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Bhavna - Chitra Singh , Jagjit Singh. Rosenberg, M. P, and particularly P sub Chi, were functions of daily photosyntaetlcally usable radiation Inshore except in summer, and offshore apparently during all seasons. The average growth rate computed for five different size groups of fish revealed a sudden decline In growth of brook trout exposed to 12, 25, and 50 mg Fe per liter.

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Fishes were the least resistant group of organisms tested to ayndets; TL50 h values for teleosts ranged between U. Hlstopathology was In- vestigated for grass shrimp, hermit crab, quahaug clam, sandworm, scup, striped bass and numlchog that survived high concentrations of NTA or ayndets for h.

The effect of blomass, water temperature and salinity on acute toxlcity of NTA and syndets to mumMichogB was also investigated. Mixtures of NTA and salts of cadmium or mercury were evaluated for toxiclty to muunlcnog. Results of studies with lTEA-Hg 2 plus mixtures were inconclusive. Tests with mixtures of syndet and Cd 2 plus or Hg 2 plus demonstrated that toxlcity to mummlchog of these mixtures could be expressed as a simple summation of the toxlcity of individual components.

It is concluded that NTA might be hazardous to marine fishes and macrolnvertebratea when used as a partial replacement for sodium trlpolyphosphate in household syndets. A review Is presented of medical research on the effects of phthalate on health.

Animal studies have shown phthalic acid esters PAE are relatively inert and generally have a low order of chronic toxic! Analysis of patients who have been treated with blood stored in blood bags made out of DEHP revealed significant quantities of the plastlclzer in the spleen, lung, liver, and abdominal fat; research by others has confirmed these results aa well as the absence of PAE'a, as determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, in the blood of normal volunteers who have not undergone transfusion.

More recent research has shown that 98 percent of DEHP accumulated in liquid stored whole blood can be washed out with continuous-flow centrifugatlon.

PAE's nave also been detected in rivers, such aa in the Charles River, where a total phthalate concentration of 0. DEHP residue levels from 0. Embryo-fetal toxiclty was manifested in fetal malformations in rats given intraperltoneal doses In varying amounts of the six least toxic PAE compounds. Naturally occurring sources of the phthalate moiety include cigar smoke, tobacco leaves, grapes, cranberries, poppies, oxidized corn oil, soil, and crude oil.

The significance for man of these toxlcologlcal results is still largely unknown. Biochemical oxidation of the aodlum salts of formic, acetic, proplonlc, butyric, valeric, and caproic acids by activated sludge was investigated using Warburg manometers.

A serlee of experiments were conducted to determine the relation between sludge concentration and uptake rate; oxygen uptake using various acetates as sub- strates the effect of substrate concentration; the percentage oxidation, and oxygen uptake rates and substrate removal rates with volatile acid salts; the change In oxygen uptake rates with volatile acid salts; oxygen uptake with simultaneous addition of formate and acetate; oxygen uptake and substrate removal; and respiratory quotient RQ.

The conclusions were as follows: l The oxygen uptake of activated sludge was proportional to the sludge concentration with endogenous respiration as well aa after the addition of substrate. When acetate was added to activated sludge, adsorption occurred initially followed by approximately linear Increases in substrate removal and oxygen uptake.

Warburg respirometer. A new type of vacuum plankton pump Is described including its advantages over existing sampling gear. In biomass studies, the pump as one type of gear for quantitative plankton sampling is in some respects superior to the water bottle and net, singly or in combination.

The pump is used to suck sea water Into two litre tanks, which can be alternately filled to permit continuous sampling. The application of a vacuum offers several advantages, the chief being that the pumped organisms, not being forced to pass through the rotating mechanism of an Impeller or centrifugal pump, are obtained in an undamaged state. There are three main limitations to the application of the plankton pump.

The first, concerning sampling depth, is the difficulty of handling pipes longer than m. The second drawback lies In the considerably smaller amount of water delivered by a pump when compared to the volume filtered by a larger net In the sane time. Lastly, delicate organisms such as medusae and chaetognaths are often damaged by the rotating parts of an Impeller or centrifugal pump. An additional cause of damage may lie in the strong frlctlonal forces prevailing in the water while passing through the hose and pump at high speed.

A detailed study of the most Important parameters Involving algal P-elimlnation has shown that intensification of the process is possible when optimizing algal P-precipitation.

The most suitable algae for this process are the filamentous blue-green algae because they can be easily settled in Just over half an hour. To maintain a pH above 9 throughout the reaction time continuous artificial illumination! Is required. Light and thermal efficiency is Improved If the lamps are installed in the water and operated automatically by pH control. The optimal algal concentrations 1 under light Intensities between and 15, Ix are approximately 0.

At pH levels above 9, the photo- I synthetic reaction obtained averaged 11 mg C02 per 1 per hr and the C sub t total carbonate carbon value fell at a rate of 0. This rate can be used [ for determining the retention time of P-ellminatlon in purified or unpurified sewage. The Ca- Ion concentration in sewage is usually sufficient for calcium phosphate precipi- tation.

For a full calcium phosphate precipitation an excess of 10 mg per 1 calcium over the phosphorus concentration was necessary. The C sub t value decreases during photosynthesis in the same manner as the P-elimination. For an algae free effluent a combination of an algal filter and a settling basin was satisfactory. Parallel to P-elimination we observed a decrease up to 98 percent of the total bacterial numbers in the effluent during a 2U-hr detention period.

Photosynthesis is impaired in these cells long before they die. Blocking of photosystem II at high temperatures in the presence of C02 sensitizes the algae to photoxidatlve death. Photooxldative death and bleaching of photosynthetlc pigments are separable phenomena.

Photooxidative conditions were demonstrated in Israeli fish ponds using A. This finding suggests that photooxidative death may be responsible for the sudden decomposition of blue-green blooms in summer, and may be a factor in the absence of blue-green blooms in winter. PP 3S"»0. Frequency distributions were determined for particles sizes of microns. Plots of frequency distributions versus geographic location! Perhaps the clearest case Is that of the subtropical areas. Particle spectra from temperate ' waters are also quite characteristic.

Not every sample from the equatorial and polar waters was characteristic. The form of the particle size distributions in the surface! In the subtropical areas the particle size spectra of the surface waters showed roughly equal amounts of material In each size grade, and at depth the form of the size spectra was similar except that the concentration level was lower.

In other areas there was no definite similarity between the form of the spectra at the surface and at depth. In the deep water the total concentration of material was moderately variable even though the size distributions were of more or lesa constant fora. By extrapolating the data to larger and smaller particle sizes, a hypothesis is derived to show that, to a first approximation, roughly equal concentrations of material occur at all particle sizes within the range from 1 micron to about 1,, microns, i.

The population structure, life cycle, and abundance of the copepod LlmnocalanuB macrurus, one of the two multicellular zooplanktonic species in Char Lake, northwest Territories, has been studied for 18 months. The population Is univoltlne, taking about 9 months to develop from egg to adult. Total population density was lower in than in , whereas the phytoplankton blomass and productivity ware.

The life cycle of L. Reprinted from Limnology and Oceanography, Vol. Aquatic animals. Shipboard cultures of natural aee-water enriched with nitrate, ammonium, or urea were used to compare different techniques for measuring nitrogen assimilation by phytoplankton and to measure the rates of uptake of these nutrients when more than one was present. Increases In particulate nitrogen, decreases of nitrogenous nutrients, and the uptake by phytoplankton using the N Isotope technique balanced rather well and for the nitrate-enriched culture were in good agreement with the estimate of nitro- gen assimilation from nitrite reductase activity.

Glutamic dehydrogenase activity was present with both NADH and NADPH in all three cultures; either singly or as a sun it agreed poorly with ammonium uptake estimated by the N isotope technique. The pre- sence of ammonium almost totally suppressed the uptake of nitrate and urea over a wide range of concentrations.

The suppression of nitrate uptake in the presence of urea was nearly the same as the suppression of urea uptake in the presence of nitrate. Compari- sons between the isotopic and enzymatic techniques were also made In seawater samples. Nitrite reductase activity was usually much greater than the rate of nitrate uptake estimated by the N Isotope technique.

Comparisons with chlorophyll a and ATP analy- sis indicate that chlorophyll-containing cells were primarily responsible for the nitrite reductase activity. The rate of pyrldine nucleotlde oxidation with both NADH and NADPH was more consistent with the ATP than with the chlorophyll a content of sea- water samples, suggesting that this enzymatic activity was not restricted to the phytoplankton.

A llmnologlcal Investigation was conducted In Crater Lake, Oregon, In order to obtain Information on transparency, thermal gradients, and the phytoplankton. Sampling proceeded from a single Index station at maximum depth. Water temperature was determined with an electrical resistance thermistor for every meter to 20 m and every 10 m below that.

Transparency was measured with a submarine photometer and two Secehl disks. Water samples were collected at depths of 0, SO, 1 0, 70, , , and sometimes m for measuring total alkalinity, dissolved oxygen, pH, and chlorophyll a.

Phyto- plankton primary productivity was measured In situ with C-lU. Maximum productivity and the largest concentration of chlorophyll a In Crater Lake during summer and occurred at depths where temperatures were near k C and measurable light less than k percent of surface Illumination.

Instrumentation, Water analysis, Water sampling. Extracellular substances were Isolated from Chlorocoeeum culture filtrates and the four salt-free groups of substances obtained tested separately on Chlamydomonaa growth.

Hie extracellular substances were separated by a combination of freeze-drying and solvent extraction-evaporation techniques coupled with water distillation for steam volatile substances, ether extraction-evaporation for llpophllic substances, and column separation-colorlraetry for separation of water soluble pigment substances. For separation of higher molecular weight substances the filtrate was not freeze dried but subjected to ultraflltration and a membrane-pressure process.

The group of steam- volatile substances had an overall promoting effect. The lipophilic group Inhibited! The yellow, water-soluble pigments phenolic compounds could act as chelatlng substances. The high molecular weight fraction proteins and polysaccharldes promoted growth in the initial phase but had an inhibiting effect later on. These effects observed were mostly small but statistically significant. Proteins, Phenols, Liplds, Carbohydrates, Aquatic algae, Organic acids, Chlorococcus elllpsoldeum, Chlamydononas globosa, Growth interactions, Polysaccharldes, Sample preparation, Extracellular substances, Metabolites.

Most of the phytoplankton biomass in Lake Tahoe Is located below the euphotic zone. Chlorophyll concentration was low 0. Below this it decreased slowly except for two peaks at j and m. The vertical distribution of phytoplankton volume agreed with that of I chlorophyll. The six dominant species in cell numbers were: Asterlonella formosa, [ FragJLlarla crotonensls, Meloaira crenulata, Stephanodl scus rotula, Elnobryon soclale j and Elakatothrix gelatinous.

There were no qualitative differences in species composition throughout the water column, although the surface samples contained many small thecate dlnoflagellates. The amount of pheophytin between m ranged from percent of the total chlorophyll a pigment, similar to values found in the euphotic zone. This Indicated that the chlorophyll In the aphotlc zone derived from live algal cells rather than detritus, a conclusion supported by the healthy appearance of the cells and by their demonstrated photosynthethic capacity of being capable of fixing.

C02 at significant rates when exposed to near-surface illumination. The relationship between the distributions of phytoplankton standing crop and production is best explained by passive sinking of cells out of the euphotic zone and accumulation in deep waters. This recruitment of deep phytoplankton from surface waters may be an Important feature of deep oligotrophic lakes, limiting primary production and nutrient regeneration in the euphotic zone.

A description is given of the population composition, metabolism and heterotrophy problem of arctic sea ice algae. Samples of sea ice were taken organisms occur as a brown layer, cm thick on the underside of year-old sea Ice with corers.

Three sections about 15 cm long were taken from the top, middle, and bottom of the core and allowed to melt at temperatures of C or C. Microscopicj examination of melting ice showed that calinity-changes caused no physical damage to the organisms but rapid temperature increases during examination caused the flagellates to disintegrate.

Tracer kinetic experiments were carried out according to the method of Wright and Hobble Complex algal populations in the bottom few centimeters of arctic sea ice were accompanied by bacteria, protozoans, and other organisms. Community uptake of dissolved organic substances, assayed with C-lU-glycine, C-Ik-glucose, and Hacetate was slow. Microscopic examination of autoradiogmphs suggests that heterotrophic metabolism by the algae was negligible and that assimilation of the added substrate was almost exclusively by bacteria.

Dissolved organic matter, Assimilation. Lee, C. Changes In cell numbers, carbon and pigment content of four species of microalgae Isolated from antarctic sea ice were followed over a period of 6 months, the first 3 in the light and the last 3 in complete darkness.

Cell carbon and pigments were determined by standard techniques, and cell counts using phase contrast microscopy. With one exception, nil organisms retained their viability throughout even though the medium vas not supplemented with organic substances capable of serving as nutrients.

In another series of experiment a, growth responses to organic supplements were variable and pigment composition was also affected.

The blodegradatlon of nitrilotriacetate has been studied using activated. At 20 C, after acclimatization, degradation was complete, bat at temperatures below 10 C degradation was less complete until at 5 C It passed through the treatment process virtually unchanged. It is concluded that in the United Kingdom In winter an appreciable proportion of any HTA in sewage would pass through sewage treatment works into rivers.

Before the flow of water rom Jackson Lake into the Snake River was stopped by closure of a dam, invertebrates were collected in five Surber samples from a down-stream riffle. After the water had. Large differences between submerged and exposed samples resulted from passage of smaller insects through the fine meoh of the Surber sampler and from backwash created by the sampler. The Surber sampler collected only about one-fourth of the invertebrates present in the 0.

The experimental dosing apparatus was a modified proportional diluter equipped with a neutralization device and with a series of detention and oxygenatlon tanks. Ferric hydroxide was obtained by neutralization of ferrous sulfate using calcium hydroxide. After neutralization, oxygenation, and detention, suspended iron was released automatically at regular intervale into the test aquaria.

Four concentrations of iron were maintained, each containing 10 young brook trout 3 months old. The data on length of brook trout revealed a definite trend toward smaller size with increasing concentration of suspended ferric hydroxide, with the largest trout In 6 mg Fe per liter and In the control. The average weight of brook trout was much lower in high iron concentrations than In the control and 6 mg Fe per liter. The final mean weight of fish in 50 mg Fe per liter represented only 16 per cent of the control, with gradually Increasing percentage proportions occurring In lower iron concentrations.

The final mean weights of the fish In 6 mg Fe per liter and in the control were almost Identical. The average growth rate computed for five different size groups of fish revealed a sudden decline In growth of brook trout exposed to 12, 25, and 50 mg Fe per liter. The growth rate of brook trout in 6 mg Fe per liter and in the control shove only a leveling trend as of the thirty-fifth week.

It is assumed that impaired visibility due to high turbidity prevented the fish from feeding which in turn resulted in slow growth in high iron concentrations - 12, 25 and 50 mg Fe per liter. Rooney, D. RLO, , 33pp. The distribution and abundance of benthlc invertebrates have been charac- terized on tha continental shelf vest of Newport, Oregon by standard techniques.

The macro-epifauna is comprised of a sparse mollutkan assemblage Inshore, while at the shelf edge it consists of numerous echlnoderna and Crustacea.

Abundance increases seaward vrtth the largest numerical density and blomass supported at the m depth at the shelf edge. Poly- chaete worms were demonstrated to form closely associated species groups at the inner, middle, and outer portions of the continental shelf.

These faunal trends can be cor- related with various aspects of the benthlc environment that are changing with increasing depth and distance from shore. Sediment may play a major role in determining the distribution and abundance of fauna; it is, however, but one of an interacting complex of environmental features that affect the fauna. RLO, Contract No. AT l»5-l , , 27 pp. Rsdloecological studies of benthic invertebrate fauna off central and northern Oregon demonstrate that Zn entering the Northeast Pacific Ocean via the Columbia River Is concentrated by the sublittoral, bathyal, and abyssal favjna.

The major route of the isotope to the fauna appears to be through the food web. Tne radioecology of the benthic organisms differs from that of the pelagic fauna.

RLO, Contract Nos. A brief description is given of sampling gear and of field methods devised for obtaining quantitative benthic samples and environmental information. An anchor-box dredge, Smith-HeIntyre grab with integrated water bottle and pinger, and a beam trawl with odometer wheels are described with the appropriate techniques for gear operation and shipboard sample processing. Shipboard procedures for otter trawltng and coring with Bouma-fleineck and Fowler-Kulm corera are described.

The two plains, separated by the East Pacific Riae, differ In depth, distance from the continental margin, and presumbly therefore In the supply of food material available to organisms on the sea floor. These differ in faunnl biomnss, numerical density, ind gross composition of the! The Slope Base environment supports the most abundant fauna, undoubted-j ly because of its proximity to the continent. The numerical density of infauna on Eastern Tufts Plnln le similar to that on Eastern and Western Cascadia Plain; however, the blomass la significantly lower in the deeper, more distant environment.

It lo concluded that these differences in the benthlc fauna are caused by different levels of food supply. Faunal densities, biomnsa, und composition are similar to those found In other upper abyssal environments. Polychaeta and Arthropoda together comprise Food sources of the abyssal fauna are discussed.

RLQ, Contract Ho. AT U5-D, »o Date , 81 pp. Polychaetoua annelids were studied In collections from various museums aad from Washington waters. The study of the types of Incompletely described specimens Is reported along with the description of two new species.

Additions to the descrip- tions of other species were node, and seven new records are for the cool-temperate northeast Pacific Ocean are given. J Renfro, W, C. The nature and magnitude of experimental errors due to Zn adsorption on inorganic surfaces were examined in a.

In the pH range, 6. It was concluded that Zn adsorption by undetected precipitates could result in serious errors in measurements of Zn uptake by marine phytoplankton. At a pH value of 8. Use of polypropylene apparatus reduced zinc adsorption during experimental transfere. Thia paper reviews some of the distributional features of vertically migrating ralcronekton off Oregon, describes a new conducting cable-midwater trawl system using an eight net opening-closing codend unit, and gives some preliminary results on trawl catches relative to sound scattering layers.

A variable complex of organisms, including euphausllds, a sergeatld shrimp, and mesopelagic fishes were often common in 12 and The depth range of many specieo was broad, and sometimes largest catches were made at depths above or below scattering layers. Variability was large among nets fished either horizontally or vertically during single tows.

NAS, January , pp. The purpose of this report was to document aod summarize existing techniques uaed to preserve biological materials. This Infornatlon la presented In a handbook format that categorizes the moat Important preservation techniques available, and Includes a representative sampling of thousands of applications of those techniques to biological materials and organisms.

The handbook Is divided Into four main sections! Chemical preservation, Lyophillzation, Animal tissues. Fixation, Embedding, Ashing, Hlstochemletry. OK , Itodel rivers were simulated In two channels of a research fluue equipped with oxidation-reduction, DO, fluorometrlc, radiation, temperature, luminescence, and pH sensing probes.

The control channel of the model river system contained a typical bottom sediment and received a potable water supply. The second channel, In addition to bottom sediment, contained a lush community of rooted aquatic plants In one end and received water which was rich In phytoplanltton. The distribution of the radionuclides In the bottom sediment, plants, alffie and water was determined.

Under the conditions of the release, less than maximum permissible concentration, the radioactivity continued to Increase on the surface of bottom sediments until a quaal-«qulllbrlum level was reached at approxlaateljr 25 days after Initiation of release.

TID, January , pp. The purpose of this report Is to present the available knowledge on tempera- ture requirements and tolerances of anadromous fish In the Columbia River.

The information and. The material Includes information from the literature and from the files of Northwest fisheries agencies, with particular emphasis on new knowledge developed by the research studies conducted as part of the Columbia River Thermal Effects Study CRTES.

The research studies conducted as a part of the CRIES were designed to develop Immediate answers to the needs of water quality agencies of the Northwest in considering the adequacy of water quality criteria limits and goals for water temperatures in the Columbia River. The field studies were limited to the most critical aspects of the lethal and sublethal thermal effects on various life stages of the anadromous fish.

By their nature, many of the projects conducted as a part of the study are site-specific to conditions in the lower Columbia River near Prescott, Oregon, and in the Hanford reach of the Columbia River. Prescott is the proposed site of the first privately-developed nuclear power plant in the Northwest; the Hanford reach is the last unlmpounded reach of the river above the estuary and the Bite of the only existing nuclear plants in the Region, operated by the Atomic Energy Commission.

A continuous particle electrophoreals CPE system was used to isolate components of mixed phytoplankton suspensions. Twenty-one freshwater phytoplankton genera were tested.

All algal cells examined migrated toward the anode and different mobilities frequently resulted in fractionation of mixtures of different genera. Organic debris, clay particles, and bacteria often exhibited distinct mobilities that led to their separation from other constituents, Tris hydroxyroethyl amino methane, pH 9.

Increase In buffer pH tended to make algal particles more negative and Increased mobility. A direct relationship existed between applied field gradient and particle mobility. Resolution generally improved at higher field gradient The effectiveness of the separation was limited by such algal properties as motility, size, formation of aggregates, and buoyancy.

Reprinted from Limnology and Oceanography. Copyright by the American Reprinted by permission of the copyright Society o: owner. Phytoplankton, Aquatic algae, Plant populations. Separation techniques. For the abundant taxa, the variance of numbers was much greater than the mean for both day and night samples. For the entire study period, there were no significant differences between day and night samples for total numbers, total number of taxa, and total volume-biomass.

Reprinted from Limnology and Oceanography;, Vol. Phytoplankton both natural populations and cultures have been concentrated fold to fold by passage through an ultrafiltratlon cell with continuous magnetic stirring.

Conditions yielding maximum recovery of physiologically active phytoplankton have been developed. Modification of the apparatus to give a continuous flow of seawater into the filtration cell would make this method suitable for concentrating liters to ml, possibly yielding suspensions which would allow study of the activity of enzymes in cell-free extracts, pathways of carbon dioxide assimilation, rates of respiration, rates of assimilation of inorganic nitrogen compounds, and so on.

Radioactivity techniques, Separation techniques, Methodology, Chlorophyta, Continuous magnetic stirring, Concentration, C-lk, Ultrafiltration, Phaeodactylua trlcormitum, Tetraselmis, Aphanizomenon holsaticum, Dunallella tertiolecta, Nannochloris atomus.

When large samples or high concentrations were filtered, the average retention size was less than the stated pore size. All cellulose ester mem- branes Mlllipore retained particles much smaller than the stated pore site, even from small samples with low particle concentrations. Glass-fiber filters had retention characteristics similar to membrane filters. Uo, No. A study was conducted in order to determine the Influence of chemical constituents of water on the distribution of aquatic plants in Dobdhadharl Lake.

Every month a collection was made in early morning and in. Water samples were taken at every half meter depth Interval; the factors estimated were dissolved oxygen, free carbon dioxide and alkalinity, pH, total hardness, magnesium, calcium, sodium, potassium and specific eonductvlty. Seasonal change in chemical composition of the water vac quite significant, the most prominent being the fluctuation of dissolved oxygen, both in the vertical and horizontal directions.

The macrophytic vegetation was found to exert a profound influence on the restricted volume of water and on the environment through photosynthesis and respiration.

The concentration of dissolved oxygen, free carbon dioxide, hydrogen ion concentration and alkalinity have been found to be greatly influenced by the macrophytlc vegetation.

Freshly collected animals were Injected with 0. The animals were killed by deep freezing after 1, 3, 6, 8 and 12 hr, the hepatopancreas homogenized with TRIS buffer at pH 7. The protein was precipitated from the supernatant with 3 M TCA» and the ether dried sample was extracted with acetone, dried, and the radioactivity measured with an automatic Nuclear Chicago gas flow counter.

Inhibition of protein synthesis was noted within 6 hours after administration of chloramphenlcol; maximum inhibition occurred 8 hours after treatment. Due to the difficulty encountered when attempting to make quantitative density estimates of stone-dwellIng littoral fauna, a detailed description of a method which allows the accurate determination of the surface areas of Irregularly shaped stones is given.

Since this method would be difficult to accomplish in the field, practical and statistical procedures are described for correlating surface area with some more easily measured linear, stone parameter. Stones were obtained from a m shoreline with a solid limestone base of a variable depth of glacial drift and weathering debris over it. In order to obtain a truly representative sample of stones from the 'Ha Mire' shore, a random sample was made. This was achieved by dividing the ahore on a map into a number of equally spaced longitudinal and lateral divisions.

The positions for stone collection were then fixed by a series of 50 random co-ordinates. Stones so collected were taken back to the laboratory where their greatest length and longest perimeters were measured cm.

Surface areas of Irregularly shaped stones were determined by coating the stones with a rubber latex solution, removing the mould and calculating the weight of an even film of water which covered the surface of the mould which mirrored the stone surface. Similar work on standard bodies of knovn surface area revealed that.

This factor was then used in estimating the surface areas of the stones. A relationship was found to exist between surface area and the product of the stones longest length and largest perimeter.

The statistical treatment of raw data which would be obtained from the sampling described was discussed. Uo, Ho. Norton, T. Diving surveys were nude off Argyll, on the west coast of Scotland, June Divers collected n1 gnc from 3-ffl depth zones at 11 sites, some of which were exposed to the full force of the Atlantic while others were extremely sheltered.

More than half of the algal species found were con- fined to the subllttoral zone. The greatest variety of species was found In shallow water at sites sheltered from excessive turbulence.

With increasing depth the number of species found steadily decreased. There was no evidence of a specifically distinct algal flora confined to deeper water. Ho algae were found deeper than 36 n below ELWS at any site, but the lower limit of algal growth was reduced to 9 m in a turbid water loch and to 3 a at a site where the herbivorous echinoderm Ophlocomina nlgra was abundant.

Fairly distinct algal communities were found on different substrates. On stable rock in areas subject to water movement L.

A device for the rearing and laaintenance of Plecopterans was designed and constructed. This apparatus is satisfactory for rearing other aquatic species. A desired water temperature and current velocities can be achieved in the apparatus.

A description and diagram of the apparatus are included. During and extensive mortalities of Tilapia shlrana chilwae took place in Lake Chllwa, Malawi. By collating field observations and physico-chemical data from the lake with experimental evidence from the laboratory, it has been possible to predict what the most likely causes of mortaility of Tilapia might have been.

High winds caused bottom erosion in October, , and the released mud deoxygenated the water. Total deoxygenation of the water results if the level of suspended matter is raised to 12, ppm.

Tilapia are able to survive levels of oxygen as low as 0. The median lethal alkalinity for T. This concentration was reached in the lake in December, , and probably caused further mortalities. Elevated temperatures can cause decreased resistance to low oxygen and high ionic concentration, however, and the dense blooms of Anabaena may have caused sufficient deoxygenation of the water at night to cause further mortalities.

This undoubtedly reflects the long history of stress in the endemic TJo doubt the heightened resistance of T. Each Impoundment was sampled at l»-hr intervals over a diel period luring February, May, August, and November, and at mid-afternoon and between 2 A. The water samples were taken with a Keramerer water sampler 0. Annual nitrogen budgets for the three lakes show they all serve as nutrient traps. AH three lakes lost phosphorus on an annual basis.

This loss was attributed to the small demand by autotrophs and the addition of phosphorus from alj. Based on nitrogen-phosphorus ratios, It Is postulated that nitrogen Is the nutrient factor which limits algpl growth In all three Impoundments.

In laboratory bioessays, Aroclor 12U2 appeared to temporarily Inhibit the growth rate of Chlamydomonas as evidenced by cell counts and C-ik uptake, while DDT did not appear to have any effect. A greater concentration of PCB was found in the algpl cells than In the media, indicating that concentration and passage of the blphenyl compounds through the food chain may take place.

Daphnia pulex were quite sensitive to additions of iroclor 12W as low as 0. Young guppies died in concentrations of 2 ppm Aroclor 12U2. Water treatment plants depending on surface water for filtration trealanent are liable to many Intake delivery problems. Icing up of intakes can be avoided by design techniques, backflushing, temperature control, and cleaning by blasting.

Blockage of Intakes by fish alewlves has been remedied by protective nets and screens, Algal collections on screens or nets require positive pressure for removal Dlchotomoalphon, Cladophora or installation of revolving screens and pulverizing equipment. Plankton Fragllarla, Tabellarla, Asterlonella, and Synedra can best be gotten rid of by a good surface-wash system so that broken-up mats can be removed from filters by backwashlng.

Problems with tastes and odors can result from micro- organisms Dlnobryon or chemicals. Microstrainers and sludge blanket devices required normal maintenance and some supplementation. The most diffi- cult and expensive problem Involves wintertime diatoms Meloslra. A side issue of their proliferation is development of colloidal turbidity; doubling coagulant dosage appears somewhat remedial.

Calcium carbonate and pH changes appear related to Meloslra blooms. Heavy beef heart mitochondria HBHM were used to investigate the chronic effects of guthlon and its metabolic desulfuration and photolnduced breakdown products on electron transport. The pesticides and electron transport carriers were added in ethanol or water.

  Autoplaying Similar Tracks

The problems of loss and adsorption of radioactive Hg while processing irradiated samples are avoided. The automated Instrument devised carries out the destruction, oxidation, and distillation of the irradiated samples. This automation includes Introduction of chemicals at appropriate times, control of the temperature in various stages of the treatment, and passage of air through the instrument during complete treatment.

This instrument handles 6 samples simultaneously and produces samples daily. Mercury analysis has a sensitivity of In one 5-day week about 90 Irradiated samples including standards and blanks can be chemically processed, measured, and computed. The sensitivity and chemical procedure were satisfactory for nearly all of samples analyzed - sediments; mammalian, avian, and fish tissues; biological fluids; human hair; foodstuffs, industrial products and Pharmaceuticals; plants and water.

The thermodynamics of the extraction process, based on the modern theory of the structure of liquid water has been discussed. A significant Increase In the entropy of the system due to the removal of an uncharged organic molecule from the aqueous phase, connected vlth the change of the structure of water, is a main factor determining the transfer of the molecule from the aqueous to the organic phase.

The model described can be applied to the description of the extraction mechanism of metals in the forms of chelatee, aolvated salts and ion-pairs.

Chemical structure. The effect of buffer intensity was determined by varying the alkalinity of synthetic water using different concentrations of sodium carbonate and bubbling carbon dioxide and air through the water. The results Indicate that oxygenation of Fe ll in aqueous medium is a first-order reaction, and that buffer Intensity affects the Pe ll oxygenation rate at values higher than.

To test the effects of organic ccoponnds oa oxygenation of Fe ll , various concentrations of humlc and tannic acid were added to test waters. The results show that both acids retard the rate of oxygenation, with tannic acid having more effect than humlc acid.

In the presence of organic matter, the Fe lI -Fe lII redox couple acts as a catalyst for the oxidation of organic natter. In such systems, both complexatlon of Fe ll and reduction of Fe ll by organic matter are possible. A model was also developed to show the efficiency of iron removal processes. Automatic pump samplers were used to collect over water samples from a.

The water samples were analyzed for four components of N, total and soluble P, and four components of solids. Streamflow was determined at the time of sampling. These data were used to develop a mathematical model of surface runoff and groundwater flow as factors in overfertillzatlon of surface waters.

The model Included nutrient sources from precipitation, feedlots, municipal sewage treatment effluent, industrial effluent, septic tank effluents, forest and wildland runoff, and a conglomerate of surface runoff and groundwater flow. The results of regression on Streamflow were utilized to obtain an equation for the base flow. Such information is essential for development of effective control techniques.

Effluents, Septic tanks, Water sampling. Sewage effluents. Water pollution sources, Water quality control. Ut, No. The Inherent advantages and possible limitations of reaction-rate methods of analysis as compared to equilibrium methods are reviewed, and the general concepts of encoding reaction-rate information are presented. Much of the discussion is focused on the automated systems that make it possible to perform hundreds of accurate, sensitive, and selective quantitative determinations per hour via rate data and to develop new methods more rapidly.

Wf, No. Kinetic data are used to develop analytical methodology for the simultaneous, computer controlled, stopped-flow spectrophotometrlc determination of cyataine and thiolactlc acid in mlxturea of the two. The design and construction of a fully automatic stopped-flow instrument featuring a computer controlled sample preparation unit, a newly designed sampling system, and real tine data collection and treatment are described.

The instrument IB used for a kinetic study of the exchange reaction between a »i II -citrate complex and thlol aclda. Information obtained from this study Is used to develop an analytical procedure for the simultaneous d«t«nnination of two thlol acids, cyatelne and thiolactlc acid in mixtures.

Samples of thlol acids were determined quantitatively in the concentration range of. Results for the two-component systems are Included. Data collections, Aqueous solutions, Pollutant identification. Data processing. UU, Ho. A computerized system for a multiple instrument gas chromatographic labora- tory is described.

Simultaneous operation of all chromatograpbs is possible in real time even while the computer performs other functions. In either method, development or routine analysis, only a few input parameters are required to choose several nodes of data handling, with each instrument capable of operating in its own Independent fashion.

Peak resolution and baseline determination is accomplished for almost all situations encountered without resorting to special routines. Feprlnted from Analytical Chemistry, Vol. M», Ho.

Copyright by the American Chemical Society. Reprinted by permission of the copyright owner. Gas ehromatography, Automation, Computer programs, Control systems, Data collections. Electronic equipment, Pollutant identification, Data acquisition, D«ta interpretation. The programs used to generate and search the files, as well as the file structure, are described. Reprinted from Analytical Chemistry.

U4, No. Reprinted by permission I of the copyright owner. Design criteria. Automation, Computers, Computer programs. Control systems, Pollutant Identification, Physical properties, Mass spectra, Molecular weight, Chemical structure, Molecular structure, Data acquisition. Data interpretation.

W», So. Compound involatility and molecular com- plexity increased the difficulty of investigation. Work on the nutritional significance of boron la animals required, the development of a sensitive and accurate method for Its determination at the subulcrogram level. Boron In the organic phase Is converted to the highly absorbing rosocyanln complex using glacial acetic acid 0. The concentrate Is diluted with 95 percent ethanol and subse- quently analyzed spectrophotometrlcally. Beer's law was obeyed down to 0.

OO2 and 0. Data show that The use of XE-SU3 boron-specific resin proved to be a convenient, quantitative means for Concentrating as little as 1 microgram of boron from large volumes of solution. IA, Ho.

A sensitive and comprehensive method is developed for the analysis of major. The technique employs simple solution doping, which permits quantitative analysis through the use of synthetic standards. The method was applied to the analysis of several NBS standards with precision of plus or minus percent and average deviations from certified values of plus or minus 10 percent The technique can be employed for the analysis of a wide variety of materials including metals, minerals, semiconductors and powders.

Easily prepared standards can be used for the quantitative analysis of aqueous solutions such as might be encountered In water pollution analysis.

Solution doping, Matrix effect, Spark source mass spectrometry. UU, No. Four parameters, composition of purge gas, temperature, flow rate of purge gas, and height of measurement, which affect the sensitivity of atomic absorption spectrometry were studied with the aim of maximizing performance.

An Instrument Laboratory Inc. Model double beam AA spectrophotometer modified with an atomlzatlon chamber containing a tantalum ribbon as a heating element was used to analyze aqueous solutions of 37 metals. Argon, helium, nitrogen and hydrogen were used as purge gases. Data from the analyses show that detection limits for the metals range from 10 to.

It Is concluded that it is Important to optimize the temperature and height of measurement and the chemical composition, thermal characteristics, and flow rate of the purge gas to achieve maximum sensitivity in the flameless technique reported. The technique is easy to use, sensitive, and has good precision Z-k percent rel etd dev at the nanogram level. It will be useful in the analysis of the trace and ultnttrace elements in biological samples and air partlculate samples since the technique provides excellent sensitivities and consumes only a few mlcroliters of sample solutions.

TUim, Antimony, Barium, Indium. Equilibrium and kinetic absorptiometric methods based on proportional equations have been developed and compared for the determination of binary and ternary mixtures of sulfonephthalein dyes. The kinetic determinations are based on the rather selective oxidation of sulfonephthalein dyes by periodate ion In basic medium pH 7 to 10 catalyzed by manganese II and the difference In rate of oxidation exhibited by the Individual dyes. A selective determination of Cresol Red is also Included.

The kinetic determinations compare well with the equilibrium determinations and show an advantage in the case of an unreactlve absorbing background. Reprinted from Analytical Chemistry, Vol. Ufc, No. The detector system of a gas chraaa. Two apertures on opposite sides of the cavity were used for monitoring the discharge with a Sectarian DU monochromator fitted with a IB photonultlpller and a low resolution Hilger and Watts aonochrcBBtor fitted with an R solar blind photonultipller.

The responses of the two photomultlpllers were recorded simultaneously. In the investigation of compounds of carbon and chlorine, Iodine, phosphorus, sulfur, or bromine, one monochromator was set to the emission wavelength of atomic carbon and the other set for the emission characteristics of the particular heteroatom.

The results showed that the use of the simple expedient of simultaneously monitoring emission from two atomic lines can be used to determine the quantitative relationship between the heteroatome and the number of carbon atoms in the compound.

In each instance the measured ratio was found to be independent of carrier gas. The results obtained from chlorine- and. The ratios of chlorine or bromine emission to atomic carbon emission were both carrier gas flow rate and concentration dependent. The analytical utility of this technique is clearly limited by the sensitivities of the detectors to the elemental emissions monitored and by the relative interference of other elements at these wavelengths.

The use of microwave-excited atonic emissions for the determination of inter-element ratios Is considered to offer a valuable aid In the Identification of unknown eluates in gas chronatography. A sljnple method is presented for calculating the retention volumes of solute components in the gradient elution of mixtures. This calculation la advantageous for consideration of the separability of individual components thereby allowing for adjustment of the gradient course, without experimented, data, to achieve maximum separation In adsorption elution chromatography.

Experimentally, nodel mixtures of benzene-naphthalene-anthracene and benzene - biphenyl - para- terphenyl were used on either neutral or acid alumina with a gradient of n-pentane- ethyl ether for measured and calculated volumes for the mixture components analyzed.

Due to the problem of detection and quantitative analysis of lactic and pyruvle acids using the Dollnsky and Wilson IR absorption method, a more suitable method has been devised based on the IRS internal Reflection Spectroscopy technique. A known quantity of either acid was dissolved In distilled water and a volume of an ethanolic solution of Amberllte LA. The solvents were then distilled under reduced pressure. With this procedure the spectrum of Amberlite as well as the spectra of combined Amberlitc and either acid was tested.

Reproducibillty of the method was found to be fully satisfactory and the smallest absolute amount detected waa 2. Sensitivity may be further Improved by reducing the amount of resin for each initial concentration of acid and employing micro Internal reflection accessories. A fast spectrophotcmetrlc procedure which alleviates the need for extraction has teen developed for the determination of U IV In aqueous solution In the presence of a large excess of uranyl Ion and organic reagents.

With this method the aqueous U IV solution Is reacted with the ferric Ion ferric chloride In acid medium to yield the ferrous Ion which Is then reacted with potassium ferrieyanide to produce a small dark complex. This complex has the characteristics of a bluish solution and Is subject to reproducible spectrophotcaetrlc absorption of risible light.

Solutions of U IV or Fe ll concentrations higher than 0. Ufc, Mo. Thermal neutron activation analysis has been uaed to determine the concentration of silver In precipitation. The n, gamma reaction for Ag and Ag was used, the determinations being made by gamma-ray spectrometry using the 2l»-second half-life Ag radlosiotppe.

The silver content of precipitation In the eastern Sierra of the United States was generally in the concentration range of 0. Evidence Indicates that this natural 'background' concentration of silver increases by about a factor of 10 east to the Rockies. Samples collected in mountainous areas where silver iodide Is being released for weather modification pur- poses contained silver In concentrations as much as 0. To effect detection of silver at these low concentrations, sample enrichment by ion-exchange was used prior to activation.

Detection limits, Silver radlolsotopea. In the first stage, the insoluble alkaline earth carbonate or phosphate precipitate Is separated from the sample and dried. A single treatment using laboratory reagent 70 percent HN03 reduces the calcium content to about the same amount as the added strontium carrier.

In the second stage, the resulting dilute solution of calcium, strontium, and impurities is sorbed on a small column of cation exchange resin. Fractional elution of the strontium using ammonium lactate solution at room temperature gives radio-chemically pure strontium in high yield. Advantage is taken of the insolubility of lead, radium, and barium used to carry the radium in 70 percent HN Radioactivity techniques. Environmental samples, Biological materials, Radium, Chemical recovery, Sample preparation..

Wt, No. Steady state flux and distribution equations are presented to show how enzymes fixed In gels may be used for analysis or for the study of Imnobllized enzyme kinetics. Experimental support of the equations has been obtained with urease in three systems: a membrane-covered sensor, a membrane separating two solutions, and a membrane Immersed in a solution. The relative merits of the three systems for analysis and for the determination of rate constants for the immobilized enzyme are examined.

It has been shown in the past that one use of Immobilized enzymes In analytical devices Is for assaying organophosphorus Insecticides through their inhibition of the hydrolysis of a fluorogenlc ester with chlorinesterase Imnobllized in a starch gel. Observations made in earlier experiments concerning the behavior of the Hg spectrum under X-ray excitation and In an argon- nitrogen gas mixture were used in developing this technique.

A Hg vapor generation system similar to that used in atomic absorption analysis was continuously flushed by an Ar-1 percent N2 gas mixture. The Hg vapor released into this gaa was fed to a 2-mn l. The wide open end of the discharge tube at the top waa sealed with a fylar film to facilitate X-ray Irradiation of the gases. A 5-cm length of the 2-mm l. The spectral features were recorded using Instrumentation already described.

The detection limit of this technique is expected to be at the fractional ppb level since a number of experimental variables remain to be optimized. Delta COD represents the moat straightforward measurement of the amount of organic matter available In a biological treatment facility. Moreover, alnce ultimate BOD can only approach delta CQD as an upper limit, the latter parameter gives a more conservative estimate of the ultimate biochemical oxygen demand of a waste sample.

The determination of delta COD is a meaaurenmt of only that portion of the COD of the waste which is available as biological substrate for acclimated microorganisms or which may be otherwise removed due to the presence of the blomass, e. Th« residual COD, if sufficient aeration time has been allowed, Is composed of material not utllizable by a microbial population. Thus one can employ delta COD to assess the amount of biochemical oxygen-demanding organic matter present, regardless of the presence of some non-biodegradable COD In the waste.

The use of delta COD as the primary operational parameter In biological treatment should do much to enhance Intelligent and careful daily control of the pro- cess, since Information on plant efficiency is available Immediately rather than 5 days later as it would be If BOD sub 5 Is used.

Biochemical oxygen demand, Organic matter. Aerobic treatment. Biological treatment. Activated sludge, Aerobic conditions, Pollutant identification. Water purification, Microbial degradation, Water pollution sourcesj Sewage effluents. Substrate removal.

Substrate utilization. An experiment was conducted to examine the effect of copper, in the absence of masking agents, on the determination of molybdenum using dithlol.

Individual and combined effects caused by variations in the concentration of Cu, Mo, and HC1 were separated. The ratios of Cu to Mo cover the range moat often encountered during analysis of biological and mineral materials. One hundred sixty-eight unique combinations of Cu, Mo, HC1 were prepared in duplicate; each solution was mixed with dithlol and allowed to stand, with occasional shaking, at 20 plus or minus 5 C, for an hour.

Reagent grade isoamyl acetate was added, the mixture shaken, and the liquid phases separated by centrifugatlon. Mo was spectrophotometrically determined in the isoamyl extract and Cu In the filtered aqueous phase using atomic absorption spectrophotometry.

The resulting solution was analyzed for molybdenum and copper. Copper ll reduces the amount of extractable MoD3 only if copper dlthlolate is precipitated. It was observed that a positive AA response to mercury waa obtained although It was of somewhat lover magnitude than when stannous chloride was added. Mercury response with this method required a sulfuric acid concentration of 0.

A somewhat similar but lover mercury response was also noted when phosphoric acid was substituted for sulfuric. However, response was more erratic with phosphoric acid. When no reducing agent was ua«d, a longer aeration time was required. The mechanism for this observation is discussed. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Benzene and hexane samples were concentrated with a rotary evaporator.

Water samples were extracted with hexane In a separatory funnel. Some peaks Increased In size suggesting that more highly chlorinated PCB's were dechlorlnated to form PCB's with lower molecular weights and shorter retention times. Results with sunlight and the UV lamp agreed fairly veil. Differences la degradation rates with different solvents are discussed. Gas chromatog raphy, Water analysis, Ultraviolet radiation, Sample preparation, Aroclor Electron capture gas chromatography. Chlorinated hydrocarbons, Fate of pollutants.

Cialr-tfestera take Erie region of the Great Lakes between the years of Only five fish were found to contain mercury levels in excess of 0. Clair in 2. Clair in 0. A trend was established relating the mercury content of selected categories of fishes with the year and location of collection for the fish specimens. The mercury levels in fish from the two study areas were found to average more than those preserved museum specimens in the same categories taken from the same area.

Clair, Freshwater fish, Biological samples, Atomic absorption spectrophotometry, Museum specimens, Sample preparation. A simplified method employing a solid matrix for analysis of pesticides has been extended to the confirmation of endrln. The method involves a chemical derivation- gas chromatographic technique.

Extraction and clean-up procedures were described in Part I of the paper. Acid-catalyzed isomerlzation of endrin in solid matrix is accomplished by adding the sample to a pipette containing sodium eulfate, letting It stand, eluting with benzene, and collecting the eluate In a Kontes concentrator tube for analysis. Application of the method to water, fish, and mud extracts has been routinely used In the author's laboratory. As little as 1 ng of endrln in a cleanup sample can be confirmed with the method.

Sample preparation, Cleanup, Biological samples, Chromatograms, Detection limits, Iscuerizatlon, Chemical interference. It was tested on both a synthetic stream and on an actual industrial effluent stream. The Influent stream contained ppm by volume of oil, and the effluent contained an average of 1 ppm by volume of oil.

The Influent and effluent oil concentrations were measured by both light transmission and light reflectance apparatus. The pressure drop increased frco 2 to 25 pel over run times which varied from IV to hr, owing mainly to accumulation of oil In the bed. Consequently, the removal efficiencies were obtained under unsteady-state conditions. The present design is suitable for large-scale operation by the use of both multiple cells and larger individual cells.

The functions of eetuarine sediments as pollutant sink and aa pollutant bank are assessed In relation to the fate of DDT In the environment. After Incubation, samples were extracted and analyzed by scintillation counts, electron capture gas chromatography, thin-layer chronatography, gc-oass spectrometry, and autoradiography or radloscannlng to determine ratios of DDT to DDD. The determinations show that p,p'-DDT was degraded more slowly when Incorporated In 3itu In Severn estuary sediments than when Incubated in sediment samples maintained under hydrogen In the laboratory.

These transformations are compared with the more extensive degradation of DDT on Incubation In anaerobic sewage sludge. The wider application of the techniques developed Is discussed. Gas chromatography, Degradation decomposition , Estuaries, Sewage bacteria, Tracers, Incubation, Separation techniques. Water pollution effects, Sewage treatment. Thin layer chromatography, Radloscannlng, Autoradlography, Metabolites. The authors shov that the half-life of hydrolysis of Isopropyl methylphosphonofluorldate 06 Increases by approximately 25 percent at a depth of I»OOO meters and 69 percent at 10, meters.

Consequently, It la Important to consider these effects with respect to disposal of toxic substances, Including radioactive materials, in the sea or in deep wells since their fate Is dependent on the high pressures In the environment.

Degradation decomposition , Radioactive wastes, Injection wells, Radioactive waste disposal, Oceans, Waste disposal wells, Waste disposal. Water pollution effects, Isopropyl methylphosphonofluorldate, Nerve gas.

Since it Is sometimes necessary to estimate equilibrium concentrations of pesticides in marine and brackish waters, tests were conducted using lindnne to deter- mine the effects of salt concentration on pesticide solubilities.

Fourteen different l! In 10 cases, salting out was observed; the greatest decrease in solubility was found with the alkali fluorides, KF and NaF. The order of the Setschenow parameters calculated from solubility data for lindnne parallels that for benzene.

Except for the fluorides, the extent of salting out Is less for llndane than for benzene. Sodium chloride, Potassium chloride. Lithium chloride, Sodium bromide. Rubidium chloride, Cesium chloride, Ammonium chloride, Potassium bromide, Sodium iodide, Potassium iodide, Tetramethyl ammonium chloride, Tetraethyl ammonium chloride. Fish from Hew York State fresh waters were surveyed for total cadmium.

Ten gram samples were dry ashed at W35 C using the procedure of Bandemer and Evans, but without the addition of magnesium nitrate. The ash was then dissolved In 0. The majority of samples contained 20 ppb or below. The remainder showed concentrations up to ppb with only few above this concentration. Fishes from central Hew York waters rarely contained cadmium greater than 20 ppb. Fish from Adirondack waters contained cadmium above 20 ppb most consistently. These higher concentrations may be related to generally higher background cadmium levels in this Adirondack area where many metallic ore deposits are located with which cadmium is typically associated.

Cadmium accumulation only occasionally appeared species- dependent. Ho relation was obvious between total residues of the metal and size or sex of fish or age of lake trout. The cadmium concentrations observed are compara- ble to those commonly present in many other foods. Chemical analysis, Trace elements, Sport fish, Separation techniques, Commercial fish, Pan fish, Atomic absorption spectrophotometry, Ashing, Sample preparation, Biological magnification, Bioaccumulatlon.

A survey is presented of the distribution and pcasible effects of Bunker C fuel oil on sublittoral biota In Chedabucto Bay 26 months after the wreck of the tanker 'Arrow'. Sediment samples were collected and the concentration of Bunker C oil determined by U. Soft sediments showed considerable fluctuations In Bunker C oil content but little evidence of diminution of Bunker C concentration following the wreck. Coarse sediment Maples and most benthic speeles showed maximum oil concentrations about 1 year after the wreck and some reduction since then.

Herbivorous or browsing species had higher oil content than carnivorous or omnivorous species. Computer analysis of the fluorescence of oil under ultraviolet light has provided a 'fingerprinting' technique for rapid identification of oils In an oil slick. Detection at levels as low as one ppb of oil In sea water has been accomplished.

The use of a xenon Instead of mercury lamp has Increased accuracy of identification by production of up to 20 different wavelengths of light for examination. Fingerprinting, Fluorescence spectra, Oil characterisation, Fluorescence spectrophotometry, Data Interpretation. Bache, C. The fish were mechanically chopped, ground, and thoroughly mixed without evisceration and samples were dried and extracted with hexane for 3 hr. The extracts were concentrated and the PCB's separated from DDT residues and other constituents using aulfurie icid partitioning and column chromatog raphy on silica gel.

Analysis was made by electron capture gas cnrcnatography the concentration was estimated by the method of Rlsebrough in which the response of «ch PCB isomer Is taken as equal to that of the corresponding weight of p,p -DDE. The method described above was sensitive to about 0. PCB concentration was shown to progressively Increase with maturity, That there exists a relationship between fish age and PCB concentrations was highly significant.

A method for neutron activation analysis of mercury is described In which : electrodeposltion la used to Isolate the mercury carrier In the recovery step. Although the recovery of mercury carrier Is variable, the results yielded by this technique are comparable to those obtained using sulfide precipitation In neutron activation analysis.

The method was also compared to gp. No interferences were evident in the samples analyzed: fish, flour, and standard orchard leaves. The method can detect ppb levels of mercury. A digestion precipitation technique, coupled with conversion of the dlgi- tonldes to the sterol acetates for gas liquid chromatography, was used to determine the free and total campesterol and beta-sitosterol content of U8 samples of erode and refined corn, cottonseed, soybean and peanut oils.

The results show that the ratio of beta-sitoaterol to campesterol may be used to identify an Individual oil and tend to confirm that sterols are lost during refining of the crude oils. It is recommended that the official method, Soybeans, Peanuts, Organic compounds, Separation techniques.

Mass spectrometry allows the number of chlorine atoms per polydBlorobiphenyl molecule to be determined but not the positions of substitution.

A method of identi- fying PCB components from high resolution proton magnetic resonance spectra is Illustrated by application to 2,5,2',5'-tetrachloro- and a. Mixtures, Electron capture gas chrcmatography. The silicic acid procedure of Artnour and Burke for the separation of polychlorinated biphenyls from DDT and its analogs produces an adequate separation of Aroclor Factors causing variable column properties such as room humidity, silicic acid activation and deactivation, and column preparation were examined.

The 7 hr mlnumum period for silicic acid activation was found to be Inade- quate for reproducible water-silicic acid preparations. A 2U hr minimum period is suggested. The use of Celite in column preparation often results in improperly prepared columns and should be eliminated. Nonreproducible columns might also be due to a heterogeneous water-silicic acid adsorbent which la a result of an Irregular distribu- tion of water molecules onto the silicic acid particles. A quantitative method Is presented for the determination of cadmium at low levels ppm in water-soluble color additives by atomic absorption spectroseopy.

Absorption measurements were made on aqueous solutions of typical cclor additives to which known amounts of cadmium had been added. These measurements were made in order to determine 1 the reproduciblllty of the absorption measurements of cadmium in aqueous solutions of color additives; 2 the effects of variations in pure dye contents on absorption measurements samples of color additives submitted for certification vary in pure dye content from 85 to 97 percent ; 3 the effects of sodium chloride on sodium sulfate on absorption signals during cadmium measurements.

The method requires no pretreatment of sample and should be applicable to all water-soluble color additives. A rapid computation for Kendall's tau IB presented ID the context of a species-density comparison Involving 53 'bird species with extensive tied frequencies in two spruce-fir communities.

Paired ranks are plotted in the manner of a con- ventional correlation diagram, with the Q score obtained as the sum of points below and to the right of each point. Cumulative species frequencies, entered retrogresslvely along the abscissa, permit P plus Q scores to be obtained after subtracting tied values appearing to the right of each point at the same height.

A simplified ranking procedure is Incorporated, which serves mainly to reduce the graph to Its minimi size since, In fact, the method works equally well when the raw frequencies are plotted directly. This method extends the range of feasible noncomputer tau computation to comparisons of or more paired ranks.

Statistical methods, Data interpretation, Kendall's tau. The gut contents of various fish were examined to determine what effect fish had upon the removal of Leptodora klndtll Kocke and other zooplankton species of Sanctuary Lake, Crawford Co. Pish caught at any time, but particularly those col- lected during regular zooplankton tows, were examined. They were identified, measured and their gut contents removed and stained in Congo Red.

The entire contents were identified, and particular attention was given to the zooplankton component, especially the fluid-feeding predator, Leptodora kindtli Focke. A total count of each identifi- able species was made and its percentage composition determined. The relative quantity of an item present in the gut was then compared to the relative quantity of that same item in the food complex.

In this manner an index of selectivity ivlev's Index was determined. Primary productivity and community respiration were determined for a relatively unpolluted trout stream In Pennsylvania by using an upstream-dovnstream diurnal oxygen curve technique.

Two diurnal oxygen curves were constructed from analyses of water samples collected on different days at 2-hour Intervals In the day and at 3-hour Intervals at night. Water temperatures were also recorded at the sampl- ing times. From the data obtained, the rate of change of oxygen X between stations and diffusion rate D were calculated. Since the rate of change of dissolved oxygen at night can be attributed only to community respiration R and diffusion, an estimate of respiration within the reach was obtained by subtracting nighttime values of dif- fusion from the observed rates of change.

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