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View all 3 comments. I'm going to get on with my homework, Before it is time for bed. So, for example, the boldfaced clause in the text fragment below conveys foregrounded information while the italicized clauses convey background. Consonance : the repetition of consonant sounds within words, often with a variation in adjoining vowels.

📘 قراءة وتحميل قصة The Bremen Town Musicians by The Brothers Grimm ⏤ الأخوان جريم

حصريا تحميل كتاب The Elves and the Shoemaker by Brothers Grimm مجاناً PDF اونلاين is one of our Favorite Fairy Tales Christmas Stories An illustration. حصريا تحميل كتاب The Bremen Town Musicians by Brothers Grimm مجاناً PDF اونلاين tell the tale of outcast animals a donkey, dog, cat, and rooster who. seoauditing.ru › sitemap-books. pdf T+ weekly weekly seoauditing.ru​book/مختصر-دراسة-للتاريخ-الجزء-الأول-pdf T+ weekly weekly seoauditing.ru seoauditing.ru › assets-ebooks › title-lists › eBook_Arabic_Coll.

تحميل كتاب حكايات الأخوين غريم pdf مختصر. It is a mysterious substance that comes from the sky and gathers upon people, particularly adults.

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📘 قراءة وتحميل كتاب The Elves and the Shoemaker by The Brothers Grimm ⏤ الأخوان جريم

تحميل كتاب حكايات الأخوين غريم pdf مختصر

تحميل كتاب حكايات الأخوين غريم pdf مختصر.

  تحميل كتاب حكايات الأخوين غريم pdf مختصر Christy mack evil angel with mike adriano

تحميل كتاب حكايات الأخوين غريم pdf مختصر

  تحميل كتاب حكايات الأخوين غريم pdf مختصر

  تحميل كتاب حكايات الأخوين غريم pdf مختصر  

تحميل كتاب حكايات الأخوين غريم pdf مختصر.

  تحميل كتاب حكايات الأخوين غريم pdf مختصر  Xxx_av-20769 究極のフェチマンコwコレクション 肛門図鑑 vol.4

تحميل كتاب حكايات الأخوين غريم pdf مختصر

The baby's mother lay in a bed of black ebony ornamented with pearls, the coverlids were embroidered with gold, the cradle was of ivory, the bath of gold. The girl stood as godmother, and then wanted to go home again, but the little elves urgently entreated her to stay three days with them. So she stayed, and passed the time in pleasure and gaiety, and the little folks did all they could to make her happy. At last she set out on her way home. Then first they filled her pockets quite full of money, and after that they led her out of the mountain again.

When she got home, she wanted to begin her work, and took the broom, which was still standing in the corner, in her hand and began to sweep. Then some strangers came out of the house, who asked her who she was, and what business she had there? And she had not, as she thought, been three days with the little men in the mountains, but seven years, and in the meantime her former masters had died. THIRD STORY A certain mother's child had been taken away out of its cradle by the elves, and a changeling with a large head and staring eyes, which would do nothing but eat and drink, laid in its place.

In her trouble she went to her neighbour, and asked her advice. The neighbour said that she was to carry the changeling into the kitchen, set it down on the hearth, light a fire, and boil some water in two egg-shells, which would make the changeling laugh, and if he laughed, all would be over with him. The woman did everything that her neighbour bade her. When she put the egg-shells with water on the fire, the imp said, "I am as old now as the Wester forest, but never yet have I seen any one boil anything in an egg-shell!

Whilst he was laughing, suddenly came a host of little elves, who brought the right child, set it down on the hearth, and took the changeling away with them.

And every child enjoys it for different reasons — be it travelling to magical worlds, learning new concepts, going on adventures, etc. Mahmoud marked it as to-read Jun 24, Mohammad El-Deen marked it as to-read Sep 05, Hassanahmed added it Oct 03, Ayaz marked it as to-read Oct 05, Khadona marked it as to-read Nov 04, Maali El Ghareeb marked it as to-read Mar 22, Yasmine Mohamed marked it as to-read Mar 26, Khawla added it Apr 14, Ahlam added it Apr 15, Lula Mj marked it as to-read May 24, Habiba Samir marked it as to-read Aug 08, Abdullah Sameer marked it as to-read Aug 12, Mona Azam marked it as to-read Oct 24, M marked it as to-read Nov 28, Wijdan added it Dec 05, RSuwaidi marked it as to-read May 10, Mariem Elbik marked it as to-read Sep 26, There are no discussion topics on this book yet.

Be the first to start one ». Readers also enjoyed. Need another excuse to treat yourself to a new book this week? We've got you covered with the buzziest new releases of the day. Jim represents the upwardly mobile lower-middle-class nations of respectable culture, but respectable culture in this moment comes perilously close to a kind of petty blinkered individualism. The settled world may be respectable but with too much respectability comes a lack of heroism.

The local community is a collection of meek and petty individuals who will not, as Livesey does, fight for the greater good. Livesey has the expertise and respectability of the settled world in combination with the bravery and derring-do of the pirated. The narrative is often aware that the doctor is potentially an unsatisfying compromise between the meek townspeople and the disorderly pirates. Indeed, the narrative acknowledges one of the great dilemmas of children's literature — the stories full of bad characters are almostalways more existing than the stories about good characters.

One of the reasons that the pirate society exists in the first place that the British government does not provide pensions for ex-servicemen. Clearly, the pirates' society does not take care of its members, but, as the Squire points out, neither does settled society. The pirates are a product of settled society and its lack of public assistance.

In other words, there would be no pirates if ex-servicemen were probably rewarded by a public welfare system. It stands to reason that if the pirate identity created by the state then it can be taken away by the state. The pirates are defeated in battle, but more importantly, they are defeated by Livesey, the civil servant, who brings them under state control. It is as if public assistance has the ability to destroy the pirate identity. When Jim leaves his post to go explore the island, he exists outside the captain's log and outside the settled world.

He makes it back just in time to be reckoned in the account. Later when he deserts his post to capture the Hispaniola he operates outside the logbook, and thus he comes perilously close to being lost to the good side. Even before the mutiny begins, Jim gives an accurate accounting of manpower when he computes the numbers on the good side versus of those on the bad.

The ability to keep track of the other side becomes difficult as the war rages. As the account grows imprecise, the good side's victory is threatened. At the end of the novel, when Jim returns to his post after having deserted it to retake the Hispaniola, he is given the job of counting the treasure, and, in this way, he is absorbed back into the state apparatus.

Having proved that like the pirates he has the spirit to 'make England terrible at sea', he must then prove his administrative hierarchy to assume a position with more responsibility than his original position, cabin boy The counting is much more like drudgery than fighting to retake control of a ship, but Jim expresses great pleasure at performing the task. He is back inside the settled world of account ledgers and defined ranks.

By the novel's end, Jim is enclosed inside a hierarchical work space, but it is a work space that remains connected to the romance of the global trade network. In the task of counting money, he achieves a kind of romantic drudgery. Do you think that Little Women deals with the question of growing up and depicts the experience of coming of age? Explain 2. To what extent is Little Women a un conventional book?

To what extent it questions or subverts the status quo? What are the weaknesses that the girls Meg, Jo, Beth, and Amy are trying to master through their journey of growing up? Pilgrimage depends on travel, and so a pilgrim must be a voyager prepared to go far and wide.

The pilgrim must advance spiritually as he or she advances geographically. The key factor is knowledge, which must increase as the pilgrim proceeds forward. Christian never makes the same mistake twice or meets the same foe twice, because he learns from his experiences.

The pilgrims who have not read and do not understand the Bible are viewed as disappointments, Though pilgrims may read the Bible, they also must believe its message and apply it to their everyday lives. Reading is necessary even for death. Reading is not merely a skill in life but the key to attaining salvation. Those little women are capable as the men. The most important concepts in the novel? Northern Lights has become so popular because it does not assume that child readers are necessarily less skilled or less perceptive than adult readers.

Paradise Lost which bestow on the book an aura of intellectualism. His writing is thus considered challenging, literary and prestigious, rather than merely popular. He is often considered a more ''serious'' author than Rowling writer of Harry Potter. Why is this myth important? How has Pullman drawn from this myth? It is the substance that links various worlds together. It is that particle that shapes and explains the world 4.

It is a mysterious substance that comes from the sky and gathers upon people, particularly adults. According to Pullman, it is understood by the church as a manifestation of original sin, so they set upon a pernicious campaign to destroy it. Scientists and free thinkers like the enigmatic Lord Asriel believe it has the power to improve the world and want to unleash its secrets.

Simply speaking, puberty. From a biological perspective, adulthood is the sexual maturation of the body. In the story, that sexual awakening is the point when Dust begins to coalesce around the person. In the narrative, sex is then associated with original sin. To overcome the power of original sin and undo the error of Adam and Eve, the church must prevent Dust from becoming attached to people. The message is clear. To Pullman, the church represents enforced ignorance, small-mindedness and unnatural sexual repression.

It is the source of humanity mentioned, for example, in the first book of the Bible: 'for dust thou art, and unto dust shalt thou return' Genesis Pullman uses it very differently, subverting the notion that dust is both the beginning and the end. In Northern Lights, it is imagined as the substance that links various worlds together.

It is therefore associated with the scientific rather than the religious. Finally, dust is also experience especially sexual experience , so that children cannot emanate dust because they are still sexually innocent.

Who are the enemies of Dust? His fundamental objection is to ideological tyranny and the rejection of this world in favor of an idealized afterlife, regardless of creed. Man is his own savior, and his ingenuity is the only sacrament he requires. Instead of depending upon an all-powerful deity to intervene and rescue humanity from its predicament, Pullman is confident that humankind will be able to answer the questions that matter and solve the problems of life on earth.

Death is not perceived so much as the enemy to be defeated but rather as a natural part of life. It comes in the form of a familiar animal. It is a manifestation of the human soul and the inner human spirit.

This marks the passage of the child from childhood to adulthood, and some kind of awareness comes with it. What kind of awareness comes with the adolescence? They are linked by an invisible and telepathic bond. To what extent is Lyra a prototype of this character? How is the child constructed in Northern lights? Does the novel, Northern Lights, fail or fulfill this function? Do you agree? Why not? Brave action taken without considering the danger involved.

Personification : human qualities are given to an inanimate object, an abstract idea, or a force of nature. Rhythm: the pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables in language. Rhyme: the repetition of similar sounds in the two or more words. End rhyme: the repetition of the ending sounds in two or more lines Alliteration : the repetition of initial sounds in two or more words Assonance : the repetition of vowel sounds within words. Consonance : the repetition of consonant sounds within words, often with a variation in adjoining vowels.

The clauses which convey the most central or important information are called foregrounded clauses Foregrounding is essentially a technique for 'making strange' in language, The clauses which elaborate the central propositions are called backgrounded clauses features may seem to 'break the rules' of the language as a whole, and go against all experience that the reader has of 'normal' texts. This is known as 'external deviation' Internal deviation is deviation against a norm set up by the text itself.

Suppose that a poem is written in rhyming couplets, but then the fifth couplet does not rhyme. The rhyme is a pattern of parallelism at the phonetic level, which is then broken at stanza five.

A common pattern is the abcb type of rhyme scheme, whereby each four-line stanza though not all are actually divided in this way rhymes the second and last line. The creation of new words is one of the joys of learning your first language when you are growing up.

These repeated stanzas take the reader back to the beginning again, though there is often a subtle difference in the repetition which shows that we are not back to exactly the same spot interrogative structure, which works against the closure suggested by repetition.

The poem ends, as another circular poem, with the initial noun phrase of the first line: Positioning the child-reader large number of poems for children display present-tense The place in which the narration evoked by deictic words and structures The title of the poem hints at the presence of people poems are straightforwardly narrative in content, reflecting this in using a past tense and third-person narrative.

What turkey doing? Mosquito one mosquito two mosquito jump in de old man shoe Cockroach three cockroach four cockroach dance thru a crack in de floor Spider five spider six spider weaving a web of tricks Monkey seven monkey eight monkey playing with pencil and slate Turkey nine turkey ten what turkey doing in chicken pen? Poem effectively acts as a safety valve, a frequent feature of poetry for young.

And the smoke rose slowly, slowly, Through the tranquil air of morning, First a single line of darkness, Then a denser, bluer vapor, Then a snow-white cloud unfolding, Like the tree-tops of the forest, Ever rising, rising, rising, Till it touched the top of heaven, Till it broke against the heaven, And rolled outward all around it.

And the Prophets of the nations Said: "Behold it, the Pukwana! By this signal from afar off, Bending like a wand of willow, Waving like a hand that beckons, Gitche Manito, the mighty, Calls the tribes of men together, Calls the warriors to his council!

Kind: Epic Poem. As Hiawatha was a founding text for American literature, it was required reading for schoolchildren. I remember, I remember The roses red and white, The violets and the lily cups-- Those flowers made of light! The lilacs where the robin built, And where my brother set The laburnum on his birthday,-- The tree is living yet!

I remember, I remember Where I was used to swing, And thought the air must rush as fresh To swallows on the wing; My spirit flew in feathers then That is so heavy now, The summer pools could hardly cool The fever on my brow. I remember, I remember The fir-trees dark and high; I used to think their slender tops Were close against the sky: It was a childish ignorance, But now 'tis little joy To know I'm farther off from Heaven Than when I was a boy.

It was never intended as a poem to be read by children. Defining poetry for children in terms of authorial intention is impossible. There may be formal or thematic aspects of poetry that are especially suitable for or attractive to child reader. Down along the rocky shore Some make their home, They live on crispy pancakes Of yellow tide-foam; Some in the reeds Of the black mountain lake, With frogs for their watch-dogs, All night awake.

High on the hill-top The old King sits; He is now so old and gray He's nigh lost his wits. They stole little Bridget For seven years long; When she came down again Her friends were all gone. They took her lightly back, Between the night and morrow, They thought that she was fast asleep, But she was dead with sorrow.

They have kept her ever since Deep within the lake, On a bed of flag-leaves, Watching till she wake. By the craggy hill-side, Through the mosses bare, They have planted thorn-trees For pleasure here and there. If any man so daring As dig them up in spite, He shall find their sharpest thorns In his bed at night.

Up the airy mountain, Down the rushy glen, We daren't go a-hunting For fear of little men; Wee folk, good folk, Trooping all together; Green jacket, red cap, And white owl's feather! Rhyme-scheme stronger than it looks. At the Zoo by A. Milne There are lions and roaring tigers, and enormous camels and things, There are biffalo-buffalo-bisons, and a great big bear with wings.

There's a sort of a tiny potamus, and a tiny nosserus too - But I gave buns to the elephant when I went down to the Zoo! There are badgers and bidgers and bodgers, and a Super-in-tendent's House, There are masses of goats, and a Polar, and different kinds of mouse, And I think there's a sort of a something which is called a wallaboo - But I gave buns to the elephant when I went down to the Zoo!

If you try to talk to the bison, he never quite understands; You can't shake hands with a mingo - he doesn't like shaking hands. And lions and roaring tigers hate saying, "How do you do? James James Said to his Mother, "Mother," he said, said he; "You must never go down to the end of the town, if you don't go down with me.

James James Morrison's Mother Drove to the end of the town. James James Morrison's Mother Said to herself, said she: "I can get right down to the end of the town and be back in time for tea.

James James Said to his Mother, "Mother," he said, said he: "You must never go down to the end of the town without consulting me. King John said he was sorry, So did the Queen and Prince.

King John Somebody told me Said to a man he knew: If people go down to the end of the town, well, what can anyone do? Little Abigail and the Beautiful Pony There was a girl named Abigail Who was taking a drive Through the country With her parents When she spied a beautiful sad-eyed Grey and white pony.

May I please? No child ever died yet from not getting a pony. She has no problem in expressing her desire. The girl is depicted in domestic interior, which is not public transport but a private, family space. The girls sees world from behind a pane of glass, tantalising tempting her with promise of possibilities but separating her from them. The fulfilment of her desire is dependent on others. Here repeated request becomes more urgent.

Their fates are parallel; both give themselves to death. Familial environment of C18th to the mythic plane of exhilarating voyage. I on the discourse of piracy acts as a double signifier. So he is the representative of both ethos of barbarity and protector of order and control. Emotions : love…. Some thing. Parallel structures Repetitions Word play :Eletelephony Modulation and expression of voice and feelings Pictures Typography:penguin walk Entertainment!

Joseph Bristow :violent sensationalism of the penny dreadful manly valour and patriotism 'respectable' books and magazines versus disreputable, such as Wild Boys of London cheap sensationalist :using overblown language, formulaic plots and twoAA -dimensional characters, Bristow: subversive and anti-authoritarian , entertaining secular and fantastic nature of penny dreadfuls such as Varney the Vampire: British supremacy 'at the top of the racial ladder and at the helm of all the world' notion of 'Englishness' in young men that was vital to Britain's imperialist project.

Like Little Women, Stevenson's book is about growing up a historical romance of piracy and buried treasure includes plenty of blood, rum, violence and murder. Stevenson wrote an essay titled 'My first Book: Treasure Island' the dual child-adult audience Stevenson intended for the story right from its inception.

Something terrible is to happen at 10 o'clock and the suspense Jim's nightmares of the man with one leg, , even more sensationalist than the plundering of a corpse. The doctor Livesey a good and honest character in opposition to others who have been introduced. As Jim's father is dying, the boy needs some kind of substitute to protect him and his mother from the danger the climax that so enraptured Stevenson's first readers: the discovery of the map.

The implicit ideology is all the more powerful for being invisible. Moreover, Little Women has a strongly Christian ideology.

Some critics suggest that ideological ambivalence the category of the Bildungs- roman- that is; they chronicle the growth from childhood into adulthood. Judith Fetterly:Ethic of Submission. Why must the girls give up all their natural ambitions when the men are themselves not perfect. Mr March is retired and cannot earn. Gender issues. Stylistic features such as: functions of poetry, moral The sounds of poem is important to attract children, musical structure whether metrical, rhyming, the use of song effect for meaning as well as music reasons.

The use of tense to attract the reader and imagine themselves to the moment of the poem. The use of first person narrative to create a focal point. A poem for children will either be playful with the rules of word construction and combination or it will not, and where is playful, or ten to be humorous, the creation of new words in one of the joys of learning your first language, when you growing up. When words are constructed and changed it will reflect the phonological structure such as sounds, graphonological such as written spelling, and morphological such as word structure, such as the use of Eletelephony word play with the words of elephant and telephone, lexical deviation is demonstrated strongly in poems for children.

The use of unusual combination of words such as the colors die, which usually die for human object. The use of parallelism, repetition each feature in the first stanza is repeated with minor changes as last stanza. These repeated stanza take the reader back to the beginning again. The use of onomatopoeia which a sound gives meaning such as…..

 

King John said he was sorry, So did the Queen and Prince. King John Somebody told me Said to a man he knew: If people go down to the end of the town, well, what can anyone do? Little Abigail and the Beautiful Pony There was a girl named Abigail Who was taking a drive Through the country With her parents When she spied a beautiful sad-eyed Grey and white pony.

May I please? No child ever died yet from not getting a pony. She has no problem in expressing her desire. The girl is depicted in domestic interior, which is not public transport but a private, family space. The girls sees world from behind a pane of glass, tantalising tempting her with promise of possibilities but separating her from them. The fulfilment of her desire is dependent on others. Here repeated request becomes more urgent. Their fates are parallel; both give themselves to death.

Familial environment of C18th to the mythic plane of exhilarating voyage. I on the discourse of piracy acts as a double signifier. So he is the representative of both ethos of barbarity and protector of order and control.

Emotions : love…. Some thing. Parallel structures Repetitions Word play :Eletelephony Modulation and expression of voice and feelings Pictures Typography:penguin walk Entertainment! Joseph Bristow :violent sensationalism of the penny dreadful manly valour and patriotism 'respectable' books and magazines versus disreputable, such as Wild Boys of London cheap sensationalist :using overblown language, formulaic plots and twoAA -dimensional characters, Bristow: subversive and anti-authoritarian , entertaining secular and fantastic nature of penny dreadfuls such as Varney the Vampire: British supremacy 'at the top of the racial ladder and at the helm of all the world' notion of 'Englishness' in young men that was vital to Britain's imperialist project.

Like Little Women, Stevenson's book is about growing up a historical romance of piracy and buried treasure includes plenty of blood, rum, violence and murder. Stevenson wrote an essay titled 'My first Book: Treasure Island' the dual child-adult audience Stevenson intended for the story right from its inception. Something terrible is to happen at 10 o'clock and the suspense Jim's nightmares of the man with one leg, , even more sensationalist than the plundering of a corpse. The doctor Livesey a good and honest character in opposition to others who have been introduced.

As Jim's father is dying, the boy needs some kind of substitute to protect him and his mother from the danger the climax that so enraptured Stevenson's first readers: the discovery of the map.

The implicit ideology is all the more powerful for being invisible. Moreover, Little Women has a strongly Christian ideology. Some critics suggest that ideological ambivalence the category of the Bildungs- roman- that is; they chronicle the growth from childhood into adulthood. Judith Fetterly:Ethic of Submission. Why must the girls give up all their natural ambitions when the men are themselves not perfect.

Mr March is retired and cannot earn. Gender issues. Stylistic features such as: functions of poetry, moral The sounds of poem is important to attract children, musical structure whether metrical, rhyming, the use of song effect for meaning as well as music reasons. The use of tense to attract the reader and imagine themselves to the moment of the poem. The use of first person narrative to create a focal point. A poem for children will either be playful with the rules of word construction and combination or it will not, and where is playful, or ten to be humorous, the creation of new words in one of the joys of learning your first language, when you growing up.

When words are constructed and changed it will reflect the phonological structure such as sounds, graphonological such as written spelling, and morphological such as word structure, such as the use of Eletelephony word play with the words of elephant and telephone, lexical deviation is demonstrated strongly in poems for children. The use of unusual combination of words such as the colors die, which usually die for human object.

The use of parallelism, repetition each feature in the first stanza is repeated with minor changes as last stanza. These repeated stanza take the reader back to the beginning again.

The use of onomatopoeia which a sound gives meaning such as….. The use of rhymes such as full rhymes such as : frog-dog, and part rhymes rushly and airly ……….. In Pullman's narrative, however, Dust contains much mor than the beginning and end of human physical existence or the origin of the universe. Organising Milton's dark materials: dust as a means of classification Its The very term, Dust, is highly ambiguous.

Its indistinctness lies in its intrin- sic amorphousness Consequently, it is an extremely adaptable concept, offering an almost infinite number of possibilities or To the God meanings.

Pullman, however, uses the word in order to con nect the plethora of seemingly incompatible elements that make up the uni- verse. The desire to connect everything with everything else manifests itself on every level of the texts.

For example, the setting for the narrative it uncountable billions of parallel worlds' NL, p. The innocence mean that the person is obedient not rebel. So he neither commits the sin nor reaches to the knowledge. The dust that was considered as the knowledge by Lord Asriel and sins by the churchattracted to experience.

The children are seen as obedient therefore the dust will never attract to them in contrast of the rebel adults. The child Lyra' learning to the reality of the dust and its attraction to her means that Pullman wanted of the children to become adult conscious children.

Thought, imagination, feeling, would all wither and blow away, leaving nothing but a brute automatism' AS, p. Followin the operation' the demons are returned to the nurses. However, the m possession of a soul is not as important as the psychic bond-the Dust-that forms some energic point of contact between human and demon when this link is no longer present, the status of the demon is reduced to that of a lit- tle trotting pet [which seemed be sleepwalking NL, , while to pp.

Lord Asriel and his forces want to create a world in which free will is protected, a world in which all thinking beings are allowed to choose the course of their own lives. Lord Asriel sought to protect free will in a world where all people can live their lives through their own ideas willingly without the control of any one. Between will and grace Lyra's rebellion grew up. Grace is the sanctification that God give it to some people.

Like Adam and Eve that they were living in a state of grace before the fall. Lyra became aware of that when she fell in love with Will. Pullman wanted to explain for people the idea of rebellion against the repressive religious laws that come from the church.

He chose to convey his idea through a children novel because childhood is a social construction phase. He thought that the church want to control all human conscious beings in the world. Pullman has gained notoriety for his public attacks on Lewis' Chronicles of d on Lewis God.

Pullman declares that Lewis' narratives 'cheat readers by dei ex machina to solve narrational problems while indiscrimi employing d inconsistently mixing plural mythic traditions to produce a pas nately an world rather than a secondary creation' as Tolkien defined it Tolkien , p.

Although Pullman demonstrably chatsat lewis influence in the field of children's fantasy, they have a great deal in common: both authors earned degrees in English Literature from oxford University both write high fantasies that draw on the Classical, Norse, and Englis myths and romances of the Western tradition both entranced by the past are and its difference from the both their fiction to comment on and present use criticize our world and both write of naive protagonists find the who responsible for the destiny of a world.

Lewis, Preface to Paradise Lost , that he and Pullman relates reread Paradise Lost and William Blake before revision undertaking his own of the story for today's adults Alix sharkey, p 13 young authors posit a prohibiting authority, wh a moral choice, protagonists in hands the fate of a world is placed.

Both link issues of obedience a stor telling to the moral and social consequences of coming of age. Final man's vehement opposition to Lewis, coupled with his seemingly d rewriting of crucial moments and characters in Lewis fiction, suggests aud.

Lewis doctrine while creating a world upholds what he terms merely Christian Christian- n which such does not exist. Pullman creates a Christianity as without Christ, exhibiting deep skepticism about divine power as it is deployed through institutional religion. Lewis God is a benevolent lib understanding the role and significance of obedience in each series, in the ways each author pictures and characterizes his version of God, and in the d of their respective tales, Lewis way each narrates his tale.

As creator-go qualities of their ullman employ narrators that capture structurally the comment ultimate that mirror and implicitly authority figures narrators eir respective visions of authority. Clearly, Pullman and Lewis have different notions of deity: Palman sees God as a despoiler of the material universe the cosmos isefacs independ- ently from the Authority since other gods and powers eost and since the Authority himself was formed out of Dust, as were other consooosbemes- st coalesced in the same way, becoming aware of itself and gramanng toward other conscious beings over tens of thousands of years Pulmans God-authorized Church is an illegitimate arbiter of a creation it does not seek to understand except to exploit and stands for 00 repression and the negative aspects of authority.

In Lewis' children's books, no child becomes a story her own right; children instead choose or fail to to become f the overarching grand narrative that the Emperor Beyond the Sea has mirten dover Rather than emphasizing independent agency or free other words, the narrative encourages conformity to a predetermined rwhat the plot of that story is'. But I was only a boy, and I had made up my mind' T1, p. Flint, for example, was 'the bloodthirstiness buccaneer that sailed. The Spaniards were so prodigiously afraid of him, that.

I was sometimes proud he was an Englishman. I've seen his top-sails with these eyes off Trinidad, and the cowardly son of a rum-puncheon that I was sailing with put back — put back, sir, into Port of Spain' TI, p.

There are clauses which convey the most central or important ideas in text, those propositions which should be remembered. And there are clauses which, in one way or another, elaborate on the important ideas, adding specificity or contextual information to help in the interpretation of the central ideas. The clauses which elaborate the central propositions are called backgrounded clauses, and their propositional content is background information.

So, for example, the boldfaced clause in the text fragment below conveys foregrounded information while the italicized clauses convey background. This is known as 'external deviation'. The rhyme is a pattern ofparallelism at the phonetic level, which is then broken at stanza five. It is not enough that little women be content with their condition; they must be positively cheery at the prospect.

Although Amy never completely gives up her art, she places it in the service of home and family. No longer working for frame or fortune, she is inspired by love for her child. Her figure is not intended for public exhibition, for Amy works not to produce great art or to define herself as an artist, but to create a private memorial to her dying child.

When Jo at last finds her true style, the impetus to write has been provided by Marmee and the motivation is solace and comfort for the loss of Beth. This blissful state, however, is based on the premise that John needs and deserves a coat because he has to go out in the world and work.

Meg, on the contrary, neither needs nor deserves her dress because, with no real work to do in the world, she has no basis for attention to the self. Jo pays for her quick temper and lack of self-control in a more tangible way later in the book. Amy thrives on such activity; but Jo finds it intolerable and can only get through the experience by playing elaborate games at each place they stop. The final call is to their Aunt March.

He has a temper, not like ours — one fl ash and then all over — but the white, still anger that is seldom stirred, but once kindled is hard to quench. Little women must not be angry because they cannot afford it. There are no other viable options. It is difficult not to see it as capitulation and difficult not to respond to it with regret. Certainly, this ambivalence is itself part of the message of Little Women.

It accurately reflects the position of the woman writer in nineteenth-century America, confronted on all sides by forces pressuring her to compromise her vision. The results of her contumacy are nearly fatal: she fails to warn her sister of thin ice; Amy falls in and is only rescued by the timely and manly exertions of Laurie.

The moral is clear. Like the struggles of the March girls, his struggle and ultimate submission to cultural expectations for young men narrate a typical confrontation with the limitations of gender roles. The striking resemblance between these scenes suggests that Alcott wants to draw our attention to the similar sacrifices that boys and girls must make in order to fi t into narrowly defined adult roles. In order to make Laurie into a man, Amy constantly reminds him of his distance from cultural ideals of masculinity.

As critics have shown, male identity in the nineteenth century was intimately connected to work, and Laurie knows that if he fails to work he will be seen as unmasculine, as weak and feminine. I need something of the sort to keep me steady. Amy thinks she is preparing Laurie to be a man so that he will be a suitable partner for Jo, but the novel has already told us that this pairing is not a possibility Instead, she prepares him to fill the narrowly prescribed categories of middle-class husband, father, and businessman, the roles he ends up playing in her life.

Rather than marry the erotic young Laurie, she ends up with the asexual older man. He accepts convention by embracing domesticity and business. What is the argument that Bristow makes in this article? Do you think that Treasure Island is an example that supports Bristow's argument? The virtues of masculinity are the similar to the virtues of an empire.

Henty's adventure stories for boys provide contrasting examples from the disreputable and the respectable streams of literature available to boys in late-Victorian England. Explain the statement using clear examples and critical ideas. Discuss the statement with reference to Peter Hunt's Article instruction and delight Section 2 1 what is the origin of fairy stories and how did they get transformed through cross - cultural exchange?

What are the general ingredients of fairy stories? B what view of authority is being presented in each? C Briefly explain your answer to the previous two questions in terms of the cultural concept of childhood associated with the time - period of each figure's production date. She learns quickly to sink into a meditative state in order to "work" the machine, a sort of compass covered with symbols and an arrow pointing to them.

She quickly learns it can be used to advise her about other peoples' true character, suggest possible future results of current actions and reveal facts that might not be obvious to anyone, much less a young girl.

Pullman also signifies her innocence by making it clear that Lyra does not understand the sexual innuendo among the adults around her, like Mrs. Coulter and her friends, and the witches and the gyptians. Lyra is still in a state of unconscious grace, but she is neitherguileless nor ignorant. Constructing the Child Childhood is a social construction. What does this mean? The concept of childhood and what it means has changed and evolved in different periods of the human history and civilizations.

The world of the child as we know it today featuring toys, books and games starts to develop only in the 18th Century. The idea of childhood is not to be confused with affection for children: it corresponds to an awareness of the particular nature of childhood, that particular nature which distinguishes the child from the adult, even the young adult. In medieval society this awareness was lacking P.

Lock stated: I think I may say that of all the men we meet with, nine parts of ten are what they are, good or evil, useful or not, by their education. The little and almost insensible impressions on our tender infancies, have very important and lasting consequences P. Is it nothing to jump, play, and run all day? This is not to argue that childhood does not exist, that children are not physiologically and psychologically different from adults or that they do not have different capacities and capabilities.

Instead, it implies that biological immaturity is assigned social meanings, depending on cultural, social and historical settings. In other words, the idea of childhood and adulthood as two separate categories had not yet begun to emerge; so there was no need for toys, books or stories for children. It was only after children survival was assured that parents began to invest emotional energy in them. He argues that by 18th c, idea that children were different from adults and had distinctive needs became firmly rooted in western societies and led to development of new world of childhood featuring toys, games and books specially designed for children.

He claimed that, after the 17th c, the child had to be subjected to a special treatment before he was allowed to join the adults childhood is socially constructed and changes depending on historical and cultural. John locke. In his view, children were born with a potential that could develop into reason with correct training and right sort of experience.

He believed that developing a rational and reasoning mind was the purpose of education, and that children could not be expected to develop this on their own. Jean-jacques rousseau, the children would up properly if there were not corrupted by adults influence and were not forced out of their natural surroundings in order to go to learn 'civilisation' at school.

He declared that childhood should be a time of innocence, when children learnt what they needed to at their own pace, away from interference of adults. He thought that children should not be forced to read books at all; and writing provides most felicitous treatise on natural education. He argued that reading was too similar to formal schooling and that children should not read, especially not anything factual.

I bleed! The cherished fields Put on their winter robe of purest white. SYMBOL: An image transferred by something that stands for or represents something else, like flag for country, or autumn for maturity. Symbols can transfer the ideas embodied in the image without stating them, as in Robert Frost's Acquainted With the Night, in which night is symbolic of death or depression, or Sara Teasdale's The Long Hill, in which the climb up the hill symbolizes life and the brambles are symbolic of life's adversities.

Sidelight: A type of hyperbole in which the exaggeration magnified so greatly that it refers to an impossibility is called an adynaton. LIH-toh-teez : A type of meiosis understatement in which an affirmative is expressed by the negative of the contrary, as in "not unhappy" or "a poet of no small stature. While most commonly used in reference to figurative language, imagery is a variable term which can apply to any and all components of a poem that evoke sensory experience, whether figurative or literal, and also applies to the concrete things so imaged.

Not all of these are considered figures of speech, exactly, but they're included here because they're part of what you'll find it you look closely at the language and word choice of may poem. They work hand-in-hand with rhythm and all types of rhyme. ASSONANCE : The relatively close juxtaposition of the same or similar vowel sounds, but with different end consonants in a line or passage, thus a vowel rhyme, as in the words, date and fade.

Sidelight: Because sound is an important part of poetry, the use of onomatopoeia is another subtle weapon in the poet's arsenal for the transfer of sense impressions through imagery, as in Keats' "The murmurous haunt of flies on summer eves," in Ode to a Nightingale.. Sidelight: Though impossible to prove, some philologists linguistic scientists believe that all language originated through the onomatopoeic formation of words. CACOPHONY cack-AH-fuh-nee or cack-AW-fuh-nee : Discordant sounds in the jarring juxtaposition of harsh letters or syllables, sometimes inadvertent, but often deliberately used in poetry for effect, as in the lines from Whitman's The Dalliance of Eagles: The clinching interlocking claws, a living, fierce, gyrating wheel, Four beating wings, two beaks, a swirling mass tight grappling, In tumbling turning clustering loops, straight downward falling, Sidelight: Sound devices are important to poetic effects; to create sounds appropriate to the content, the poet may sometimes prefer to achieve a cacophonous effect instead of the more commonly sought-for euphony.

The use of words with the consonants b, k and p, for example, produce harsher sounds than the soft f and v or the liquid l, m and n. Usually placed between syllables rhythmically connected in order to aid the recital as well as to convey the meaning more clearly, it is a pause dictated by the sense of the content or by natural speech patterns, rather than by metrics.

It may coincide with conventional punctuation marks, but not necessarily. A caesura within a line is indicated in scanning by the symbol , as in the first line of Emily Dickinson's, I'm Nobody! Who Are You?

I'm no body! Who are you? Northern Lights 2. Little Women 3. Treasure Island 4. Poetry The critical essays: 1. Empire Boys Joseph Bristow 4. It begins in Oxford -- or an Oxford, at least: there are similarities with present-day Oxford, but differences too. The feel is more lateth century, most of the technology with a few exceptions appearing to be of about that time. Details differ too: here it is Jordan College that is "the grandest and richest of all the colleges in Oxford".

And history has also unfolded differently: readers soon learn that a "Pope John Calvin had moved the seat of the Papacy to Geneva" a while back, for example. It is also is a fundamentally different universe in several respects -- most notably in that all humans have daemons, creatures that must and do always remain near them, and which can change form until the humans they are paired with reach puberty, when they settle down in a fixed form.

And while human meaning: human plus daemon life dominates, witches and talking bears and a few other species also inhabit this universe. It is also a different universe in that the Church which isn't quite "the Church" readers are familiar with, but is basically Christianity, gone just slightly differently awry plays a more dominant role -- in this the feel is more Inquisition Spain than 19th century England.

Jordan College is a scholarly centre -- which in this case means it: "had no rival, either in Europe or in New France, as a center of experimental theology" though note that 'theology' is a much broader concept here, and clearly includes what we would call 'physics', for example. Among the theological disputes of the day -- though apparently not much or at least openly disputed -- is one heretical notion that will immediately strike readers as of some significance, given the alternate universe being presented here: The Holy Church teaches that there are two worlds: the world of everything we can see and hear and touch, and another world, the spiritual world of heaven and hell.

Barnard and Stokes were two -- how shall I put it -- renegade theologians who postulated the existence of numerous other worlds, like this one, neither heaven nor hell, but material and sinful. They are there, close by, but invisible and unreachable. The Holy Church naturally disapproved of this abominable heresy, and Barnard and Stokes were silenced.

The central character in this book is Lyra Belacqua, "a half-wild, half-civilized girl, left among" the Jordan College scholars by chance.

The powerful and generally absent Lord Asriel is apparently her uncle, and it's a rare visit by him to the college sets things in motion. Lyra wants to go with him, but he won't have it. Meanwhile, there are also strange goings-on around Oxford: children are disappearing, taken, rumour has it, by Gobblers, though no one is quite sure what happens to the taken children. Soon enough Lyra learns what is behind it all: taken in by the seductive Mrs. Coulter -- female companionship and guidance now deemed more proper for the slowly maturing girl -- Lyra goes to London but can only briefly enjoy the far more worldly lifestyle there.

Lyra is a special girl: many people take an interest in her, and try to help her -- and, occasionally, use her. She's apparently destined to play a significant role in future events -- but one of the things that concerns those in the know is that she, for some unexplained reason, must not know what she's destined for.

Once away from London things get far more adventurous. Everyone is after the child -- huge rewards are posted for finding her -- but she is helped by the gyptians, a Gypsy- Romany- like people who have lost some of their children to the Gobblers as well. They plan an expedition to go North as well: that's where the children are, and they mean to save them. Lyra goes with them. Lyra carries with her a valuable and rare device, given to her when she left Oxford: an alethiometer the golden compass of the American title , which, when handled and read properly, can answer questions, including about what lies in store in the future.

Usually operators of the device need to study for ages and consult the books that explain the many meanings, but Lyra quickly develops a knack for figuring out how to use it -- a talent that comes in handy and is added proof that she is a special little girl.

There are rumours about what the Gobblers do with the kidnapped children, and some of it is horrific stuff: "We hear about children with no heads, or about children cut in half and sewn together, or about things too awful to mention.

Significant too is the role of the daemons: they are like souls, an apparently necessary part of every human which can never stray very far from their hosts. Pullman does a nice job with these creatures, especially Lyra's named Pantalaimon , and they're among his most inspired inventions here. But there are some who have some theories about what possibly positive things might happen if the link between human and daemon is severed Lyra practically stumbles from one adventure to the next up North: she gets repeatedly captured, comes across some of the kidnapped children, learns the various secrets of the mysterious ways of the various people and groups in the North.

Among the most engaging parts of the book is her relationship with a disgraced bear, Iorek Byrnison, who with and through her gets an opportunity to set things right again in the bear kingdom ruled over by a hilariously confused human want-to-be, the bear Iofur Raknison who goes so far as to carry a daemon-doll around with him since he, like all bears, doesn't have or need a real one. Then there's Lord Asriel, long imprisoned but still going about with his own plans and boy does he have grand ambitions , who Lyra finally reaches -- only to find herself forced into one last pursuit.

Things end dramatically, with promise of more to come in the volumes that follow: So Lyra and her daemon turned away from the world they were born in, and looked toward the sun, and walked into the sky. Pullman offers a fine series of adventures here, though the jumps from one to the next are often abrupt: there's also a bit too much coincidence and convenience here.

Lyra is a fairly well-developed little-heroine -- and though she has some special abilities and the weight of destiny hanging over her Pullman manages to avoid making too much of a super-girl out of her. She's described as "a sanguine and practical child" and, interestingly in a book so wildly imagined, Pullman insists: "she wasn't imaginative". Lyra has some wild adventures, but as easily settles down into childish ways when opportunity arises even when she finds herself with the kidnapped children in very unsettling surroundings.

Pullman does have her nod off several times too often drowsiness no doubt naturally overcomes her, but it does so here so often that one imagines Pullman keeps mentioning it only to offer parents who read this to their children as a bedtime tale a convenient out, so that they have an excuse to stop for the evening too. Pullman offers an impressive alternate-reality, but it is not very fully realised.

Parts are well done -- the too-human bear palace, for one, and the open ocean and the snowy north -- but his narrow focus generally doesn't allow for a sense of the world in its entirety. The central characters are quite well done, though both Lord Asriel and Mrs. Coulter remain a bit distant and mysterious as they admittedly well might appear to Lyra.

Several of those who come to Lyra's aid are of interest, though some -- like the Texan aeronaut Lee Scoresby -- never convince. The one true triumph is the bear Iorek Byrnison, whose entire story -- from how he joins the gyptian crew to his return to the bear kingdom and his efforts to assist Lyra -- is marvelously done.

There are some gruesome events in the book, but it all makes sense in this struggle between good and evil. As to the reasons for what is happening -- and specifically Lyra's role and the reasons why she mustn't know what she is ordained for -- that isn't satisfactorily explained here. Much seems almost entirely arbitrary, and though there are hints of theological, philosophical, and scientific explanations not enough is offered. Events move along quickly with the jumps from one to the next largely entirely too convenient , explanations are largely superficial and serve almost solely to move the action along, and there's little attempt at psychological depth of any sort Iorek Byrnison and, to a much lesser extent, Lyra being almost the only exceptions.

Most of the characters are two-dimensional, and simply black or white -- with Pullman perhaps thinking he has done enough by not making many of them show their true colours immediately, or presenting them as checkered or even grey. Much of the action is too simple too, with many of the battles, captures, and escapes not particularly cleverly done -- but there are also genuinely exciting exceptions especially the trick Lyra pulls on the bear pretender to the throne, Iofur Raknison.

Pullman does hold the reader's interest throughout: he creates a vivid enough tableau, with so much going on and so many questions unanswered that one readily and easily gulps the book down.

Worthwhile -- as a fun, light read --, but not exceptional. Do you find any adult themes such as theme of death, betrayal and redemption, dysfunctional families, gender roles, war and violence, corruption, etc… in Northern Lights?

To what extent is this true for Northern Lights? What kind of authority and orthodox is Pullman challenging in his novel? Reader 2 , Is Northern Lights a fantasy novel? Does it offer any commentary on the reality? Popular versus prestigious literature 3. Christianity in the Narnia series C. They were sold for less than a penny and were essentially were reprints of old romances, fairy stories, religious tracts, ballads and cut down version of books.

They were very popular with children and are often cited as one of the earliest forms of childrens literature. Expensive 2. Highly moralistic 3. Serious 4. Religious 5. Realistic Popular 1. Cheap 2. No moral ending 3. And every child enjoys it for different reasons — be it travelling to magical worlds, learning new concepts, going on adventures, etc.

Perhaps the best way to help a child explore, express, understand emotions, problems, problem-solving, habits, and much more is via stories. Be it a quick bedtime tale or a grandma fable, each story helps a child enter a completely different magical and imaginative world that has no boundaries.

Cinderella, Snow White, Little Red Riding Hood — These are some of the most popular fairy tales of all time and the best part about these stories is that there are so many different versions which lets you revisit the same story in different manners.

Some children enjoy the occasional scares, ghosts and chills down the spine. The stories are written in a simple and effective manner. If your child is bored of the regular happy ending fairy tales, then this could be a new genre to try.