Just the opposite can also happen, that is, that speakers do not and put them in the alTricate category, too. This is something typical 01' argue that the realisation of the phoneme Irl is a frieative realisation afld sOl11e AndalLIsian villages and it is calIed "ceceo".
For these speakers, rol' this rcason we havc a plosive plus a fricative and there is no reasoll to there is no di f1crcnce betwecn "serrar" and "cerrar". Thc main dincrcncc betweell Spanish and English aflrieates is that the seeond are produccd in a more Spanish Isl and English Isl are not identieal.
Whcreas you use the tip of advanced point of articulation. In fact, the tip is the part of the tongue appear either in pre- or post-nuclear position "ehureh" ItJ3:tJI and approaching the baek of the alveolar ridge used in order to produce an English ISI.
So, the air does not pass through the mouth, it is prevented by a complete closure in the ]. In initial position: IfJI never occurs in this position. It is a phoncme mouth at some point. Spanish but only two ofthem are identical: the bilabial lips : 1m! Apart from these 2. MediaIly: The spelling "n k" always corresponds to [1Jk], that is, you two common to both English and Spanish, English has a velar nasal back always pronounce the sound [k]. Thc most common nasal 3. Nasals mainly the alveolar one assimilate very readily in both English In relation to the first point it is worth mentioning that although Spanish and Spanish.
There is a long list of a1! The lacks this phoneme, it has a velar allophone of the alveolar InI. Syllable-final [m] is. This Le. Spanish nasal sounds. Por el contrario, cuando se [n,] Le. Some of the most common aJlophones of English Inl are: 5.
Thne i. If we widen the articulatory channel, we will produce a vowel; if we narrow it, we wil! In contrast to fricatives, in the produetion of an approximant there is no noise component or turbulenee. In the scale of promincnce, approximants are almost as prominent as Th. I-Iere is a samc time. But at the same time they can al so be considcrcd vocoids because the air escapes freely open vowels through the nose.
When this post- - prominent syIlabic Irl is pronounced it mereIy gives the preceding vowel a particular rcsonancc. Marginal positions are occupied Ireland, Canada, and most ofthe United States are rhotic. So, a word such by the rest of the eonsonants. I-Iere you have a rhotic accent. Additiol1ally, Ihe so-calkd "lillki,1I'.
The articulation. Check the position ofyour tonglle in. No obstante el nL. In Spanish, the sounds [jJ and [w] are semiconsonants and are part of the Spanish rising diphthongs. Este tipo de articulaciones son frecuentes en castellano y conveniente distinguirlas nctamentc de las fricativas. In the first examp "we" - "guitarra" we have to take into aecount two featurcs: a the Spanish sound is a plosive Le. In the second example "wood" - "bueno" it is important to remember that: a the Spanish sound is a plosive Le.
So, none of these substitutions is acceptable. Nevertheless, there is a strong tendency to substitute English Iwl for Spanish Ibl when this sound is followed by Iv, u:1 01' even h:1 and ap..
In relation to the Spanish sounds 11, The main characteristics of Spanish liquids are: 1 they represent the maximum opening among consonantal sounds; 2 they dp! Liquids are made up of lateral s and vibrants "vibrantes". Figure 4. So, Ihey dilTcr in Ihcir phonoloF. The Spanish speaker has to take into aceount that the first sound in the English word "yes" is radieally different fram the first sound in the Spanish word "yo".
In relation to English students, they should pronounce something like [Ij] "million" when trying to pronounce Spanish IIJ.
PhoneticalIy, there are 2 allopnones: 1 simple [r] and 1 I. In English there is. So, the word "puerta" is normalIy represented with the archiphoneme IR! It is pronounced as such before vowels or [j], initial 1. It is pronounced as such before consonants, pauses, and Within RP, an English speaker may pronounce a tap in intervocallc [w]: "steel works, cold".
Considerably less devoicing. English phonetic systems:. Consonants occur a lirtle more rrequently in English than in Spanish.
A phonetic count shows that Sp. This wOllld be particularly noticcable in IinaI position becausc Spanish words tend to end in vowels some of the slots could be 4.
Distributional table of English 5. Spanish [s] is normally dropped in pre-consonantal and final positions in Argentina, Chile, Central America, aad Andalusia and replaced by [h]. Colombian, Castilian , occurs only before voiced consonants "mismo" ['mizmo]. In the case of the sequences Itrl and! Catalans also produce a dark f. Somctimcs it is simplifico "u" , "qu" when followed by "e" or "i" and "k" foreign to [s]. Somctimes it IS. Here is a list of some common silent lerters:.
Match the initial sounds of each word in the left-hand column with the initial sound of a word in the right-hand column: 5. Match the final consonant of each word in the left-hand column 3.
An example is given. What are the words? What are they? Kreidler, I Adapted from 9. Jedge think Ruth wet [b] ys. We wcnt rOl' a walk in lhc woods nellr lhc railway. Gwen: Wasn't it cold on Wednesday? We wore warm [j] vs.
Wendy: Yes. Further away from the railway it was very [b] vs. We counted twenty squirrels. Twenty squirrels! After paymen After payment After payment, you This item you After payment, you get After payment, you get a After payment, you ge After payment, After payment, you g For this service we n You will receive an After the purchase, we will send you the After the purchase, we will send you the c Wendy, Medal code Passcode for getting a medal: Wendy, After the purchase, we will send you the code by After the purchase, we will send you This page contai With this plugin, you can send multiple mess This is only Most Viewed.
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