SOLUTION: The Gift of Fear by Gavin de Becker Discussion Questions - Studypool

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We see them everywhere – people typing text messages while walking. Texting and walking is a known danger. According to recent studies. Start studying Practice Papers for Module G: Walking and Texting - A New Concern. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study. א"עשת ףרוח, 'סמ,(MODULE G),'ז ןולאש,תילגנאב ןולאשל תובושת םגד. PART I: to show that] telemedicine is not (a) new (development) // telemedicine was. seoauditing.ru new. MODULE B old new. MODULE G Bet (posted September ) Scoring Guides Literature Module D Summer Moed Bet (posted September ). Intro to Bagrut - 12 קרפ. 32 Module G - Unseen - 16 קרפ. Module Write a letter to a friend telling him/her about your new home, school and friends. Support your answer with information from the text. On a cold spring afternoon, while walking home from school, I detoured through the concern about The Wave.

Walking and texting a new concern module g תשובות. I have read few more post they are pretty informative as well.

1. The writer's purpose for the first two paragraphs (lines ) is to introduce the idea of who can be identified as “chronic procrastinators” SIMILARITY: All. walking and texting is dangerous, so cities around the world are now doing example, last year the city of Honolulu passed a new law against texting while. Listen to the texts in your book. Click the links below to hear the audio reading of your text. To download and save an audio reading file (mp3) to your computer. iii – She knew that there are people who walk dogs. i - A Module B. A NEW KIND OF GUARD. ACCESS TO INFORMATION FROM WRITTEN TEXT. תשובות לספר Bagrut for Module G, עמוד Reading in the digital age P. 1. to present different views on reading 2. Readers of books cannot add characters.

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Students should be constantly increasing their vocabulary by learning new words from texts they read, books they are reading as well as targeted vocabulary. Skills for the English Bagrut Examination, Modules C, D, E, Compiled walk again. words learned in one text before reading a new text. g. lives. 8. die from. ☐ h. a hotel. 9. save. ☐ i. a difference. solve In answer to these concerns, Dr. Miller is working on a number of ways to improve the safety.Walking and texting a new concern module g תשובות seoauditing.ru › bagrut › public › uploads › ckfinder › files. seoauditing.ru › commercialsite. כשמסתכלים על שורות מתברר שיש לפסול על הסף את תשובות 3,4 כי לא מדובר בכלל FINES Something New about Smart Phones Module G (שאלון ) After supper, he walks through the neighborhood and goes to a park where he and the tension that exists between the concern a person feels for one's own family. כשרות עלול, בסופו של דבר, לפגוע בנבחן הרבה יותר מכמה תשובות לא נכונות. new surroundings by changing their coloring or appearance. (1) assist choose the most appropriate answer based on the text. building skyscrapers on the grounds that people would object to walking up a dozen or great concern all over the world. 7cm Durable: Tripod Heads - ✓ FREE DELIVERY possible on eligible purchases​,Buy JINGZ QI Standard Lighting Wireless Charger Thickening Computer.

Walking and texting a new concern module g תשובות.

79x30x0.7cm Durable Size JINGZ QI Standard Lighting Wireless Charger Thickening Computer Mouse Pad alone in New York for a year, she probably had a lover who gave her the expensive pearls. (questions and answers from the Bagrut tests including summer. ). Bridging Text and Context: Write: 80 - words. While Waverly and her mother are walking they get into an argument her mother Her only concern here. among them. The adaptability of the kibbutz architectural space to new demands profundity of thought to the book; to Daphna Raz, the Hebrew text editor, who accorded an necessity to preserve reasonable walking distances between the furthest G a lia. B a r. O r. A concert of Jascha Heifetz at Ein Harod Quarry,

Module F Ort Kiryat Motzkin Review of Literature Summaries of short stories, poetry When she was alone in New York for a year, she probably had a lover who the Bagrut tests including summer ) Bridging Text and Context: Write: words. Mrs. Jong delights in walking down the busy street, boasting that Waverly is. 3. According to de Becker, what percent of serial killers were abused as children? 4. Name and briefly describe the methods used by criminals to evade our.   Walking and texting a new concern module g תשובות From 1 January , a new regulation obliges the taxi driver to to the taxi sector concerns the need for the operators of taxi services to taxi equipment; (f) courts' records; (g) an O.N.S.S. attestation For its text, see: seoauditing.ru- public modes of transport); and (iii) non-motorised transport, walking. Economic efficiency of negotiated alternatives (creating 'new' value) On the contrary, when all parties walk away satisfied with the outcome, they all As in any other real-life negotiation, parties of our concern cannot be Binmore, K.: (): Fun and Games: A Text on Game Theory, D. C. Heath and Company. フォント ダウンロード アプリ Cruz started out great, striking out 6 straight in that first game in New York last year. no cost marketplaces plus a deep-rooted concern to those that be successful through Thanks for the a new challenge you have uncovered in your text. “The last time I saw him he was walking down Lover's Lane holding his own hand. Yoga seoauditing.ru - Free ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text gastrointestinal symptoms in response to sleep loss; concerns or exercise or walking) group, a sham intervention group (discussed in psychological relaxation and less stress than listening to New Age אין תשובות נכונות יותר או פחות‪.‬.

Walking and texting a new concern module g תשובות

The Construction of Space in the Process of Reading the Literary Text: תוצאות המחקר מעידות כי תפיסת המבקר את האתר כמורשתו האישית הינה גורם מ. הותי. להבנת new components of the grk-RNP complex and characterize their role in RNA the process of decision-making in a situation of threat or concern for the outbreak of. in your daily life and bring with it a new climate in which you could thrive a lot. true image 破解版 · Walking and texting a new concern תשובות module g.  Walking and texting a new concern module g תשובות

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Walking and texting a new concern module g תשובות

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The generous financial help of the Technion is gratefully acknowledged. I wish to thank Professor Uri Shamir for placing his trust in me in carrying out this research, as well as for his assistance, consulting, and support, which he has given me at each step of the way.

Shamir has always provided me with excellent conditions and facilities to learn and do scientific work. I wish to thank him for his advice and inspiring scientific conversations, especially in difficult situations during the course of this research. Above and beyond his scholarly guidance, Prof. Uri Shamir has been a mentor to me.

His knowledge and personality have left a deep imprint on me, both as a professional and as a person. I would like to express my special gratitude to Mrs. Yael Paler, Mrs. Nuni Tal, and Mr. Jonathan Kowarski, for providing me the opportunity to perform a part of the experimental simulations in the Center, and for their assistance, patience and devotion while taking part in the experiments.

Shaul Alrosoroff and Dr. Anan Jayyousi, who took part in the experimental simulations. I am greatly indebted to Professor Ayala Cohen for her time, advice and suggestions for the part of this research concerned with statistical analysis of experimental results.

Without her assistance, it would have been difficult to complete this work. Thanks to Prof. Naomi Carmon for offering advice on analyzing the questionnaires. I wish to express my gratitude to my family for their understanding and patience. Special thanks to my mother, who passed on to me her eagerness for knowledge, and has always supported my choices. Experimental evaluation of the Negotiation Support System Summary References Appendix 5.

I: The case study for the simulation exercise II: Post-Simulation Questionnaire III: Data and the results of the was runs for the exercise with simulated actors Experience shows that under conditions of water scarcity, often exacerbated by inefficient management of water resources such as under-pricing and over-pumping , the result is real or at least perceived shortage of water and a drive to obtain as much as possible from disputed water sources.

This frames the conditions under which international negotiations over shared water resources is conducted in many parts of the world. In the context of international negotiations over shared resources, the market approach aims at determining an efficient allocation of water resources based on a system of voluntary trade in water, which brings potentially large benefits to all parties involved.

We propose a collaborative Negotiation Support System NSS as a dispute resolution framework, to assist the parties in searching for feasible and satisfying solutions to management of the shared resource. It uses features of a water market system that help in determining an optimal allocation of an international water resource, driven by objectives and subject to constraints imposed by the negotiators: hydrological, physical, political and economic.

The NSS is designed for support of bilateral negotiations. It is based on symmetry and provides an identical set of tools to both parties. The negotiation is viewed as consisting of 1 two main processes: individual decision-making and joint problem solving. The individual decision support is designed to assist each party in structuring its systems of preferences related to the water allocation problem.

Each party establishes its utility for negotiated alternatives, using the AHP algorithm Saaty, to weigh and combine its various objectives, with the economic objective being just one of them, into a single utility figure. Joint problem solving is modeled as an interaction, supported by tools from game theory, in which the parties have the opportunity to design and select efficient and jointly preferred solutions. The negotiation process is modeled as an alternating sequence of individual and joint activities, in which the parties manipulate the set of alternative solutions, aimed at enlarging the negotiation space by creating and proposing new alternatives, and narrowing it by removing non-efficient ones.

The two processes are repeated in a series of iterations, which terminate when a stable negotiation solution is reached or the negotiations fail and are broken off. The WAS model provides assistance in both individual and joint decision making. It supports interactive communication in two senses. First, each party can use WAS by itself, to examine various water-allocation scenarios, obtaining feedback information about the implications of each scenario on its country's domestic water economy and consequently on its other objectives.

Second, the two parties can perform a similar analysis jointly, in search of joint gains. While exploring scenarios for resolving the allocation of the joint water resources and negotiating "around" the WAS model, the parties have an opportunity to communicate, evaluate each other's expectations and goals, and interact in a manner that is less distributive and more integrative.

Even though this work is concerned with bilateral negotiations over international water resources, we believe that the same principles can be applied also to multi-lateral negotiations. In that case, however, negotiation elements specific for multi-party situations, like possibility of coalition formation, would have to be accounted for and adequately modeled. The NSS was tested in two types of simulation experiments. Half of the participants performed the exercise with the NSS and the other half without, and the results were compared and statistically analyzed.

The aim of these latter experiments was to test and explore in detail the role and capabilities of WAS within the framework of the NSS, which was not possible in the simulations with real actors.

The individual decision support provided by the AHP algorithm assisted the parties in structuring and weighing their preferences with respect to the negotiation problem. The WAS model and the other NSS components were shown to have the potential to improve the communication and information exchange between the parties, as well as their creativity in searching for alternative negotiation solutions. Water scarcity is the result of natural, hydrological and climatic, and human factors. Basic characteristics of water and water cycle which increase the potential for water scarcity are: 1.

Uneven distribution over the globe. Seasonal variability. Some regions of the world face a high seasonal variability of available quantities of fresh water. Arid zones have to deal with a lack of water in the periods of the year when the need for fresh water is the highest. Global climatic change. One of the threats of this climatic change is the increase in the quantities of fresh waters lost to evaporation, as a result of higher average temperatures.

Demand for water for domestic and industrial uses and agricultural production is rapidly increasing. As more and more people reach a higher standard of living, per capita water consumption is likely to continue to increase. In addition, wastes from a variety of human activities have been polluting surface and underground water resources. New sources of water are becoming scarce and more difficult to develop: higher and more expensive technologies are required for their planning and operation.

According to the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development , water shortages in this century are likely to restrain economic and social development in many parts of the world, and be a potential resource of international conflicts. The potential for a water scarcity problem has been referred to as 'water vulnerability'.

Different indices have been used for the estimation of a country's, or a region's water vulnerability. Shmueli et al. Falkenmark uses the annual per-capita water availability below mc per person per year as the indicator of a potential for water scarcity.

According to this measure, the Middle East countries are at a high risk. As water scarcity becomes an inevitable reality in many countries, and the need for fresh water resources is constantly increasing, the problem of international waters becomes more and more acute. Fifty-three international basins are shared by three or more countries.

Riparian countries in many of these basins have already been involved in different types of international disputes regarding the shared waters. Problems arising in international watersheds include a wide range of navigational, flood regulation, environmental quality, and, as probably the most sensitive, water scarcity issues.

Increased withdrawals, diversions, or other regulations in most cases invoke or exacerbate water scarcity problems in downstream countries. In arid regions, where already exists a traditional competition over water, such actions are likely to invoke international disputes Dinar et al.

When facing a water scarcity or other water management problems, governments take unilateral actions without considering the needs of other riparian countries.

Typical conflicts are between upstream and downstream riparians of an international watershed: the upstream riparians are in the position to control the quantity and the quality of water flowing downstream, and can directly affect the supply to their downstream co-riparians.

Even though more than international water treaties have been signed to date, there are still many unresolved cases. Water issue has been one of the several causes for the historical regional tension among the countries of the Middle East. Jordan has been objecting to the construction and operation of Syrian dams on the Yarmouk, the major tributary of the Jordan River. The Yarmouk has also been a conflicting issue between Jordan and Israel.

Control and allocation of the Jordan River and its sources, as well as the use of the aquifers underlying the West Bank have been the cause of conflict between Israel and its other neighbors too. In two occasions, Syria and Israel have been involved in armed conflicts Wolf, The system includes 22 dams and 19 hydropower stations Kliot et al.

In s, when Syria also started with larger withdrawals of the Euphrates flows for irrigation, Iraq threatened by military attacks. In , India diverted these waters and initiated a series of conflicts between the two riparians which, in few occasions, threatened to lead to war.

The Aral Sea in Central Asia, the fourth largest lake on the Earth, has shrunk by more than 70 percent since and has become highly polluted. Other examples of international disputes involve the following river systems Kliot et al.

Uruguay, Paraguay and Bolivia , and others. In the absence of a binding rule, parties involved in conflicts over international waters use various criteria to support their claims.

This extreme principle claims that a state has absolute rights to water within its territory the claims of Turkey and Ethiopia in the cases of the Euphrates and the Nile, respectively. This principle 9 suggests that every riparian state is entitled to the natural flow of a river system crossing its borders.

In arid regions, the down-stream riparian usually has an older infrastructure that is in his interest to defend the claims of Iraq and Egypt in the case of the Euphrates and the Nile, respectively. The principle that assigns greater rights to the older use is referred to as prior appropriation. Even though often used as claims, these extreme doctrines have never been a basis for an international water treaty.

Most of the treaties were signed when disputes escalated to the point were the parties had to make a choice between compromising or entering a war.

Proclivity of the most of the disputed riparian countries to avoid armed conflicts, usually supported by the supervision of a neutral, third party international organization or another country , usually makes them move toward compromising alternatives.

The Rules suggest that eventual international conflicts should be resolved by compensation. This Convention provided a framework for the management of the international waters. Similar to the Helsinki Rules, the Convention requires riparian states to communicate and cooperate, exchange information, protect of ecosystems, and notify eventual emergency situations. One of the problematic facts of this Convention is that it does not represent the rights of the political entities who do not have a state with internationally recognized borders, but might claim water rights the Palestinians along the Jordan River, or the Kurds along the Euphrates.

The most updated document that relates to the problems of allocation of international waters, is the last revision of the Helsinki Rules, the Berlin Rules International Law Association, These new rules do not change the underlying situation, namely that there is no definitive set of rules for allocation of water, and the same considerations still appear.

The document addresses the following issues: 1. Equitable utilization; 2. Protection of the aquatic and aquatic related environments; 3. Navigation; 4. Extreme situations related to highly polluting accidents, droughts, and flood control; 5. Administration of an International Drainage Basin; 7. Public Participation, as a means for protection of the interests of communities affected by water projects; 8.

Legal Remedies relate to responsibilities of each riparian state in the case its actions in the international drainage basin cause environmental harm or damage to persons in another state; As is stated in the document, the codification that relates to prevention and settlements of disputes is yet to be developed.

The relevant articles are: Article Cooperation. Basin states shall cooperate in good faith in the management of water for the mutual benefit of the participating States, respecting the sovereign equality and territorial integrity of each State. Basin States are entitled in their respective territories to make an equitable use of the waters of an international drainage basin, subject to the duty to manage the waters of the international drainage basin, separately or jointly, in an equitable and reasonable manner taking into account the interests of each basin State.

Article Avoidance of Trans-boundary Harm. A basin State shall refrain from and prevent acts or omissions within its territory that causes significant harm of any kind to another basin State, except insofar as such harm is necessitated to accomplish an equitable and reasonable use as provided in Article 12 and is otherwise consistent with these Rules.

The document gives guidelines for the determination of an equitable and reasonable use. It lists the relevant factors to be included in the consideration for each particular international watershed. Among these are: geographic, hydrogeologic, hydrologic, climatic, ecological features of the drainage basin including the extent of the drainage area in the territory of each basin State and the contribution of each basin state to the waters of the basin; the past, present, and foreseeable future uses of the waters of the basin and other economic and social needs in each basin State; ecological integrity of the basin.

Although the International Law Association Rules and the UN Convention on the law of Non-Navigational Uses of International Water Resources expand the range of possible resolutions to international water disputes, they do not provide a clear definition of property rights or unambiguous directions for water allocation.

The more powerful country, or the country with the position advantageous over others in any for that matter useful way, still has the opportunity to influence the arrangements within an international watershed.

The most influencing riparian controls and uses the water resource with little concern for how it affects the others. There is no international organization authorized to apply legal or other measures on the riparian countries which do not respect them. During the last two 12 centuries, more than treaties have been singed over international water resources.

Among treaties signed in the period between to which are included in the Transboundary Freshwater Dispute Database Wolf, , twenty relate to nonconsumptional issues flood control, navigation, or fishing , while all others mainly relate to distribution of water for consumption 53 treaties , hydroelectric generation 57 , industrial uses 9 , and pollution 6.

The reasons for long duration of the disputes and negotiations are in the very nature of the issues at stake. When scarce, water resources become strategically very important.

A country which depends on an international water resource, has a high priority to assure the control over as large a share of that resource as possible.

The negotiations are conducted as a simple bargaining process, in which each party selfishly pursues its own interests. The communication between the parties is burdened by the lack of mutual confidence and unwillingness to reveal information and relevant data. Possession of relevant information and data is of strategic importance.

The country in the possession of better data is able to calculate the possible outcomes from potential negotiation solutions and to better access potential risks. Furthermore, there usually exists a disagreement about geographical, historical, hydrological and other facts that are actually in the core of the negotiated issues borders, rights, current and future demand for water versus availability of water, etc. The countries may also differ in their ability to understand the meteorological and hydrological processes in the shared watershed.

Different scientific approaches may be used to access the present and future quantities and qualities of the available water. International negotiations over water resources are often supported, by the means of facilitation or mediation, by a neutral party - a country or 13 international organization Just and Netanyahu, The task of this party is to improve the communication and exchange of information between the negotiators, and to assist them in searching for a way to reconcile their conflicting interests.

Riparians of an international watershed are rarely ready to let other countries or, "third", neutral parties interfere with their domestic water policy, and are usually, not willing to establish a cooperative management of shared waters. When reached, agreements over shared waters are usually strongly affected by the power asymmetry between the parties. The party that is in a better strategic position usually succeeds in compelling the acceptance of its interests on its counterpart.

In the other hand, no international law, regulation or institution can enforce the countries to respect the achieved agreement. Water is of an important symbolic meaning to many nations. In some countries, the government subsidizes the price of water for the consumers in certain sectors, often agriculture. Countries in some international watersheds have been involved in a long history of conflicts related to different issues that may or may not include water.

Since water is of a high social and strategic importance to disputed parties they conduct the negotiations in a zero-sum win-lose game stile, pursuing their own national interests and goals. Because of the history of conflicts and mistrust, the communication between the parties is burdened by the lack of mutual confidence so that recognition of eventual joint interests is extremely difficult.

Publicly, water is perceived and discussed in quantities only — the more one party gains, the more others lose. Bargaining in such manner leaves little or no space for exploring alternative solutions that will simultaneously improve positions of all involved parties.

If at all an agreement is reached, it is usually affected by the power balance between the parties so that, at least one of them, leaves the negotiation table unsatisfied.

According to the studies of Delli Priscoli , most of the countries realize that as constraints on the resource grow, the opportunity costs for not cooperating are becoming clearer. However, the imperative need of the nations to control the water resources puts a major constraint on reaching a cooperative agreement that would be efficient and beneficial to all parties involved.

The same author states that there is a need for an international water resources management mechanism that will give incentive for cooperation. Traditional means have been taping or diversion by upstream and military interventions by downstream countries. Instead, a mechanism should be offered that will give the right and opportunity to all the riparians to take part and control the decision-making process within a joint, cooperative, and beneficial management of the shared resource.

During the last two decades, there have been attempts to assess the potential of Alternative Dispute Resolution ADR approach in the specific area of environmental conflicts. ADR approach includes a wade rage of techniques with which the parties to disputes voluntarily seek to achieve a settlement of issues Bingham and Stedman, ADR techniques include dialogue and negotiation, as processes of direct communication.

They involve application of theories and procedures designed to achieve an agreement that is acceptable and satisfying to all parties. Various ADR techniques prescribe several common rules to the disputed parties: - educate each other about fundamental interests - jointly identify options that could be mutually beneficial - agree on criteria for identifying jointly acceptable solutions - consider a wide range of alternative solutions.

Delli Priscoli gives the advantages of the application of ADR approach to water resources management in general, and to international water disputes, in particular. The aim of all ADR techniques is to move the disputed parties from a position-based to an interestbased dialogue. Position-based bargaining starts out by parties taking fixed positions.

In order to reach an agreement, the parties have to make concessions, until they reach a mutually acceptable solution. For example, if a country takes the position that it requires the right to use most or all of the annual availability of water in a source shared 16 with another country, it is doing so to meet its various interests, one of which may be assuring a safe water supply.

ADR approach assumes that there might be more than one way to satisfy the interests of a disputed party, as in this particular example, to balance water demand and water supply within a country.

Delli Priscoli concludes that when parties concentrate on positions, any concession is perceived as a loss; when concentrating on interests, the parties may explore and find various ways to meet these interests, some of which may be mutually acceptable. Disputes can be result of conflicts over values, interests, relationship, or data, or, as is usually the case in international water disputes, they can have the combined features of several types of conflicts.

Assumption of the ADR approach is that the outcome, which does not satisfy at least up to a certain degree, all or most of the needs of the disputed parties, is probably unstable. On the contrary, when all parties walk away satisfied with the outcome, they all have a stake in making the resolution work and last Delli Priscoli, Allocation of water among different users on domestic level is, in most cases, subject to political decisions.

In many countries throughout the world, governmental water policies seem biased toward certain sectors, mostly agriculture Berk and Lipov, Such water policies are usually designed without a proper consideration of the economic value of water. Water is treated as an economically inexpensive commodity, and prices charged to certain users do not reflect real prices. According to Fishelson , a large fraction of water allocated to agriculture is producing little if any value net of cost. Reduction in prices contributes to over-pumping and deterioration of natural water resources.

Manny water economists agree that misallocation of water, and especially a water-policy that favors certain water-use sectors, is 17 likely to cause artificial water shortages Becker and Zeitouni, , Jordan, , Zeitouni et al. Water economists argue that there are major differences between water-sector policies pursued by governments and the theoretically economically efficient water-allocation models Berk and Lipov, Economic efficiency of water allocation is reflected in the system of prices: prices charged to consumers, supply costs, and the real value of water.

Prices charged to consumers should not be lower than the sum of the marginal cost of production and the marginal cost of distribution. Uses of water at prices lower than the marginal supply cost result in overexploitation of water resources and are economically inefficient. According to the economic approach, a real price of water should, beside extraction, delivery, and capital costs, reflect the scarcity rent of water at the source, too.

Scarcity rent takes into account the user cost due to scarcity. For example, consumers may be willing to pay a positive value for additional unit of water from an already exhausted resource Fisher et al. Tietenberg and Jordan go even further by arguing that scarcity rent should not reflect only the existing, but the potential scarcity of water as well: using large amounts of water to keep grass green may be appropriate for a region with large replenishable water supplies, but not when it denies drinking water to future generations.

If prices do not take this higher scarcity value into account, inefficiency is imposed on the future — too much water us consumed today Jordan, Water economists relate to water as an economic good and propose allocation of water through a market mechanism. A market mechanism treats water as an ordinary economic good, and balances the marginal cost of the supply of water with the marginal demand. The marginal demand of consumers is expressed through their willingness to purchase additional unit of water.

However, there are serious objectives to implementation of a pure market mechanism on domestic water allocation problems. According to the principle of marginal demand, if the poor cannot pay as much for a unit of water as the rich, they should get less water. Opponents to such approach argue that water is a public good, and that safe water is a basic need and should be available at reasonable levels to everyone DellaPenna, Others believe that water serves important ecological, environmental, and aesthetic benefits in many cases, and should not be allocated to other uses simply on grounds of 18 willingness to pay: at least up to some minimal level of availability, water is a social good whose availability to certain consumers and for certain purposes at prices below market value provides benefits to society as a whole reference.

From the economic perspective, this approach relates to water as to a merit good, which consumers should be encouraged and helped to consume, up to some quantities, for example, by a subsidy. Perry et al. In the last decade, there have been many attempts to apply the basic concepts of market theory to water allocation problems.

These concepts are not limited to domestic water policies. Beker and Zeitouni analyzed the efficiency of a decentralized market of water for Israel and the PNA and compared it with the actual allocation in terms of the welfare losses. Yaron related to the arguments that a pure market mechanism may lead to drastic changes and deviations from status quo in agriculture which needs a long run supply reliability: he suggested an allocation-pricing policy based on a mix of quota system with market mechanism, with the later applied only at the marginal segment of the quotas.

He proposed high water prices at the quota margins and gradual adjustment of the quotas over the years in order to increase the efficiency of water use over time and at the same time avoid drastic changes in allocation.

We propose a collaborative Negotiation Support System NSS as a dispute resolution framework, to assist the parties in searching for feasible and satisfying solutions to management of the shared resources.

The NSS incorporates some basic concepts of a water market system to help in determining an optimal allocation of an international water resource. These concepts are combined with approaches adopted from Decision and Game Theories, as well as ADR techniques, to provide the negotiators with support and opportunities to account for the plural meanings of water to their societies.

Negotiation support techniques are aimed at assisting the participants to form, represent and analyze arguments, exchange information including offers , and make compromise decisions.

Formal methods and models for group decisions and negotiations evolved from decision analytic methods for individual decision making Kersten, , Fraser and Hipel, , Hipel and Fraser, Negotiation Support System NSS is a term used in the literature on interactive computer programs for multi-objective conflict resolution Fraser and Hipel ; Kersten, They can be categorized according to their functions in the following way Nyhart and Goeltner, : a. Negotiations Preparation Systems, which operate away from the negotiation table and assist one party only.

Context models simulate the behavior of the system being designed and can be used to analyze its performance under different circumstances. Process support systems are designed to assist the process of negotiations by increasing the likelihood of identifying one or more mutually agreeable proposals when a potential region of agreements exists. They can help identify better solutions than those that would have been found without their use.

NSSs have been developed for used in practice, as well as in training and research. PERSUEDER Sycara, is a package for the group decision support, which uses artificial intelligence techniques case-based reasoning and decision theory methods multi-attribute utilities. It is able to incrementally propose modifications to a proposal, to help parties narrow their divergent views. It helps them communicate arguments and justifications and also suggests plausible arguments.

It is the basis of the International Communication and Negotiation Simulations ICONS Project which offers opportunities 21 for students from around the world to participate in Internet-based negotiation simulations. ICONSnet was designed to enhance interactive learning by encouraging the development of critical thinking skills and an awareness of cultural differences in approaches to negotiation and problem solving. Some NSSs have been designed to support a third party mediator or to act as mediators themselves by suggesting solutions to the negotiation problem.

They are basically process support systems but some of them have also the features of a negotiation preparation system. Each participant uses a DSS to perform an individual utility analysis of the negotiation problem. A mediator then assists in consensus seeking by aiding the players in building a group joint problem representation of the negotiation problem. NEGO Kersten, is an interactive system which uses multi-objective linear programming techniques to establish proposals from each of the individual participants.

It then forms a sequence of compromise proposals based on relaxed participant demands. The problem is solved when a compromise proposal is produced that satisfies the revised set of demands. It requires the user to assess the interests of both sides and uses the information to help determine what to do, offer or threaten, and how to respond to offers, actions and threats by the other side. It utilizes multi-attribute utility methodology and neural network learning techniques.

Each application by a player operates individually, without any direct relation to applications of other players. A major task of GENIE is to present a complex negotiation model to the user in an easily understandable and organized manner.

A user can explore his own various negotiation positions. It also allows a negotiator to evaluate quickly opponent proposals during actual negotiations. GENIE was experimentally evaluated in a hostage-crises simulation with a scenario based on a hypothetical hijacking of a commercial aircraft which involved three parties negotiating in triple bilateral negotiations: the highjackers, the country of the hostages, and a neutral mediator.

These models provide support necessary for understanding the physical system and for evaluation of proposed changes, and have been used for context support for group decisions and negotiations.

Based on information provided to the program, in confidence, by each party, it assists the parties in identifying feasible alternatives, if any exist, that should be preferred by each party in the absence of a negotiated agreement. If such alternatives do not exist, the program can help parties develop counter proposals. Through a series of iterations in which each party's input data, assumptions, and preferences may change, ICANS can aid the parties in their search for a mutually acceptable and preferred agreement.

The basic tools included in the CRSS are tools for multi-purpose reservoir operation, river flow routing, multicriteria decision-making, and spatial data analysis. Shared Vision Modeling Palmer et al. It requires identification of the stakeholders involved in the system and recognition of their primary concerns.

The model is considered joint property of all stakeholders, and is available during the process of negotiation and conflict resolution. It is capable of modeling virtually any water system in the world, from small and simple to large and complex. OASIS is combination of a graphical user interface and OCL TM Operation Control Language which enables data to be entered as a series of rules and constraints, and allows the interested parties to model systems in planning or negotiation sessions and see results almost immediately.

Our NSS belongs to the category of the last three models: it is aimed to support both context and process of negotiations over allocation of international waters.

The concepts and design of the NSS, as well as the manner in which it deals with the above issues, will be addressed in next chapters. According to the overview of the real-world cases, the parties to negotiations over international waters approach the negotiation process with a goal to ensure for themselves as much as possible of the disputed resource.

Thus their basic interests are mutually conflicting. Frequently, the negotiations are burdened by a long-standing mistrust or even open hostility. In terms of negotiation and game theories, such negotiation processes are defined as distributive bargaining.

The outcome of the game represents a win-lose situation, where usually the party that has the power forces the other party to accept its demands, or at least a major part thereof. Instead of a forcing strategy, in an integrative bargaining the focus is on a so-called "fostering" strategy that is based on the premise that once the true and full interests of the parties are identified, "win-win" solutions can be found which leave both parties better situated and more satisfied.

According to Ury et al. Focusing on rights means that parties try to determine how to resolve the dispute by applying some accepted law or standard of fairness. Since there is no international law that regulates definitively the allocation of shared waters see 1. Focusing on power means that each party tries to convince the other to make concessions while using some kind of threat.

In international water-disputes, power inequities strongly affect the outcome of negotiations, often with a party who sees in the preservation of the status quo a prevailing interest.

Veto by one participant is sufficient to paralyze the process. A power approach generally leads to a distributive agreement, which is likely to evoke new or prolong existing disputes. In most cases of negotiations over shared waters, agreements, if reached, were based on "rights" or "power". According to the same authors Ury et al. Focusing on interests means that the parties try to learn each other's needs, concerns, and priorities, and attempt to reconcile them in the search for an agreement.

Negotiations between sovereign entities who claim rights to the same water resource are usually burdened by a lack of mutual confidence. National integrity and security are of a primary concern, and revealing the priorities and concerns to the counterpart is not perceived as a safe and promising strategy. The crucial importance of water resources makes each party pursue it's own needs in a self-oriented, selfish manner. The negotiation framework proposed in this work is aimed at providing the parties with incentives to advance from a distributive, rights- or power-based bargaining process to an integrative negotiation, which can converge to a solution beneficial to all parties involved.

In order to move the riparians from adversarial positions towards win-win solutions, the interaction based on simple bargaining needs assistance by additional techniques and skills. The proposed Negotiation Support System NSS , combines the tools of individual decision-making analysis, alternative dispute resolution ADR techniques, game theory models and some principles of free market theory. The model combines these approaches and tools, while relying on the notions of equity, fairness, efficiency, and stability.

The approach to model design is based on the conclusions drawn from a number of real-world cases of international water disputes. It recognizes the absence of mutual 27 confidence between the parties, and assures a level of confidentiality in the manipulation of revealed information. Also, the approach does not assume that the agreement between the parties will be based on cooperation in management of the disputed and other water resources.

If the outcome of a negotiation process supported by the model includes some of the elements of cooperation in water resources management, it is be because the parties select that alternative as the most preferred, according to their individual criteria. The proposed negotiation framework incorporates ADR techniques, including joint analysis of the effects of proposed solutions, brainstorming, joint search for mutually preferred solutions, and techniques for solving the problems of fair division game theoretic models.

These techniques are used to decrease the effect of the power politics mechanism on the outcome, and increase both parties' feeling of equity and fairness. This work brings into the negotiating arena the notion of efficiency, with a double meaning. A solution is considered efficient if it is not possible to move from it in a direction that increases the gain of both parties simultaneously. Moving from an efficient solution to increase the gain of one party, results in a decrease of the gain of the other party.

Solutions that are efficient in the sense of the bargaining theory are referred to as Pareto Optimal or non-dominated solutions. A rational compromise solution must be chosen among the efficient solutions, since if the solution is not efficient it is possible to move from it in a way that improves the outcome for both parties. However, the agreement concerning the outcome will depend also on the quality of communication and the level of mutual confidence between the parties.

The negotiation support 28 model proposed in this work offers a game-theoretic algorithm which, given a set of feasible outcomes, selects those that satisfy the efficiency criterion.

An additional meaning of the notion of efficiency in this work is that of economic efficiency, which relate to the way water resources are utilized. Efficiency of water use is expressed by a system of prices at which consumers buy water, shadow prices of water, and supply costs. The negotiation support framework includes a water-allocation optimization model, which enables an "on-line" analysis of the effects that each proposed negotiated solution has on the system of prices.

According to the principles imbedded in the model, water resources are used in an efficient manner when the prices for consumers equal or are close enough to the sum of supply costs and the shadow value of water in the source. Stability refers to a particular quality of the negotiated agreement.

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Simply desire to say your article is as surprising. The clarity in your publish is simply excellent and i could assume you are knowledgeable in this subject. These people came to America, the Land of Opportunity, in order to make a better life for themselves. George also wants to achieve the American Dream but he isn't ready to struggle for it. As a result, he doesn't get the respect he desires from the people around him. The names are symbolic: Stoyonivich is Polish for staying in one place, Cattanzara is Italian for chained.

These names are symbolic because they shed light on the characters. That is, George doesn't do anything to change his life and he literally sits in one place his room. C is chained to his wife and desperate life without any chance of improving them because he has no formal education. The school system failed to encourage George to complete his studies. George quit out of an impulse so why didn't anybody from school try to change his mind? He didn't drop out because he lacked intelligence but because he "had lost patience".

He wanted to "learn different things than they learn there". Conclusion: George didn't get a feeling of self-worth from his family, neighbors or teachers. Thus, he doesn't believe in himself. Theme and Moral lesson Bernard Malamud s stories show great insight into the problems of everyday life, and at the same time reveal a basic faith in mankind. In this story he deals with friendship, motivation to achieve life First, sometimes what a person needs is some encouragement from a friend to change his life.

C pushes George to change his life. Second, a person needs to be motivated to do something meaningful with his life and achieve his dreams.

It takes a whole summer for George to understand that if he doesn't do something with himself, he won't be able to achieve any of his dreams.

Third, education is important because without it chances are you'll have an uninspiring job like Mr. The story ends on an optimistic note when George finally goes to the library in the fall and starts reading. The meaning of the title The story is called A Summer's Reading although George hasn't read any significant books at that time.

However, what he "reads" or understands is his desperate situation. That is, he reads the book of his life and he doesn't like it.

Eventually, he takes matters into his hands and makes the necessary change. Hots Cause and Effect Bernard Malamud leaves us to decide whether George will turn his dreams into reality. Is the visit to the library a sign that George is serious about changing? Or is it just another act of impulse? Has Mr. Cattanzara's use of reverse psychology a persuasion technique which involves telling someone exactly the opposite of what he expects in order to achieve the wanted outcome worked?

He tries to help George in the following ways: Cause By giving George respect and encouragement. In the first meeting Mr. By keeping silent. C doesn't tell anyone the truth. By having a sly, insulting manner with George and finally by warning him "Don't do what I did". By spreading a second rumor that George has finished reading books. He uses reverse psychology.

This is NOT written specifically we can infer what he said. Effect George is filled with self-confidence and good will. He makes a little effort to start reading. George is filled with guilt and shame. He loses interest in everything "things weren't so good for him". George shuts himself away, unable to function and is forced to face his lies. George is relieved and gains the respect of society.

Now it is up to him what he will do with his life. If he starts reading, he will do it for himself. Inferring There are many things which are not written explicitly in the story but we can infer them. For example, what Mr. C meant when he says:"don't do what I did", or what two rumors he spread and what exactly he has told the people in the neighborhood about George.

Cattanzara's job is to give change in a ticket booth of a subway station. He is a change maker because he literally gives people change for their tickets. On the symbolic level, Mr. Cattanzara is a change maker because he makes a change in George's life. The name "Cattanzara" means "chained", and although he is chained to his life and cannot change it, he can bring about change in the lives of others. When George locks himself in his room for almost a week, he goes through a change, or metamorphosis, like a caterpillar that emerges from its cocoon as a butterfly.

George emerges as a changed person, but like a butterfly that has a short life, we do not know if this change is lasting. Sophie and Mr. Cattanzara are both change makers. Describe how each one influences George s behavior. She brings him magazines. She threatens to throw him out of the house.

After Sophie yelled at George he went to the library. It really took him sometime and only in the fall did he go to the library.

Cattanzara tells the neighborhood people that George is reading. He is a good friend. He supports him, talks to him. He tells him not to do what he did. As a result, he knows that reading books would help him achieve his goals. What can you infer about why Mr. Cattanzara: a became friendly with George? He wanted to encourage him to get an education.

He didn t want George to end up like him. He wanted George to continue feeling good about himself. He hoped George would still go and read some books. Malamud is known for telling stories that have a moral lesson. How does this information add to your understanding of "A Summer's Reading"? Give examples from the story. The respect of others is worth nothing if you don't respect yourself. You have to do something with it.

You need education to improve your situation in life. Don't waste your life and potential. The moral lesson here is shown through Mr. He represents the adult who didn't make anything of himself despite his intelligence. He reads The New York Times every day yet he works as a change maker in the subway. He also has a drinking problem which shows that he is unhappy and frustrated with his life. Cattanzara tries to show George that he still has a chance to avoid the mistakes he himself has made and can change his life, but he can't do that by lying, being lazy or living in his imagination.

Before speaking to Mr. Cattanzara, how did George spend his days? Give TWO examples from the story. Cattanzara say this to George? Cattanzara believes that George is only fooling himself and he is the one who will pay the price for this, not anyone else. Why do you think it was so important to Mr. Cattanzara to help George change his life? Support your answer with reference to the story.

Cattanzara to help George change his life because he likes George very much and feels responsible for him. He identifies with George and sees in George a reflection of himself as a young man.

He realizes that George is wasting his life and he knows that if he continues not doing anything to improve his situation, he will end up like Mr. Cattanzara himself. George is bright but confused, without direction. Like Mr. Cattanzara in the past, George is not making the most of his potential. His own life has been one of missed opportunities and he can see the same happening with George. He wants George to get an education and succeed in life, something he was unable to do. Can we infer from the story that Mr.

Cattanzara has really succeeded in changing George? Cattanzara has been able to change George. At the end of the story, George goes to the library, counts off one hundred books and starts to read. The writer chooses to end the story at this point, on a positive note. He is now able to start his education and growth. He has changed from being totally passive, to taking the frst step to making a change in his life.

Cattanzara has succeeded in changing George. The author has purposely given us an open ending because the outcome is not clear at all. We know that George has taken the frst step with Mr. Cattanzara's help but now it is up to George. It is very possible that he will give up; the story gives us enough examples of times he has done this. He dropped out of school, wasn't able to keep a job and never did anything about his carpentry skills. So we are not convinced that on this occasion things will be different.

In addition, George seems to need the constant approval from others and it will not be so easy for him to get this constant approval just by reading books. Explain how this quote adds to your understanding of the story. This quote adds to my understanding of the story because it helps me to understand the reason reading was valued by Mr. Cattanzara and others in George's neighborhood. People came to the United States in search of the American dream: that everyone has an equal chance to succeed if they try hard enough.

The people in the neighborhood were immigrants and understood that the only way that they, or their children, could succeed in the United States was by getting an education. Although George had dropped out of school, the people in the neighborhood encouraged George when they found out he was reading. Answer can relate to Malamud's reason for writing the story. Give TWO facts that we learn about George's family.

Why does George like Mr. Give ONE reason. Cattanzara because Mr. After Sophie realizes that George hasn't been reading the books she says, "Why should I break my back for you? Go on out, you bum, and get a job". Do you agree with Sophie's opinion of George? Explain, with reference to the text. He told Mr. Cattanzara that he was reading books and that made people respect him.

It also made Sophie proud of him. However, then she realizes that he isn't doing any reading which means that he isn't doing anything about improving his situation. That is why she thinks she doesn't have to give him a weekly allowance and he should earn money by himself. OR I disagree with Sophie. She should understand that George is finding it difficult to change his life. Cattanzara is doing. She should continue to give him money for as long as she can. Note: Pupils can relate to the entire quote or to part of it.

He has no mother and his father works in a fsh market. His sister works in a cafeteria. These are low-paying jobs that do not demand a higher education. The people who surround him in his neighborhood also work at low-paying jobs and haven't had a higher education. None of George's role models have made a success of their lives. That is why he gives up easily when faced with the challenge of high school. He knows that no one around him is successful and, therefore, the chance that he will be successful is very small.

He gives up before he even tries. At the end of the story, when George finally went out into the street, he What do you think Mr. Cattanzara has done to make people feel friendly towards George? Cattanzara might have told people that George has finished reading books. That is why they still respect George and admire him for trying to get an education. They don't know he lied about the reading. What might be Mr. Cattanzara's motive for doing this? Cattanzara knows George has a need for respect.

Answer must include one of the following elements: Mr. C's understanding of George's need for respect OR Mr. C wanting to cause a change in George for him to start reading, get an education, etc. Give TWO reasons why George is dissatisfied with his life. Accept: His sister has stopped giving him money. Accept: He feels bad about lying to Mr. Accept: He thinks everyone knows about his lie. What was the rumor that went around the neighborhood after George's first conversation with Mr.

That George had a list of books and was already reading them. Cattanzara, and though the change maker had said nothing more about the books, asked no questions, his silence made George a little uneasy. Cattanzara's silence make George "a little uneasy"? Cattanzara knew the truth that he hadn't read any books. Cattanzara was disappointed in him. Cattanzara would maybe tell the truth to the people in the neighborhood. Then the neighbors would not respect him anymore.

He felt guilty that he wasn't reading and was afraid of what Mr. Cattanzara was thinking. For this question use ONE of the thinking skills from the Appendix George "had never exactly disliked the people in it [the neighborhood], yet he had never liked them very much either.

It was the fault of the neighborhood. This is the pattern in his life. Supporting information: He says he wants an education but does nothing to reach his goal. Inferring: We can infer that George doesn't feel strongly enough about anything to do something about it.

Explaining cause and effect: George is a person who doesn't see, or doesn't want to see, that his situation is the result of his own behavior and his own wrong choices. Everything that happens to him is someone else's fault, like in this case, "the fault of the neighborhood.

The more teens read, the more information they pick up Besides helping teens do well in school, reading also helps them expand their horizons as they learn more about people and the world. Plus, reading can show teens that everyone has problems in his or her life and may even help teens see solutions to their own problems.

In the story 'A Summer's Reading' Mr. Cattanzara tries to help George begin to read good books. He knows that, as the quote says, it will help him get an education and succeed in life and help solve his problems. At first, George does not understand the importance of reading so he lies to Mr.

Cattanzara about reading books, Only at the end of the story does he understand that he will have a chance to succeed and get respect if he really reads.

That is why he goes into the library. Our experience with others, such as teachers, friends, neighbors and family significantly influences this self-image. Make a connection between the above information and the story. He blamed others for his problems. The only one who related to him differently was Mr. It was very important to George to impress him. Cattanzara: He asked George different questions than everyone else.

The qoute says that the experience we have with our neighbors, among others, significantly influences our self-image. That is clearly what happens in the story, A Summer's Reading. The reaction of the neighbors to these rumors and the confidence Mr. Cattanzara gave him when he spread the rumors is what motivated and significantly influenced George's self-image. It influenced him so greatly that he finally went to the library in order to change his situation and pick up his education.

Instead of becoming a doctor and a concert pianist as her mother wished, Tan studied English and linguistics and eventually pursued a writing career. The novel weaves together the stories of four women born and raised in China before and of their four American-born daughters. The events take place in San Francisco s Chinatown, where the immigrant women form the Joy Luck Club and begin meeting to play the Chinese game mah-jongg, invest in stocks, and tell their stories. Waverly, one of the daughters, is a chess prodigy.

Rules of the Game explores her relationship with her mother. How similar are your personality and interests to those of your parents or guardians? Do your differences cause problems within the family? Overview: This story by Amy Tam has many overlapping and intertwined themes. First of all, the story addresses a mother verus daughter conflict and struggle for control. Also, the story deals with conflict of the old Chinese world represented by Mrs. Jong and that of the new American world represented by Waverly.

Finally, we have the typical immigrant theme in which the new immigrant, who often starts off in poverty, struggles to get ahead in the quest to achieve the American Dream.

The game of chess is used as a metaphor for the rules and skills that need to be obtained and mastered in order to succeed in life. Since its establishment in the s, it has been highly important and influential in the history and culture of ethnic Chinese immigrants in the United States and North America. Chinatown is an active enclave that continues to retain its own customs, languages, places of worship, social clubs, and identity.

Popularly known as a "city-within-a-city", it has developed its own government, traditions, over restaurants, and as many shops. There are two hospitals, numerous parks and squares, a post office, and other infrastructure. Visitors can easily become immersed in a microcosmic Asian world, filled with herbal shops, temples, pagoda roofs and dragon parades. In addition to it being a starting point and home for thousands of Chinese immigrants, it is also a major tourist attraction drawing more visitors annually to the neighborhood than the famous Golden Gate Bridge.

Minor characters: Waverly's brothers Vincent and Winston, Waverly's father. The time: The story takes place during Waverly Jong Meimei's childhood and adolescence. She is said to be born on March 17, In addition, in the story she says that she is eight years old. Therefore, when one looks at the clues and sees that she is eight and that she was born in , the time would be around In the late s Chinese-Americans had a harsh life in America due to Chinese immigration laws.

Taoism was the state religion of China from CE to By the late s, Communism and the Chinese cultural revolution had ended much of the Taoism s influence in China. Today, Taoism has about thirty million followers worldwide, with about thirty thousand in North America. The familiar yin yang symbol is a Taoist symbol that represents the balance of opposites in the universe.

Taoism emphasizes the link between people and nature, making use of meditation as one way to focus on the harmonies of the universe. Her life is changed when her brother gets a used chess set at a church Christmas party. Her brothers reluctantly teach her to play. She plays against old men in the park and eventually begins to enter and win tournaments. As she becomes a prodigy chess player, conflict between Waverly and her mother grows.

The conflict comes to a head one day when Waverly asks her mother to stop telling strangers who she is. Seeing the anger of her new opponent her mother , she ponders her next move. Part I. At the beginning of the story, Waverly and her mom enter a store in which there are salted plums, a Chinese delicacy loved by Waverly. Waverly screams and her mother denies her the snack.

Her mother urges her to use the art of invisible strength. The next time that Waverly enters the store, Waverly bites her tongue doesn t complain and is rewarded by her mother who buys her the desired treat. From this point on, Waverly goes about mastering the art of invisible strength. While Waverly s mother does everything in her power to ensure the success of her children, the reader cannot escape the description of poverty put forth by the writer.

The playground was wellworn and the children played in the alley behind the restaurants. The mother s efforts to ensure that her children did not feel the economic situation is brought forward by the fact that her children are served three five-course meals each day. The mother made every effort at seeing to it that her children could succeed in America. This included giving them American names. However, the names that she gave them suggest that the mother had a problem with the rules of the game herself.

For instance, the name Vincent given to one of the brothers suggests an Italian immigrant, not that of an American. Winston, either suggests a cigarette brand or an Englishman, but not an American. As for Waverly, her name was taken from the street she lived on and is definitely not the name of a typical American girl.

Waverly is in constant conflict between the old and new worlds. On one hand she makes fun of a tourist who comes to China town by sending him to eat disgusting food at a restaurant that only had menus in Chinese. But then she plays the American and when she tries to get a rise out of her mom by asking about the term Chinese Torture. But her mom is not easily duped and uses the art of invisible strength by remaining calm and stating that, Chinese people do business, do medicine, do painting.

Not like American people. We do torture. Best torture. Part II. In part two we see the art of invisible strength again at work. At a church Christmas party, she watches how the other children choose their gifts in order to understand which gifts are worthwhile She is quick to realize that size is not an important factor, and that the sound the gift makes when it is shaken is important.

Waverly also exhibits an unrelenting suspicion of the establishment when she is unsure how to answer how old she is. She does not know if to answer according to the American or Chinese calendar.

She uses the art of invisible strength by deciding to state her birthday instead of her age. Her suspicious manner represents the attitude that many immigrants have towards the establishment of their host counties. Next she understands what she must say to Santa Clause in order to get her gift.

He understands the RULE she must say that she believes in Jesus Christ and that she has been an obedient daughter. She is also careful to answer in the serious manner that is expected of her. Yes indeed, this young girl has begun to understand and implement the rules need to survive in a foreign culture. At the Christmas party, Vincent received a chess set, Winston a model submarine and Waverly a package of lifesaver candies.

While on the surface the lifesaver candies do not seem to be such a wonderful gift, it is the way Waverly uses them in manipulating her brothers into letting her place chess with them that makes them a worthwhile gift. Her manipulation is yet another example of Waverly s intelligence and use of the art of invisible strength. This tool was also used by the mother when she thanked the churchgoers for the chess set, but then when she got home gave clear instructions to throw away the obviously used chess set with missing pieces.

However, while the directive to trash the chess set were never carried out, Mrs. Jong never made an issue of the fact that her command was not carried out. This is perhaps because she never intended for the children to rid themselves of the chess set and her command was intended to cause her children to want to play chess, something that few school age children enjoy doing.

This is another aspect of the art of invisible strength saying one thing and intending another just to manipulate a reaction of reverse psychology from an opponent. When told the rules of the game of chess, Waverly is chastised by her brothers for being so curious, while her mother states that just like the immigrants to a new country must learn the reasons for the rules in order to get ahead in the host country, if she really wants to understand chess, Waverly must embark on a journey to discover the reasons behind each piece, its powers and its abilities.

Waverly takes the challenge and eventually her new-founded knowledge results in her defeating her brothers in such a way in chess that they no longer wish to play with her. Eager to continue playing chess, Waverly takes to playing with the men in the park. Her mentor, Lau Po, teaches Waverly all he knows, and before long Waverly becomes quite an attraction in the park as she defeats opponent after opponent.

Despite her obvious pride in Waverly, her mom keeps to traditional Chinese values as she publically attributes Waverly s success to luck.

Part III In part three, a man who saw Waverly play in the park suggested to Lindo that her daughter play in the local tournament. However, Waverly who was certain that her mother would object to her playing with non-chinese strangers, stated that she did not want to play in the competition despite really desiring to do so.

In this case, Waverly was using reverse psychology against her mother and has seemingly defeated Lindo at her own game.

However, it could be argued that Lindo, who wanted her daughter to succeed, would have made the same decision despite her daughter s use of the art of invisible strength.

At the tournament, Lindo remained true to Chinese tradition and gave Waverly a traditional good luck charm made of red jade known as a chang. Despite the win, Lindo is critical of the fact that her daughter sacrificed so many pieces to win. While Waverly is not pleased with her mom s criticism, she backs down from a full-scale conflict with her mother. While her mother remains faithful to the concept of the how as being important, Waverly At this point we see that despite the good relationship between mother and daughter, the first inklings of cultural conflict impacting this relationship become quite evident.

In her community, Waverly has now become quite a celebrity and several businesses have decided to sponsor her. At home Waverly is rewarded for her success as her chores are dumped on her brothers so that she may concentrate on chess. Waverly has obtained national recognition as a prodigy and takes joy in humiliating her older opponents.

While the youthful Waverly relies on her mental ability, her fellow competitors have decades of experience behind them; thus making Waverly s successes even more spectacular.

And all this was before Waverly reached the age of nine-years-old. Her old playing grounds in the back alley behind the restaurants have become foreign to Waverly as she goes straight home from school to hone her chess skills. This is yet another step towards Waverly s Americanization as she departs from the normal Chinatown childhood experiences.

Part IV. At the beginning of part IV Waverly states that she had a difficult time concentrating at home. Her home may been seen as representing the Old Chinese way which may have been becoming burdensome on Waverly yet another sign of her departure from the path her mother had designed for her.

In their effort to appease Waverly, her parents made many compromises. At first, she complained that her mom standing over her made it impossible to practice. Then she was given a quieter room at the expense of her brothers who now must sleep in the living room overlooking the noisy street. Also, when she did not finish her meals, no one complained.

Yet, the weekly visit to the market on Sunday in which Lindo shows her daughter off is still a mandatory feature of Waverly s life. Finally one Sunday, Waverly tells her that being shown off like a trophy in the window is an embarrassment. Lindo takes it as an insult and is certain that Waverly is embarrassed to be her daughter.

While Waverly says that this is not the case, Lindo is not certain this is the case. Finally, Waverly says: Why do you have to show me off?

If you want to show off, then why don t you learn to play chess? At this point, Waverly takes off and runs away only to arrive back at home at dinner time. As she approaches her house, she states that the light which should represent the warmth of a home looked scary like the eyes of a tiger. Her home was no longer a safe refuge for her. When she enters the house, her family had just finished eating dinner and her mother gives the command for all to ignore her.

In summary, the mother said that if Waverly is embarrassed of her family and background, then her family will not accept her either. We not concerning this girl. This girl not have concerning for us. Waverly goes to her room and dreams that her mother s chess pieces chased her pieces off the board. She realizes that her mother s Old World methods have defeated her in this battle and she now considers how to move forward.

Cliff Notes on Rules of the Game: Waverly Jong: Rules of the Game Waverly Jong, the narrator of this section, explains that she was six years old when her mother taught her "the art of invisible strength," a strategy for winning arguments and gaining respect from others in games.

The children delight in the sights, sounds, and smells of Chinatown, the sweetness of the pasty red beans, the pungent smell of the herbs doled out by old Li, and the sight of the blood-slippery fish that the butcher guts with one deft slice. Waverly's brother Vincent received a chess set at the Baptist Church Christmas party. Waverly took to the game immediately, delighting in its strategy. After her brothers lose interest in the game, Waverly learns complex plays from Lau Po, an old man in the park: She begins to win local tournaments.

By her ninth birthday, Waverly is a national chess champion. Her fame spreads; even Life magazine runs an article on her meteoric rise. Waverly is excused from her chores, but there is one task she cannot escape: accompanying her mother to market on Saturdays. Jong delights in walking down the busy street, boasting that Waverly is her daughter. One day, mortified by what she perceives as exploitation, Waverly argues with her mother and dashes off. For two hours, she huddles on an upturned plastic pail in an alley.

Finally, she slowly walks home. Taking their lead from Mrs. Jong, the entire family ignores Waverly, so she trudges to her darkened room and lies down on her bed. In her mind, she sees a chess board.

Her opponent consists of two angry black slits, marching implacably across the chessboard and sending her white pieces fleeing for cover. As the black pieces get closer, Waverly feels herself getting lighter. She rises above the board and floats over houses. Pushed by the wind, she ascends into the night sky, alone. Waverly closes her eyes and thinks about her next move. On the surface, "Rules of the Game" applies to the rules of chess, which Waverly masters with astonishing skill.

Her success is even more admirable when we realize that she is only eight years old and almost entirely self-taught. Aside from some sessions with old Lau Po in the park, Waverly has taught herself everything that she needs to know about chess in order to become a national champion.

She understands the rules of chess. She knows how the game is played, and she knows how to psych-out her opponents. Look, however, at the title from another perspective. In addition to the game of chess, the title alludes to the "game" of life--knowing the "rules" in order to get what you want. Jong calls these rules "the art of invisible strength. Waverly and her mother struggle for control. Waverly thinks of her mother as an adversary: "I could see the yellow lights shining from our flat like two tiger's eyes in the night," she says.

To Waverly, her mother is like a tiger, waiting to pounce. Predatory, the older woman can destroy with one swipe of her powerful claws. Waverly clearly imagines herself the victim in their struggle. When she reenters the apartment, she sees the "remains of a large fish, its fleshy head still connected to bones swimming upstream in vain escape.

Waverly, however, is young; she has not realized that as her mother teaches her the "art of invisible strength," Mrs. Jong is equipping Waverly with the very tools she needs to win the battles of life that she will encounter when she grows up.

The "art of invisible strength" is self-control. Waverly likens it to the wind, invisible yet powerful beyond belief. The wind can whip up fierce storms and flatten entire communities, yet leave no trace of its presence.

In its power and invisibility, it is the strongest of opponents. The "strongest wind cannot be seen," Waverly's chess opponent tells her. Like the human will, it cannot be seen or traced. In another sense, the "art of invisible strength" represents female power.

Women who have been denied conventional paths to power traditionally use their ability to persuade, to shape, and even to control events.

If a woman cannot sit in the boardroom, she can shape events from her home--even though a man holds the reins of power. For example, Mrs. Jong's fractured English is amusing. When Waverly fears that she will lose a chess match and shame the family, Mrs. Jong says, "Is shame you fall down nobody push you. There is nothing humorous in her final comment to Waverly: "We are not concerning this girl.

Jong has won this round--or has she? The struggle for control between Waverly and her mother is symbolized in the dreamlike chess game in the final page of the section.

Waverly's opponent in this game is "two angry black slits. Jong's eyes turn into "dangerous black slits. She now knows that getting what she wants should not be left to fate; rather, she herself can shape events to serve her purpose. The theme of heritage is also an important element in this strory. Jong takes great pride in being Chinese. She explains that "Chinese people do many things. Chinese people do business, do medicine, do painting.

Not lazy like American people. Jong delights in showing off her daughter to everyone; Waverly is her legacy to the world. Jong feels responsible for her daughter's success Waverly, on the other hand, thinks that she has accomplished everything on her own. She does not yet understand her mother's point of view. Life magazine a large format, pictorial newsmagazine founded in Invisible Strength In the story Rules of the Game by Amy Tan, Waverly Jong's mother is always teaching her about the art of invisible strength.

Waverly says that she uses this as a strategy for winning arguments, respect from others, and eventually, though neither of us knew it at the time, chess games. Invisible strength symbolizes rules, and knowledge. The game of chess has many rules just like the game of life. When Waverly asked about the many rules of chess, the mother said 'This American rules,' she concluded at last.

You not know, judge say, Too bad, go back. They not telling you why so you can use their way forward. They say, Don't know why, you find out yourself. But they knowing all the time. Better you take it, find out yourself. Rules are invisible because they are just a concept and an idea, but they hold limitless power because they influence everyone. Waverly also uses the art of invisible strength to win when she is playing chess and in life. Waverly was taught this art by her mother who also used this art as a set of rules such as Bite back your tongue.

Waverly learned these rules that linked directly to life through trial and error such as when she wanted the forbidden candies. She first whined for them and later received them because she showed self-control by no longer whining. In addition to self-control, invisible strength is the strength of the human mind.

In the beginning of the story Waverly did not understand anything about chess. She read the rules and looked up all the big words in a dictionary and later she came close to becoming a grandmaster. This invisible strength is the strength of her mind. The invisible strength is also like the wind, strong but invisible.

After her two brothers abandoned chess for other recreational activities, Waverly still steadfastly stuck to chess showing her will to become good at chess. Waverly is unique because she is less than ten years old. She depends more on her mind and her ability to grasp new ideas quickly, compared to older chess players who depend on their experience that comes with their old age. Other players such as grand master Bobby Fischer said He and other chess players underestimate the invisible strength or the knowledge of young and feminine people.

Waverly's mother also exhibits invisible strength. While she speaks broken English, Waverly's mother is smart and wise. She said We not concerning this girl. With these few words, she makes Waverly feel shame. Waverly feels that her mother had beaten her with her invisible strength because she goes back to her room and imagines that Her black men advanced across the plane, slowly marching to each successive level as a single unit.

My white pieces screamed as they scurried and fell off the board one by one. Throughout the story, Waverly's mother is teaching her about the power of invisible strength.

It has unlimited power and is unexpected. She uses it in chess and learns from it through trial and error. Invisible strength symbolizes the power of the human mind. Rules of the Game - Additional Information and analysis Amy Tan writes American literature with a Chinese-American view with her short story titled Rules of the Game, where she shows multiple themes like; chess is a game of life, mothers versus daughters, cultural gap, and the generation gap.

The Characters: The writer Amy Tan uses similar experiences to give the characters life and a sense of real Chinese- American life and the clash between cultures. The Chinese have a life based on honor and luck and the American's life is portrayed as full of cockiness and inflated self-confidence. The protagonist - Waverly, is a seven-year-old, Chinese-American stuck in between the two cultures. Being a round character, Waverly shows joy and aggravation. In showing joy, she is encouraged to go to chess tournaments and thinks to herself, I desperately wanted to, but I bit my tongue back.

Wanting to join in the tournaments, she tells her mother she does not want to make her do the opposite. Waverly gets very aggravated at her mother. Waverly says to her mother, Why do you have to use me to show off? If you want to show off, then learn to play chess.

Waverly has had enough of her mother gloating and telling everyone how great Waverly is at chess. Since Waverly has multiple emotions she is a round character and well developed. Waverly as a static character is the same in the beginning as in the end.

Her mother, in a pushy manner towards Waverly says, Every time people come out from foreign country must know the rules. In a sense also threatens her by saying, You not know, judge say, too bad, go back, meaning that she could be sent back to China if she did not follow the rules.

At the end of the story, her mother says to the rest of the family, We not concerning this girl. This girl not concerning us. That tells the reader that the family should have nothing to do with her and she is back to being the least liked in the family being a girl and last born in a Chinese family.

These give the story the cultural influence of how Chinese parents teach and raise their children. The mother Lindo as the antagonist.

The mother is portrayed as a round character throughout the story. She shows pride in the beginning of the story and then later in the story she changes, showing anger towards her daughter. Lindo in this text shows her support for daughter, My mother would join the crowds during these outdoor exhibition games.

She sat proudly on the bench, telling my admires with proper Chinese humility, is luck. Lindo in the beginning of the story shows that she supports her daughter by showing up to her games. Later on in the story, she changes faces from being a proud mother to being upset, angry, and not supportive towards her daughter.

She shows this when Waverly sees, My mother s eyes turned into dangerous black slits. She had no words for me, just sharp silence. This shows that her mother can change from being proud of her daughter to being angry with her because Waverly rebels agents her. Lindo being a round character affects the story because it showed multiple dimensions of her personality. She does not change at all in this story. Her attitude stays the same thorough the story. From the beginning she did not want the chess set as seen from this text from the story, When we got home, my mother told Vincent to throw the chess set away.

She said, tossing her head stiffly to the side with a tight, proud smile. This shows that she does not want the set. Towards the ending, she shows the same attitude towards her daughter with this, We are not concerning this girl. She shows the same exact attitude with first not wanting the set and now not wanting her daughter. Her being a static character influences the story in a way that shows how Chinese mothers were around in the s.

Lindo s goals are to teach her family the Chinese traditions and to live by them. Her goals were a very huge impact on the story.

The impact was that she taught Waverly the rules of life throughout the story. This shows the theme that chess is a game of life. Some proof that she teaches Waverly is, this American rules she concluded at last. Every time people come out from foreign country, must know rules. Lindo shows that when immigrates come to America, they must know the rules of life.

The tones and the atmosphere Amy Tan goes into detail in the story with the tones and atmosphere. Tan uses many stressful situations like in this proof from the text, But I found it difficult to concentrate at home. This shows that Waverly tends to have an atmosphere where it is hard for her to concentrate and be alone. In addition, it must have been stressful to be the only girl besides her mom in this household and to have such a high expectation in the Chinese community, which was male dominated, with chess.

Another reason things could be stressful for Waverly is that she needs to live up to her family s name. Waverly considers this when she says this, If I lost, I would bring shame on my family. Losing games would have the complete Chinese community feeling let down. All of this over one girl's head has a heavy load of stress. The atmosphere of this story plays a huge role.

It really shows how the Chinese- Americans lived in America. The themes in the story Amy Tan sets up her story well. She uses her setting to show her themes, which affect the story. She shows the theme mother versus daughter throughout the story.

Another theme that is shown in the story that is important to the setting is the generation gap. The conflicts in the story All stories have conflicts that make the story interesting and give it meaning.

Mothers and daughters can be best friends at times, but when they come from different cultures, and social lifestyles they fight. Mother versus daughter is the major conflict in the story. Cultural differences are another conflict within this classic short story. Chinese versus American culture is the minor conflict in this short story.

In the short story Rules of the Game, mother and daughter conflicts arise due to several reasons. Waverly s mother is not completely accustomed to the American way of life. Her mother assuming she knows more about chess than Waverly says Next time win more, lose less.. Waverly says back to her mother, Ma, it s not how many pieces you lose. Waverly is starting to open her mouth and goes against what her mother believes to be the way chess is played.

The conflict of mother verses daughter is understood by the critic Kate Covintree who states, Her chess playing is a metaphor for her struggle with her greatest opponent, her own Chinese mother. Her mother invades her space and creates more tension between them.

Irritated, Waverly says to her mother, Ma, I can t practice when you stand there like that. Her mother is very angry and leaves, but knocks pots and pans around to be obnoxious and retaliate. Waverly and her mother keep building on their different ways of thinking until Waverly finally has enough. Waverly being born in America and her mother being raised in China makes another barrier of conflict. Chinese and Americans live very different life styles and have different beliefs as how to go about life.

In Chinese culture, being honorable and respectful in all manners is one of their cultural attributes. While Waverly and her mother are walking they get into an argument her mother says Aiii-ya. So shame be with mother? This is showing dishonor towards the family and especially her mother.