To reduce the disposal of fashion clothing, consumers can help by making responsible decisions in a sustainable way at the time of disposing clothing. You may claim the remaining money at any time within 1 year after the county receives the money. Are fashion-conscious consumers more likely to adopt eco-friendly clothing? As my Daddy would say, "I had rather be lucky than good!
(Tsan-Ming Choi, T. C. Edwin Cheng (Eds.) ) Sustain PDF | Recycling | Logistics
Lesfes co deliveriese vol.2. Students must first compete against their classmates and then in the school competition before moving on to the county competition.
姫さまそれは聖水ですか?2 [gyuunyuuyasan]. Manga LESFES CO -DELIVERIES- [remora works]. Manga No Guard Girl vol.2 [AkatsukikatsuyanoCircle]. Remora Works エロ同人誌 ダウンロード!冊-2ページ!Remora Works c96エロ [Remora Works (生徒A)] LESFES CO -DELIVERIES- VOL · [remora works. [Remora Works (Seito A)] LesFes CO -Deliveries- Vol. (C86) [PANDA-NIKU (Yakiniku ATK, seoauditing.ru, Moo)] SHINNGEKI Vol. 6 (Shingeki no Kyojin). [Remora Works] FUTACOLO CO -INHERITANCE- VOL [Chinese] [无毒汉化组]. 24P 20/05/09 · (同人誌) [Remora Works] Lesfes-co feat dec vol - thumb. View all recommendations for the manga HI-NA-CO vol.2 out of the hentai series FUTACOLO CO -PRIMITIVE STAGE- VOL LESFES CO -DELIVERIES-.
Freelance consultant ท ปร กษา
- Lesfes co deliveriese vol.2.
- Lesfes co deliveriese vol.2
- Lesfes Co Deliveries Vol Remora Works Fanza同人 | Free Hot Nude Porn Pic Gallery
- Seito a Hentai Doujinshi & Manga For Free | EroCool Welcome to Scribd!
- Lesfes co deliveriese vol.2
| [Remora Works (生徒A)] LESFES CO -DELIVERIES- VOL Anthology Comics Vol.2 [Digital] | [アンソロジー] 触手淫辱アンソロジーコミックス Vol 里番动漫、汉化同人志，每天更新Remora WorksH漫畫中文A漫画、18H中文成人漫畫、H圖片、全彩a漫-第2頁。 [remora works (尺八嘗めこ)] FUTACOLO CO -MAMASAN- [Remora Works (生徒A)] LESFES CO -DELIVERIES- VOL.Lesfes co deliveriese vol.2 [Remora Works (Meriko)] LesFes Co -Candid Reporting- Vol. | [Remora | [Remora Works (生徒A)] LESFES CO -DELIVERIES- VOL 18/10/18 26P. [Remora Works (isaki)] FUTACOLO CO -INHERITANCE- VOL. + Bonus · [Remora Works [Remora Works (Seito A)] LesFes CO -Deliveries- Vol. P 19/01/06 · [Remora Works (Seito A)] LesFes CO -Deliveries- Vol. Ch. [Digital]. 86P 17/08/27 COMIC Kairakuten XTC Vol. 7 - thumb. [Remora Works (Seito A)] LesFes CO -Deliveries- Vol. · [KAB-studio (Kaburaya Seiden)] Otome Tokonome (VALKYRIE DRIVE -MERMAID-). Buy The Dark Prince: Les Fées: The French Fae Legend: Volume 1 (Les Fes: The French Fae Legend) by Leech, A Touch of Ruin: 2 (Hades X Persephone).
Lesfes co deliveriese vol.2.
團體game 2020 Gleiche cosplay 2 tage. Patreon 1 2 bondage. Lesfes co blosseum vol Bazx 美脚 ハイレグ ストッキング眼鏡 vol 推川ゆうり (生徒A) LESFES CO -DELIVERIES- VOL ζJolinFile MB MexaShare RapidGator Keep 2. | [Remora Works (生徒A)] LESFES CO -DELIVERIES- VOL 18/10/18 26P Ch. [Digital] | [生徒A] 泳げるようになりたいな 第話 [DL版]. 17/08/27.
[Kaitou Yuuhi] Josou Riji Musuko no Junan (Otokonoko HEAVEN Vol. [Remora Works] LESFES CO -DELIVERIES- [Chinese] [WARREN RIANE×新桥月白日语社] (C75) [Niku Ringo (Kakugari Kyoudai)] NIPPON PRACTICE 2 | 海军(One. Angkor Vol.8 團體game Kotone Amemiya actress actress: Amonomiya Kotone Studio: Stage 2 Media Series: Encore (Blu-ray version) Search by. Lesfes co deliveriese vol.2 Group: remora works page 2 - Hentai Manga, Doujinshi. FUTACOLO CO -RITE OF PASSAGE- [English] [Remora Works (Seito A)] LesFes CO -Deliveries- Vol. VA - Music Unites - Reggae Around the World, Vol. Rian Treanor - ATAXIA () [FLAC]» audio music lossless: 2 years MB00 [Remora Works] LESFES CO -DELIVERIES- [Chinese] [WARREN RIANE×新桥月白日语社]» images: 2. ファミコン探偵倶楽部 うしろに立つ少女 sfc rom partir de l'extrémité buccale des filtres, où les FEs restent. relativement gimes were (puff volume/puff duration): 35 mL/2 s,. 60 mL/2 s, 90 mL/2. 4. There was a dramatic turnaround in the balance of payments in FY the rehabilitation of distributaries and better scheduling of water deliveries to the three DFIs, the Bank Group involvement with PICIC has been largest in volume. of pit coennele deal ynia and seoauditing.ru lepfr.,sn -rid-et ndhslplln lesfe)seoauditing.ru
Lesfes co deliveriese vol.2
seoauditing.ru >> Goggled Lineup for L - Girls Vol 2 [Remora Works] LESFES CO -DELIVERIES-. Office Volume Number ; New York 7, N. Y., Thursday, January 2; tu Years ago the company created and has since maintained Monthly Stock at credit grew period of this year than last, andlby lesfe than half ;; amount of The feeling is that the automakers will reschedule more steel deliveries for. Lesfes co deliveriese vol.2 Volume 40 □ Number Pages Colorado (2 documents) _ , New Jersey (2 and where the insured has. three or lesfe such years to designate the dairy farmers' deliveries that are not to be. VOLUME NUMBER ' V Texas— Continued. Basis Middling. White 1-inch. City and County loan rate w). less 12 cents, and lesfe 1 cent addi tional for each 20 miles his deliveries for each succeeeding pioht until new.
Lesfes Co Deliveries Vol Remora Works Fanza同人 | Free Hot Nude Porn Pic Gallery
The Lyttelton Times. VOL. LXYIL—No. /ESTABLISHED). I JAN. 11, S. CHRISTCHURCH: AGENCY CO. OP. N Ln.: or to DAL6ETY S COMPY, Lr. 4-teb. Cuff &. Q-eahah, with smaller Horn? deliveries, and an improved de- mand on the part of In orchards the pear requires leSfe pruning than when grown. The rural character of early 20th-century Suwannee County, well known for its General Note: Description based on: Vol. Y.'6 ;* Ii RANK F I ~ Il 0SUWANNEE DEMOCRAT/LIVE OAK Deliveries at: Lesfe,,'97 aod -, Lesfes co deliveriese vol.2 but, unlike an individual,the Company never dies nor leaves the country nor position. He cou|«Bq| per altogether^ excused, however, Sid would be) fined1. £2. □ wPI give each a greater volume of nd-_ min'strative work thar he been lesfe durw-g the past two years owing delay in effecting -deliveries. Potatoes are. 2. S. I. D. E. 1. Hwy 59 South, Thief River Falls. Box Office Hotline Vol- unteers are needed to help transport vehicles, feed horses and riders Tuesday, May 28th, , by Robert Schmitz, County Auditor, at the Auditor's Major duties include driving, making deliveries, Heritage Lesfe Grill. II. Of the Treatment of Carcinoma Uteri, 1. Abstracting Blood,. originates from an affection of the uterus, and is of * Des Maladies des Filles, vol. ii. p. out toujours cherche a resserrer les liens de la cordialite dans les fes- tins. that women who menstruate regularly without pain, or the expulsion of co- agula. VOLUME 32 NUMBER MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 30, » WESTLAND, MICHIGAN» 4 2 PAGES. 0 SEVENTY-PiVE been scheduled in Wayne County Circuit Court. He was ordered to Educated S8M,31,&10\ lESfes., real estate agent. & more car or small truck to make deliveries' in metro Detroit.
Lesfes co deliveriese vol.2. Seito a Hentai Doujinshi & Manga For Free | EroCool
Wednesday, April 2, BENEFITS CONSULTANT Inter. Co. reps person with proven putting ecvyes recorqto js- hti raotrJv orowino sjK Co. Tang, we have co-edited this Springer research handbook. This handbook Therefore, because PCC recycling requires a high volume of carpet to be collected and damaged deliveries, stock adjustment, and functional returns (e.g., packaging). Cus- Activities Comprising the Reverse Supply Chain. In terms of. (C83) [brilliant thunder (夢乃狸)] brilliant thunder Vol オタでもない女子がコミケ3日目にアソビにヤって来た.zip (C71) (同人誌) [MTSP (Jin)] 遠坂家ノ家計事情 2 (Fate／stay night).zip [Remora Works] LESFES CO -DELIVERIES-.zip. Lesfes co deliveriese vol.2 p. m. — Biplane Miss Doran takes off on second attempt. a. m. — Mutual Telephone Company, Honolulu, received message from Pilot Total stroke volume 1, cubic inches Compression ratio 5 to 1 Engine speed, as well as being afforded more prompt deliveries than has been possible in the past. the last year ie |2,08fi.l4, fts county tax was $2, and tbe borough taxes were $8,^ The writ was mecurpd to prevent thp apportionment of the. Springbank for twa 10th anniversary 48 0 vol この娘 犯したい vol 清楚系美少女の制服姿に勃起を · lesfes co deliveriese vol 2 big · 6ixense ab6ix vol. Cream dvd box vol 2 [Remora Works (Seito A)] LesFes CO -Deliveries- Vol. , [Remora Works (生徒A)] LESFES CO -DELIVERIES- VOL, LesFes COVol.
Lesfes co deliveriese vol.2
Submitter: ChouxCream Size: S: 0 L: 0 C: 0 ID: Taimanin Asagi Premium Box. Submitter: Anonymous Size: 2. S: 29 L: 2 C: ID: Submitter: Anonymous Size: 1. S: 0 L: 4 C: 0 ID: Submitter: Anonymous Size: 3. S: 0 L: 1 C: 0 ID: Bonbon Kaikai. S: 9 L: 0 C: 0 ID: Submitter: mutagenb Size: S: 1 L: 0 C: 58 ID: Authorized: No Submitter: Anonymous Size: 1. S: 8 L: 0 C: ID: Submitter: NewDragon Size: S: 0 L: 0 C: 23 ID: Authorized: No Submitter: Anonymous Size: S: 25 L: 0 C: ID: Rina no Chiisana Oka.
S: 5 L: 0 C: ID: Submitter: Anime Land Size: S: 1 L: 0 C: ID: S: 0 L: 0 C: 36 ID: S: 0 L: 0 C: ID: S: 2 L: 1 C: ID: S: 0 L: 2 C: 0 ID: Submitter: ChouxCream Size: 6. S: 1 L: 1 C: 0 ID: S: 1 L: 0 C: 17 ID: Authorized: Yes Submitter: hs Size: 1. Visit our website for DDL links, schedules, and latest news.
S: 9 L: 0 C: ID: Authorized: Yes Submitter: hs Size: S: 7 L: 0 C: ID: Submitter: Tennouji Size: S: 23 L: 0 C: ID: Submitter: ChouxCream Size: 7. King and Ryan Woolard. Dickson and Rita K.
Henninger, Panayiota J. Alevizou, Caroline J. Oates and Ranis Cheng. Abstract A high volume of post-consumer carpet PCC is discarded each year in the USA, placing significant pressure on landfills and leading to the loss of valuable materials contained in carpets.
To explain factors that influence landfill diversion rates for different types of products, an overview of the reverse logistics framework in the literature is provided. The framework is used to analyze the current state of carpet recycling in the USA, and PCC recycling is shown to be a typical material recovery network.
Therefore, because PCC recycling requires a high volume of carpet to be collected and transportation costs to be minimized for it to be economical, a well- organized reverse logistics network is critical. In this respect, a review of reverse network design studies for different products is provided and research conducted to design PCC collection and recycling networks is discussed in detail.
While collection and reuse of some postconsumer products and materials, such as scrap metal, paper, and bottles, are not new concepts, these activities have been motivated by pure economic benefits for the collectors Fleischmann et al. Other, less attractive, streams of postconsumer products have been largely ignored by both manufacturers and third-party firms and have been landfilled or incinerated Ferguson and Browne This situation has begun to change in recent years due.
Sas R. Springer International Publishing Switzerland 3 T. Choi, T. Edwin Cheng eds. Sas et al. Scarcity of landfills, harmful emissions and depletion of nonrenewable resources make both governments and consumers more concerned about proper treatment of products at the end of their life Thierry et al. Manufacturers are under increasing pressure to collect and reuse their old products coming from customers to minimize emissions and recover the residual value of the waste Krikke In , 3. Being a bulky product usually composed of synthetic materials, carpet occupies a significant volume of landfill space.
In addition, valuable materials that can be recovered from carpet are lost when PCC is landfilled. Such a low diversion rate may be attributed to the low economic attractiveness of carpet recycling. To make recycled materials competitive with virgin materials, the cost of recycled materials needs to be as low as possible. Due to the high bulkiness of carpet, the transportation cost of PCC is high which makes carpet reverse logistics a significant portion of the total cost of recycled materials.
In this chapter, reverse logistics of US carpet recycling is discussed. Section 1. Then, in Sect. The main concerns of reverse logistics are efficient collection, transportation, re- covery, proper disposal, and redistribution of products coming from consumers to maximize economic and environmental value at minimum cost Krikke Re- verse logistics is an important component of modern supply chains de Brito and Dekker and can be defined as the process of planning, implementing and controlling flows of raw materials, in process inventory, and finished goods, from a manufacturing, distribution or use point, to a point of recovery or point of proper disposal de Brito and Dekker The combination of several aspects of reverse logistics determines the type of reverse system and consequently the issues that may arise in managing such a system.
Four main characteristics of reverse logistics systems are discussed further, including motivation, activities, type of recovered items, and entities involved Fleischmann et al. Combinations of different aspects define several typical reverse systems.
Channel structure, coordination, and leadership have been shown to have an effect on reverse supply chain performance. The question of motivation covers two distinctive characteristics: why products are returned at all and why companies are willing to accept and manage these products.
Starting with the former, the reasons for product returns may be classified in three groups that correspond to different stages of the forward supply chain, namely man- ufacturing returns, distribution returns, and customer returns de Brito and Dekker ; Kumar and Dao Surplus of raw materials, rework of products due to low quality, and production leftovers are typical reasons for manufacturing returns.
At the distribution stage, returns to a manufacturer may occur due to product re- calls, products being unsold at the end of the season, outdated products, wrong or damaged deliveries, stock adjustment, and functional returns e. Cus- tomers may return products to manufacturers due to customers dissatisfaction, the mismatching of products to customers needs, warranty service, and product end of use or end of life.
Economics and legislation are two main reasons that motivate companies to accept product returns. Recovery of valuable parts or materials from used products and avoidance of disposal costs are direct economic gains that companies can obtain from reverse logistics de Brito and Dekker In-house remanufacturing or recycling of postconsumer products may be used to protect technologies from competitors.
In addition to economic benefits, companies have to manage return flows to comply with legislation. Environmental regulation, especially in Europe, makes manufacturers responsible for their products that customers do not need anymore and want to dispose. In the USA, this regulation is less strict and tends to encourage recovery instead of mandating it Guide and Van Wassenhove De Brito and Dekker identified corporate citizenship as an additional force driving companies to implement reverse logistics.
In terms of activities involved, four main steps can be identified in reverse logistics: acquisition and collection of postconsumer products, inspection and grading, value recovery processing, and redistribution Fleischmann These activities connect consumers that want to get rid of their old unneeded goods also called disposal markets with reuse markets, where collected goods, recovered parts, or materials are used again Krikke Collection is the only true reverse activity Fleischmann because only at this step do products flow from consumers to firms manufacturers or recyclers.
This results in collection costs that compose a significant part of the total costs of a reverse supply chain, especially in the case of bulky, low-value products Fleischmann Depending on the type of product or material of interest, a collection scheme may utilize a waste management system e.
Curbside pickup is a relatively expensive scheme because it requires trucks to travel significant distances without being completely loaded. Therefore, this scheme is typically used to collect products made of homogeneous materials that can be easily recycled at low costs e.
In addition, products that should be kept dry to qualify for recycling can either not utilize this method or require additional expenses to provide households with packaging materials. Establishing drop-off collection centers allows shifting some of the collection costs to the customers. However, some kind of motivation for the customers must exist, and it should be convenient for customers to carry their recyclables to the points of collection.
Customers may be motivated to use drop-off collection points due to environmental consciousness, a ban on disposing the waste at local dumpsters, financial benefits, deposit systems, etc. Guide and Van Wassenhove Another way to decrease the collection cost is to combine collection with other types of activities e.
It is also important to take into account that if the recycling process requires high volumes of input to realize significant economies of scale, collection costs may be kept slightly higher e. After collection, products should be graded by wear condition, quality, and type to identify the most value-added recovery option or the most environmentally friendly way of disposal. Early sorting is preferable to avoid unnecessary transportation of unrecyclable products and to direct recyclables to the appropriate recycling facility.
Therefore, if this activity is inexpensive and fast, it may coincide with the collection. However, if sorting requires specific expensive equipment or highly skilled labor, centralized sorting facilities may be more economical Fleischmann Conse- quently, the number and exact location of sorting facilities in the reverse supply chain depend on the product, and there is a trade-off between transportation costs and the annual operation cost of sorting facilities.
Legislation may impose additional constraints on the location of sorting opera- tions. For example, many states in the USA do not accept waste from other states. So, waste should be separated from recyclable products within a state which reduces the possibility of centralization Fleischmann Additional preprocessing op- erations, such as baling or shredding, may be used after grading to compact the materials and reduce transportation costs.
There are many recovery options that may be utilized in the reverse supply chain depending on the type and quality of end-of-life products. Value-added recov- ery includes repair, refurbishing, and remanufacturing Guide and Van Wassenhove ; Akdogan and Coskun , where products are brought to like new condi- tions and are sold with some discount. Parts recovery or cannibalization is used when the product cannot be repaired to function properly or is outdated, but some of its modules are still working and can be used during manufacturing of new or remanu- facturing of similar postconsumer products Akdogan and Coskun Recycling converts postconsumer products to raw materials that can be used for production of the same product closed-loop recycling or products that require a lower quality of materials down cycling.
Finally, if any of the described options cannot be used, collected products and leftovers from other options are incinerated to recover energy. Recovery steps usually require the highest investments Fleischmann Re- manufacturing or parts retrieval from complex products that consist of many modules may require a multistep reprocessing network where different repair or disassem- bling operations are performed at different stages.
While a recycling network may involve one or two tiers, recycling equipment is usually expensive and built to realize economies of scale when processing high volumes of end-of-life products. When the original manufacturers are responsible for recovery, they may integrate some reverse logistics steps into the forward supply chain to reduce costs Fleischmann Finally, repaired products, recovered parts, or recycled materials are delivered to the consumers in the redistribution step.
In many cases, this step resembles a traditional distribution network, especially when original manufacturers are owners of the reverse activities Fleischmann Problems with redistribution may occur when retrieved parts are outdated or quality of recycled materials is lower than virgin materials.
In this case, the most profitable markets should be found or new uses for the materials should be created. As can be seen from reverse logistics activities, characteristics of the product have a great influence on the possible recovery options and on the design and profitability of the reverse supply chain. Depending on the product and its characteristics, it can be refurbished, disassembled to retrieve components, recycled to recover the initial materials, or incinerated to recover energy.
The number of modules or materials as well as the way that they are combined together defines the complexity of the disassembly operations, the recycling technol- ogy required, and the quality of the recycled materials. Some products that are made of different types of materials especially from different plastics are difficult or impossible to recycle into separate streams of mate- rials, and the resulting composite materials can be used for low-value products only, significantly reducing the profitability of recycling.
In some cases, the only recovery option for such products is incineration to produce energy Wang Size and weight of the returned product have a significant influence on transportation costs de Brito et al.
The deterioration of products determines if parts or materials retrieved from them may be used in new products. Deterioration can occur due to physical aging or becoming outdated, where product components and materials are not used in new products anymore. In addition, deterioration can be nonhomogeneous, when a prod- uct can no longer perform its function due to problems with some components while other components are still functioning properly de Brito and Dekker Use pattern defines the location, intensity, and duration of use.
Usually prod- ucts that were bought for individual use are disposed of in small quantities; this increases collection costs, but products used by institutions may be returned in large volumes that are more economical to collect. Intensity and duration of use have a great influence on the deterioration of products de Brito and Dekker Type of returns, type of products, economic benefits, and regulatory requirements define the set of entities involved in the reverse logistics systems for different prod- ucts.
Manufacturing and distribution returns have been a common practice for the forward supply chain for a long time. They occur between or even within one of the members of the forward supply chain, such as material suppliers, manufacturers, distributors, and retailers de Brito and Dekker Customer returns of new products or products for warranty service are also well- established processes.
Customers can drop off these returns at retail stores or can send them using mail services. Manufacturers or distributors may contract third-party logistics companies to handle these returns. In terms of reprocessing, new products can be directly resold or sent to discount outlets Tibben-Lembke and Rogers Warranty repair can be handled by the manufacturers themselves or they may contract specialized companies Blumberg Compared to new products and warranty service returns, returns of end-of-life products may involve a higher number of different stages in the reverse supply chain.
In the case of end-of-life returns, consumers supply used products, which are raw materials for the reverse supply chain. Collection can be conducted by municipal and commercial waste companies e. Recovered parts and materials can be sold or sent to end users of secondary materials in the forward supply chain. These end users may be traditional entities of the original forward supply chain, second-hand consumers, or other manufacturers. An important consideration is the owner of the collection and recovery processes.
Third-party collectors and recyclers can create their own recovery network if the resulting parts or materials can be sold at a profit. Original manufacturers may create their own collection networks to gain direct and indirect economic benefits or they can be forced to do so by legislation introduced by policy makers. Another way for manufacturers to respond to environmental legislation is to create a branch organization that will handle recovery of postconsumer products for an entire industry de Brito and Dekker Before going into a discussion of typical reverse logistics networks, it is important to distinguish closed-loop recovery systems from opened-loop ones.
Many authors define a closed-loop supply chain as a system that includes traditional forward sup- ply chain activities and additional reverse activities Guide et al. De Brito and Dekker argued that some kind of cycling should exist in the system to be defined as closed-loop. Therefore, collected products should be returned to the original manufacturer or collected products should be recovered to their original functionality.
The type and specific features of a reverse network are defined by a combination of several factors including type of items to recover, motivation, form of recovery, processes and entities involved, and owner of the recovery process Fleischmann ; de Brito and Dekker Based on these criteria, Fleischmann identified four generic types of reverse logistics networks, namely networks for mandated product take-back, networks owned by original manufacturers for value- added recovery, dedicated remanufacturing networks, and recycling networks for material recovery.
The first type of reverse networks, networks for mandated product take-back, are initiated by the original manufacturers to comply with environmental regulation and to accept responsibility for the entire life cycle of their products e. Because such networks are motivated by legislation and not by economic benefits, the value recovered from products usually through recycling is small, and manufacturers usually try to mini- mize their costs rather than maximize their profits.
Reverse activities are outsourced to specialized recycling companies with drop-off collection. Customers are charged for disposal through collection fees or via prices of new products. Industry-wide cooperation is common. Testing and grading is not important because separation of materials occurs at the recycling stage. In contrast to the previous type of reverse systems, a value-added recovery network managed by the original manufacturer is designed to recapture value from used products e.
It is usually built as an extension of the forward supply chain to reduce investments and transportation costs and improve coordination of recovery activities with production. Testing and grading play an important role in maximizing the value recovered from used products. The network is a complex, multilevel structure, due to the complex set of interrelated processing steps. Dedicated remanufacturing networks are managed by third-party recyclers be- cause there is an opportunity to make profit.
Examples of such networks are auto parts, equipment, or tire recovery. Acquisition of used products and brokerage are the main activities to find the best matching secondary market for collected products. Recyclers have to build the entire network. The last type of recovery network is a recycling network for material recovery. Such networks are usually organized to comply with or to prevent legislation.
Both original manufacturers and material suppliers can play a significant role in the recy- cling. Material recovery recycling networks are characterized by low profit margins and high investments in recycling equipment. Therefore, the recycling activity is centralized at one facility to create high recycling volumes and to reduce processing costs.
Sorting is not very important, but preprocessing is used to reduce transportation costs. The network usually consists of a small number of levels. The structure of the reverse channel for collecting used products from customers, the degree of coordination between supply chain members, and the leadership within the supply chain can have a significant effect on the profitability of closed-loop supply chains.
Savaskan et al. They compared a centrally coordinated manufacturerretailer col- lection system with three decentralized cases: collection by the manufacturer itself, retailer-based collection induced by providing sustainable initiatives from the man- ufacturer, and subcontracting collection activities to a third party.
The study showed that if centralized coordination of collection is not possible i. Choi, Li, and Xu studied the performance of a closed-loop supply chain consisting of a retailer, collector, and manufacturer.
They studied cases in which the retailer was the supply chain leader, the collector was the leader, or the manufacturer was the leader. Based on their analysis, they concluded that a retailer-led closed-loop supply chain is superior to a manufacturer-led closed-loop supply chain. In addition, they found that in terms of the effectiveness of collecting used products, having a retailer-led closed-loop supply chain, rather than a collector-led closed loop supply chain, was best.
This section discusses the most important aspects related to carpet recycling in the USA. Organizational and regulatory issues are discussed in Sect. The reverse supply chain is described in Sect. The diversion of PCC from US landfills and recycling it into valuable materials have been considered for a long time. In the s, big fiber producers developed chemical processes for the recovery of Nylon 6 Honeywell and Nylon 6,6 DuPont and Monsanto from used carpet Peoples DuPont and Monsanto invested in pilot facilities only and did not extend their efforts to large-scale recycling due to lack of market interest and for economic reasons.
However, the plant was closed in due to the low prices of caprolactam and problems with the collection of PCC Peoples Later, Shaw Industries, Inc.
In , three states, Minnesota, Iowa, and Wisconsin, initiated discussions of carpet diversion. In , these states, the US Environmental Protection Agency EPA , and some nongovernmental organizations signed a memorandum of under- standing MOU , which set up a schedule of target diversion rate goals of PCC from landfills for the next ten years.
However, due to the recent economic downturn and limited outlets for materials recovered from PCC, the actual recovered volumes are far below the target values. According to Californias De- partment of Resources Recycling and Recovery CalRecycle , these fees are to be collected by manufacturers or a carpet stewardship organization that redistributes them to collection, sorting, and recycling businesses to encourage carpet recycling in California.
CARE currently serves as the carpet stewardship organization. Manufac- turers that sell carpet in California either need to be covered by CAREs stewardship plan or they must submit their own carpet stewardship plan CalRecycle Table 1. A summary of the organizations discussed and their role in the US carpet industry are shown is Table 1.
The biggest problem with carpet recycling is its complex structure. Because it is de- signed to be used for a long period, a carpet consists of several layers made of different materials that are tightly bonded together.
Some manufacturers are redesigning their carpet to be more recyclable. However, due to the long lifetime of a carpet, benefits from these efforts will not be seen until ten or more years from the introduction of such carpet to the market. The majority of carpets sold in the USA are broadloom tufted carpet, which consist of face fibers, primary backing, bonding agents, and secondary backing Wang et al. The face fibers, which can be made of nylon N6 or N66 , polyester PET , polypropylene PP , acrylic fiber, wool, or a mix of polymers are tufted to the primary backing and secured by latex adhesive by applying it under primary backing.
Finally, secondary backing is bonded to primary backing Mihut et al. Both primary and secondary backings usually are made from the same polymer e. Since a carpets composition differs depending on the type of face fiber and carpet end-use, different technologies are required to recover useful materials from PCC. In addition, the complex structure of a carpet does not permit the recovery of all materials in pure form. Therefore, these materials cannot be used in carpet production again but have to be marketed for different applications, where the quality of the material is less important.
The recovery options that may help to reduce the volume of carpet going to landfills include reusing it, refurbishing it, recycling it into other products with lower value, and recycling it in a closed-loop manner.
Some PCCs are good enough to be reused again after trimming and cleaning them. Such carpets can be donated to charitable organizations that can resell them at reduced prices or redistribute them for free to low-income households. Another approach is refurbishing or reconditioning carpets. Some companies accept their old carpets from consumers, and clean, recolor, and then sell them in secondary markets at reduced prices Mihut et al. Companies that recondition carpet include Milliken and Interface, Inc.
Both take back their commercial carpet tiles for refurbishing Colyer While reuse and refurbishing are probably the most economical ways to reduce the volume of landfilled carpet, they are limited in their application because most carpets are not good enough for reuse, and only a small portion of them can be refurbished.
In addition, these options solve the problem only temporarily, just postponing the time when the carpet will be disposed of. Methods to recycle carpets can be categorized into four groups: depolymeriza- tion, material extraction, melt-blending, and energy recovery. Depolymerization is a process to break down the used polymer into monomers via chemical reactions. These monomers are then polymerized again to produce the same polymer with virgin-like quality.
Due to the high value of nylon, this process is used to recycle nylon fibers from carpets. A detailed discussion of the depolymerization process for nylon can be found in Mihut et al.
While both Nylon 6 and Nylon 6,6 can be broken down to monomeric units, depolymerization of the latter one is more complicated.
The quality of recycled nylon is high, and it is used in a blend with virgin nylon to produce face fibers for new carpet, forming a closed-loop carpet recycling chain.
The plant can recycle million pounds of Nylon 6 carpet into 30 million pounds of caprolactam monomer for N6 Delozier Another way to recycle carpet is through extracting separate materials by me- chanical methods. In this process, the carpet is grounded and then the components are separated based on density using air or liquids Wang Alternatively, face fibers can be sheared or shaved from a carpet.
Fibers are cleaned, sent to customers as is, or pelletized with the possible addition of some filler. While this process can be used on any type of face fiber, the purity of the resulting material is lower.
It can- not be used in carpet production again but has to be directed to other applications, including different molded products e. The entire carpet can also be shredded without component separation, and the resulting fiber mixture can be used for concrete and soil reinforcement. Molded products e. Some compatibilizer or reinforcing components such as glass fibers can be added to improve the properties of such melts.
In the case of Collins and Aikman, this approach is used in closed-loop production, where their used nylon carpet with PVC backing is melted without separation and is used to produce a new backing called ER3 environmentally redesigned, reused, recycled Fishbein If none of the options described above can be used due to economic reasons, the carpet or residuals from carpet recycling are usually burned with energy recovery.
These include carpet cushions, erosion control systems, chambers for septic and storm water management, fiber blocks, automo- tive parts, and fuel made, in part, of carpet binders.
However, the markets for these products as well as for the low-quality resins produced by melting carpets or their components are limited in size or the value of the resulting products is too low to justify investments in recycling equipment and collection networks. De- polymerization of Nylon 6 obtained from face fibers seems to be one of best options to divert a significant volume of carpets from landfills.
However, formic acid disso- lution, another chemical recycling process that can be used to process both Nylon 6 and Nylon 6,6 and is implemented in a commercial operation in Delaware CARE , may also prove to be promising. Acquisition of used carpets from consumers is the first step in the carpet reverse supply chain.
This stage determines the volume of carpet that goes to recycling. There are several options to collect PCC, including sorting from general trash, aggregation at retail sites and collection at specialized centers Woolard Sorting of carpets from general trash is problematic, since it is mixed with other waste and becomes wet and contaminated, making it inappropriate for recycling Realff The issue with retail-based collection is that many retailers do not have enough space to store collected carpet and protect it from the outside environment Realff The option where end-users or installers bring old carpets to specialized collection centers is the most attractive, and many individual companies specializing in carpet collection and recycling utilize this scheme.
Used carpets can be delivered to their collection centers for a tipping fee. After collection, a carpet has to be sorted and preprocessed. It is often difficult to identify different types of carpets by sight only. Virgin Material Inputs. Sorting can be carried out manually with a portable spectrometer, which is labor-intensive Wang If significant volumes are processed at a collection center, more expensive automated sorting equipment can be used Realff Then, sorted carpets are baled to increase the amount of carpet that can fit into a truck to be shipped for further processing.
Nonrecyclable carpets are sent to local landfills or incineration facilities. The processing steps conducted at a recycling facility depend on the recycling options selected.
In most cases, the carpet is shredded or ground to reduce its size. If a processor is interested in the recycling of face fibers only, they can be ripped off or shaved. After size reduction, carpets are used in the recycling processes discussed in previous sections, which includes caprolactam recovery from Nylon 6 carpet, mechanical separation of carpet to different material streams, melting the entire carpet to produce pellets or molded products, and incineration for energy recovery.
According to the classification of reverse logistics networks proposed by Fleis- chmann , carpet recycling is a typical material recovery network. The main motivation for organization of such networks is legislation requirements or attempts to preempt possible legislation.
This recycling is characterized by low profit, and it requires significant investment in equipment; this can be justified only with high processing volumes. The network usually consists of a small number of levels, and transportation costs are a significant part of total costs. One of the most important tasks of a reverse logistics network is to convey used product from a disposer market to a reuse market efficiently Fleischmann et al.
In this way, returned products go through a set of reverse logistics activities, including collection, sorting, reprocessing, and redistribution.
Analogous to the for- ward supply chain, the appropriate location of reverse activities and setting up links between them has a significant influence on the economic viability of the reverse net- work Fleischmann During network design, the following decisions should be made Akali et al.
What is the capacity of each facility and what tasks should each facility perform? How should the flow of materials or products between facilities be allocated?
While these decisions resemble the typical ones that arise during the design of the forward supply chain, some specific questions for reverse logistics are: How should returned products be collected to maximize the collection rate? Where should they be graded to avoid transportation of unrecyclable materials and to minimize investments into sorting equipment?
What recovery options should be used to recover the maximum value? How many levels should be included in the network? How centralized should the recovery facilities be to realize economies of scale? Should the recovery network be an extension of the forward network or not?
What links between the forward and reverse networks should exist? How does the uncertainty of the reverse supply influence the network design? The growing importance of effective handling and processing of returned flows of products has resulted in an increasing number of publications on network design for reverse and closed-loop supply chains. In many cases, these problems are similar to those of the forward supply chain and are often expressed as some modification of forward models.
However, multiple recovery options for the returned products and the additional reverse activities, together with high uncertainty of returned volumes and the need for integration of the reverse and forward supply chains, significantly increase the complexity of the reverse network design. This section provides a literature review of network design problems for reverse lo- gistics applications.
There is a series of review papers in the literature concerning network design for reverse logistics. De Brito and Dekker analyzed reverse network studies with respect to product, recovery activities, entities involved, and reasons and drivers of the recovery systems. As part of a broader review of facility location decisions in supply chain management, Melo et al. The paper of Akali et al. The authors considered more than 30 papers, analyzing network structure and attributes, solution approach, computational testing, types of decisions, including location decisions, and cost elements included in the objective function.
The reverse activity column specifies for what step of the reverse logistics network or for what recovery option the model was designed.
If this information was not specified in the corresponding study or if the model developed can be applied to any recovery option, the term recovery is used. This column also contains information about the type of products or materials considered. This is given within parentheses under the activity. The next column Layers and Location Decisions specifies the structure of the network.
Layers in regular font were considered as fixed and facilities in layers given in italic font were located to optimize the objective function.
If the list of layers for a study starts and ends with a layer of the same name, this means that the network considered was closed-loop. The next column, Attributes, specifies some characteristics of the model, which include: Fixed charge vs. P-median In this classification, P-median problems are problems aimed at locating a pre- defined number of facilities and allocating customers to them to optimize an objective, which is only a function of customerfacility distance.
Fixed charge problems consider costs associated with opening facilities in the objec- tive and in addition to location-allocation decisions, seek to find the optimum number of facilities to open. Discrete vs. In continuous problems, facilities are located on a continuous plane.
Uncapacitated vs. In a capacitated case, facilities can accept only limited flow volume from customers. Warehouses Customers Jayaraman et al. Salema et al. Single-period vs. Deterministic vs. Single-commodity vs. Linear vs. In nonlinear models, the relationships are more complex and usually require different solution approaches. Single-objective vs. Values in italics in the list above are default values, and only deviations from these default values are specified in Table 1. The field of application of these models varies from demolition waste to electronic products.
The structure of the discussed models varies from simple, open- loop, two-layer models with one optimization layer to complex, closed-loop systems that include four or more interrelated layers, most of which have to be optimally located. In addition to location decisions, all papers also define the allocation of lower-level nodes customers or facilities to higher-level nodes and volume of prod- uct that has to be directed through each path.
It is also common for many studies to define a set of reverse logistics tasks that have to be carried out at each facility and to select the best transportation options between facilities. All models given in Table 1. In terms of the combination of model attributes, the studies vary from deterministic, uncapacitated, single-period, single-product, lin- ear models with one objective to capacitated, multi-product, multi-period, nonlinear models with stochastic parameters and multiple objectives.
For larger problems, solutions were obtained us- ing Lagrangian relaxation, heuristic concentration, heuristic expansion, tabu search, genetic algorithms, or combinations of these heuristics. As can been seen from Table 1. In addition, research on setting up carpet collection and carpet recycling networks in the USA has recently been completed by Sas In this section, a detailed overview of each of these studies is provided.
Louwers developed an optimization model to locate an intermediate layer of regional preprocessing centers between the sources and processors of PCC. The model was applied to cases of carpet recycling in Europe and the USA.
The prob- lem was formulated as a single-period, multi-commodity, capacitated, continuous model with three layers. The PCC collected at the sources was transported to the pre- processing centers, where it was sorted and compacted.
The recyclable carpet was shipped to the processors, and the other carpet was shipped to landfills or incineration facilities. The model objective was to minimize total costs, which included PCC ac- quisition costs, transportation costs, storage costs, preprocessing costs, and disposal costs. The decision variables were capacities, number and location of preprocessing centers, quantities shipped from each source to each preprocessing facility, and quan- tities of each material shipped from each preprocessing facility to each processor or disposal site.
Realff et al. In general, the model used for these studies can be described as follows. The collection volumes at each site were proportional to the population. Reverse logistics tasks included sorting and three types of reprocessing: depolymer- ization of Nylon 6, depolymerization both of Nylon 6 and Nylon 6,6, and shoddy production. Two different sets of potential locations for two depolymerization pro- cesses were given. Sorting could be set up at any collection point or processing site.
Both sorting and recycling processes were capacitated, and recycling sites could set up a depolymerization process with three different capacities. Carpet collected at processing sites could be sold from one site to another, converted to secondary mate- rials, or disposed for some fees.
The model objective was to maximize the net revenue by locating processing sites and sorting operations, and defining the transportation modes between sites and volumes of carpet shipped.
This model was used to study the influence of collection volumes and different assumptions about possible site locations on the net revenues of a nationwide recy- cling system and a recycling system in the state of Georgia within the USA. Later, the model was used for the robust design of a nationwide carpet recycling system to account for unpredictable collection volumes and prices of recycled materials.
Bucci et al. The network consisted of two layers: collection centers located in the most populous 3-digit ZIP codes and recycling centers that can be located at any 3-digit ZIP code.
The model objective was to minimize cost, which included fixed costs to open recycling centers, transportation costs between collection centers and the closest recycling center, and processing costs. The latter was modeled to be volume-dependent. The model was solved using a metaheuristic that allows optimizing large-scale network design problems with economies of scale. The metaheuristic was a constructive add procedure combined with a discrete alternate location-allocation ALA procedure.
Through comparison with CPLEX, the metaheuristic was shown to find near-optimal solutions for problems without economies of scale. As the annual collection amount increased, the optimal number of recycling centers increased. In addition, the optimal locations and allocations of recycling facilities changed moderately, demonstrating the importance of long-range planning to minimize costs.
Sas focused on two aspects of a carpet reverse logistics problem in the USA: the location of collection centers and the design of the recycling network. For the collection problem, he assumed that PCC was generated at the population centroids of all 5-digit ZIP codes with a population greater than zero 32, supply points of old carpets and that the volume of carpet generated at each location is proportional to the population.
The potential locations of the collection centers were the population centroid of all 5-digit ZIP codes, including those with zero population 41, potential locations. This problem of locating collection centers was formu- lated as a set covering optimization model with partial coverage. In order to solve very large instances of this NP-hard problem, a novel greedy randomized heuristic was created by combining and extending greedy approaches for similar problems available in the literature.
Computational results showed that the heuristic performs better than other greedy heuristics proposed in the literature for similar types of problems and that the heuristic found near optimal solutions for those problems that CPLEX could solve. Be careful of what you download or face the consequences. Torrentz 2 Search myTorrentz Help. This means we just search other search engines. Torrentz is a very powerful internet location search tool. Torrentz is not a torrent cache, torrent tracker nor a torrent directory, you cannot upload anything here.
Torrentz does not host or "make available" any files or torrents in any way, shape or form.Material Information
S: 0 L: 0 C: ID: S: 2 L: 1 C: ID: S: 0 L: 2 C: 0 ID: Submitter: ChouxCream Size: 6. S: 1 L: 1 C: 0 ID: S: 1 L: 0 C: 17 ID: Authorized: Yes Submitter: hs Size: 1. Visit our website for DDL links, schedules, and latest news. S: 9 L: 0 C: ID: Authorized: Yes Submitter: hs Size: S: 7 L: 0 C: ID: Submitter: Tennouji Size: S: 23 L: 0 C: ID: Submitter: ChouxCream Size: 7.
Authorized: Yes Submitter: Ohys Size: S: 3 L: 0 C: ID: S: 15 L: 0 C: ID: S: 16 L: 0 C: ID: S: 21 L: 0 C: ID: S: 2 L: 0 C: ID: Jabjab Maidoari 7 [Mugicha. Submitter: ChouxCream Size: 4. Submitter: LittleBakas! Size: S: 5 L: 1 C: ID: S: 0 L: 2 C: 70 ID: S: 4 L: 1 C: ID: S: 1 L: 1 C: ID: S: 3 L: 3 C: ID: Submitter: ChouxCream Size: 8. S: 0 L: 1 C: ID: Submitter: ChouxCream Size: 5. Authorized: Yes Submitter: Izumi-kun Size: S: 4 L: 0 C: 0 ID: Submitter: milannews Size: 8.
BanG Dreamer's Party! S: 6 L: 0 C: ID: S: 4 L: 0 C: ID: Submitter: milannews Size: 5. Submitter: ChouxCream Size: 3. Submitter: Anonymous Size: 4. Submitter: milannews Size: 1. Submitter: ChouxCream Size: 9. S: 5 L: 3 C: 0 ID: S: 1 L: 0 C: 7 ID: Goma-chan - [p].
Authorized: Yes Submitter: Erai-raws Size: S: 10 L: 0 C: ID: Submitter: Anonymous Size: S: 0 L: 1 C: 8 ID: Submitter: NewDragon Size: 1. S: 0 L: 2 C: 12 ID: S: 12 L: 0 C: ID: Submitter: Anonymous Size: 5. S: 0 L: 0 C: 91 ID: Submitter: Anonymous Size: 7. S: 0 L: 1 C: 97 ID: Escape decensored. Despite the high volume of carpet disposed in the USA each year, which leads to the loss of valuable materials and puts significant pressure on landfills, the carpet diversion rate is low.
To explain factors that influence the recovery rate of different products, Sect. In such settings, well-organized reverse logistics networks are very important.
Carpet recycling in the USA was shown to be a material recovery network, as per the classification of reverse logistics networks proposed by Fleischmann Material recovery networks include those networks established by industry-wide or- ganizations that have been formed to preempt possible legislation. They typically have low profits, large recycling equipment costs that require high processing vol- umes to be economically feasible, and transportation costs that make up a large portion of total cost.
While it seems that CARE members had hoped that opportunities for making money alone would inspire entrepreneurs and carpet manufacturers to develop the innovations necessary to divert sufficient amounts of PCC from the landfills, gov- ernments within the USA seem concerned about the rate of progress. Regardless of the ultimate combination of free market opportunities versus legis- lated requirements in the USA, research into all of areas of carpet recycling is crucial to prevent billions of pounds of carpet from being disposed of in US landfills in the most cost-effective manner.
There is clearly a need for identifying new markets for recovered carpet materials as well as developing new recycling techniques and im- proving existing ones. However, because logistics costs are often a significant part of the costs of recycling carpet and high volumes of PCC are usually necessary to keep processing costs manageable, network design issues are also of great importance.
There has been quite a bit of research on network design for general reverse logistics problems and some for carpet applications. While this seems to be the most feasible option, incorporating other recovery options, such as melt-blending, down-cycled products, and waste-to- energy, in a model may lead to new insights into network structure and profitability.
In addition, all papers considered reverse carpet recycling networks separately from the forward supply chain. Akali, E. Network design for reverse and closed-loop supply chains: An annotated bibliography of models and solution approaches. Networks, 53 3 , Akdogan M.
Drivers of reverse logistics activities: An empirical investigation. ProcediaSocial and Behavioral Sciences, 58, Aras, N. Locating collection centers for incentive- dependent returns under a pick-up policy with capacitated vehicles.
European Journal of Operational Research, 3 , Barros, A. A two-level network for recycling sand: A case study. European Journal of Operational Research, 7 Blumberg, D. Introduction to management of reverse logistics and closed loop supply chain processes. Boca Raton: CRC. Bucci, M.
Incorporating economies of scale into facility location problems in carpet recycling. Journal of the Textile Institute. Advanced online publication, doi: Accessed 3 June California carpet stewardship plan. CARE pp. Dalton, GA. Accessed 5 Feb. Great ideas. Accessed 5 Feb CARE annual report Carpet recycling Chang, N.
Siting recycling drop-off stations in urban area by genetic algorithm-based fuzzy multiobjective nonlinear integer programming modeling. Fuzzy Sets and Systems, 1 , Channel leadership, performance and coordination in closed loop supply chains. International Journal of Production Economics, , Colyer, B. Closing the carpet loop. Cruz-Rivera, R. Reverse logistics network design for the collection of end-of- life vehicles in Mexico.
A framework for reverse logistics. Dekker, M. Fleischmann, K. Inderfurth, and L. Van Wassenhove Eds. Berlin: Springer. Reverse logistics: a review of case studies. Fleischmann and A. Klose Eds. Berlin: Springer Berlin Heidelberg. Delozier, R. Re-start of Evergreen Nylon recycling. Ferguson, N. Issues in end-of-life product recovery and reverse logistics.
Production Planning and Control, 12 5 , Fishbein, B. Carpet take-back: EPR American style. Environmental Quality Manage- ment, 10 1 , Fleischmann, M. Reverse logistics network structures and design. Guide Ed. Quantitative models for reverse logistics: A review. European Journal of Operational Research, 1 , The impact of product recovery on logistics network design. Production and Operations Management, 10 2 , Georgiadis, P.
Decision making in reverse logistics using system dynamics. Yugoslav Journal of Operations Research, 14 2 , Guide, D. Managing product returns for remanufacturing. Building contingency planning for closed-loop supply chains with product recovery. Journal of Operations Management, 21 3 , Jayaraman, V.
A closed-loop logistics model for remanufacturing. The Journal of the Operational Research Society, 50 5 , The design of reverse distribution networks: Models and solution procedures. Kara, S. A stochastic optimization approach for paper recycling reverse logistics network design under uncertainty. Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 7 4 , Ko, H.
Computers and Operations Research, 34 2 , Krikke, H. Partnerships in reverse logistics: OR-model building in view of practical developments. Kroon, L. Returnable containers: an example of reverse logistics. Kumar, V. Reverse supply chain: an integrated research framework. Banff, Alberta. Kumar, R.
A goal programming model for paper recycling system. The International Journal of Management Science, 36, Lee, D. A heuristic approach to logistics network design for end-of-lease computer products recovery.
Lieckens, K. Reverse logistics network design with stochastic lead times. Listes, O. A generic stochastic model for supply-and-return network design.
A stochastic approach to a case study for product recovery network design. Louwers, D. A facility location allocation model for reusing carpet materials. Computers and Industrial Engineering, 36 4 , Lu, Z. A facility location model for logistics systems including reverse flows: The case of remanufacturing activities.
Marin, A. The return plant location problem: modelling and resolution. European Journal of Operational Research, , Melo, M. Facility location and supply chain managementA review. European Journal of Operational Research, 2 , Mihut, C. Review: Recycling of nylon from carpet waste. Engineering, 41 9 , Min, H.
A genetic algorithm approach to developing the multi-echelon reverse logistics network for product returns. The International Journal of Management Science, 34 1 , The spatial and temporal consolidation of returned products in a closed-loop supply chain network. Computers and Industrial Engineering, 51 2 , Peoples, R. Carpet stewardship in the United Statesa commitment to sustainability.
Wang Ed. Cambridge: Woodhead. Realff, M. Systems planning for carpet recycling. Carpet recycling: determining the reverse production system design. Polymer-Plastics Technology and Engineering, 38 3 , Modeling and decision-making for reverse production system design for carpet recycling. The Journal of Textile Institute, 91 3 , Robust reverse production system design for carpet recycling. IIE Transactions, 36 8 , Salema, M. A warehouse-based design model for reverse logistics.
Journal of the Operational Research Society, 57 6 , An optimization model for the design of a capacitated multi-product reverse logistics network with uncertainty. Sas, I. Logistics of closed-loop textile recycling. Savaskan, R. Closed-loop supply chain models with product remanufacturing. Management Science, 50 2 , Sim, E. A generic network design for a closed-loop supply chain using genetic algorithm. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, , Spengler, T.
Environmental integrated production and recycling management. European Journal of Operational Research, 97 2 , Srivastava, S. Managing product returns for reverse logistics. Thierry, M. Strategic issues in product recovery management. California Management Review, 37 2 , Tibben-Lembke, R. Differences between forward and reverse logistics in a retail environment.
Benders decomposition with alter- native multiple cuts for a multi-product closed-loop supply chain network design model. Naval Research Logistics, 54 8 , Wang, Y. Carpet recycling technologies. Wang, I. Fast heuristics for designing integrated e-waste re- verse logistics networks.
Wang, C. A mixed-integer linear model for optimal processing and transport of secondary materials. Clean Air, 15 8 , Recycling of carpet and textile fibers. Andrady Ed. New York: Wiley. Woolard, R. Logistical model for closed loop recycling of textile materials. Masters Thesis. Abstract With a growing number of major fashion brands engaging in green- branding initiatives, environmental sustainability is becoming a management agenda that is being prioritized among many companies.
However, the research literature is mixed in assessing the potential of the green strategy. Based on the schema theory as the theoretical framework, this chapter offers propositions that address how to leverage the interrelationship among the consumer, brand, and environmental sus- tainability within the context of green-branding strategies for fashion.
Supported by the research literature and current movements in the fashion industry, this chap- ter explains how consumer receptivity to and decision making with regard to green fashion brands are influenced by the relationship between 1 consumer and environ- mental sustainability, 2 brand and environmental sustainability, and 3 consumer and brand.
Consumer acceptance of green brands is dependent on how consumers process new green information within the context of the brand schema. Consumer motivation and ability to incorporate environmental sustainability within the brand schema will influence consumer attitudes toward the green brand. Also, the perceived fit between the brand and environmental sustainability as well as the authenticity of the business strategy will influence consumer response. In addition, consumers abil- ity to integrate the fashion brands image with environmental values and the strength of their relationship with the brand will determine how green brand attributes are ac- cepted.
Industry implications for green branding are discussed and recommendations for future research are presented. Likewise, strategies related to environmental sustainability are active in the apparel industry.
An increasing number of apparel brands are placing environmental. Kim M. Kim and M. Furthermore, a growing number of major brands are being reported in the media for their initiatives in environmental sustainability e. As such, we see a growing commitment to environmental sustainability, with companies not only viewing this as a necessity to their business practices but also a source of financial profits Haanaes et al.
Closed-loop systems keep unwanted apparel products out of landfills, with some companies e. In Patagonias Common Threads Program, organic cotton and recycled polyester are used in many of their products, efforts are made to minimize pack- aging and transportation waste, and quality products are produced that last a long time.
Finally, Eileen Fishers Eco Collection line includes classic and well-made garments that can be worn a long time and seamless knits that cut down on waste Meet Eileen Fisher n. Fashion brands are also considered green with their support of environmen- tal causes Milne In addition, companies routinely support environmental causes as part of their corporate culture where sales of the green brand apparel products indirectly support various environmental causes.
Consumers purchasing Loomstate T-shirts indirectly support company participation in beach cleanup projects, wildlife conservation efforts, and upcycling projects.
As such, we are witnessing a growing number of big companies make management decisions to weave environmental sustainability within their products and business operations.
In spite of the common practice of the greening of brands, the literature is mixed in assessing the actual potential of a brands green strategy and its receptiv- ity by consumers. The report notes that although being green was a considered brand attribute, it fell behind other basic brand attributes such as value, quality, and trustworthiness. Although some evidence shows a potential disconnect between consumers and green-branding strategies, there is still a strong market that expects companies to consider environmental sustainability within their business de- cisions.
This chapter offers a discussion of the interrelationship among the consumer, brand, and environmental sustainability within the context of green-branding strate- gies. Using the schema theory, we explain how consumer receptivity to and decision making with regard to green fashion brands are based on three connections: 1 con- sumer and environmental sustainability, 2 brand and environmental sustainability, and 3 consumer and brand see Fig.
Consumer acceptance of green brands is dependent on how consumers process new green information pertaining to the brand. Whether consumers develop positive attitudes toward the new green attribute or new green brand extension is dependent on how the green strategy brand fits into con- sumer motivation and ability to incorporate environmental sustainability within the brand schema, consumers perceptions about environmental sustainability in relation to the brand, and consumers strength of relationship with the brand.
The schema theory focuses on the importance of the mental structure or schema of preexisting ideas or framework that represents ones understanding and knowledge related to particular aspects of an individuals experience such as an event, person, or object Rumelhart Based on ones existing knowledge framework, schema also serves as a system for structuring, organizing, and interpreting new information Crocker et al. Consumers schema of brands can include their knowledge about brand attributes and their evaluations of the brand.
As such, a schema has an influential role in how new knowledge is processed and accepted. The schema theory has been used as the theoretical base in the brand management literature to explain consumer response to brand extensions or sub-brands where firms leverage the association of successful established brands category extensions or line extensions Chatterjee ; Park et al. The schema theory also explains attitude and belief change and how consumers evaluate brands Park et al.
Specifically, theories of stereotypic change Crocker et al. While schemas can mature with increasing experience to fit varied experiences, individuals can be exposed to information incongruent with the schema in which case knowledge structures must be modified to accommodate the incongruent information.
Several information- processing models e. The subtyping model suggests that consumers process new information that does not fit into their current schema in a compartmentalized way. For example, if a brand extension does not share similarities to the parent brand, consumers will store information concerning the brand extension in a separate cognitive category which limits the negative impact of atypical infor- mation. The book-keeping model suggests a gradual modification of schema with a higher accumulation of incongruent information prompting more substantial change Weber and Crocker Here, the book-keeping model views attitude change as an incremental process triggered by sustained informational influence.
Finally, the conversion model suggests schema to change drastically in response to extremely atypical information and remain unchanged in response to minor differences. Sud- den changes in brand attributes or introduction of dramatically atypical information perceived as being unrelated or contradictory to the current impressions of the brand may prompt perceptual changes in brand image.
Within the fashion industry, we see a growing number of green brands that leverage the brand equity of the current or parent brand. The schema theory can also be applied within the context of firms introducing green attributes within existing product brands where consumers must process new information using their own existing schemata for the brand.
Using the schema theory as the conceptual framework, this chapter offers insight into how consumer response to green-branding efforts is moderated by the three important connections among environmental sustainability, consumer, and the brand. Based on a literature review of theoretical and empirical studies, the propositions formulated within the chapter summarize past studies on green branding and offer ideas on how consumers process and respond to green brands, which will be moderated by their own environmental sustainability values, perceptions of fit between the brand and environmental sustainability, and the strength of their preexisting relationship with the brand.
Consumer attitude toward environmental sustainability, also known as environmen- tal or green attitude, is a function of individuals beliefs, feelings, and behaviors related to environmental issues Schultz et al. Through the years, marketing research has examined consumer perceptions of green products and related marketing activities e.
Results from these studies do not consistently show strong relationships between attitude and behavior. While some studies have found environmental attitudes to be directly linked to en- vironmentally sound consumption e.
Several apparel studies offer evidence that environmental attitude influence intentions to purchase green apparel e. Results from these studies can be supported by Strahilevitz and Myerss findings that cause-related marketing campaigns for high-involvement products such as apparel have a higher likelihood of influencing purchase decisions. Although several empir- ical studies examining consumer perceptions of green messages via apparel product advertisements or labeling can be found in past literature e.
In one study, Yan et al. Several non-apparel related studies also point to the direct re- lationship between environmental attitude and green brand attitude e. Based on the schema theory, we propose that consumers with higher environ- mental attitude will have a predisposition to draw a natural connection between environmental sustainability and products and brands. Even if the brand has no previous track record with environmental sustainability, environmentally conscious consumers will be more willing to incorporate the green attribute within their current parent brand schema and thus form a positive response toward green brands.
The following proposition reflects this idea. Proposition 1 Consumers environmental sustainability value positively moderates consumers motivation to fit new green brand attributes into the current fashion brand schema. In the case of apparel, sustainable business practices are often linked to the design and production processes for products within the same product line or category.
Con- sumer preference for product-related messages compared to cause-related messages highlight the importance of green strategies that are linked directly to the product Phau and Ong Yan et al. Several studies point to how consumers respond to green strategies in various marketing contexts e. Hiller Connell found lack of concrete knowledge to be a constraint on green apparel consumption. Kang et al. Cheah and Phau found ecoliteracy to influence attitude toward a wide range of environmentally friendly products.
Borin and Cerf note that clear explanations of environmental impact on labels will improve consumer evaluations. Chatterjee found that consumers were more likely to purchase green brand extension with higher environmental impact.
This reason- ing indicates that the ability of the consumer to be able to understand the evidence behind the green strategy is critical to the success of a green strategy.
Interestingly, a study by DSouza and Taghian indicates that consumers who were more highly environmentally involved tended to be more critical to green advertisements. When considered within the context of how consumers connect green strategies with fashion products and brands, we assume that consumers with higher levels of knowledge of product development and production processes will have a better understanding of the environmental implications of the green strategy of the fash- ion brands.
Consequently, consumers ability to better understand the environmental implications of fashion products will also influence formation of their environmen- tal attitude. Proposition 2 Consumers knowledge of product development and production pro- cesses of fashion products is positively related to consumers ability to understand how environmental sustainability fits within a fashion brand schema.
As consumer perceptions of the relationship between environmental sustainability and the green brand are important, green brands must be able to position themselves as authentic players in the green brand market. The brands current image within the consumer market, whether consumers see a good fit between the brand and green strategy, and how the brands environmental strategy is communicated as part of their new market positioning are important factors.
This section discusses how companies can strengthen their green brand strategy through communication strategies and aspects of brand image that support its connection with environmental sustainability.
A study by Landor Associates Romero and Braun show advertizing and brands own websites to be the most powerful ways to increase awareness and knowl- edge of a brands environmental practices. Green brand communication needs to be an integrated strategy consisting of deliberate and proactive actions aimed at the definition of distinct consumer perceptions Hartmann et al.
A successful green brand must distinguish itself in the marketplace from other green brands in such a way so as to be distinctive to consumers. Studies indicate that consumers frequently receive green-marketing communication where the validity of environ- mental claims are in question, confusing, or unverifiable Bonini and Oppenheim ; Yan et al.
Ng et al. Sound green branding increases consumer trust and creates brand loyalty TerraChoice According to Chatterjee , brand managers need to discern the perceived value of the green brand extension and conceive and maintain an appropriate marketing strategy for maximum brand equity. The credibility of a companys environmental values is influenced by whether the new green branding-based knowledge fits into the existing consumer schema of the apparel brand.
These types of brand associative incongruities can become problematic with green-branding credibility, which may ultimately lead to misalliances between consumer schema of brand and green-branding efforts.
We propose that a more ef- fective brands green strategy should be implemented where consumers perceive a companys environmental values to be authentic. Proposition 3 Consumers respond more positively to green brands with authentic environmental values and credible environmental business strategies which influence perceptions of fit between the green brand strategy and brand schema.
Effective communication of brand attributes is important to the successful position- ing of distinctive and competitive green brands Hartmann et al. Aaker and Joachimsthaler note the importance of actively communicating a brands iden- tity and value proposition to customers.
Although the importance of communicating green brand attributes is noted Pickett et al. Most of past research liter- ature relates to the influence of cognitive and rational factors e. According to Keller , effective branding goes beyond communicating per- formance and rational benefits but also emotional benefits.
Indeed, as some studies show a weak connection between cognitive factors such environmental concern and environmental knowledge with purchase behavior e.
In a study of green posi- tional strategies, Hartmann et al. Also, an experimental study by Matthes et al. For fashion products, there is a fine line between using cognitive elaboration versus emotional involvement in consumer decision making.
Decisions related to fashion products are associated with individual preferences for and social accep- tance of design and style as well as evaluation of fit, quality, and value. Although almost all brands can be identified and described by customers emotional response, emotions can be used to describe consumption behavior of many fashion brands in particular. Green fashion brands may better be able to incorporate their green brand attributes and emotionally appeal to a customer base that is accustomed to identifying brands in an affective way.
For example, fashion designer Stella Mc- Cartneys website offers not only informative details of her green product line but also evidence of sustainability as part of the brands values and mission. The brand website offers a strong commitment to sustainability in its products, product de- velopment, and co-branding opportunities with Adidas. Similar to Stella McCartney, Naus website also presents a strong commitment to environmen- tal sustainability with an informative website that details sustainability as being part of the companys genetic make-up.
Naus website offers the brands perspective on sustainable fashion as being intertwined with decisions related to design and de- velopment. Whereas Stella McCartney is represented as an eco-chic contemporary upscale fashion brand, Nau exudes a Zen-like presence of simplicity and calm.
We propose that consumers are able to better modify their brand schema with persuasive communication that leverage both the functional and emotional appeal of green brands. As functional appeals may be better evaluated by consumers with higher levels of environmental awareness, emotional appeals are necessary to achieve a strong brand attitude among the general consumer group. Consumers are accus- tomed to developing fashion brand images based on communication strategies that incorporate various dramatic and fantastic imagery and emotions.
As such, green brand communication strategies that emotionally appeal to consumers and build affective relationships should be impactful. Proposition 4 Consumers are able to modify their brand schema when supported by marketing communications strategies that incorporate both functional and emotional appeal of green fashion brands. Branding is a means employed by brands to distinguish their products from competi- tors through the creation of awareness and reputation Keller Keller states, These differences may be rational and tangible-related to product perfor- mance of the brand-or more symbolic, emotional, and intangible-related to what the brand represents p.
In the case of brand extensions where established parent brand names are used to introduce new products, many studies have noted the influ- ential role of parent brands on consumer attitudes toward the new brand extension e. The perceived fit between the parent brand and extension as well as consumers impressions of the parent brand is influential in the success of the new brand Pina et al.
The success of any green-branding strategy is important so as not to negatively impact the parent brand Chatterjee Given the growing offering of green brands, many of which may hold negative perceptions with regard to au- thenticity, quality, and price competitiveness, parent brand equity will play a bigger role in how consumers evaluate green brands.
Current customers are more likely to consider and favor brands with which they are familiar. In their study of green brand extensions, Kim and Ma found that consumers who strongly identify with the parent brand showed intentions to purchase green brand extensions even though they did not develop positive attitudes toward the green brand extension itself. As such, in situations where customers are loyal to the brand regardless of whether a new green brand strategy does not necessarily relate to the current brand or appeal to the customer base, we propose consumers will respond positively to the new green brand extensions.
Proposition 5 Positive response to a new green brand extension may occur based on the strength of consumers schema of the parent brand and their ability to compartmentalize the new green information separately from the parent brand.
In order to maintain a strong brand, companies should do the right thing by em- bracing corporate social responsibility and taking a long-term vision on managing the brand Keller Like many other industries, various aspects of product de- velopment, production, and consumption can be improved for fashion products to be environmentally sustainable. Along with the increasing awareness among consumers to be green, many fashion brands have implemented strong and wide-ranging strate- gies to be environmentally sustainable.
Some strategic efforts have been in direct response to consumer demand for accountability whereas other efforts have been part of prioritized corporate values and mission to be environmentally sustainable.
Despite the increasing participation in environmental sustainability by both con- sumers and brands, whether and how environmentally sustainable branding receives favorable response by consumers is still unclear. Using the schema theory as the theoretical framework, we proposed factors that facilitate consumers processing of green-branding information to modify or fit into their brand schemas.
Successful green-branding programs have a good understanding of how consumers think and feel about environmental sustainability and the brand. Leveraging the strength of the relationships among environmental sustainability, consumer, and brand offers ways in which green branding can be incorporated within a companys branding strategy. The literature shows overwhelming evidence that consumers with environmen- tally sustainable values strongly respond to green brands and products.
Certainly, we are living in a big wave of environmental movement as profit, nonprofit, and govern- ment organizations are supporting and implementing environmentally sustainable programs. As a growing number of the general population embrace the issues sur- rounding environmental sustainability, green-branding strategies is a more favored part of consumer decision making. How a fashion brand presents itself as a green brand influences consumer motivation to accept the green-branding strategy.
Companies are going beyond gratuitous mentioning of their green-branding efforts. Fashion brands are offering technical information and inno- vative ways to reduce waste and pollution. Fashion brands such as Stella McCartney and Patagonia offer well-crafted information that balances the technical challenges with the esthetic appeal.
As such, fashion brands not only appeal to knowledgeable consumers who appreciate the information which allows them to better assess the significance of the green-branding efforts but fashion brands can also serve as leaders of green branding through educating and transforming consumers as well.
In some ways, fashion brands may be more challenged in transforming their image due to fashions inherent reputation of satisfying consumers esthetic, expressive, and psychological needs that may be considered nonessential and excessive. The fashion industry is based on the principle of planned obsolescence where new styles are introduced every season to stimulate the need to buy something new among consumers.
The challenge for fashion brands is to integrate and align these two seemingly antithetical business practices. Fashion brands must maintain their strong image and profitability but at the same time show that they care about the people and the planet. Developing an image of authenticity and commitment to do the right thing is critical to establishing a green strategy.
Brand image building must be supported by carefully planned green commu- nication strategies that weave green branding within their current brand strategy. Consumers must be able to fit the green brand strategy within their current brand schema.
Fashion brands that exude deep fundamental values that place importance on people and the planet will be better positioned to leverage their image into green brand initiatives. Although green attributes within apparel products themselves are not ap- parently visible, emotional appeals through green imagery and other meaningful descriptions capturing designer or brands commitment to environmental sustain- ability would be an effective way to deliver information.
As consumers understand fashion brands mostly from an esthetic and symbolic point of view, communication strategies that incorporate environmental sustainability in a similar way would be important. Communication strategies should aim to create an emotional need for sustainable fashion brands Fernandez Fashion brands should take advantage of becoming leaders in environmental sustainability by leveraging their existing brands.
Research shows consumer re- sponse to new branding strategies is influenced by their existing relationships with the parent brand. Stronger well-recognized brands are in better positions to initiate green-branding strategies. Moreover, larger multinational fashion companies have a moral obligation to the human race and the planet to do their part in cutting down waste and pollution in the product development, production, and distribution pro- cess.
The many opportunities to engage in environmental sustainability from concept to consumer should be considered. Research opportunities for academic scholars are discussed. Overall, the pop- ulations growing awareness of environmental sustainability has influenced how consumers think about their purchases and their commitment to doing less harm to the planet.
In-depth studies are needed that offer an overview of how fashion companies are working to incorporate environmental sustainability 1 as a corporate value, 2 within their product development process, and 3 within their branding strategy.
Also, how corporate decisions are made reflects the brands com- mitment to environmental sustainability and employees attitude, as believers of the green effort would offer interesting insight into the green culture of the company. Also, more research that examines consumer decision making that takes into con- sideration the trade-offs among price, quality, and sustainability is in order.
Finally, studies should examine the potential effects of corporate leadership versus regulatory compliance related to production of sustainable fashion products. Aaker, D. Brand leadership. New York: Free Press. Bonini, S. Cultivating the green consumer. Stanford Social Innovation Review, 6 4 , Borin, N.
Consumer effects of environmental impact in product labeling. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 28 1 , Chan, T. The consumption side of sustainable fashion supply chain: Under- standing fashion consumer eco-fashion consumption decisions. Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management, 16 2 , Chatterjee, P.
Green brand extension strategy and online communities. Journal of Systems and Information Technology, 11 4 , Cheah, I. Attitudes toward environmentally friendly products: The influence of ecoliteracy, interpersonal influence and value orientation. Material Intelligence and Planning, 29 5 , Intimate apparel analysis collection programs: A game-theoretic analysis [Unpublished manuscript]. Cone Communications. Costa, M. Sustainability: Brands must put green into the mainstream.
Marketing Week, 33 4 , Crocker, J. Schematic bases of belief change. Eiser Ed. New York: Springer. Czellar, S. Consumer attitude toward brand extensions: An integrative model and research propositions. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 20, Dickson, M. Social responsibility in the global apparel industry. New York: Fairchild. DSouza, C. Green advertising effects on attitude and choice of advertising themes.
Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, 17 3 , Fernandez, R. Fashionbi Fransson, N. Environmental concern: Conceptual definitions, measurement methods, and research findings.
Journal of Environmental Psychology, 19, Gam, H. Are fashion-conscious consumers more likely to adopt eco-friendly clothing? Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management, 15 2 , Grail Research , November. The green evolution. Grail Research, Incorporated, a Division of Intergreen. Grhan-Canli, Z. The effects of extensions on brand name dilution and enhancement. Journal of Marketing Research, 35, Haanes, K.
Sustainability nears a tipping point. Hartmann, P. Consumer attitude and purchase intentions toward green energy brands: The role of psychological benefits and environmental concern. Journal of Business Research, 65 9 , Green branding effects on attitude: Functional versus emotional positioning strategies.
Marketing Intelligence and Planning, 23 1 , Hiller Connell, K. Internal and external barriers to eco-conscious apparel acquisition. International Journal of Consumer Studies, 34, Social normative influence: An exploratory study inves- tigating its effectiveness in increasing engagement in sustainable apparel-purchasing behaviors.
Journal of Global Fashion Marketing, 3 4 , Husvedt, G. Consumer likelihood of purchasing organic cotton apparel: Influences of attitudes and self-identity. Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management, 13 1 , Hyllegard, K. Socially responsible labeling: The impact of hang tags on consumers attitudes and patronage intentions toward an apparel brand.
Clothing and Textiles Research Journal, 30 1 , Kang, J. Environmentally sustainable textile and apparel consumption: The role of consumer knowledge, perceived consumer effectiveness and perceived personal relevance. International Journal of Consumer Studies, 37, Keller, K. Strategic brand management 4th edn. Kim, H. Examination of environmental attitude and ad message credibility.
Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management, 3 1 , Kim, Y. Antecedents of green purchase behavior: An examination of collectivism, environmental concern, and PCE. Advances in Consumer Research, 32, Influence of parent brand attitude and self-brand congruity on consumer response to green brand extensions.
Journal of Global Fashion Marketing, 5 2 , Environmental messages in fashion advertisements: Impact on consumer responses. Clothing and Textiles Research Journal, 15 3 , The normative social influence on eco-friendly consumer behavior: The moderating effect of environmental claims. Clothing and Textile Research Journal, 30 1 , Kinnear, T.
Ecologically concerned consumers: Who are they? Journal of Marketing, 38, Lee, K. Making environmental communications meaningful to female adolescents: A study in Hong Kong.
Science Communication, 30, Gender differences in Hong Kong adolescent consumersgreen purchasing behavior. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 26 2 , Lee, N. Does green fashion retailing make consumers more eco-friendly? The influence of green fashion products and campaigns on green consciousness and behavior. Levis Water. Retrieved September 2, Loken, B. Diluting brand beliefs: When do brand extensions have a negative impact?
Journal of Marketing, 57, Matthes, J. Consumers green involvement and the persuasive effects of emotional versus functional ads. Journal of Business Research, 67, May, H. The structure of environmental attitudes: A first- and second- order confirmatory factor analysis.
Journal of Environmental Psychology, 24, Milfont, T. The environmental attitudes inventory: A valid and reliable measure to assess the structure of environmental attitudes. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 30 1 , Milne, C. Esquire [Web log]. Stylish clothes, with a side of philanthropy. Myers, B. Creating effective cause-brand alliances: The role of cause-brand fit, message source, and perceived motivations. Clothing and Textiles Research Journal, 30 3 , Ng, P. Antecedents of green brand equity: An integrated approach.
Journal of Business Ethics, , Park, C. The effects of direct and associative brand extension strategies on consumer response to brand extensions. Advances in Consumer Research, 20, Phau, I. An investigation of the effects of environmental claims in promotional messages for clothing brands.
Pickett, G. An examination of the conserving consumer: Implications for public policy formation in promoting conservation behavior. Mintu-Wimsatt Eds. New York: Haworth Press.
Pina, J. Generalizing spillover effects of goods and service brand extensions: A meta-analysis approach. Journal of Business Research, 66 9 , Reduce waste. Roberts, J. Green consumers in the s: Profile and implications for advertising. Journal of Business Research, 36 3 , Romero, M. Green Brands Four insights into consumer eco- perceptions. Schemata: The building blocks of cognition. Spiro, C. Brewer Eds.