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Display Vertices A part can be unsuppressed by right clicking on the Part branch in the feature Tree Outline p. Note: A sketch created with exactly cubic kilometers sides symmetric in all directions to the origin. Trans fats are created when manufacturers add hydrogen to vegetable oil which usually occurs during the manufacturing process, though very small amounts of trans fats are naturally occurring in animal fat.

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Alternative names: benzoic acid, potassium benzoate, benzoate. Read more about Sodium Benzonate here, here, here and here. Sodium NitriteSodium nitrite is usually found in preserved meat products like sausages, cured meats and canned meats.

Concerns of this preservative are that too much may cause pancreatic cancer and other health problems. A study reports that methemoglobinemia, a blood disorder in which an abnormal amount of methemoglobin is produced, was found in in an adolescent girl and her father after ingesting homemade beef jerky that contained sodium nitrate. Both experienced palpitations, dyspnea, and visible mucosal cyanosis. Look for sodium nitrate on the food labels.

Alternative names: sodium nitrite, nitrate, nitrite. To read more about Sodium Nitrite click here, here, here and here. Sodium Sulfite E Preservative used in wine-making and other processed foods. According to the FDA, approximately one in people is sensitive to sulfites in food.

The majority of these individuals are asthmatic, suggesting a link between asthma and sulfites. Individuals who are sulfite sensitive may experience headaches, breathing problems, and rashes. In severe cases, sulfites can actually cause death by closing down the airway altogether, leading to cardiac arrest. Found in wine and dried fruit. Sulfur Dioxide E Sulfur additives are toxic and in the United States of America, the Food and Drug Administration have prohibited their use on raw fruit and vegetables.

Adverse reactions include bronchial problems, particularly in those prone to asthma, hypotension low blood pressure , flushing, tingling sensations or anaphylactic shock. It also destroys vitamins B1 and E. Not recommended for consumption by children. The International Labour Organization says to avoid E if you suffer from conjunctivitis, bronchitis, emphysema, bronchial asthma, or cardiovascular disease.

Found in beer, soft drinks, dried fruit, juices, cordials, wine, vinegar, and potato products. Propyl ParabenPropyl paraben is commonly used as a preservative in many foods including tortillas, bread products and food dyes; and cross contamination has lead to propyl paraben showing up in beverages, dairy products, meat and vegetables. It is commonly found in many cosmetics, such as creams, lotions, shampoos and bath products. A federal study showed that 91 percent of Americans tested had propyl paraben in their urine.

Additionally, it has been shown to alter the expression of genes, including those in breast cancer cells and to accelerate the growth of breast cancer cells. Harvard School of Public Health shared the results of a recent study linking propyl paraben to impaired fertility in women. Look for propyl paraben on the food labels to avoid it. This common preservative keeps foods from changing color, changing flavor or becoming rancid. Affects the neurological system of the brain, alters behavior and has a potential to cause cancer.

Found in potato chips, gum, cereal, frozen sausages, enriched rice, lard, shortening, candy, jello. By-Products Of Processing Fats Trans FatYou may have heard of trans fat, which has been a popular topic on labels for the past decade or so. Trans fats are created when manufacturers add hydrogen to vegetable oil which usually occurs during the manufacturing process, though very small amounts of trans fats are naturally occurring in animal fat.

The American Heart Association tells us that trans fats are often found in foods such as fried doughnuts, cakes, pie crusts, biscuits, frozen pizza, cookies, crackers, and margarines. The problem with trans fats is that they are believed to increase the risk of heart disease, stroke, and type 2 diabetes; in fact, scientists are now in agreement that trans fat is harmful to health. Labels are required to list the amount of trans fats. But it is important to note that products can be listed as 0 grams of trans fats if they contain less than 0.

You are likely to see them on a label listed as partially hydrogenated oils. Alternative names: partially hydrogenated cottonseed oil, partially hydrogenated palm oil, partially hydrogenated soybean oil, partially hydrogenated vegetable oil, trans fats, trans fatty acids, partially hydrogenated canola oil.

Read more about trans fats here and here. Extracts Rosemary ExtractActual additive numbers , found in some cereals, salami, fresh pasta or margarine or cooking oils.

Rice ExtractA chemical stabilizer and emulsifier used in ice cream, pizzas, savory snacks. Roasted Barley Malt ExtractFlavoring and color enhancer that makes cereals taste toasted. While it is present in the majority of packaged foods, eating foods in their original, organic state can greatly reduce risks associated with additives and preservatives.

Consider some DIY beauty products. Checking the label and looking for products that contain ingredients that you understand is very helpful when making food or personal care product choices. For a full list of these ingredients, go to here or here. Email Address Subscribe Now Yes, sign me up to receive emails with the best health tips, films, and more, from the Food Matters team. We respect your email privacy and you can unsubscribe anytime. Thank you for signing up for our newsletter. While you're here, why not create a free account?

You can save recipes, create your own news feed, and lots more! Simply enter a password below. Email subject: Password submit We here at Food Matters are committed to helping you help yourself. We believe that your body is worthy of good care and that no one is more suitably qualified to care for it than yourself. Think of us as your nutritional consultants and know that we are here with you on your journey to a healthier life. Join our free Food Matters newsletter and we'll show you how!

Plus receive 12 recipes from the Food Matters Recipe Book for free. Privacy policy Thank you for signing up for our free newsletter. Your email is confirmed and your recipes are on their way to your inbox. While you're here, why not create a free account with us which allows you to save recipes, create your own news feed, and access to member specials! Please log in to save this item to your account. Lost Password? Log in here. By using Food Matters Website, you accept our use of cookies. Your ancestors used to dry, freeze, can or pickle foods to extend their shelf life.

With an increase in packaged foods also came an increase in different preservation methods. Chemical preservation is used to delay spoilage, enhance color and flavor, and maintain consistency and texture of foods. Effects of O2, CO2, Aw upon the Preservation of Foodstuffs O2 is one key element for the survival of anaerobe and the source causing oxidation deterioration.

Without oxygen, foodstuff won't be oxidized, fungi and other bacteria won't grow, and moth can not survive. CO2 is a vitally important factor for the growth of yeast and other anaerobic, which could be one major reason causing the foodstuff deterioration in a oxygen-free environment. The growth of yeast and other anaerobic stimulated by the presence of CO2 and O2-free condition will speed up the foodstuff deterioration. In the case of preserving high moisture the elimination of O2 and CO2 is very critical.

Water Activity, Aw, is also an important factor of affecting the growth of microbe. It is also a major concern in the food preservation, especially in the aspect of mold prevention. Preservatives-Microbe AttackMicrobes are all around us, in the air, on our hands and in food from the farm. Usually, they are in small enough numbers so that they do not cause any harm. However, a single bacterium, given suitable conditions of warmth, air and moisture, can grow to many millions in just a few hours.

Microbes will grow quickly when they are in the right conditions; warm, moist, correct pH and a supply of food to grow on. Preservation tries to alter the conditions to slow or stop the microbe growth.

When this is not possible, or convenient, preservatives may be added to stop the food from going 'off'. Different microbes are sensitive to different types of preservatives and so a wide range of preservatives are in use today.

Food PreservativesMost preservatives today are actually fungistatic in their action. That means they prevent the growth of fungi, moulds and yeasts.

They have little effect on bacteria but using a combination of preservatives, with antibacterial properties, can give good all round protection. Food preservatives help to control the spread of bacteria which can cause life threatening illnesses such as salmonellosis or botulism. Preservatives are commonly used in these foods: low fat spreads cheeses, margarine, mayonnaise and dressings bakery products dried fruit preparations Are Preservatives Safe?

Food preservatives have to be safe for human consumption. They can stop the food-decay microbes from growing but must not not harm the cells of the human body. There are also maximum levels of preservatives allowed, so that high concentrations of preservatives in food are not permitted.

There is much concern about the increasing incidence of the phenomenon of resistance of bacteria to antibiotics. Over the decades in which preservatives have been used, there has been no need to increase the dosage to maintain their effectiveness.

This suggests that the use of these substances has not resulted in the development of bacteria that are resistant to preservatives. BHA is used to keep foods from going rancid and is often added to high-fat foods, like butter, meat and baked goods, as well as cereals, snack foods, dehydrated potatoes, beer and chewing gum. BHT keeps foods from changing flavor and color and helps prevent them from developing an odor.

Cereals, shortenings and foods high in fat and oils often contain BHT. Although the results have been inconclusive so far, large doses of BHA and BHT have been shown to promote the growth of tumors in lab animalsSodium NitrateSodium nitrate is a salt used as a preservative in many cured or smoked meats, such as bacon, jerky, deli meats and smoked salmon.

Sodium nitrate helps reduce color changes and prevents botulism, a rare foodborne illness caused by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. Although sodium nitrate is generally recognized as safe, the U.

Environmental Protection Agency notes that exposure to high levels of sodium nitrate has been linked to increased incidences of cancer in adults and may be related to brain tumors, leukemia and nose and throat tumors in some children. SulfitesSulfites have been used during wine making for centuries, and they are also used as an antimicrobial agent and to prevent discoloration and browning in food products. Possible sources of sulfites include beer, cocktail mixes, processed baked goods, pickles, olives, salad dressing, powdered sugar, lobster, shrimp scallops, canned calms, fruit fillings, fruit juices and potatoes.

Approximately 1 in individuals is sensitive to the preservative, although adverse reactions in nonasthmatics are extremely rare, according to the University of Florida. Sodium BenzoateSodium benzoate inhibits the growth of bacteria, mold and yeast in acidic conditions. The preservative is commonly used in carbonated beverages, fruit juices, pickles, salsa and dip. According to Don Schaffner, a professor of food science at Rutgers University in New Jersey, sodium benzoate poses no health dangers when consumed in minimal amounts, and the concentrations used in food are low enough that they pose no risk.

Natural flavoring can constitute just about any substance derived from a natural source — including animal excretions. You may quickly overlook these ingredients due to their impossible-to-pronounce names, but you should know that these chemicals also make an appearance in things you would never eat — like jet fuel. If you've ever cleaned with an ammonia cleaner you know the smell alone can be vomit-inducing, so why are we eating it?

In fact most cleaners suggest you don't breath it in, but mix it with some yeast and call it a roll and we're all for it. Supposedly it is completely safe in low levels. You may also see this ingredient in your garden fertilizer.

We'll never look at cookie dough ice cream the same way again. L-cysteine is made from duck feathers or human hair and considered natural protein since it can be digested as an amino acid. It is used in several products from bread to, yep, you guessed it, cookie dough.

Unfortunately, or fortunately, depending on who you ask, we don't think that's the case. It is often used in sunscreen as it can absorb UV rays. You'll also find it in milk, salad dressings, frosting, and coffee creamer to name a few, leaving your internal organs completely protected against UV exposure. It prevents food from going rancid likely at the expense of your internal organs.

Due to a recent study that found it causes cancer in laboratory animals, the U. You'll also find it in cosmetics, jet fuel, rubber and embalming fluid. Next time you see it on the ingredients label, ask yourself if you'd be willing to take a chug of fuel or, say, embalming fluid. Then, you should probably buy something else. It prevents bacteria growth and helps meat retain its red color. In addition, it adds a good flavor to salty meats like bacon. Before you order a BLT, you should know that it is also used in metal coatings, chemical reacting agents for photography and in textile dyes.

New planes can be inserted in the model by clicking the New Plane p. Toolbar p. You will then be prompted for input to clearly define the plane using the different options. A plane can have any number of sketches attached to it. This is required in many instances because. The DesignModeler application does. The features themselves have defining dimensions.

For example, Fixed Blends have a blend radius, Extrusions. You can add these dimensions at any time, and. You can promote both feature dimensions and plane dimensions to "design parameters" using the. Parameters tool, or by checking the "driven" check mark if available next to the feature or plane. The Generate p. You are. Selecting an object in the feature Tree Outline p. View p. In general, the Details View p. The information is displayed in two columns.

The left column typically lists the noneditable. The information. Specific to the Import and Attach Options p.

The names of the properties listed in the Details View shown below are the same as those in the. Properties List p. See DesignModeler. Geometry p. For more information about accessing the geometry preferences via the Geometry cell in the Project. Geometry imported into the Project Schematic is integrated via the DesignModeler application. For a. The systems and components that you add to your project appear here, as well as all the links between.

Access to the geometry system is available in the project toolbox under the Component Systems group. Double-clicking the Geometry item in the Component Systems toolbox will create a new stand-alone. When a system is first created, you have the option to rename. If a geometry cell contains a reference to a file that is not present, a small red exclamation icon will.

The following operations are applicable from the context menu of geometry cells. Note that context. This context menu item will launch a new session of the DesignModeler application when there are no.

The geometry will be created from scratch in the DesignModeler. Tools menu. The editor that you select is shown in bold, which.

Workbench icon. You may open other documents in SpaceClaim, but these will have the regular document. When the connected document is closed or when SpaceClaim is closed by the user, the model is automatically. It is. It is also closed when the Stop.

You can see the geometry cell. Now if you open another. Workbench, there will be no affect on the geometry cell inside Workbench.

The second document. This fly-out menu will appear in the context menu when there are no files specified in the geometry.

The document names of. If chosen, the active model will be loaded into the geometry cell. If a CAD system is open, but does not contain. Only the file names are.

If chosen, the file path will be loaded into the geometry cell and the. If the Browse command at the top of the context menu is chosen, or any of the most recently used.

When the Edit command is then used, this will import. The file can be an. This copy will. The middle section of the Import Geometry context menu is shown only if there are one or more. With SpaceClaim, this is only if those sessions are not already connected to a. If a SpaceClaim active model is chosen, a connection is immediately made to that SpaceClaim session,. The active model entry shows the name of the file, if it has been saved, otherwise it shows the display.

Only documents that have been saved can be connected. SpaceClaim active models are the active documents in SpaceClaim sessions that are not already connected. If you use the Import Geometry command,. It is the default action when a user double-clicks the geometry cell under. The option will NOT appear if the geometry cell is empty. If a file is specified but is a. If you choose the Edit option while the DesignModeler application's editor. You may not edit geometry on a cell if it has a shared connection with an upstream cell.

In these cases,. To edit the cell, you must first break the. This option will appear whenever you have geometry defined in the geometry cell and the DesignModeler. Its contents and behavior are exactly the same as Import. This operation will copy the current system to a new system. If the system is a utility geometry system,. If you perform a duplicate on the geometry cell where the cell is part of a larger system, then a new. If you perform a duplicate operation on a cell below the geometry cell, then geometry will be shared.

Lastly, if a duplicate operation is performed at a level below the model cell, then the geometry cell will. This operation will create a Provides-To type connection between a new upstream system and the selected. After selecting one of the systems in the fly-out menu, Workbench will create the new system to the. This operation will create a Provides-To type connection between the selected geometry cell and a new. After selecting a system in the flyout menu, Workbench will create the new system to the right of the.

The Update context operation will trigger an update event on the geometry cell, forcing it to regenerate. Update command is always enabled. When a change is made in SpaceClaim, the model state is briefly. This signals to downstream cells. It allows users to perform a refresh. Any CAD parameters that have been promoted to design parameters in.

The Stop operation will appear only when the DesignModeler application's editor is open. The operation. The Refresh command will force the DesignModeler application to refresh its upstream input data. The Refresh menu item is not applicable when there are no upstream changes to. When a change is made in SpaceClaim, the model state is briefly changed. This signals to downstream cells that their. The Reset option will delete any geometry files associated with the cell and clear its contents.

The Rename operation refers to renaming the geometry cell rather than the geometry system of which. If you rename the geometry system double-click on the name beneath it , this is reflected.

Displays the Properties pane. The item should not appear if the Properties pane is already visible. Launches the quick help dialog. This is the same help dialog that appears when clicking the blue triangle. Each geometry cell contains a list of import preferences.

These preferences should appear in the properties. When a geometry cell is created,. The import preferences listed for that cell in the property view will be used when. If the source file is CAD, then those preferences are used to. The DesignModeler application will continue to display the import preferences in its Import and Attach.

You are permitted to alter import preferences. It will not. The Mechanical application will also display the geometry import preferences in its user interface,. In this case, changes to the preferences should be applied in. The Project files pane will display a list of files used in the project. For geometry, files are listed from. Note that files used in the agdb files may not appear until the agdb has been opened in the Design-.

Files registered by the DesignModeler application will display the generic gray geometry icon. Missing files will appear in red text. They can be recovered using the context menu option to repair. After repairing a missing geometry file, you will see the properties of the geometry cell change.

A missing file will not necessarily impact the state of the geometry cell. In general, any system with a geometry cell should have the ability to share or provide. Changes made to one cell immediately affect the other because.

Shares-With connections are denoted by a square connector. Changes to the upstream. Provides-To connections are denoted by a. The geometry cell can establish a Shares-With connection to any other geometry cell in the project by.

A geometry cell may share its data with any number of. The geometry cell can provide data to downstream systems with a Provides-To link.

Those systems that. It can. DesignModeler application. If any other file type is present in the geometry cell, then it must be. This connection. This connection is. If you have performed real geometry conversion in FE Modeler, then the. Otherwise, the file type. The DesignModeler application's editor should be launched using the license specified in the geometry. For more.

If you edit a model in the DesignModeler. This temporary save also occurs when an update is performed in the project schematic, such as when. Geometry parameter publishing behaves differently depending on which application is publishing the. Once a parameter is published, a. Selecting the parameter bar will. Additionally, you may continue to edit design parameter values in the DesignModeler application after. This behavior is different than most other applications,.

Any design parameter created in DesignModeler will immediately. If an agdb file is selected as a source geometry file and has not yet been opened, its parameters will. When parameters known as group dimensions in SpaceClaim are created, deleted, or renamed, the. Modeler application but not published. When the Publish All Parameters property is set to Yes, all.

CAD files that are imported by the Mechanical application are published by you while in the Mechanical. The Mechanical application will publish geometry parameters as well, but it only if the geometry source.

DesignModeler application nor display them in its Details View. Publishing of the DesignModeler. The CAD parameter values will be readonly.

Typically changing a parameter in the DesignModeler application will mark its state as modified, setting. The parameter change will immediately. Instead, those applications that are affected by the change will set their cell state to Refresh. Upon regaining. Choosing no, will not update parameters in the. DesignModeler application's editor, but the cell state in the schematic will remain as Refresh Required.

You may choose. When the parameter filter is changed and the source file remains unchanged, all previously promoted. This allows.

Note in the picture below that the first three geometry parameters are dimensionless while the fourth. Since the project schematic may have many systems, each with their own geometry, it is likely a user.

Therefore, several modeling windows may be. The windows operate independently of each other. To distinguish between them, the. This name will also be displayed in the feature Tree Outline p. Changes made to the system name or letter assignment in the project schematic will be immediately.

By default the DesignModeler application will now inherit the unit from the project schematic. You can. If either of the first two check boxes are marked, then the.

DesignModeler application will no longer show the unit dialog in subsequent sessions. The two check. This check box is active only when the desired. Note: A sketch created with exactly cubic kilometers sides symmetric in all directions to the origin. This operation re-reads the latest upstream data. Upstream data could come from up to three sources:.

The Refresh Input option does not exist in SpaceClaim. If the project has never. Once the feature has been created in the DesignModeler. When you close the DesignModeler application, changes are automatically saved to the temporary file.

Data pane. Selecting the CAD Materials property will then display the materials from the imported. DesignModeler application only holds the materials — it will not publish them to Engineering Data until. In previous. The utility is accessible. Linux Installation Guide.

Windows Installation Guide. You can have multiple the DesignModeler application sessions running simultaneously, although the.

DesignModeler application does not support license sharing. One license will be checked out for each. The DesignModeler application has the ability to run under several license keys, some of which allow.

The above rule regarding multiple the DesignModeler. There are three license keys that the DesignModeler application can run with. DesignModeler : This runs just the DesignModeler application. Each DesignModeler application session. The same. This license type might allow multiple. Academic: This license is a generic type that will allow practically any application to run under a single.

The one license per the DesignModeler application. You can manipulate existing native CAD geometry directly without translation. Via plug-ins, the associative interface allows you to make parametric. With the understanding that all engineering simulation is based on geometry to represent the design,.

Workbench help. Following the feature name below is a link to systematic usage instructions. Planes can be transferred to the Mechanical. You can use individual keys and combination of keys on your computer keyboard to perform specific. Escape: equivalent to New Selection p.

F6: equivalent to Shaded Exterior and Edges p. F7: equivalent to Zoom to Fit p. Note: The hotkeys are active whenever the graphics window, tree outline, sketching toolboxes, or details. All features and tools available in the DesignModeler application are accessible via drop down menus. Units can only be set when creating a new DesignModeler application model. When running the. DesignModeler application in stand-alone mode, the Units preferences can be changed through the. The toolbar also reflects differences in file-management functionality.

When the DesignModeler application. The Refresh Input command forces the DesignModeler application to refresh upstream input data. Upstream input data can come from a Provides-To connection supplying data to the geometry cell or. For more information about upstream data, see Data Sharing and Data Transfer p. This option provides a quick way to load a different file into DesignModeler.

It is equivalent to closing. DesignModeler but without the saving that would happen here , clicking the right mouse button on. You should either select Save Project p. Then, once you choose a new file must end in the. This is done without closing and reopening the. The Save Project option stores the project with the. The Export option is used to export a model to the DesignModeler application. The original model name still presides over the DesignModeler application session.

Note that bodies. In those cases, all bodies are treated as if they are single body. Models edited in the DesignModeler application are stored in meters internally. Therefore, when you. The use input for the filename will be ignored.

Additionally, a limitation exists that when changing the export format type to Icepak Model. Starting in release You can import a model into the DesignModeler application that is currently open in a CAD session on. DesignModeler application, where it will appear as an attached feature in the feature Tree Outline p. Workbench, see the CAD Integration section of the product help. Some CAD sources are unitless. In those cases a Model Units property is provided to allow users to. By default the unit is set to the same units as the Design-.

Also in the Details View is the property Parameter Key. It is a string that helps you filter the CAD parameter. The default is "DS," meaning that only names prefixed or appended with "DS".

CAD parameters should be uniquely named. If duplicate parameter names exist, the Import External. Geometry File p. Additionally, it is not recommended to use spaces in CAD parameter names, since they cannot be used. If a parameter is read, but does not display with.

The DesignModeler application can process material properties for imported bodies by setting the. Material property to "yes. If the imported geometry contains material information, then it will be attached. Note that the corresponding CAD system must support material properties and have materials assigned.

The default. Once a model is attached, you can continue to edit it in your CAD program. To reflect changes made. CAD source, change the Refresh property to Yes.

These are the three choices for the Refresh property:. The refresh will be completed to reflect any changes once the Generate p. This allows you to. When creating a new Attach. Note: The Add Material option does not always apply.

The DesignModeler application will not add. In this case, the DesignModeler application will automatically. Note: When body suppression operations are needed in your model, it is best to perform them with. If the suppression of a body using. Their value is set in the Project Schematic and they determine what bodies will get imported to the.

Additional CAD. Surface thicknesses are automatically. You are still allowed to modify the thickness of a surface body, though if you do, then that. The Import External Geometry File option is used exclusively to import foreign models such as:. Imports can be applied at any time during your the DesignModeler application session. You do not. Note that some model types store their units, so no Model Units property will. The Import External Geometry File p.

When creating a new Import External. You can change. This allows you to do. Note that the Add Material option does not always apply. In this case, the DesignModeler application will automatically apply the "Add Frozen" material. For Import External Geometry File p.

The following table shows the expected body imports based on the composition of the part top row. It is assumed for this table that the body types. This processing becomes significant after handling the basic import options e. This property appears only when importing BladeGen models. With this property, you can specify how. If the value is zero, or if the number entered is greater than the number of.

This will cause the DesignModeler application to refresh the imported geometry the. Note that when you modify the Process property or change the CAD source, the Refresh is automatically. If a model imports into. Under certain system limitation circumstances,. Several options are available for the various types of geometry imported or attached to the Design-.

Modeler application. Some options are available only for specific CAD packages, while others apply to. Below is a description of the geometry options, followed by a chart. Imported line bodies. Default is Normal. If your. You should exercise caution when using this property. It is used for sewing neighboring.

Too small a value will leave many unwanted gaps,. Default is no. Property appears. Further details available. The default is yes. See Imported Sub-features for usage information. It is only shown if the. This field can have any number. If the filter is set to an empty string all applicable.

This means that they. The DesignModeler. Mechanical application. See Named Selection Manager. If the items pointed at by the named selection.

It is only. This field can have any number of. By default the filter is set to NS. If the filter is set to an empty. See Imported Sub-features for. This option allows. Spot welds are processed always. In the Import External Geometry File p. These imported sub-features cannot be directly edited, other than their name and possibly an option. That can only happen if no subsequent. Their names are derived from the CAD system name.

However, if there. DesignModeler application name is used and a warning is posted on the feature. You are free to change. Also note that if items pointed to by these sub-features do not exist after processing the Import External. If this effects all items in a sub-feature, then it might not get created at all. In the configuration 1, the electrode E1 of the capacitor element C1 is brought near to the electrical continuity portion 71 with the first insulating layer L1 provided therebetween.

Therefore, as shown by a broken line in Fig. In the configuration 1, the capacity value Cs is increased by an amount corresponding to the capacity Cx, as compared with a case in which the electrode E1 and the electrical continuity portion 71 are not capacitively coupled. Since the decrease in the thickness of the gate insulating layer L0 is limited, in the configuration 1, the area of the electrodes E1 and E2 is preferably increased. However, when the area of the capacitor element C1 is increased, there is the problem of limiting the achievement of higher-definition unit elements P.

On the other hand, in this embodiment, the electrical continuity portion 71 is disposed in the region opposite to the capacitor element C1 with the drive transistor Tdr provided therebetween. Therefore, the capacity Cx attached to the electrode E1 and the electron conducting part 71 is sufficiently decreased, as compared with the configuration 1.

Therefore, even if the area of the capacitor element C1 is not so much increased as in the configuration 1, the gate potential Vg the quantity of light of the light-emitting element E of the gate electrode of the drive transistor Tdr can be widely changed. In this embodiment, the electrical continuity portion 71 and the connecting portion 61 which are formed using the same layer as the power lines 15 are located on the negative side one of the sides of the corresponding power line 15 in the width direction of the drive transistor Tdr in the Y direction.

In this configuration, in the surface of the first insulating layer L1, a space can be sufficiently secured for forming the corresponding power line 15 on the positive side the other side of the corresponding power line 15 in the width direction of the drive transistor Tdr in the Y direction. There is thus the effect that the corresponding power line 15 can be widely formed to decrease the resistance.

In particular, in this embodiment, each of the power lines 15 is formed to overlap the capacitor elements C1, and thus the resistance of the power lines 15 is significantly decreased, as compared with a case in which each of the power lines 15 is formed to overlap only the source regions 31s of the drive transistors Tdr. The decrease in resistance suppresses a voltage drop in the plane of each power line 15, thereby decreasing variations in the power potential Vdd supplied to each unit element P and variations in quantity of light of each light-emitting element E due to the variations in the power potential Vdd.

For example, in a configuration in which the electrical continuity portion 71 and the connecting portion 61 are disposed in the space between the drive transistor Tdr and the capacitor element C1, the corresponding power line 15 is preferably formed to avoid the electrical continuity portion 71 and the connecting portion However, when the shape of the power lines 15 is complicated as described above, there is the problem of easily producing disconnection or failure in the power lines 15 for the reason of manufacturing technology.

However, in this embodiment, the space for each power line 15 is secured on the side opposite to the electrical continuity portion 71 and the connecting portion 61 with the drive transistor Tdr provided therebetween. Therefore, as illustrated in Fig.

As a result, the disconnection or failure of the power lines 15 is suppressed, thereby improving the yield of the light-emitting device D according to this embodiment. Only from the viewpoint of reduction in the resistance of the power lines 15, each of the power lines 15 may be formed to overlap not only the drive transistor Tdr and the capacitor element C1 but also the selection transistor Tsl and the initialization transistor Tint referred to as a "configuration 2" hereinafter.

However, the configuration 2 has the problem of easily producing dullness in the waveform of the selection signal Sa due to capacity coupling between the selection transistor Ts1 or the corresponding selection line 11 and the corresponding power line 15 i. Similarly, the capacity attached between the initialization transistor Tint or the corresponding initialization line 12 and the corresponding power line 15 may cause dullness in the waveform of the initialization signal Sb.

Therefore, the configuration 2 has the problem of delaying switching of the selection transistor Tsl and the initialization transistor Tint.

However, in this embodiment, each of the power lines 15 does not overlap the selection transistor Tsl or the corresponding selection line 11 and the initialization transistor Tint or the corresponding initialization line 12 in the vertical direction to the substrate Therefore, the capacity parasitic between the components and the corresponding power line 15 is decreased as compared with the configuration 2.

In this embodiment, consequently, dullness in the waveforms of the selection signal Sa and the initialization signal Sb are suppressed to permit high-speed operations of the selection transistor Tsl and the initialization transistor Tint. Next, the specific configuration of each unit element P according to a second embodiment of the invention will be descried. In the description below, a component common to the first embodiment is denoted by the same reference numeral, and the description thereof is appropriately omitted.

The semiconductor layer 32 is a substantially rectangular part constituting the drive transistor Tdr. The semiconductor layer 42 is formed on the positive side in the Y direction as seen from the semiconductor layer 32 and includes the substantially rectangular electrode E2 and an element part extending from the lower left portion of the electrode E2 in the X direction.

The element part functions as a semiconductor layer of the selection transistor Tsl. The semiconductor layer 45 constitutes the initialization transistor Tint and extends in the X direction in a region opposite to the semiconductor layer 32 with the semiconductor layer 42 provided therebetween.

The surface of the substrate 10 on which the above-mentioned components have been formed is covered with the gate insulating layer L0. Like in the first embodiment, the first data line part constitutes the corresponding data line 13 and extends in the Y direction in a region on the positive side in the X direction as seen from the intermediate conductor The initialization line 12 includes a first gate electrode and a second gate electrode which are branched from a portion extending in the X direction to the negative side in the Y direction and overlap the semiconductor layer In the semiconductor layer 45, the portion overlapping each of the first gate electrode and the second gate electrode severs as a channel region of the initialization transistor Tint.

Similarly, the selection line 11 includes a first gate electrode and a second gate electrode which are branched to the negative side in the Y direction from a portion extending in the X direction and overlap the element part of the semiconductor layer The first gate electrode and the second gate electrode are adjacent to each other with a space therebetween in the X direction.

In the element part , a portion overlapping each of the first gate electrode and the second gate electrode with the gate insulating layer L0 provided therebetween serves as a channel region of the selection transistor Tsl.

As described above, in this embodiment, each of the selection transistor Tsl and the initialization transistor Tint is a dual-gate structure thin-film transistor. The intermediate conductor 52 includes an electrode E1 constituting the capacitor element C1 and opposed to the electrode E2, a gate electrode continuing from the electrode E1 to the negative side in the Y direction, and a connecting portion projecting from a substantially central portion of the electrode E1 in the X direction to the positive side in the Y direction.

The gate electrode extends in the Y direction over the entire dimension of the semiconductor layer 32 in the Y direction so as to overlap the semiconductor layer Also, a region on the negative side in the X direction with the channel region 32c provided therebetween serves as a drain region 32d, and the opposite region serves as a source region 32s. The first relay wiring part constitutes wiring referred to as "relay wiring" hereinafter for electrically connecting the initialization transistor Tint and the drain region 32d of the drive transistor Tdr, and extends in the Y direction in a region on the negative side in the X direction as seen from the intermediate conductor Namely, in this embodiment, the intermediate conductor 52 is disposed in the space between the first data line part and the first relay wiring part The surface of the gate insulating layer L0 on which the above-descried components have been formed is covered with the first insulating layer L1 over the entire region thereof.

Like in the first embodiment, the second data line part is wiring constituting the corresponding data line 13 together with the first data line part Namely, the second data line part extends in the Y direction from the end a electrically conducted to the upper end a refer to Fig. The end b is electrically conducted to the lower end b refer to Fig.

In this embodiment, the second data line part is electrically conducted to the end of the element part through a contact hole Hb3 passing through the first insulating layer L1 and the gate insulating layer L0. Namely, the selection transistor Tsl is electrically connected to the corresponding data line 13 through the contact hole Hb3. The connecting portion 62 is electrically conducted to the connecting portion the electrode E1 and the gate electrode through a contact hole Hb4 passing through the first insulating layer L1 and also to the end of the semiconductor layer 45 through a contact hole Hb5 passing through the first insulating layer L1 and the gate insulating layer L0.

Namely, the electrode E1 the gate electrode of the drive transistor Tdr of the capacitor element C1 is electrically connected to the initialization transistor Tint through the connecting portion Therefore, the connecting portion 62 does not overlap the first gate electrode and the second gate electrode In a configuration in which the first gate electrode or the second gate electrode overlaps the connecting portion 52, both are capacitively coupled.

Hence, the potential of the first gate electrode varies with variations in the potential of the connecting portion 62 i. As a result, the waveform of the initialization signal Sb may become dull, resulting in a delay of the operation of the initialization transistor Tint. On the other hand, in this embodiment, the connecting portion 62 is formed so as not to overlap the first gate electrode and the second gate electrode , and thus capacity coupling between the connecting portion 62 and the first and second gate electrodes and is suppressed.

Therefore, the influence of a variation in the potential of the connecting portion 62 on the initialization transistor Tint is decreased, resulting in the high-speed operation of the initialization transistor Tint. In the above-described configuration in which the initialization transistor Tint is conduced to the electrode E1 of the capacitor element C1 through the connecting portion 62, the sufficient channel lengths of the selection transistor Tsl and the initialization transistor Tint can be secured.

Therefore, it is possible to suppress current leakage in the selection transistor Ts1 and the initialization transistor Tint, in comparison to a configuration in which the channel lengths are limited. Since the selection transistor Tsl and the initialization transistor Tint are connected to the gate electrode of the drive transistor Tdr, variation in the potential of the gate electrode during the drive period is suppressed by a decrease in current leakage in each of the transistors.

Therefore, in this embodiment, the quantity of light of the light-emitting element E can be precisely maintained at a desired value. Like the electrical continuity portion 71 of the first embodiment, the electrical continuity portion 72 shown in Fig. The electrical continuity portion 72 has a shape substantially L-shaped including a portion extending in the Y direction and a portion located opposite to the capacitor element C1 with the drive transistor Tdr provided therebetween, both portions being connected to each other.

The portion overlaps the end a refer to Fig. The portion is electrically conducted to the upper end a through a contact hole Hb6 passing through the first insulating layer L1. In the first insulating layer L1, a plurality two in this embodiment of contact holes Hb7 is formed in a region overlapping the drain region 32d so as to pass through the first insulating layer L1 and the gate insulating layer L0.

These contact holes Hb7 are arrayed in the direction of extension of the gate electrode along the Y direction i. The portion of the electrical continuity portion 72 is electrically conducted to the drain region 32d through the contact holes Hb7. The second relay wiring part is electrically conducted to the end through a contact hole Hb8 passing through the first insulating layer L1 and the gate insulating layer L0 and also to the lower end b of the first relay wiring part through a contact hole Hb9 passing through the first insulating layer L1.

As described above, the initialization transistor Tint is electrically connected to the drain region 32d furthermore, the electrical continuity portion 72 of the drive transistor Tdr through the relay wiring 17 including the first relay wiring part and the second relay wiring part The contact holes Hb10 are arrayed in the direction of extension of the gate electrode along the Y direction.

Each of the power lines 15 second portion is electrically conducted to the source region 32s through the contact holes Hb The first portion extends in the X direction so as to pass through the spaces between the respective second data line parts and the spaces between the second relay wiring parts and the electrical continuity portions 72 portion Therefore, as shown in Figs. In addition, each of the second portions extends in the Y direction so as to pass through the spaces between the electrical continuity portions 72 portions and the second data line parts and the spaces between the connecting portions 62 and the second data line parts The surface of the first insulating layer L1 on which the above-descried components have been formed is covered with the second insulating layer L2 over the entire region.

Like in the first embodiment, the portion of the electrical continuity portion 72 is electrically conducted to the first electrode 21 through a contact hole Hb 11 passing through the second insulating layer L2. As described above, in this embodiment, the electrical continuity portion 72 is disposed opposite to the capacitor element C1 with the drive transistor Tdr provided therebetween.

Therefore, like in the first embodiment, a capacity the capacity Cx shown in Fig. Also, each of the power lines 15 is formed so as not to overlap the selection transistors Tsl and the initialization transistors Tint, and thus, like in the first embodiment, the selection transistor Tsl and the initialization transistor Tint can be operated at a high speed with predetermined timing.

In this embodiment, the electrical continuity portion 72, the connecting portion 62, and the second relay wiring part are formed using the same layer as the power lines Also, the electrical continuity portion 72 is disposed on the negative side i. Therefore, it is possible to secure a sufficient space between the electrical continuity portion 72 and the connecting portion 62 the second relay wiring part , for forming the first portion of the corresponding power line 15, which extends in the X direction.

Furthermore, the space overlapping the capacitor element C1 in the vertical direction to the substrate 1 can be used for forming the corresponding power line Therefore, like in the first embodiment, the power lines the first portions can be widely formed to exhibit the effect of decreasing the resistance.

In addition, in this embodiment, each second portion extending in the Y direction connects the respective first portions , thereby further decreasing the resistance of the power lines 15 as compared with a case in which each of the power lines 15 includes only the first portion Furthermore, the first portion of each power line 15 is formed in a simple tripe shape, thereby suppressing the disconnection or failure of the power lines 15 as compared with a configuration in which the power lines 15 are formed in a complicated shape, avoiding the components the electrical continuity portions 72 and the connecting portions 62 formed using the same layer as the power lines In this embodiment, in each of the unit elements P, the data line 13 extends along the edge on the positive side in the X direction, and the relay wiring 17 extends along the edge on the negative side in the X direction.

In this configuration, for example, attention is given to one unit element P1 and the other unit element P2 adjacent thereto on the negative side in the X direction, as shown in Fig. The relay wiring 17 for the unit element P1 is interposed between the capacitor element C1 of the unit element P1 and the data line corresponding to the unit element P2.

Therefore, a capacity parasitic between the capacitor element C1 of the unit element P1 and the data line corresponding to the unit element P2 is decreased, as compared with the configuration of the first embodiment in which the capacitor element C1 of one unit element P comes close to the data line 13 corresponding to the unit element P adjacent thereto.

In this configuration, the influence of a variation in potential of the data line 13 corresponding to the unit element P2 on the capacitor element C1 of the unit element P1 is decreased.

As a result, the gate potential Vg of the drive transistor Tdr of each unit element P and the quantity of light of each light-emitting element E according to the gate potential Vg can be precisely set to desired values. Next, a modified example of the above-described second embodiment will be described. In the second embodiment, the gate electrode of the drive transistor Tdr extends in the Y direction.

However, in the modified example, as shown in Fig. In the modified example, the same components as in the second embodiment are denoted by the same reference numerals, and the description thereof is appropriately omitted.

The gate electrode extends over the whole size of the gate insulating layer L0 in the X direction. In the semiconductor layer 32, a region opposed to the gate electrode with the gate insulating layer L0 provided therebetween serves as a channel region 32c of the drive transistor Tdr. Also, a region on the electrode E1 side with the channel region 32c provided therebetween serves as a source region 32s, and the opposite region servers as a drain region 32d.

The corresponding power line 15 is electrically conducted to the source region 32s through a plurality of contact holes Hb10 arrayed in the X direction along the gate electrode As described above, the gate electrode of the drive transistor Tdr extends in the X direction, and thus the drain region 32d is formed in an elongated shape along the X direction in the region opposite to the capacitor element C1 with the gate electrode In this configuration, a portion the portion of the first embodiment extending in the Y direction along the drive transistor Tdr need not be formed in the electrical continuity portion Therefore, it is understood from comparison between Figs.

Furthermore, in the modified example, the contact holes Hb7, the contact holes Hb6 portion of conduction between the relay wiring 17 and the electrical continuity portion 72 , and the contact holes Hb1 portion of conduction between the first and second data line parts and are linearly arrayed along the X direction. Therefore, the width of the first portion stripe shape linearly extending in the X direction can be sufficiently secured, as compared with a configuration in which the positions of the contact holes Hb7, Hb6, and Hbl deviate in the Y direction.

In the second embodiment, the gate electrode extends in the direction perpendicular to the first portion of each power line Thus, as the length of the gate electrode However, in the modified example, the gate electrode extends in parallel to the first portion , and thus the length of the gate electrode can be increased without decreasing the width of the first portion Since the length of the gate electrode corresponds to the channel width of the drive transistor Tdr, in the modified example, the channel width of the drive transistor Tdr can be increased while maintaining the width of the first portion In this way, the drive transistor Tdr having a wider channel width has the advantage that the quantity of the current supplied to each light-emitting element E through the drive transistor Tdr can be sufficiently secured.

Next, the specific configuration of a unit element P according to a third embodiment of the invention will be described. The shape of the semiconductor layer 33 is the same as the semiconductor layer 31 of the first embodiment.

The semiconductor layer 43 includes a substantially rectangular electrode E2 constituting the capacitor element C1 and an element part connected to the electrode E2. The element part functions as a semiconductor layer of the selection transistor Tsl and includes a portion a extending from the lower right portion of the electrode E2 to the positive side in the Y direction, a portion b extending from the portion a to the positive side in the X direction, and a portion c extending from the end of the portion b to the negative side in the Y direction.

The shapes of the intermediate conductors 53 and the initialization lines 12 and the relations to other components are the same as the intermediate conductors 51 and the initialization lines 12 of the first embodiment. Each of the selection lines 11 extends in the X direction to overlap the element parts of the semiconductor layers 43 in the vertical direction to the substrate In each of the portions a and c of the element part , a portion overlapping the corresponding selection line 11 serves as a channel region of the selection transistor Ts1.

Namely, in this embodiment, the selection transistor Tsl has a dual gate structure. The shape of the connecting portions 63 and relations to other components are the same as the connecting portions 61 of the first embodiment.

Each of the data lines 13 is wiring extending in the Y direction in a region on the positive side in the X direction as seen from the drive transistor Tdr and the capacitor element C1 and is electrically conducted to the element part portion c of the semiconductor layer 43 through a contact hole Hc1.

The electrical continuity portion 73 is a substantially rectangular part formed in a region opposite to the capacitor element C1 with the drive transistor Tdr provided therebetween and is electrically conducted to the semiconductor layer 33 drain region of the drive transistor Tdr through a contact hole Hc2. As shown in Figs, 22 and 23 , in this embodiment, each of the power lines 15 extends in the Y direction to overlap the drive transistor Tdr and the capacitor element C1 of each unit element P in the vertical direction to the substrate Like in the first embodiment, each of the power lines 15 is electrically conducted to the semiconductor layer 33 source region of the drive transistor Tdr through contact holes Ha4.

In this embodiment, as descried in the first embodiment with reference to Fig. In this configuration, like in the first embodiment, the influence of a variation in potential of the data line 13 corresponding to the unit element P2 on the potential of the capacitor element C1 of the unit element P1 can be decreased.

In this embodiment, the electrical continuity portion 73 is disposed opposite to the capacitor element C1 with the drive transistor Tdr provided therebetween.

Like in the first embodiment, therefore, capacity coupling the parasitic capacity Cx shown in Fig. Therefore, it is possible to decrease the capacity of the capacitor element C1 furthermore, decreasing the area.

In the first and second embodiments, the first data line part and the second data line part are connected together to form each data line However, in this embodiment, each of the data lines 13 includes a single conductor film, thereby exhibiting the advantage of decreasing the resistance of the data lines 13 and disconnection thereof in comparison to the first and second embodiments.

There are various modifications of the above-descried embodiments. Examples of modifications include the following. The modifications below may be appropriately combined.

In each of the above embodiments, the electric configuration of each unit element P may be appropriately changed. Examples of the unit element P used in the invention are given below. The emission control transistor Tcnt includes a switching element for controlling the electric connection between the drain electrode of the drive transistor Tdr and the first electrode 21 of the light-emitting element E according to an emission control signal Sc supplied to a corresponding emission control line When the emission control transistor Tcnt is turned on, a current path extending from the corresponding power line 15 to the light-emitting element E is formed to permit light emission of the light-emitting element E.

While when the emission control transistor Tcnt is turned off, the path is cut off to inhibit the light emission of the light-emitting element E.

  Primary Sidebar

CO2 is a vitally important factor for the growth of yeast and other anaerobic, which could be one major reason causing the foodstuff deterioration in a oxygen-free environment.

The growth of yeast and other anaerobic stimulated by the presence of CO2 and O2-free condition will speed up the foodstuff deterioration.

In the case of preserving high moisture the elimination of O2 and CO2 is very critical. Water Activity, Aw, is also an important factor of affecting the growth of microbe.

It is also a major concern in the food preservation, especially in the aspect of mold prevention. Preservatives-Microbe AttackMicrobes are all around us, in the air, on our hands and in food from the farm.

Usually, they are in small enough numbers so that they do not cause any harm. However, a single bacterium, given suitable conditions of warmth, air and moisture, can grow to many millions in just a few hours. Microbes will grow quickly when they are in the right conditions; warm, moist, correct pH and a supply of food to grow on.

Preservation tries to alter the conditions to slow or stop the microbe growth. When this is not possible, or convenient, preservatives may be added to stop the food from going 'off'. Different microbes are sensitive to different types of preservatives and so a wide range of preservatives are in use today. Food PreservativesMost preservatives today are actually fungistatic in their action. That means they prevent the growth of fungi, moulds and yeasts.

They have little effect on bacteria but using a combination of preservatives, with antibacterial properties, can give good all round protection. Food preservatives help to control the spread of bacteria which can cause life threatening illnesses such as salmonellosis or botulism. Preservatives are commonly used in these foods: low fat spreads cheeses, margarine, mayonnaise and dressings bakery products dried fruit preparations Are Preservatives Safe?

Food preservatives have to be safe for human consumption. They can stop the food-decay microbes from growing but must not not harm the cells of the human body. There are also maximum levels of preservatives allowed, so that high concentrations of preservatives in food are not permitted.

There is much concern about the increasing incidence of the phenomenon of resistance of bacteria to antibiotics. Over the decades in which preservatives have been used, there has been no need to increase the dosage to maintain their effectiveness.

This suggests that the use of these substances has not resulted in the development of bacteria that are resistant to preservatives. BHA is used to keep foods from going rancid and is often added to high-fat foods, like butter, meat and baked goods, as well as cereals, snack foods, dehydrated potatoes, beer and chewing gum. BHT keeps foods from changing flavor and color and helps prevent them from developing an odor. Cereals, shortenings and foods high in fat and oils often contain BHT.

Although the results have been inconclusive so far, large doses of BHA and BHT have been shown to promote the growth of tumors in lab animalsSodium NitrateSodium nitrate is a salt used as a preservative in many cured or smoked meats, such as bacon, jerky, deli meats and smoked salmon. Sodium nitrate helps reduce color changes and prevents botulism, a rare foodborne illness caused by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum.

Although sodium nitrate is generally recognized as safe, the U. Environmental Protection Agency notes that exposure to high levels of sodium nitrate has been linked to increased incidences of cancer in adults and may be related to brain tumors, leukemia and nose and throat tumors in some children. SulfitesSulfites have been used during wine making for centuries, and they are also used as an antimicrobial agent and to prevent discoloration and browning in food products.

Possible sources of sulfites include beer, cocktail mixes, processed baked goods, pickles, olives, salad dressing, powdered sugar, lobster, shrimp scallops, canned calms, fruit fillings, fruit juices and potatoes. Approximately 1 in individuals is sensitive to the preservative, although adverse reactions in nonasthmatics are extremely rare, according to the University of Florida. Sodium BenzoateSodium benzoate inhibits the growth of bacteria, mold and yeast in acidic conditions.

The preservative is commonly used in carbonated beverages, fruit juices, pickles, salsa and dip. According to Don Schaffner, a professor of food science at Rutgers University in New Jersey, sodium benzoate poses no health dangers when consumed in minimal amounts, and the concentrations used in food are low enough that they pose no risk.

Natural flavoring can constitute just about any substance derived from a natural source — including animal excretions. You may quickly overlook these ingredients due to their impossible-to-pronounce names, but you should know that these chemicals also make an appearance in things you would never eat — like jet fuel. If you've ever cleaned with an ammonia cleaner you know the smell alone can be vomit-inducing, so why are we eating it? In fact most cleaners suggest you don't breath it in, but mix it with some yeast and call it a roll and we're all for it.

Supposedly it is completely safe in low levels. You may also see this ingredient in your garden fertilizer. We'll never look at cookie dough ice cream the same way again. L-cysteine is made from duck feathers or human hair and considered natural protein since it can be digested as an amino acid. It is used in several products from bread to, yep, you guessed it, cookie dough.

Unfortunately, or fortunately, depending on who you ask, we don't think that's the case. It is often used in sunscreen as it can absorb UV rays. You'll also find it in milk, salad dressings, frosting, and coffee creamer to name a few, leaving your internal organs completely protected against UV exposure. It prevents food from going rancid likely at the expense of your internal organs. Due to a recent study that found it causes cancer in laboratory animals, the U.

You'll also find it in cosmetics, jet fuel, rubber and embalming fluid. Next time you see it on the ingredients label, ask yourself if you'd be willing to take a chug of fuel or, say, embalming fluid. Then, you should probably buy something else. It prevents bacteria growth and helps meat retain its red color. In addition, it adds a good flavor to salty meats like bacon. Before you order a BLT, you should know that it is also used in metal coatings, chemical reacting agents for photography and in textile dyes.

It is also found in food products such as margarine and fast food hamburgers. Sodium benzoate is also used in fireworks and makes a great rocket fuel. Happy 4th of July! Even very small doses can be harmful, and it has been banned in Canada, Europe and even China but not the U. Your food label may not include the term but beware of anything that includes 'enriched flour,' which most likely contains this toxic substance.

While the U. However the substance itself doesn't come from a fruit; it comes from a beaver. It is an excretion from their perineal glands. The dictionary makes it seem the most appetizing by defining it as a bitter strong-smelling creamy orange-brown substance. Strawberry milkshake anyone? The thing is, no one is really sure what their impact is, but these chemicals are likely doing more harm than good. In fact some have been shown to actually disrupt your metabolism making it more difficult to lose weight and easier to gain it.

They can also cause headaches, dizziness and some studies link them to cancer. Skip the fake stuff and rely on small amounts of natural sugar or fresh fruit to feed your sweet tooth. Note The rates of cancer, childhood illness and auto-immune diseases are on the rise, and it just may be our food supply that is to blame.

You can avoid these and other food preservatives by checking labels for ingredients you've never heard of. While one small serving may not cause any damage, these chemicals can remain in your body for years, meaning toxic levels could build up over time. The other so-called natural additives are just plain gross. Eating fresh, organic food never seemed better. It is the sodiumsaltof dehydroacetic acid.

It has E number'E'. It is a mixture of sodium acetate and acetic acid but is also described as the sodium acid salt of acetic acid.

It occurs as a mineral niter and is a natural solid source of nitrogen. This salt is also known as Chile saltpeter or Peru saltpeter due to the large deposits found in each country to distinguish it from ordinary saltpeter, potassium nitrate. It is a strong oxidizer and may accelerate the combustion of other materials. It is a white to slight yellowish crystalline powder that is very soluble in water and is hygroscopic. This colourless salt has a wide range of uses.

It has the chemical formula C6H8O2. It is a colourless solid that is slightly soluble in water and sublimes readily. Its primary use is as a food preservative E number Potassium sorbate is effective in a variety of applications including food, wine, and personal care products. It is a gas at standard temperature and pressure and exists in Earth's atmosphere in this state, as a trace gas at a concentration of 0.

It is the sodium salt of benzoic acid and exists in this form when dissolved in water. It can be produced by reacting sodium hydroxide with benzoic acid. Search this site. Best Offers for mask scarf autumn winter brands and get free shipping. Best Price High quality cape coat poncho ideas and get free shipping.

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Calculation expression in per step is as follows:. Particularly, will carry out normalization at the difference diff multiplication by constants cont that step S13 obtains.

Normalized difference multiply by the function that experience is obtained, and is added to quantization parameter or deducts from quantization parameter. End value is used as quantization parameter. Value corresponding to this quantization parameter value is selected from the quantization table that 25 kinds of values are arranged, as the quantizer ratio of next frame. Digital signal conversion method and digital signal transfer unit according to the 8th embodiment of the present invention are described now.

Although the DV form is converted into mpeg format in the foregoing embodiments, in the following embodiments, mpeg format is converted into the DV form. With reference to Figure 18, the traditional device that is used for mpeg format is converted to the DV form is described at first.

Digital video signal conversion equipment shown in Figure is made of mpeg decoder 70 and DV encoder In mpeg decoder 70, provide the parser 71 of the bit stream of MPEG2 video data, detection will offer length-changeable decoding VLD part 72 by the quantization DCT coefficient of variable length code coding according to the head of the bit stream of the quantization DCT coefficient of MPEG2 form framing.

Equally, parser 71 is extracted motion vector mv , and the motion vector that extracts is offered motion compensation MC part Re-quantization part 73 is carried out re-quantization by being multiply by the quantization step that uses in the coding side by the quantization DCT coefficient of length-changeable decoding part 72 decodings. Under the situation of I picture, pixel value is its actual pixel value.

Yet under the situation of P picture and B picture, pixel value is the difference between the corresponding pixel value.

Motion compensation portion 77 is stored in the image information among two frame memory FM of frame memory FM part 76 and is extracted by parser 71 by use motion vector mv produces motion compensation output, and this motion compensation output is offered adder Adder 75 is exported the difference that is added to from inverse discrete cosine transform part 74 with motion compensation, the decoded pictures data is offered discrete cosine transform DCT part 81 and the frame memory part 76 of DV encoder In DV encoder 80, the 81 pairs of decoded pictures data of discrete cosine transform part are carried out DCT and are handled, so that once more the decoded pictures data are converted to the data of orthogonal transform domain, that is, and the DCT coefficient, and this DCT coefficient offered quantification Q part Quantized segment 82 is considered visual characteristics, comes quantization DCT coefficient by using matrix table, and quantized result is offered variable length code VLC part 83 as the I picture of DV form.

Variable length code part 83 is handled the I picture that compresses the DV form by carrying out variable length code, and the I picture that compresses is offered framing part Framing part 84 will have been carried out the DV formatted data framing that variable length code is handled, and the bit stream of output DV video data.

Simultaneously, need a large amount of calculating usually, thereby the problem of bringing is that the format conversion of aforesaid video data can not be carried out efficiently such as the orthogonal transform of discrete cosine transform DCT and its inverse transformation.

Because mistake is accumulated with the increase of amount of calculation, Signal Degrade also is a problem. Like this, in order to address these problems, will digital video signal conversion equipment according to the 8th embodiment of the present invention be described with reference to Figure In digital signal transfer unit shown in Figure 19, the above-mentioned MPEG vision signal that meets mpeg format is imported as first digital signal, and the DV signal is exported as second digital signal.

Parser references are extracted the movable information such as the image of motion vector mv and quantizer ratio as the head of the MPEG vision signal of the digital signal of first form. Motion vector mv is sent to motion compensation MC part , and wherein motion compensation is carried out. The bit stream of pairs of MPEG vision signals of length-changeable decoding VLD part carries out length-changeable decoding, and necessary information is extracted from this MPEG vision signal by parser Then, the MPEG vision signal by re-quantization part re-quantizations is transfused to adder Motion compensated result from the motion vector mv of parser also is input to this adder from motion compensation portion Be fed to conversion of signals part from the output of adder , it will be described later.

This output also is input to motion compensation portion by frame memory To shuffle by shuffling part by the vision signal that conversion of signals part is carried out the signal conversion processes that needs, be sent to buffer and classified part then. The vision signal of delivering to buffer is sent to quantification Q part , is quantized by this quantized segment Then, this vision signal is by variable length codes of variable length code VLC part.

In addition, this vision signal is by framing part framing, as the bit stream output of DV vision signal. On the other hand, pairs of classified parts are by shuffling the vision signal classification that part is shuffled, and give evaluation portion with sorting result as classified information. For this structure, owing to can determine based on the data amount information that is included in as in the MPEG vision signal of the vision signal input of first form, be used for determining that the processing of data volume of the vision signal of second form that produced by conversion of signals can be simplified as the data volume of the DV vision signal of the vision signal of second form output.

It is MPEG1 vision signal and another is the situation of MPEG2 vision signal that above-mentioned the 7th and the 8th embodiment also can be applied to one of the digital signal of first form and digital signal of second form. With reference now to digital signal conversion method and the digital signal transfer unit of Figure 20 description according to the 9th embodiment of the present invention.

Suppose that these data are data of pal mode. Thereby, needn't carry out the conversion of resolution processing for Y-signal or C signal. The formation of frame memory FM part makes it be used as two forecast memories. As what will be described in detail later, pairs of I picture and P pictures by length-changeable decoding part and re-quantization part partial decoding of h of inverse discrete cosine transform part carry out the inverse discrete cosine transform processing.

Motion compensation portion is exported based on inverse discrete cosine transform and is produced motion compensation output. Discrete cosine transform is carried out in pairs of motion compensation outputs of discrete cosine transform part. Adder will be added to P picture and the B picture by length-changeable decoding part and re-quantization part partial decoding of h from the motion compensation output of discrete cosine transform part Hereinafter whole computing will be described.

At first, parser is with reference to the head of the MPEG2 video data of importing as bit stream, and the quantization DCT coefficient that will meet MPEG2 form framing reverts to variable-length codes, and this variable-length codes is offered length-changeable decoding part Equally, parser is extracted motion vector mv, and the motion vector that extracts is offered motion compensation portion The quantization DCT coefficient that pairs of length-changeable decoding parts revert to variable-length codes carries out length-changeable decoding, and the result of length-changeable decoding is offered re-quantization part Re-quantization part is carried out re-quantization and is handled by being multiply by the quantization step that uses in the coding side by the quantization DCT coefficient of length-changeable decoding part decodings.

The DCT coefficient that is obtained by length-changeable decoding part and re-quantization part is provided for adder as output, and it is not reverted to pixel data by inverse discrete cosine transform, that is, and and as the partial decoding of h data. Adder also is provided with the motion compensation output from motion compensation portion , and it is by orthogonal transforms of discrete cosine transform part.

Then, adder is added to motion compensation output the data of partial decoding of h in orthogonal transform domain. Adder offers DV encoder with addition output, also offers inverse discrete cosine transform part I picture in pairs of addition outputs of inverse discrete cosine transform part or P picture are carried out inverse discrete cosine transform and are handled, thereby produce the data of spatial domain.

The data of this spatial domain are the reference picture data of using for motion compensation. Should be stored in the frame memory part for the reference picture data that motion compensation is used. Motion compensation portion produces motion compensation output by the motion vector mv that use is stored in the reference picture data in the frame memory part and is extracted by parser , and this motion compensation output is offered discrete cosine transform part Discrete cosine transform part will return to aforesaid orthogonal transform domain in the motion compensation output that spatial domain is handled, and then this motion compensation output be offered adder Adder will be added to the DCT coefficient from the differential signal of the P of the partial decoding of h of re-quantization part and B picture from the DCT coefficient that the motion compensation of discrete cosine transform part is exported.

Then, the data that are used as at the partial decoding of h of orthogonal transform domain from the addition of adder output offer DV encoder and inverse discrete cosine transform part Because the I picture from the partial decoding of h of re-quantization part is the in-frame encoding picture signal, do not need the motion compensation addition to handle.

The I picture of partial decoding of h is offered inverse discrete cosine transform part by former state, also offers DV encoder DV encoder comprises quantification Q part , variable length code VLC part and framing part Quantized segment quantizes the decoding output from the I picture in the orthogonal transform domain of mpeg decoder , P picture and B picture, and promptly the DCT coefficient offers variable length code part with the DCT coefficient that quantizes.

The DCT coefficient of pairs of quantifications of variable length code part carries out variable length code to be handled, and coded data is offered framing part By this way, when the MPEG2 video data that will be converted is the I picture, mpeg decoder makes length-changeable decoding part and re-quantization part partial decoding of h MPEG2 video datas to orthogonal transform domain, and DV encoder makes quantized segment and variable length code part part coding video frequency datas.

On the other hand, when the MPEG2 video data that will be converted is P picture or B picture, only being useful on the processing that produces motion compensation output carries out in spatial domain by using inverse discrete cosine transform part , be used to constitute except as being undertaken by using discrete cosine transform part at discrete cosine transform domain, as mentioned above by the processing of the frame of the differential signal of the P picture of length-changeable decoding part and re-quantization part partial decoding of h or B picture.

After this, carry out the part coding by DV encoder Especially, under the situation of P picture, the macro block in the position of being indicated by motion vector mv by from the I picture of being handled by inverse discrete cosine transform part inverse discrete cosine transforms, extracts by the motion compensation process of motion compensation portion Carry out discrete cosine transform by pairs of these macro blocks of discrete cosine transform part and handle, be added to the differential signal of the DCT coefficient of P picture by adder 25 again as discrete cosine transform domain.

This processing is based on, and the result of the discrete cosine transform that the addition result of spatial domain is carried out is equivalent to the result of the data addition of being handled by discrete cosine transform.

This result is encoded by DV encoder parts. Simultaneously, as the reference of next B picture, carry out inverse discrete cosine transform by pairs of addition outputs from adder of inverse discrete cosine transform part, result's data are stored in the frame memory part Under the situation of B picture, the macro block in the position of being indicated by motion vector mv is extracted from the P picture of being handled by inverse discrete cosine transform part inverse discrete cosine transforms.

Then, carry out discrete cosine transform by pairs of these macro blocks of discrete cosine transform part and handle, in discrete cosine transform domain, be added on it as the DCT coefficient of the B picture of differential signal.

Under two-way situation, from two reference frames, extract macro block, its mean value is used. Its result is encoded by DV encoder parts. Because the B picture does not become reference frame, does not need to carry out inverse discrete cosine transform by inverse discrete cosine transform part Handle for the I picture of decoding needs inverse discrete cosine transform IDCT and discrete cosine transform DCT traditionally, and only needs IDCT is for referencial use according to the digital video signal conversion equipment of the 9th above-mentioned embodiment.

The amount of calculation of supposing the amount of calculation of DCT and IDCT is equal substantially, and when weighting was omitted, per 15 frame MPEG2 data were expressed from the next under the situation of conventional art.

Under the situation of digital video signal conversion equipment shown in Figure 20, be expressed from the next. Like this, can significantly reduce amount of calculation. DCT represents amount of calculation in these equatioies. That is, in digital video signal conversion equipment shown in Figure 20, the data computation treating capacity that is used for the format conversion from the MPEG2 video data to the DV video data can be reduced significantly. With reference now to the digital video signal conversion equipment of Figure 21 description according to the of the present invention ten embodiment.

Thereby the structure of digital video signal conversion equipment shown in Figure 21 is, provides the conversion of signals part that is used to carry out above-mentioned conversion process between the mpeg decoder of Figure 20 and DV encoder This conversion of signals part is by using the transformation matrix that produces based on inverse orthogonal transformation matrix and orthogonal transform matrix, the DCT coefficient from the dct transform domain of mpeg decoder carried out conversion of resolution handle.

Described inverse orthogonal transformation matrix is corresponding to the orthogonal transform matrix that is used for the mpeg encoded data are carried out the DCT coding, and described orthogonal transform matrix is corresponding to the inverse orthogonal transformation matrix that is used to acquisition at the IDCT of the conversion of signals output signal of time domain coding.

The DCT coefficient as conversion of resolution output from this conversion of signals part is provided for DV encoder Be similar to the digital video signal conversion equipment of Figure 20, about the I picture, the digital video signal conversion equipment of the tenth embodiment only needs IDCT for referencial use, and IDCT and DCT handle and need traditionally.

That is, in digital video signal conversion equipment shown in Figure 21, the data computation treating capacity that is used for from high-resolution MPEG2 video data to the format conversion of DV video data also can be reduced significantly. Handle as the conversion of resolution of being undertaken, mainly described the conversion of resolution of reduction by conversion of signals part Specifically, usually,, can amplify resolution with any magnification ratio by high fdrequency component being added in the supplied with digital signal of frequency domain.

Above-mentioned processing also can be undertaken by software. If carry out predictive coding once more and do not carry out the conversion of resolution processing with identical resolution, when predictive coding, can use motion vector. Yet if resolution is converted, slewing distortion is changed. Thereby the motion vector that uses in predictive coding step more also is changed. Like this, when predictive coding step again, need estimated motion vector. Yet estimation of motion vectors needs the arithmetic processing amount.

In order to eliminate this problem, used digital signal transfer unit according to the 11 embodiment. With reference now to Figure 22, the 11 embodiment described, in the digital video signal conversion equipment of the 11 embodiment, the mpeg encoded data that meet mpeg format are transfused to, and are handled by the conversion of resolution as signal conversion processes, and the mpeg encoded signal of conversion of resolution is output.

This digital video signal conversion equipment has: decoded portion is used for using motion compensation MC to decode to the bit stream of the mpeg encoded data that detect compressed encoding with motion vector mv ; Conversion of resolution part is used for handling carrying out conversion of resolution from the decoding output of decoded portion ; With coded portion , be used for motion detection based on the motion vector mv of the data that are added to mpeg encoded, compressed encoding is handled and the bit stream of the video data encoder of output resolution ratio conversion to carrying out from the conversion output image of conversion of resolution part , as shown in figure The digital video signal conversion equipment that is made of these parts will be described below.

Certainly each member carries out the processing according to each step of digital signal conversion method of the present invention.

FM part is made of two frame memory FM, as forecast memory. IQ part is carried out re-quantization and is handled by being multiply by the quantization step that uses in the coding side by the quantization DCT coefficient of VLD part decodings. MC part is carried out motion compensation process by using the motion vector mv that is extracted by VLD part to the image information in two frame memories that are stored in FM part , and this motion compensation output is offered adder Adder will be added to the difference from IDCT part from the motion compensation output of MC part , thus the picture signal of output decoder.

The conversion of resolution that pairs of decoded image signal of conversion of resolution part needing to carry out is handled. Conversion output from conversion of resolution part is provided for coded portion Ratio conversion portion carries out the ratio conversion according to the conversion of resolution speed of being used by conversion of resolution part to the motion vector mv that is extracted by VLD part ME part is by using the ratio transitional information from ratio conversion portion , and search is from the close limit of the conversion output of conversion of resolution part , thus the optimum movement vector of the resolution of estimation conversion.

Use when carrying out motion compensation by ME part estimated movement vector by MC part The conversion output image that is used for the estimation of motion vector by ME part from conversion of resolution part is provided for adder Adder is calculated the reference picture described later and poor between the conversion output of conversion of resolution part , and this difference is offered DCT part About the I picture,, directly carry out the DCT arithmetical operation, and do not calculate the poor of interframe owing to carry out interframe encode.

VLC part is by using variable length code, and the DCT coefficient from the quantification of Q part is compressed. Buffer storage is memories, is used to keep the constant bit rate of coded data, and this coded data is compressed by the usefulness variable length codes of VLC part. From this buffer storage , the video data encoder of conversion of resolution is used as the bit stream output of constant bit rate.

Be provided for FM part as the image information of exporting from the addition of adder The image information that is stored in the FM part is used motion compensation process by MC part MC part is carried out motion compensation by using the optimum movement vector of being estimated by ME part to the image information that is stored in the FM part , will offer adder as the motion compensation output of reference picture. Adder is calculated poor between the conversion output picture of conversion of resolution part and the reference picture, this difference is offered DCT part , as mentioned above.

Finally, the video data encoder of conversion of resolution be used as bit stream with constant bit rate from the output of this digital video signal conversion equipment. In this digital video signal conversion equipment, when by ME part estimated motion vectors of coded portion , append to the motion vector of the vision signal macro block of initial compression, change in proportion according to the conversion of resolution speed in the conversion of resolution part by ratio conversion portion , based on ratio transitional information from ratio conversion portion , search is from the close limit of the conversion output picture of conversion of resolution part , so that be the motion-compensated estimation motion vector, the estimation of the motion vector when replacing lacking any information.

Like this, because amount of calculation in ME part can significantly be reduced, microminiaturization and the minimizing of conversion process time that can implement device. The 12 embodiment described now. In this embodiment, also adopted the digital video signal conversion equipment that is used for the MPEG vision signal is carried out conversion of resolution processing and output resolution ratio video signal converted.

This digital video signal conversion equipment has: decoded portion , be used for the mpeg encoded data of carrying out above-mentioned hybrid coding are handled by only carrying out prediction decoding with MC, and obtain the decoded data of orthogonal transform domain; Conversion of resolution part is used for handling carrying out conversion of resolution from the decoded data of the orthogonal transform domain of decoded portion ; With coded portion , be used for by the motion detection of use based on the motion vector information of the data of mpeg encoded, along with motion compensated prediction, carry out compressed encoding and handle, as shown in figure 23 exporting from the conversion of conversion of resolution part That is, in this digital video signal conversion equipment, the decoded data in DCT territory is carried out conversion of resolution handle, its conversion output is encoded.

Orthogonal transform and inverse orthogonal transformation such as DCT need a large amount of calculating usually. Thereby above-mentioned conversion of resolution can not be carried out effectively. Equally, owing to the increase along with amount of calculation, mistake is accumulated, and signal may deterioration. The function of conversion of resolution part is changed. Equally, for in the DCT territory from from the conversion DCT coefficient calculations activity described later activity of conversion of resolution part with by using this activity estimated motion vector, an activity calculating section is used to replace the ratio conversion portion of Figure Conversion of resolution part shown in Figure 23 provides addition output DCT coefficient , and this addition output DCT coefficient is to be obtained by the DCT coefficient that the quantization DCT coefficient of VLD part decodings obtains by re-quantization by being added to from the motion compensation output of MC part by adder by IQ part This conversion of resolution part is by using a transformation matrix, the DCT coefficient from the dct transform domain of decoded portion carried out conversion of resolution handle.

Described transformation matrix is based on corresponding to the inverse orthogonal transformation matrix of the orthogonal transform matrix of the DCT coding that is used for the data of mpeg encoded are carried out and produces corresponding to the orthogonal transform matrix of the inverse orthogonal transformation matrix of the IDCT coding that is used to the conversion of signals output signal that obtains time domain.

The DCT coefficient as conversion of resolution output from conversion of resolution part is provided for activity calculating section Activity calculating section is each macro block computer memory activity from the luminance component from the DCT coefficient of conversion of resolution part Particularly, the feature of the maximum value calculation image of the AC value by using the DCT coefficient. For example, still less the existence of high fdrequency component has indicated smoothed image.

ME part is estimated the optimum movement vector in the resolution of conversion based on the activity of being calculated by activity calculating section Particularly, ME part is based on the activity of being calculated by activity calculating section , and the motion vector mv that conversion is extracted by VLD is so that estimated motion vector mv offers MC part with estimated movement vector mv.

ME part is at the orthogonal transform domain estimated motion vector. This estimation at orthogonal transform domain will be described subsequently.

DCT coefficient from the conversion of resolution of conversion of resolution part is provided for adder by activity calculating section and ME part Adder is calculated described later with reference to DCT coefficient and poor between the DCT coefficient of the conversion of conversion of resolution part , and this difference is offered quantification Q part VLC part is by using variable length code, and compressed encoding offers buffer storage from the quantization DCT coefficient of Q part with the DCT coefficient that compresses.

Buffer storage keeps by the constant bit rate of VLC part by the coded data of variable length code compression the video data encoder of conversion of resolution being exported as bit stream with constant bit rate.

Adder will be added to from the DCT coefficient of IQ part as re-quantization output from the motion compensation output of MC part MC part is carried out motion compensation by using the optimum movement vector of being estimated by ME part to the DCT coefficient information that is stored in the FM part , and motion compensation output is offered adder as reference DCT coefficient.

Adder is calculated from the DCT coefficient of the conversion of conversion of resolution part and poor with reference between the DCT coefficient, this difference is offered Q part , as mentioned above. Q part , VLC part and the computing as mentioned above of buffering memory Finally, the video data encoder of conversion of resolution is exported with constant bit rate from this digital video signal conversion equipment.

MC part is similar to ME part and carries out motion compensation at orthogonal transform domain by using optimum movement vector of being estimated by ME part and the reference DCT coefficient that is stored in the FM part With reference now to Figure 24 to Figure 26, estimation and motion compensation in the orthogonal transform domain are described.

In Figure 24, the macro block of the picture A that solid line indicates to compress, dotted line is represented the macro block of reference picture B. Only from the viewpoint of reduction in the resistance of the power lines 15, each of the power lines 15 may be formed to overlap not only the drive transistor Tdr and the capacitor element C1 but also the selection transistor Tsl and the initialization transistor Tint referred to as a "configuration 2" hereinafter. However, the configuration 2 has the problem of easily producing dullness in the waveform of the selection signal Sa due to capacity coupling between the selection transistor Ts1 or the corresponding selection line 11 and the corresponding power line 15 i.

Similarly, the capacity attached between the initialization transistor Tint or the corresponding initialization line 12 and the corresponding power line 15 may cause dullness in the waveform of the initialization signal Sb.

Therefore, the configuration 2 has the problem of delaying switching of the selection transistor Tsl and the initialization transistor Tint. However, in this embodiment, each of the power lines 15 does not overlap the selection transistor Tsl or the corresponding selection line 11 and the initialization transistor Tint or the corresponding initialization line 12 in the vertical direction to the substrate Therefore, the capacity parasitic between the components and the corresponding power line 15 is decreased as compared with the configuration 2.

In this embodiment, consequently, dullness in the waveforms of the selection signal Sa and the initialization signal Sb are suppressed to permit high-speed operations of the selection transistor Tsl and the initialization transistor Tint. Next, the specific configuration of each unit element P according to a second embodiment of the invention will be descried.

In the description below, a component common to the first embodiment is denoted by the same reference numeral, and the description thereof is appropriately omitted.

The semiconductor layer 32 is a substantially rectangular part constituting the drive transistor Tdr. The semiconductor layer 42 is formed on the positive side in the Y direction as seen from the semiconductor layer 32 and includes the substantially rectangular electrode E2 and an element part extending from the lower left portion of the electrode E2 in the X direction.

The element part functions as a semiconductor layer of the selection transistor Tsl. The semiconductor layer 45 constitutes the initialization transistor Tint and extends in the X direction in a region opposite to the semiconductor layer 32 with the semiconductor layer 42 provided therebetween.

The surface of the substrate 10 on which the above-mentioned components have been formed is covered with the gate insulating layer L0. Like in the first embodiment, the first data line part constitutes the corresponding data line 13 and extends in the Y direction in a region on the positive side in the X direction as seen from the intermediate conductor The initialization line 12 includes a first gate electrode and a second gate electrode which are branched from a portion extending in the X direction to the negative side in the Y direction and overlap the semiconductor layer In the semiconductor layer 45, the portion overlapping each of the first gate electrode and the second gate electrode severs as a channel region of the initialization transistor Tint.

Similarly, the selection line 11 includes a first gate electrode and a second gate electrode which are branched to the negative side in the Y direction from a portion extending in the X direction and overlap the element part of the semiconductor layer The first gate electrode and the second gate electrode are adjacent to each other with a space therebetween in the X direction.

In the element part , a portion overlapping each of the first gate electrode and the second gate electrode with the gate insulating layer L0 provided therebetween serves as a channel region of the selection transistor Tsl. As described above, in this embodiment, each of the selection transistor Tsl and the initialization transistor Tint is a dual-gate structure thin-film transistor.

The intermediate conductor 52 includes an electrode E1 constituting the capacitor element C1 and opposed to the electrode E2, a gate electrode continuing from the electrode E1 to the negative side in the Y direction, and a connecting portion projecting from a substantially central portion of the electrode E1 in the X direction to the positive side in the Y direction.

The gate electrode extends in the Y direction over the entire dimension of the semiconductor layer 32 in the Y direction so as to overlap the semiconductor layer Also, a region on the negative side in the X direction with the channel region 32c provided therebetween serves as a drain region 32d, and the opposite region serves as a source region 32s. The first relay wiring part constitutes wiring referred to as "relay wiring" hereinafter for electrically connecting the initialization transistor Tint and the drain region 32d of the drive transistor Tdr, and extends in the Y direction in a region on the negative side in the X direction as seen from the intermediate conductor Namely, in this embodiment, the intermediate conductor 52 is disposed in the space between the first data line part and the first relay wiring part The surface of the gate insulating layer L0 on which the above-descried components have been formed is covered with the first insulating layer L1 over the entire region thereof.

Like in the first embodiment, the second data line part is wiring constituting the corresponding data line 13 together with the first data line part Namely, the second data line part extends in the Y direction from the end a electrically conducted to the upper end a refer to Fig. The end b is electrically conducted to the lower end b refer to Fig. In this embodiment, the second data line part is electrically conducted to the end of the element part through a contact hole Hb3 passing through the first insulating layer L1 and the gate insulating layer L0.

Namely, the selection transistor Tsl is electrically connected to the corresponding data line 13 through the contact hole Hb3.

The connecting portion 62 is electrically conducted to the connecting portion the electrode E1 and the gate electrode through a contact hole Hb4 passing through the first insulating layer L1 and also to the end of the semiconductor layer 45 through a contact hole Hb5 passing through the first insulating layer L1 and the gate insulating layer L0.

Namely, the electrode E1 the gate electrode of the drive transistor Tdr of the capacitor element C1 is electrically connected to the initialization transistor Tint through the connecting portion Therefore, the connecting portion 62 does not overlap the first gate electrode and the second gate electrode In a configuration in which the first gate electrode or the second gate electrode overlaps the connecting portion 52, both are capacitively coupled.

Hence, the potential of the first gate electrode varies with variations in the potential of the connecting portion 62 i. As a result, the waveform of the initialization signal Sb may become dull, resulting in a delay of the operation of the initialization transistor Tint. On the other hand, in this embodiment, the connecting portion 62 is formed so as not to overlap the first gate electrode and the second gate electrode , and thus capacity coupling between the connecting portion 62 and the first and second gate electrodes and is suppressed.

Therefore, the influence of a variation in the potential of the connecting portion 62 on the initialization transistor Tint is decreased, resulting in the high-speed operation of the initialization transistor Tint. In the above-described configuration in which the initialization transistor Tint is conduced to the electrode E1 of the capacitor element C1 through the connecting portion 62, the sufficient channel lengths of the selection transistor Tsl and the initialization transistor Tint can be secured.

Therefore, it is possible to suppress current leakage in the selection transistor Ts1 and the initialization transistor Tint, in comparison to a configuration in which the channel lengths are limited. Since the selection transistor Tsl and the initialization transistor Tint are connected to the gate electrode of the drive transistor Tdr, variation in the potential of the gate electrode during the drive period is suppressed by a decrease in current leakage in each of the transistors.

Therefore, in this embodiment, the quantity of light of the light-emitting element E can be precisely maintained at a desired value.

Like the electrical continuity portion 71 of the first embodiment, the electrical continuity portion 72 shown in Fig. The electrical continuity portion 72 has a shape substantially L-shaped including a portion extending in the Y direction and a portion located opposite to the capacitor element C1 with the drive transistor Tdr provided therebetween, both portions being connected to each other.

The portion overlaps the end a refer to Fig. The portion is electrically conducted to the upper end a through a contact hole Hb6 passing through the first insulating layer L1. In the first insulating layer L1, a plurality two in this embodiment of contact holes Hb7 is formed in a region overlapping the drain region 32d so as to pass through the first insulating layer L1 and the gate insulating layer L0.

These contact holes Hb7 are arrayed in the direction of extension of the gate electrode along the Y direction i. The portion of the electrical continuity portion 72 is electrically conducted to the drain region 32d through the contact holes Hb7. The second relay wiring part is electrically conducted to the end through a contact hole Hb8 passing through the first insulating layer L1 and the gate insulating layer L0 and also to the lower end b of the first relay wiring part through a contact hole Hb9 passing through the first insulating layer L1.

As described above, the initialization transistor Tint is electrically connected to the drain region 32d furthermore, the electrical continuity portion 72 of the drive transistor Tdr through the relay wiring 17 including the first relay wiring part and the second relay wiring part The contact holes Hb10 are arrayed in the direction of extension of the gate electrode along the Y direction.

Each of the power lines 15 second portion is electrically conducted to the source region 32s through the contact holes Hb The first portion extends in the X direction so as to pass through the spaces between the respective second data line parts and the spaces between the second relay wiring parts and the electrical continuity portions 72 portion Therefore, as shown in Figs.

In addition, each of the second portions extends in the Y direction so as to pass through the spaces between the electrical continuity portions 72 portions and the second data line parts and the spaces between the connecting portions 62 and the second data line parts The surface of the first insulating layer L1 on which the above-descried components have been formed is covered with the second insulating layer L2 over the entire region.

Like in the first embodiment, the portion of the electrical continuity portion 72 is electrically conducted to the first electrode 21 through a contact hole Hb 11 passing through the second insulating layer L2.

As described above, in this embodiment, the electrical continuity portion 72 is disposed opposite to the capacitor element C1 with the drive transistor Tdr provided therebetween. Therefore, like in the first embodiment, a capacity the capacity Cx shown in Fig. Also, each of the power lines 15 is formed so as not to overlap the selection transistors Tsl and the initialization transistors Tint, and thus, like in the first embodiment, the selection transistor Tsl and the initialization transistor Tint can be operated at a high speed with predetermined timing.

In this embodiment, the electrical continuity portion 72, the connecting portion 62, and the second relay wiring part are formed using the same layer as the power lines Also, the electrical continuity portion 72 is disposed on the negative side i. Therefore, it is possible to secure a sufficient space between the electrical continuity portion 72 and the connecting portion 62 the second relay wiring part , for forming the first portion of the corresponding power line 15, which extends in the X direction.

Furthermore, the space overlapping the capacitor element C1 in the vertical direction to the substrate 1 can be used for forming the corresponding power line Therefore, like in the first embodiment, the power lines the first portions can be widely formed to exhibit the effect of decreasing the resistance. In addition, in this embodiment, each second portion extending in the Y direction connects the respective first portions , thereby further decreasing the resistance of the power lines 15 as compared with a case in which each of the power lines 15 includes only the first portion Furthermore, the first portion of each power line 15 is formed in a simple tripe shape, thereby suppressing the disconnection or failure of the power lines 15 as compared with a configuration in which the power lines 15 are formed in a complicated shape, avoiding the components the electrical continuity portions 72 and the connecting portions 62 formed using the same layer as the power lines In this embodiment, in each of the unit elements P, the data line 13 extends along the edge on the positive side in the X direction, and the relay wiring 17 extends along the edge on the negative side in the X direction.

In this configuration, for example, attention is given to one unit element P1 and the other unit element P2 adjacent thereto on the negative side in the X direction, as shown in Fig. The relay wiring 17 for the unit element P1 is interposed between the capacitor element C1 of the unit element P1 and the data line corresponding to the unit element P2. Therefore, a capacity parasitic between the capacitor element C1 of the unit element P1 and the data line corresponding to the unit element P2 is decreased, as compared with the configuration of the first embodiment in which the capacitor element C1 of one unit element P comes close to the data line 13 corresponding to the unit element P adjacent thereto.

In this configuration, the influence of a variation in potential of the data line 13 corresponding to the unit element P2 on the capacitor element C1 of the unit element P1 is decreased. As a result, the gate potential Vg of the drive transistor Tdr of each unit element P and the quantity of light of each light-emitting element E according to the gate potential Vg can be precisely set to desired values.

Next, a modified example of the above-described second embodiment will be described. In the second embodiment, the gate electrode of the drive transistor Tdr extends in the Y direction.

However, in the modified example, as shown in Fig. In the modified example, the same components as in the second embodiment are denoted by the same reference numerals, and the description thereof is appropriately omitted. The gate electrode extends over the whole size of the gate insulating layer L0 in the X direction.

In the semiconductor layer 32, a region opposed to the gate electrode with the gate insulating layer L0 provided therebetween serves as a channel region 32c of the drive transistor Tdr. Also, a region on the electrode E1 side with the channel region 32c provided therebetween serves as a source region 32s, and the opposite region servers as a drain region 32d. The corresponding power line 15 is electrically conducted to the source region 32s through a plurality of contact holes Hb10 arrayed in the X direction along the gate electrode As described above, the gate electrode of the drive transistor Tdr extends in the X direction, and thus the drain region 32d is formed in an elongated shape along the X direction in the region opposite to the capacitor element C1 with the gate electrode In this configuration, a portion the portion of the first embodiment extending in the Y direction along the drive transistor Tdr need not be formed in the electrical continuity portion Therefore, it is understood from comparison between Figs.

Furthermore, in the modified example, the contact holes Hb7, the contact holes Hb6 portion of conduction between the relay wiring 17 and the electrical continuity portion 72 , and the contact holes Hb1 portion of conduction between the first and second data line parts and are linearly arrayed along the X direction. Therefore, the width of the first portion stripe shape linearly extending in the X direction can be sufficiently secured, as compared with a configuration in which the positions of the contact holes Hb7, Hb6, and Hbl deviate in the Y direction.

In the second embodiment, the gate electrode extends in the direction perpendicular to the first portion of each power line Thus, as the length of the gate electrode However, in the modified example, the gate electrode extends in parallel to the first portion , and thus the length of the gate electrode can be increased without decreasing the width of the first portion Since the length of the gate electrode corresponds to the channel width of the drive transistor Tdr, in the modified example, the channel width of the drive transistor Tdr can be increased while maintaining the width of the first portion In this way, the drive transistor Tdr having a wider channel width has the advantage that the quantity of the current supplied to each light-emitting element E through the drive transistor Tdr can be sufficiently secured.

Next, the specific configuration of a unit element P according to a third embodiment of the invention will be described. The shape of the semiconductor layer 33 is the same as the semiconductor layer 31 of the first embodiment. The semiconductor layer 43 includes a substantially rectangular electrode E2 constituting the capacitor element C1 and an element part connected to the electrode E2.

The element part functions as a semiconductor layer of the selection transistor Tsl and includes a portion a extending from the lower right portion of the electrode E2 to the positive side in the Y direction, a portion b extending from the portion a to the positive side in the X direction, and a portion c extending from the end of the portion b to the negative side in the Y direction.

The shapes of the intermediate conductors 53 and the initialization lines 12 and the relations to other components are the same as the intermediate conductors 51 and the initialization lines 12 of the first embodiment. Each of the selection lines 11 extends in the X direction to overlap the element parts of the semiconductor layers 43 in the vertical direction to the substrate In each of the portions a and c of the element part , a portion overlapping the corresponding selection line 11 serves as a channel region of the selection transistor Ts1.

Namely, in this embodiment, the selection transistor Tsl has a dual gate structure. The shape of the connecting portions 63 and relations to other components are the same as the connecting portions 61 of the first embodiment.

Each of the data lines 13 is wiring extending in the Y direction in a region on the positive side in the X direction as seen from the drive transistor Tdr and the capacitor element C1 and is electrically conducted to the element part portion c of the semiconductor layer 43 through a contact hole Hc1.

The electrical continuity portion 73 is a substantially rectangular part formed in a region opposite to the capacitor element C1 with the drive transistor Tdr provided therebetween and is electrically conducted to the semiconductor layer 33 drain region of the drive transistor Tdr through a contact hole Hc2.

As shown in Figs, 22 and 23 , in this embodiment, each of the power lines 15 extends in the Y direction to overlap the drive transistor Tdr and the capacitor element C1 of each unit element P in the vertical direction to the substrate Like in the first embodiment, each of the power lines 15 is electrically conducted to the semiconductor layer 33 source region of the drive transistor Tdr through contact holes Ha4.

In this embodiment, as descried in the first embodiment with reference to Fig. In this configuration, like in the first embodiment, the influence of a variation in potential of the data line 13 corresponding to the unit element P2 on the potential of the capacitor element C1 of the unit element P1 can be decreased. In this embodiment, the electrical continuity portion 73 is disposed opposite to the capacitor element C1 with the drive transistor Tdr provided therebetween.

Like in the first embodiment, therefore, capacity coupling the parasitic capacity Cx shown in Fig. Therefore, it is possible to decrease the capacity of the capacitor element C1 furthermore, decreasing the area.

In the first and second embodiments, the first data line part and the second data line part are connected together to form each data line However, in this embodiment, each of the data lines 13 includes a single conductor film, thereby exhibiting the advantage of decreasing the resistance of the data lines 13 and disconnection thereof in comparison to the first and second embodiments.

There are various modifications of the above-descried embodiments. Examples of modifications include the following. The modifications below may be appropriately combined. In each of the above embodiments, the electric configuration of each unit element P may be appropriately changed. Examples of the unit element P used in the invention are given below. The emission control transistor Tcnt includes a switching element for controlling the electric connection between the drain electrode of the drive transistor Tdr and the first electrode 21 of the light-emitting element E according to an emission control signal Sc supplied to a corresponding emission control line When the emission control transistor Tcnt is turned on, a current path extending from the corresponding power line 15 to the light-emitting element E is formed to permit light emission of the light-emitting element E.

While when the emission control transistor Tcnt is turned off, the path is cut off to inhibit the light emission of the light-emitting element E. Therefore, in this configuration, the emission control transistor Tcnt is turned on to emit light from the light-emitting element E only during the drive period except the initialization period and the write period.

In this way, the actual emission period of the light-emitting element E can be precisely determined. In each of the first to third embodiments, for example, the emission control transistor Tcnt is disposed opposite on the negative side in the Y direction to the capacitor element C1 with the drive transistor Tdr provided therebetween. In this case, there is the advantage that each of the power lines 15 can be widely formed to overlap both the drive transistor Tdr and the capacitor element C l , as compared with a case in which the emission control transistor Tcnt is disposed in the space between the drive transistor Tdr and the capacitor element C1.

This configuration has the advantage in that the gate potential Vg of the drive transistor Tdr set in the write period can be maintained in the capacitor element C2 during the drive period.

In a configuration in which the area area of the channel region of the drive transistor Tdr is sufficiently secured, the gate potential Vg is held by the gate capacitor of the drive transistor Tdr. Therefore, even in the first to third embodiments in which the capacitor element C2 is not disposed, the gate potential Vg can be held during the drive period.

In this unit element P, the capacitor element C1 and the initialization transistor Tint initialization line 12 , which are provided in each of the above embodiments, are not formed so that the electric connection between the gate electrode of the drive transistor Tdr and the corresponding data line 13 is controlled by the selection transistor Tsl.

Also, the capacitor element C2 is interposed between the gate electrode and source electrode the corresponding power line 15 of the drive transistor Tdr. In this configuration, when the selection transistor Tsl is turned on, the data potential Vdata corresponding to the gradation specified in the light-emitting element E is supplied to the gate electrode of the drive transistor Tdr from the corresponding data line 13 through the selection transistor Tsl.

At the same time, a charge corresponding to the data potential Vdata is stored in the capacitor element C2, and thus the gate potential Vg of the drive transistor Tdr is kept at the data potential Vdata even when the selection transistor Tsl is turned off.

Therefore, a current corresponding to the data potential Vdata corresponding to the gate potential Vg of the drive transistor Tdr is continuously supplied to the light-emitting element E. The supply of the current causes emission from the light-emitting element E with luminance corresponding to the data potential Vdata.

For example, the capacitor element C2 shown in Fig. In this embodiment, the same operation and advantage as in the first to third embodiments are exhibited. As described above, the capacitor element connected to the gate electrode of the drive transistor Tdr may be the capacitor element C1 for setting the gate potential Vg of the drive transistor Tdr by capacitor coupling or the capacitor element C2 for holding the data potential Vdata supplied to the gate electrode of the drive transistor Tdr from the corresponding data line Although, in the above-described embodiments, the first electrode 21 is composed of a light-reflecting material, the light emitted from the luminescent layer 23 toward the substrate 10 may be reflected by a reflecting layer other than the first electrode 21 toward the side opposite to the substrate In this configuration, a reflecting layer composed of a light-reflecting material is formed on the surface of the first insulating layer L1, and the first electrode 21 is formed to cover the reflecting layer.