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This access is determined by the owner of each case. For example, the user's camera may be equipped with a GPS or other spatial location device that presses a location stamp on each photo. California outlawed this practice in In such cases, it is useful to specify other words in the query, such as the names of all streets in the town. Retrieved 8 August

郵便番号 - Translation into English - examples Japanese | Reverso Context

Translations in context of "郵便番号" in Japanese-English from Reverso Context: 郵便番号バー, 郵便番号が. Translations in context of "郵便物" in Japanese-English from Reverso Context: 今朝は 開いた 郵便物 メールアドレスを確認してアプリをダウンロードします。. 住所不明 (ANKLink). Undeliverable-as-addressed (UAA: 宛先不明) の郵便物によって、郵便業界と USPS には毎年多額の費用が生じています。. Let me apologize first, Helly-san! while 郵便配達人 is not a wrong word for it, 郵便​配達員 ゆうびんはいたついん is more common! And yes, in spoken Japanese. Hey there, I need to find any information about make my history ダウンロード, searched all the web 浮世絵 画像 ダウンロード 住所 郵便 ワード ダウンロード.

住所 郵便 ワード ダウンロード. In the typical single-threaded, read-only scenario this is not a problem, but it causes warnings and may cause problems in a multi-threaded scenario.

その. sono. 本. hon. ほん を. wo. 郵便. yuubin. ゆうびん でお. deo. 送. oku. おく りします。 rishimasu. I'll send the book by mail. 郵便. yuubin. ゆうびん が. ga. 届. "Try your memory" is turning two cards, is the time trial up to align all of the cards in pairs to align the same number. Leveraging a little time, such as commute. พจนานุกรม แปลภาษา แปลภาษาอังกฤษ แปลความหมาย Longdo Dictionary English Japanese German French Dictionary Service. File size: KB; Simultaneous device usage: Unlimited; Text-to-Speech: Enabled; Enhanced typesetting: Enabled; X-Ray: Not Enabled; Word Wise: Not​. zipaddrでは郵便番号からDBを検索して都道府県、市区町村、地域、データをjsonp形式で返します。 seoauditing.ruess側にはガイダンスで検索の途中データが表示され.

ZIP Code - Wikipedia

Microsoft Word: Write, Edit & Share Docs on the Go · Google Calendar Download on Windows Google Calendar · Samsung Notes Download. Many search word can be specified with space delimited. * Hide/Show items. 郵便番号検索 - オフライン対応郵便番号住所検索 · - Free.住所 郵便 ワード ダウンロード Examples of keywords include any word of interest to the user, or simply a string When the user enters a keyword query, the word-to-word suggestion unit Word Of Mouth. India. Words. Link 全国地図、都道府県・市区町村・町名の住所​、郵便番号の一部から郵便番号を検索することができます。 Pretty cheap fabric. 今回はMW WP FORMでの設定方法を説明します。 Contents. 郵便番号自動入力用のJSライブラリの読み込み. YubinBangoライブラリの読み込み. A ZIP Code is a postal code used by the United States Postal Service (USPS). Introduced in A barcode can be printed by the sender (some word-processing programs such as WordPerfect include the feature), but this is not recommended, as. ロダウンロードしたい場合は、 MSワードが必要となります。 If you would like to download, you will need MS - Word.ロサンプルソフトを普通郵便で郵送する.

住所 郵便 ワード ダウンロード.

Information Menu The example below matches any message with a word “support” in its subject: match_header("subject", ".*support"). The example below matches any message​. Data files are available for download in Comma Separated Values files .csv file extension) where data items are separated by commas and each.

あなたのダウンロードコードをここに入力してください:。 Download code is postal code. - 郵便番号 郵便コード · zip code Word by word translation. android セキュリティ パッチ レベル 更新 · win10 下載 破解 bt · claramarie_melody 視頻 · 天体観測 ギター練習 ダウンロード · 住所 郵便 ワード ダウンロード.   住所 郵便 ワード ダウンロード Codes like this are indicated by the "一つの郵便番号で二以上の町域を表す場合の表示" field in the original CSV data, which is called multi here. For now, if more. の使用に関し、ソニーがお客様の個人名、住所、電話番号または E-mail の宛先に郵便料金前払い、配達証明サービス付きの内容証明郵便(米FedEx The word 'cryptographic' can be left out if the rouines from the library. Steven universe vol 2 original soundtrack Browse and share the top 『検索ワード』 GIFs from on Gfycat. ダウンロード sample sample,走る GIF · 【ソウルワーカー】「ハル・ 郵便番号検索 日本郵便【微信 】 郵便番号検索 日本郵便 GIF. #郵便番号検索 日本. Download 簡単!タップで郵便番号 Apk Android App​seoauditing.ruango free- all latest and older.

住所 郵便 ワード ダウンロード

貴方が必要とする付帯の全てをダウンロード可能です。 as keyboard data, allowing data to feed into Windows desktop applications (like Word or Notepad). Home. Updates. Adobe Acrobat is used for viewing, printing, signing, sharing, and annotating seoauditing.rut PDF to Word Make PDF Forms Fillable Type Text in.  住所 郵便 ワード ダウンロード a word definition of IAM; the 8 signs of Death by One-off; why the business — not IT — should be at the front lines of 無料の電子書籍のダウンロード. JP Elly boob job vid ダウンロード Sargon of akkad patreon n word Girls and panzas cosplay Rey cosplay der letzte jedi Amouranth patreon leaked video ⭐ HawtAssMilf ダウンロード. 地図、住所、郵便番号から郵便番号を検索できます。.

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  住所 郵便 ワード ダウンロード  

住所 郵便 ワード ダウンロード. 郵便物 - Translation into English - examples Japanese | Reverso Context

  住所 郵便 ワード ダウンロード  Grunnlovsdag 2020

住所 郵便 ワード ダウンロード

Here is the Download link for you — Memu Play Website. Open the official website and download the software. Step 2 : Once the emulator is installed, just open it and find Google Playstore App icon on the home screen of Memuplay. Just double tap on that to open. Find the official App from YuuWoods developer and click on the Install button. Device Client Pack. Tow My Car. Real Planning FES. LP4 Print Tool. Todoapp: Todo List and Reminders.

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Samsung Email. Samsung Print Service Plugin. Microsoft OneDrive. Microsoft PowerPoint: Slideshows and Presentations. As a result, the user can present urgent information to a geographical location. A short-lived memo document may be used to create icons that perform animated actions on the map interface. Such an icon follows a moving object or a general path of the user through the area.

Public key cryptosystems such as PGP are standard in the art and can be used to work on this. By using this same type of public key cryptography, or requiring users to log in with a personal password that authenticates their identity, the audience of the document can be limited. The creator of the note document can determine a list of registered users who are allowed to view the special note document. Alternatively, the creator distributes the encryption key required to open the memo document.

As a result, the user can publish the memo document in the reservation list. Such a personal computer system may be a part or all authorized copies of the computer system Such personally held memo documents may be protected by safety standards. The creator of such a note document may create additional note documents that can be owned by other people or companies in other instances of the computer system These additional note documents provide pointers to one or many note documents on the creator's personal computer system.

These additional note documents may include a summary of the original note document. A user of one instance of the computer system 20 can access one other instance of the computer system This access is determined by the owner of each case. This allows many instances of the computer system 20 to participate in the operation and distribution of geographically located memo documents. For example, retail store owners may copy their inventory database into a note document in the case of computer system This conversion of the retail store database into a geographically located memo document facilitates supplying inventory information to other users interested in the physical area of the retail store.

If those documents contain location information, they can be automatically presented to the map interface. If not, the user can be prompted to select a location for each document. Examples of such classified memo documents are a collection of photographs taken on vacation, a collection of recordings recorded around the city, a set of data collected from various sensors, and a series of newspaper articles.

Contains a set of descriptions for events or trail guides. The collection may comprise colored lines connecting various icons on the map , thereby indicating the path being followed by a user in the area. For example, the user's camera may be equipped with a GPS or other spatial location device that presses a location stamp on each photo.

In that case, it is quite easy to upload the photos and their stamps position each photo on the map The service may do this for the user. For example, a hospital may annotate a user's medical history about where the user was treated and present them as a collection of personal note documents to the user and other attendants.

The memo document presented at the vending machine location comprises an order receiving means connected with the vending machine allowing the user to use a credit card or other payment means to purchase goods from the machine. Also good.

This allows the user to obtain physical goods without paying cash or even having a credit card. Such a bulletin board may receive text messages from a mobile phone and broadcast them to users who view the bulletin board. Such a memo document may be presented to a restaurant or theater where a telephone reservation is required.

The functions of the region evaluation control unit include a region usage evaluation unit domain usage feedback , a word-domain suggestion unit , and a word-word suggestion unit word-word suggestion These words words can be gathered by analyzing documents that refer to this region in order to find the words that occur most in that region. These words can be gathered in the same way by recording the keywords entered by other users when viewing the area. The most common thing searched for words can be presented to the user.

These additional keyword suggestions come from a thesaurus that can be built by recording the query procedures entered by other users. If many users enter the same keyword at the same time or within a single session, then those keywords can be considered relevant.

You can suggest trying. This suggestion helps users find what they need. Referring to FIG. By following these hyperlinks repeatedly, most of the networked document system can be discovered and saved to the page repository The crawler 36 collects documents in the computer system 20 in this manner. In one embodiment, these documents are available worldwide web pages on the Internet. The crawler 36, pioneer 48, and metasearcher 32 add the address of the document.

The page queue 34 includes a database table and a page queue table When crawler 36 loads a previously unknown document, crawler 36 passes the document to the pioneer 48 process. The pioneer 48 parses the content of the document for a hyperlink to the new document. The pioneer 48 adds any address referenced by such a hyperlink to the page queue Each circulated URL is assigned spatial suitability.

Considering spatial compatibility helps the crawler 36 efficiently use time and other resources. After the page is downloaded and its spatial relevance is calculated, its spatial relevance level field is re-corrected to reflect the actual relevance we have discovered. Can be done. This initialization step is called "seeding" or "bootstrapping". A computer system may have to be installed for each area. For example, separate bootstrapping operations can be used for US postal system addresses and French postal system addresses.

The metasearcher's human administrator provides it with a collection of known spatial locations adapted to the area. The result is compared to a collection of known documents and, if new, added to the collection of known documents. In practice, this rarely happens with large collections of documents unless their collection is very static.

Thus, since a complete tour is rarely possible, the speed of the tour is an important design concern. The speed of patrol is limited by the speed at which new pages are discovered through links on previously downloaded pages. A good way to accelerate this visit is to query an existing search engine that may have been a web that has already visited at least a portion of the document collection. The results given by these search engines are used to boot the data collection unit 30 process.

This process for bootstrapping has six steps. Other areas may require different processes. Because search engines generally limit the number of results returned for a query, the search does not return all the results we want to collect. In such cases, it is useful to specify other words in the query, such as the names of all streets in the town. Each engine has a maximum number of results that they will return for a query, even if they have more pages to satisfy the query.

If the metasearch query overflows this number, the metasearcher 32 adds words to the query to further refine the URL. Query the search engine by the town name. The second table contains all streets in all US towns. Some places rarely reach this level. The data analysis unit 40 includes a process of a spatial recognition unit 42, a process of a spatial coder 43 spatial coder 43, a process of a keyword syntax analysis unit keyword parser 44, a process of an index creation unit indexer 46, and a spatial document ranking.

The process includes a process of an attachment unit spatial document ranking 45 and a process of a development unit The role of the pioneer 48 process is described in the section on the data collection unit It searches for patterns that are similar to a portion of the spatial identifier. For example, in a standard geographic area for the United States, the pattern includes the address, location, and telephone number of the United States postal system.

We divide the address into a standard set of fields used by the US postal system. Similar formats exist for other postal systems represented as other areas. Is done. The table for these possible spatial identifiers PSI , which in this case maps to a standard geographic area, has fields for latitude and longitude. Regardless of the region, the table can comprise fields for spatial coding reliability, the number of documents located at this location, the state of spatial coding, and the total suitability of documents located at this location.

Many documents have multiple spatial references. In some cases, all spatial identifiers are associated with all documents. An example is a web page listing locations of branches of a retail store chain. Alternatively, however, each spatial identifier may be associated with only a true subset of pages. An example of this is a page that provides short reviews of many restaurants. Such a page is a document divided into a plurality of parts. When a document is indexed by keywords as a whole, some words in the document are actually related to the address of a different part of the document, even if the word is not related to that part.

As if it were indexed. The process of multipart population measure initially rejects any document whose address is less than some number usually 5 or whose word is less than some number probably We apply a clustering statistic like Gini coefficient in that case to generate a clustering score that represents how concentrated those addresses are on the page.

A document with low clustering statistics indicating that their addresses spread evenly is likely to be a document divided into multiple parts. The threshold for the maximum clustering statistic is determined empirically and can be changed for each region. A tag recognizer provides one way to determine the title portion of the document. When a clause is found as a search result, the complete document can be returned by an anchor placed at the beginning of the clause so that the document can be scrolled to the clause before presenting it to the user, Pages that are not divided are retained.

This completes the input in the spatial dictionary described above. Associate with a region. If both the phone number and address in the document match for the page location, we can improve the document ranking spatial document ranking unit Standard geolocating procedures approximate this in points. This makes it easy to geolocate them geolocate. A location encoder similar to the address encoder searches for candidate strings that may be town and street names.

However, the location encoder differs in that it looks up the name of the town in the database of all known towns in the United States and rejects the name of the town if it is not found. The phone-to-location table maps the area code and switch pair to the town name and state name pairs.

In that case, this pair has a small constant heuristically determined to reflect the fact that the town thus obtained is less valuable than the town mentioned by name. Is treated like the name of a place, except that it is reduced by. Especially in suburban locations, a central office of a telephone company can target multiple towns, and in fact there is a possibility that telephone numbers are located in neighboring towns.

SMI may infer spatial suitability for terms words and phrases , not based on semantic interpretation, but based on statistical characteristics of appropriate portions of spatial keyword document index SMI uses the assumption that if a phrase occurs primarily in a document with an address at the same location, then the phrase is probably related to that location as well.

Spatial keyword document index has a tree structure for each indexed term, ie, each term in word dictionary For each word in a given string, SMI examines the tree structure associated with that word. Since the tree structure is an ordered variation of the spatial document index , an imbalance measure is used to measure the degree of imbalance in the tree structure that may have a significant imbalance as a result of the arrangement.

Including calling part The imbalance measurement unit is described below. Roughly, and as will be explained in more detail, if enough terms in a string have a tree structure with a similar imbalance, the SMI will cause the string to have an imbalance in the tree structure. Associate spatial regions indicated by various parts. This is evidenced by the degree of imbalance in the resulting tree structure.

The tree structure resulting from the intersection of these three words has many branches in the latitude-longitude region that covers New York City. Given a spatial keyword document index , every node or leaf in the index tree may be identified by a set of values that indicate a sequence of the number of child nodes that must be traversed to reach that node.

Specify the node found by going to. In one embodiment, the imbalance measurer calculates standard peakies by choosing a random sampling of words, and for each of those words, the two-dimensional of the points referenced by the document containing the word.

Calculate the variance. Documents specifically related to words can be given special weights when calculating variances and are very relevant, for example, so that highly related documents appear to represent multiple documents at that location Documents can be evaluated in stages. Given an arbitrary set of variances, the imbalance measurer calculates an average variance.

The average variance can be used as a criterion for detecting geographically related phrases or words. Any word or phrase that has a variance that is significantly less than the reference is a geographic event.

Since the tree structure in the spatial keyword document index has already spread to all documents known to the computer system 20, the SMI considers the set of leaf tree addresses of the resulting tree structure. Makes it easy to detect geographic events. For example, given a candidate word or phrase, the SMI queries the spatial keyword document index and obtains the list of addresses for the ordered result tree structure for this word or phrase.

Then perform the following actions:. Starting with the first number at all addresses, SMI finds the most common branch number at this level ie, for this number. SMI calculates the fraction of the address that follows the candidate branch point at that level.

The SMI again calculates the fraction of the address that follows the candidate branch point. Special thresholds can be adjusted for each region. Adjusting the threshold adjusts the quality of the fit considered. It is set empirically. Most of these times, it appears on the address page for the restaurant. At other times it appears on a page that favors restaurants. This allows us to geolocate other pages to that point.

Restricted polygons are a more common result. The main purpose of geolocating these phrases is to improve the ranking of the documents discussed in the section on spatial document ranking As those documents are saved in the page repository , the process of the keyword parser 44 opens each document and scans for keywords.

The word case table associates a given keyword with a set of documents containing it. The word dictionary is a database table that functions as a dictionary of all words and word IDs corresponding to them. Tag recognizers for various document standards are well known in computer technology and can even be an operating system feature.

Allows you to issue a query against. The results associated with the user query should not be overwhelmed by irrelevant results, otherwise the system will be useless. The evaluation value is combined with a floating point number indicating the suitability of each document for the query.

For example, a document may have an address and phone number that we can geolocate. If the address is for a point that is nested within the area of the phone number, we can improve the geographical relevance of the document to that address. This improvement is secondary to the suitability calculated by the following method. The distance can be measured in character units or byte units. Partially negate the low score assigned to it.

Documents containing many addresses tend to be lists where any individual address is unlikely to be associated with the document. Means for measuring the relevance of a word to a document are well known in the art.

This type of conformance is typically calculated on-the-fly when a user queries for a particular phrase. There are standard methods in the art for calculating this type of suitability. Several measures of theoretical quality, including the number of pages linked to the document, the number of times people click on the document when served as search results, and the number of other documents that refer to the same word and location There is a method, ie if it is a document like many others, its theoretical value may be considered low, regardless of the specific word it contains.

Network connectivity is calculated from the probability that a page will be selected by any crawl of the web. In that case, this probability is mapped to a score. The special mapping is selected based on the size of the collection of documents in the page repository because the probability of finding any arbitrary document is inversely proportional to the size of the collection.

Editors can create rules that adjust the theoretical quality of a particular document. For example, he can simply weight all the documents in a special site as better than other documents by increasing the document quality criteria.

A document ID field is a foreign key that references the document ID field in the page repository The index generator 46 includes a spatial indexer , a spatial-keyword indexer , and a tree degree converter The spatial index is a binary tree structure.

Spatial document index is based on spatial index , but can be a higher order tree structure which is the order of all binary tree structures.

Create a root node. Spatial index generator passes the root node and collection to step , which represents the start of a recursive spatial indexing subroutine or RSIS RSIS examines the collection at step to determine if the collection contains more than one element. If not, RSIS associates the location of the one element region with the current node at step and proceeds to step to return control to the routine that called it.

If the space of the region is a plane, the spatial divider D is a line in the plane. If the space of the region is three-dimensional, the spatial divider D is a plane that passes through the three spaces. In general, if the space of the region is X-dimensional, the spatial division is a polyhedron with a dimension obtained by subtracting 1 from X.

Thus, each node contains criteria that divide the location's main collection into two auxiliary collections. This creates a branch point in the binary tree structure that will serve as the index. Often the city is the same and just the neighborhood varies, but sometimes part of the city field varies, or even the whole city field.

For now, if more than one region uses multiple codes, the main entry is for the first region listed in the main CSV, and other regions are stored as a list in the alternates property.

There may be a better way to do this. This section is for notes on the use of the library itself as opposed to notes about the data structure.

By default, posuto creates a DB connection and cursor on startup and reuses it for all requests. In the typical single-threaded, read-only scenario this is not a problem, but it causes warnings and may cause problems in a multi-threaded scenario. In that case you can manage db connections manually using a context manager object. Using the object this way the connection will be automatically closed when the with block is exited.

The original postal data is provided by JP Post with an indication they will not assert copyright. Jul 2, May 31, May 1, Apr 4, Feb 26, Jan 29, Dec 31, Dec 18, Dec 7, Dec 1, Oct 3, Sep 1, Aug 4, Jun 1, Apr 30, Apr 2,


This may be an incorporated town or city, a subentity of a large city or an unincorporated census-designated place , or a small unincorporated community. Additional place names may be recognized as acceptable for a certain ZIP Code. Still, others are deemed not acceptable, and if used may result in a delay in mail delivery. Preferred place names are generally the city or town in which the address is located. However, for many cities that have incorporated since ZIP Codes were introduced, the city name is not the preferred place name.

Many databases automatically assign the preferred place name for a ZIP Code, without regard to any acceptable place names.

However, in many cases, only the preferred name can be used, even when many addresses in the ZIP Code are in another city. People sometimes must use the name of a post office rather than their own city.

Its residents prefer the more glamorous Beverly Hills address and ZIP Code, but this regularly causes problems with emergency response when dispatchers have to sort out whether a given home in is in Los Angeles or Beverly Hills. At the same time, a small portion of the city of Houston is in Fort Bend County in the ZIP Code , and residents there must use the name Missouri City for their address even though they are in Houston. This also occurs in some rural areas where portions of one town have their mail delivered to other post offices.

Only the preferred name of Cummington is allowed in ZIP Code , so residents of parts of Plainfield must list their address as being in Cummington. This phenomenon is repeated across the country. The previously mentioned Englewood, Colorado is an inner-ring suburb that was built out by the s. Its post office served the area that is now the high-growth southern tier of the Denver metropolitan area , and ZIP Codes in this area were assigned Englewood as their preferred place name.

A business community as large as downtown Denver has grown in this area, with headquarters for many internationally recognized corporations. These companies indicate Englewood as their location the preferred postal place name , although they are located in other cities. As a result, there are really two Englewoods — the city, small and with a largely working-class residential population, and, a number of miles away, the postal Englewood, a vast suburban area of upscale subdivisions and office parks that have nothing to do with the city of Englewood yet share a split identity with it solely because of ZIP Codes.

People who say they live or work in Englewood and identify closely with it may rarely enter the city. Acceptable place names also come into play in areas where citizens identify more strongly with a particular urban center than their own municipality. For example, Allegheny County, Pennsylvania , has distinct municipalities, yet many of the county's residents, and even some residents of adjacent counties, commonly use Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania as their postal address.

On the opposite end of the spectrum, in some urban areas, neighborhood names may be acceptable even though they have no legal standing, such as La Jolla , California , which is the preferred place name for ZIP Code , despite the fact that La Jolla is a district of San Diego , California and not a separate legal entity.

Many ZIP Codes are for villages , census-designated places , portions of cities, or other entities that are not municipalities. LaGrangeville is itself not a town at all, but a section of LaGrange. Furthermore, non-municipal place names may also share ZIP Codes with municipal place names. For example, West Windsor Township, New Jersey , is commonly referred to in most mailing databases as Princeton Junction , a census-designated place within West Windsor.

Silver Spring, Maryland , , — is neither a city nor a town, but simply the common name for an unincorporated area consisting of a large part of the lower southern portion of Montgomery County. Postal designations for place names become de facto locations for their addresses, and as a result, it is difficult to convince residents and businesses that they are located in another city or town different from the preferred place name associated with their ZIP Codes.

Because of issues of confusion and lack of identity, some cities, such as Signal Hill, California an enclave located entirely inside the separate city of Long Beach , have successfully petitioned the Postal Service to change ZIP Code boundaries or create new ZIP Codes so their cities become the preferred place name for addresses within the ZIP Code.

Postal designation confusion may have financial implications for local governments because mail volume is one factor used by the U. Census Bureau to estimate population changes between decennial census enumerations. A typical example is Paddock Lake, Wisconsin , whose preferred place name is Salem. Paddock Lake is incorporated as a village within the town of Salem, even though there are more people in the village of Paddock Lake than there are in the unincorporated parts of the town of Salem.

Further confusion is caused because Silver Lake, Wisconsin , which is also a village in the town of Salem and is of similar size and status to Paddock Lake, has its own ZIP Code and post office. In another case, the U. Federal Communications Commission FCC denied a radio station now WNNX FM a move requiring a change in its city of license to Sandy Springs , Georgia , largely because it was not a city until municipal incorporation in late , despite being the seventh-largest place in the state by population.

The FCC cited the use of " Atlanta " on letters of support from local organizations, even though the USPS forced them to use Atlanta for until well after incorporation took effect. Currently "Sandy Springs" is only acceptable , despite none of being in Atlanta, or anywhere else outside the Sandy Springs city limit. Because ZIP Codes and their associated place names can ignore county lines, problems may occur where street addresses are based on quadrant location within a county.

The Cobb County portion of this area includes Vinings in the southeast of that county; the Fulton County portion lies within the city limits of Atlanta. Every street address in Vinings is labeled SE, and has a house number on the Cobb County grid according to the distance from the town square in the county seat of Marietta. However, because the USPS demands the use of Atlanta, Vinings addresses are written such that they appear to be in southeast Atlanta, instead of in the opposite northwest metro Atlanta side.

Like area codes , ZIP Codes are sometimes divided and changed, especially when a rural area becomes suburban. Typically, the new codes become effective once announced, and a grace period e. In rapidly growing communities, it is sometimes necessary to open a new sectional center facility, which must then be allocated its own three-digit ZIP-code prefix or prefixes. Such allocation can be done in various ways.

For example, when a new sectional center facility was opened at Dulles Airport in Virginia, the prefix was allocated to that facility; therefore, for all post offices to be served by that sectional center facility the ZIP Code changed from an old code beginning with or to a new code or codes beginning with However, when a new sectional center facility was opened to serve Montgomery County, Maryland , no new prefix was assigned.

Instead, ZIP Codes in the and ranges, which had previously been assigned alphabetically, were reshuffled so that xx ZIP Codes in the county was changed to xx codes, while xx codes outside that county were changed to xx codes. Because Silver Spring whose postal area includes Wheaton has its own prefix, , there was no need to apply the reshuffling to Silver Spring; instead, all mail going to xx ZIP Codes was simply rerouted to the new sectional center facility.

On the other hand, depopulation may cause a post office to close and its associated ZIP Code to be deallocated. Because of the prefix, which is found only in Philadelphia apart from that lone exception, auto insurance companies charged higher city premiums to residents of that suburban location.

ZIP Codes also change when postal boundaries are realigned. For example, concurrent with the above-noted change in Montgomery County, Maryland, and under pressure from the then-mayor of Washington, D. For example, Bethesda became , while the Maryland portion of Takoma Park became The U.

Statistical census data is then provided for these approximate areas. The geographic data provided for these areas includes the latitude and longitude of the center-point of the ZCTAs. There are approximately 32, ZCTAs. Complete datasets providing a similar approximate geographic extent are commercially available. ZIP Codes are inherently discrete or point-based data, as they are assigned only at the point of delivery, not for the spaces in between the delivery points.

The United States Census Bureau then interpolates this discrete data set to create polygons, or areal features representing the approximate extent of the ZIP Code to use for mapping and data presentation. However, for many research and planning purposes, they are very useful and can be used with ZIP Code data. The data is often used in direct mail marketing campaigns in a process called ZIP-code marketing.

Point-of-sale cashiers sometimes ask consumers for their home ZIP Codes. Besides providing purchasing-pattern data useful in determining the location of new business establishments, retailers can use directories to correlate this ZIP Code with the name on a credit card to obtain a consumer's full address and telephone number. ZIP-Coded data are also used in analyzing geographic factors in risk, an insurance and banking industry practice pejoratively known as redlining.

This can cause problems, e. See Elkins Park, Pennsylvania, above. California outlawed this practice in ZIP Codes may not currently be used to identify existing legislative districts.

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