The techniques adopted in each timber structure own are studied. Link-to-column connections in steel eccentrically braced frames must be capable of sustaining large cyclic forces and inelastic rotations. These tests have shown excellent connection performance, satisfying the performance requirements of the AISC Seismic Provisions. Fatigue life extension of cracked welded joints by ICR treatment under tensile loading Reviewed.
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(doi: /S); 張景耀, 青木孝義, 鉄筋コンクリート造4枚組合せHPシェル屋根の振動特性, 構造工学論文集, Vol. 67B, pp. , . 3次元離散型有限要素モデルによる石造アーチ橋の静的・動的強度解析. 構造工学論文集 A, 63(0), seoauditing.ru 3次元離散型. 玉井 宏樹, 桑原功旺, 園田 佳巨, 鉄筋腐食により劣化したRC梁部材の曲げ耐荷性能および耐衝撃性能に関する基礎的研究, 構造工学論文集, VolA, pp 常用される限界状態関数の3次モーメント推定,日本建築学会構造系論文集, 柱・梁耐力比に与える影響，構造工学論文集，JSCE/AIJ, VolB,,  Liao, H.J. and Zhao, Y.G.., Advance on the field of fracture and strength of. 構造工学シンポジウム論文賞 Journal of Constructional Steel Research 63 - 75 Jul 1, Peer- in Structural Engineering: Retrospective and Prospective, Vols 1 and 2 土木学会論文集A 63(4) -
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電磁減衰装置を有する発電型TMDの提案と実橋梁における制振効果検証実験, 土木学会論文集A1（構造・地震工学）, Vol. 74, No. 30, p. , Nov. と解析的性能評価手法の検討，土木学会論文集 E2，Vol, No.4, pp, 限界変位，構造工学論文集，VolA， , pp, 構造 工学 論文 集 vol 63b 日本建築学会構造系論文集 - 年12月 [査読有り][通常論文] in line with statistical analysis of a large volume of test data indicating JOURNAL OF CONSTRUCTIONAL STEEL RESEARCH 63 6 土木学会論文集 F3(土木情報学), , Vol. 着塩分量の評価, 構造工学論文集. 土木学会論文集 A2（応用力学）, , Vol. 70, No. 2, pp. I I  P.J. 疲労き裂面の接触状態による透過超音波の波形特性の変化. / 中畑和之高橋栞太細川隼人高橋学. 構造工学論文集. 66/ A. Research paper (scientific journal). 吉武謙二，小川晃，小倉大季，長井宏平：柱梁接合部の構造性能に及ぼす梁軸方向鉄筋の定着仕様および寸法効果の影響，コンクリート工学年次論文集, Vol, No. 日本機械学会論文集, Vol. 86, No. , Article No. 沖義弘, 松本紀彦, 大谷清伸, 長谷川直, 槙原幹十朗 日本航空宇宙学会論文集 Vol. 63, No. 4, pp. -
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Goto, T. Matsuda, N. Oide, T. Yamanaka, T. Altenbach, T. Matsuda, D. Ito, N. Takano, S. Kubota, N. Matsuda, S. Kanamaru, N. Honda, N. Koda, T. Ohno, K. Ikenoya, D. Okumura and T. Yamamoto, Y.
Yamamoto, T. Kanamaru, T. Kaku, M. Fukuoka, T. Fukuda, K. Nakata, M. Arai, K. Kaku, T. Fukuta and M. Ohsaki, 3-bar tensegrity units with non-equilateral triangle on an end plane, Mechanics Research Communications, 92, pp. Wang, J. Zhang , J. Cai, J. Feng, Force-finding analysis of cable-net deployable antenna considering shape constraints, Journal of Southeast University English Edition , Vol.
Ohsaki, New 3-bar prismatic tensegrity units, Composite Structures, , pp. Aoki, Damage detection of multi-story shear buildings due to earthquakes by model updating method, Structural Control and Health Monitoring, Vol. Ohsaki, T. Miyamura and J. Zhang , A piecewise linear isotropic-kinematic hardening model with semi-implicit rules for cyclic loading and its parameter identification, Computer Modeling in Engineering and Sciences, vol.
Ohsaki, Free-form design of tensegrity structures by combination of non-linear analysis and optimization techniques, Spatial Structures, Vol.
Gan, J. Zhang , K. Nguyen and E. Nouchi, Node-based genetic form-finding of irregular tensegrity structures, Computers and Structures, Vol. Ohsaki and J. Zhang , Nonlinear programming approach to form-finding and folding analysis of tensegrity structures using fictitious material properties, International Journal of Solids and Structures, Vol , pp.
Zhang , Prediction of inelastic seismic responses of arch-type long-span structures using a series of multimodal pushover analysis, Journal of IASS, Vol. Ohsaki, Self-equilibrium and stability of regular truncated tetrahedral tensegrity structures, Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids, Vol.
Ohsaki, J. Zhang and I. Elishakoff, Multiobjective hybrid optimization-antioptimization for force design of tensegrity structures. Journal of Applied Mechanics, Vol. Ohsaki, Force identification of prestressed pin-jointed structures. Zhang , S. Guest, B. Connelly and M. Solids, Strut. Together they form a unique fingerprint.
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Toyomura, T. Ogaki, M. Sato, T. Ito, S. Akimoto, H. Kobori, K. Matsuda Effects of laminate misalignment on macroscopic strength and microscopic damage development of plain-woven laminates Mechanical Engineering Letters, Vol. Ohno, Y. Kawasaki, S. Miyashita, M. Goto, T. Matsuda, N. Oide, T. Yamanaka, T. Altenbach, T. Matsuda, D. Ito, N. Takano, S. Kubota, N. Matsuda, S. Kanamaru, N. Honda, N. Koda, T. Ohno, K. Ikenoya, D.
Okumura and T. Aoki, Damage detection of multi-story shear buildings due to earthquakes by model updating method, Structural Control and Health Monitoring, Vol. Ohsaki, T. Miyamura and J. Zhang , A piecewise linear isotropic-kinematic hardening model with semi-implicit rules for cyclic loading and its parameter identification, Computer Modeling in Engineering and Sciences, vol.
Ohsaki, Free-form design of tensegrity structures by combination of non-linear analysis and optimization techniques, Spatial Structures, Vol. Gan, J. Zhang , K. Nguyen and E. Nouchi, Node-based genetic form-finding of irregular tensegrity structures, Computers and Structures, Vol. Ohsaki and J. Zhang , Nonlinear programming approach to form-finding and folding analysis of tensegrity structures using fictitious material properties, International Journal of Solids and Structures, Vol , pp.
Zhang , Prediction of inelastic seismic responses of arch-type long-span structures using a series of multimodal pushover analysis, Journal of IASS, Vol.
Ohsaki, Self-equilibrium and stability of regular truncated tetrahedral tensegrity structures, Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids, Vol. Ohsaki, J. Zhang and I. Elishakoff, Multiobjective hybrid optimization-antioptimization for force design of tensegrity structures. Journal of Applied Mechanics, Vol. Ohsaki, Force identification of prestressed pin-jointed structures.
Zhang , S. Guest, B. Connelly and M. Solids, Strut. Guest and M. Ohsaki, Symmetric prismatic tensegrity structures: Part II. Solids, Structures, Vol. Ohsaki, Symmetric prismatic tensegrity structures: Part I. Solids, Structures. Zhang , Multiobjective optimization for force design of tensegrity structures, Journal of the Korean Association for Spatial Structures, Vol.
Both systems are widely used in seismic design, and both have a number of specific design issues. This paper describes a first of its kind, 2-story, 1-bay by 1-bay frame tested at the University of Minnesota Network for Earthquake Engineering Simulation facility to examine the large-displacement, bidirectional behavior of SCBFs and BRBFs with realistic boundary conditions and to verify the design approach.
The design of the gusset plates for the HSS braces followed a previously proposed balanced design procedure with an elliptical clearance to permit out-of-plane rotation caused by brace buckling.
The results indicate that these systems have a stable response to large cyclic deformations and the impact of bidirectional loading on the measured response was minimal.
Dynamic response of a chevron concentrically braced frame. Large-scale shake table tests were conducted at E-Defense, Japan, to examine the dynamic response of a steel concentrically braced frame. The specimen was a single-bay, single-story frame with a pair of square hollow structural section braces placed in a chevron arrangement.
The gusset plates connecting the brace to the framing elements were provided with an elliptic fold line to accommodate out-of-plane rotation of the brace in compression. The specimen was subjected repeatedly to a unidirectional ground motion with increasing magnitude until the braces buckled and eventually fractured. The bracing connections performed as intended the gusset plates folded out of plane, and no crack was observed in the gusset plate or in the critical welds.
Consequently, the test results demonstrated excellent performance of the bracing connections. Elastic deformation of the beam prevented the braces from developing their full tensile strength.
Yielding in the middle of the beam, which was predicted by monotonic loading analysis, did not occur. The specimen response was reproduced by a numerical model using fiber elements. This model was able to predict the occurrence of brace buckling and fracture and thereby accurately trace the dynamic behavior of the frame. Two full-scale steel moment-resisting frames were constructed and tested at E-Defense to examine the performance of high-rise buildings subjected to long-period ground motions.
Frame 1 adopted typical design and detailing from the 's employing both field- welded and shop-welded details for the moment frame connections.
Frame 2 was identical to Frame 1 except that all connections were field-welded and upgraded using three strengthening methods. A number of connections in Frame 1 fractured during a simulated long- period motion. No damage was observed in Frame 2 until the same motion was repeated multiple times. The performance of field- welded connections in existing high-rise buildings and the effectiveness of upgrade methods are discussed.
A joint U. In the city of Sendai, where the peak horizontal ground acceleration exceeded 1 g, the majority of steel buildings performed well. Buildings that used older cladding systems for external finish sustained damage to their claddings even if their structural performance was excellent.
Damage to a few braced frames offer insight into the seismic design of bracing connections. In areas attacked by the violent tsunami, many steel buildings stood upright after the tsunami subsided, although these buildings lost much of their external and internal finishes along with their contents.
These steel buildings did not provide safe shelter for tsunami evacuation when the building submerged under the tsunami wave. A number of buildings suffered foundation failure, which was likely caused by scouring or liquefaction or a combination of multiple effects. Flexural performance of bolted built-up columns constructed of H-SA steel. The H-SA is a new high-strength structural steel that is more environmentally friendly and more suitable for mass production than conventional high-strength steel.
A research program is underway to develop a new structural steel system that extends the benefits of H-SA steel to achieve sustainable and seismically resilient buildings.
The envisioned system uses built-up columns that are fabricated from H-SA plates by high-strength bolts and uses these built-up columns in weld-free construction. This paper summarizes the first phase of the program, whose objective was to establish the flexural properties of the built-up columns.
Three column specimens were fabricated and subjected to cyclic lateral loading. The tests demonstrated the very large elastic deformation capacity and stable inelastic behavior of H-SA columns. The flexural strength was not governed by fracture of the reduced section with bolt holes, but by inelastic buckling of the flanges. The strength was limited by the plastic strength of the reduced section.
The test results were used to identify the key limit states and to develop a design methodology that addresses the unique behavior of the built-up columns. Finite element simulation suggested that bolt holes help distribute yielding over a wide area of the flanges, to supply some ductility and help avoid net section fracture of the flanges. Concentric X-braced frames with HSS bracing.
Keith D. Palmer, Charles W. Roeder, Dawn E. Lehman, Taichiro Okazaki, Carol K. Shield, Jacob Powell. Concentrically braced frames are stiff, strong systems frequently used to resist wind and seismic loading; in regions of high seismicity in the US special concentrically braced frames SCBFs are used.
CBF configurations vary, but in low rise or other structures with modest levels of demands single-story, X-configured braced frames X-braced are commonly used. The brace sections used also vary but hollow structural sections HSS are the most common in the U. Although important, in part because low-rise structures sustain large demands, few research programs have focused on the single-story X-brace configuration.
The test matrix consisted of two, full-scale planar X-braced frame experiments and one nearly-full-scale three-dimensional X-braced frame. The tests were designed using a new design and detailing philosophy, called the Balanced Design Method. In this paper, application of this design method to the frame is investigated, with a focus on the center-splice connection.
The results show that the ultimate inelastic deformation capacity of the system is less dependent on the specific design detail at this splice. Additionally, the bi-directional load testing indicated that the out-of-plane demands did not impact the system performance. The AISC specification establishes the direct analysis method DM as the standard stability analysis and design procedure. Because the DM, which was developed for design scenarios that do not contain seismic loading, includes the effects of initial geometric imperfections and inelastic behavior owing to residual stresses, it is critical to explore the impact of these parameters on the seismic behavior of typical steel buildings.
To examine these issues, a series of steel special moment-resisting frame models were subjected to monotonic pushover, cyclic pushover, and response history analyses. The observed behavior was used to draw comparisons between systems with and without residual stresses and initial imperfections.
Cyclic strength degradation at beam-to-column connections was also considered to examine the potential interaction it may have with the other parameters. Whereas the well-known impact of strength degradation on cyclic stability was noted, residual stresses and initial imperfections did not have any appreciable effect on stability behavior for the systems considered.
The analyses conducted in this study indicate no clear benefit to using the DM when designing regular ductile steel systems in high seismic regions and simpler design methods may be equally effective. DOI: Local shear buckling and bearing strength in web core sandwich panels: Model and experimental validation. A model and experimental validation of shear buckling and local bearing failure of web core sandwich panels are presented.
Of particular interest are steel-faced panels with stiffening metal webs and a polymer core. The metal webs provide the required panel stiffness and the foam core serves the dual purposes of preventing local buckling and providing thermal insulation. In applications, such as the building sector, in which thermal performance is crucial, the webs are thin and widely spaced to reduce conduction between the face sheets. The models of shear buckling and bearing failure account for the influence of the core material on web strength and provide closed-form solutions.
The models are validated by symmetric four-point bending tests to evaluate shear buckling and asymmetric three-point bending for bearing failure. The performance of high-rise steel moment frame buildings constructed in the 's is examined by using the E-Defense shake-table facility. Typical design and detailing in the 's are incorporated in a four-story, steel moment frame specimen. The specimen is subjected to a series of response deformations representing a high-rise building.
Long-period ground motions impose a substantial number of inelastic deformations, which eventually cause fracture in the beam-to-column connections. Earthquake and tsunami damage to steel structures. The Tohoku-Chiho Taiheiyo-Oki Earthquake Tohoku earthquake for short caused widespread damage to steel building structures.
The Steel Committee of the Architectural Institute of Japan AIJ conducted earthquake damage reconnaissance over cities where severe ground shaking was recorded. In general, steel office and industrial buildings exhibited excellent seismic performance.
Buildings that used older cladding installation methods sustained damage to their claddings even if their structural performance was excellent. Damage to a few braced frames offer valuable insight into gusset plate connection design. It is widely recognized that a devastating feature of the Tohoku earthquake is the vast damage over the north-east coast of Japan caused by tsunami. This tsunami claimed nearly 20, lives. This coast is a rich fishing area and hence housed many fishing ports and facilities among other major buildings.
At the port town of Onagawa, where the tsunami reached an extreme severity and height of 15 meters, a three-story steel building fell sideways after its piles failed. While the majority of steel buildings stood upright after the tsunami subsided, these buildings sustained heavy damage to its external and internal finishes. This paper summarizes findings made by the authors and their AIJ colleagues.
Siavash Soroushian, Keri L. Zaghi, Gilberto Mosqueda, Dennis Alvarez. Nonstructural systems constitute a significant portion of the total property of a typical building. Recent earthquakes have repeatedly demonstrated that nonstructural damage results in significant loss of property and function with major catastrophic impact on communities. As part of a NEESR-GC project on the "Simulation of the Seismic Performance of Nonstructural Systems," more than 75 m2 sq-ft of suspended ceiling with lay-in tiles and 3 sprinkler branch lines were installed on the 4th and 5th floors of the building.
The ceiling was enclosed by light gauge stud gypsum partition walls. This paper presents some of the preliminary observations on the response of nonstructural systems from these experiments. Aspects of isolation device behavior observed from full-scale testing of an isolated building at E-defense. A 5-story steel moment frame building was tested at E-Defense in August of with three different support configurations: supported by a triple friction pendulum isolation system, supported by lead rubber bearings in combination with cross linear bearings, and in the fixed-base condition.
Nonstructural components and contents were installed on the 4th and 5th floors. The isolated buildings were subjected to strong excitations with the goal to approach the displacement limit of the baseisolation devices. The triple friction pendulum system was subjected to a variety of large ground motions, but did not reach its displacement limit as the friction was observed to be larger than during initial bearing characterization.
The lead-rubber isolators were subjected simultaneously to large displacements and some tension. Nonstructural component damage and content disruption due to strong vertical excitation was observed in both isolation systems and in the fixed-base configuration. Panelized construction of residential buildings is gaining popularity due to the architectural and energy efficiency benefits that can be achieved.
An important challenge to the design of panel structures for buildings is the balance between long-term structural performance and the thermal insulating requirement. In this study, foam core and web core panels are designed for residential roofs. Both panels are comprised of two face sheets and an insulating foam core. In the web core panel, thin metal webs that connect the face sheets are added to improve panel shear stiffness and enable longer spans.
A design procedure is developed that considers R-value, panel deflection, core shear failure, bearing failure, and buckling of the face sheets and webs. The buckling model includes the ability of the foam core stiffness to restrain the buckling deformation. Panel designs are presented that provide R It is demonstrated that the web core panel can be designed for these structural and thermal requirements with unsupported span lengths as long as 7 m, while span lengths for foam core panels are limited to 4 m.
Web shear buckling and R-value are the two performance criteria that limit panel span length and depth. Reported evidence suggests that failure of gusset plates initiated the collapse of the IW Bridge in Minneapolis, Minnesota. The particular gusset plates were at a panel point designated as U Therefore, an analytical investigation was conducted on the condition of the U10 gusset plates at the time of bridge collapse.
The forces delivered to panel point U10 were reproduced using available information of the bridge. These forces were introduced to detailed nonlinear three-dimensional finite-element models to calculate stress and strain states of the gusset plates.
The results indicate that substantial portions of the U10 gusset plates were yielded at the time of collapse, confirming earlier findings from federal and state investigations. Weight increase due to past deck reconstruction and construction material and equipment staged on the day of collapse, along with insufficient thickness of the gusset plate, were identified as the main contributing factors to the substantial yielding.
The results also suggest that the interaction of compression and shear played an important role in the gusset plate failure. Three-dimensional tests of two-story, one-bay by one-bay, steel concentric braced frames.
Steel concentric braced frames CBFs are widely used as systems to resist lateral loads induced from wind and seismic loading. Recent research on full-scale CBF subassemblages has shown that current design provisions fall short of the design intent.
Additionally, the effect of imposed out-of-plane deformation on the system has never been evaluated experimentally in this manner. This paper describes the design, test setup and experimental results of two tests performed on a two-story, one-bay by one-bay CBFs, an HSS buckling-brace system in a single-story X-configuration, and a buckling-restrained braced frame BRBF in a single-diagonal configuration.
The design of the gusset plates for the HSS braces followed a balanced design procedure with an elliptical clearance to permit out-of-plane rotation due to brace buckling.
Dynamic response of a steel concentrically braced frame. Large-scale shake table tests were conducted to examine the dynamic response of steel concentrically braced frames. The specimen was a single-bay, single-story frame with a pair of square-tube braces placed in a chevron arrangement. The gusset plates connecting the brace to the framing elements were provided with an elliptical clearance to permit free out-of-plane rotation.
The specimen was subjected repeatedly to unidirectional ground motion with increasing magnitude until the braces fractured. The test results demonstrated excellent performance of the gusset plate connections.
This model was able to predict the occurrence of brace fracture and post-fracture behavior of the frame. Observations from the shake table tests and aspects of the numerical analysis are reported in this paper. Experimental evaluation of an innovative isolation system for a lightweight steel moment frame building at E-Defense.
Nhan D. Dao, Keri L. Mahin, Arash E. Zahgi, Kouichi Kajiwara, Taizo Matsumori. The specimen will be shaken both with and without triple friction pendulum isolators.