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Indeterminacy of meaning arises when the meaning of an expression seems indeterminate, e. Processing, decoding the encoded multi-bit data, c starting a software application corresponding to the print document based on the decoded multi-bit data, and d starting the software application. The increase or decrease can be measured according to the visual masking attributes of the encoded image. Therefore, such a movement is sensed, and the movement is used to identify the bedoupe object from the image data. In all such cases, the light capture device can sense such a hint by the wide field of view of the vision sensor.

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To the repairman company A link is provided e. On the website, the mechanic provides basic information such as, for example, vacant hours and a current list of charges. The home worker may consult a video conference call eg, The option to launch Net Meeting is set to By business card gesture or other method. Or, the person at home Choose another option to send an email. As yet another option, the housekeeper can book an on-site repair on the mechanic's weekly itinerary.

In yet another option, a homeowner can watch one or more short videos that teach customers how to repair a common appliance failure. When this card is presented to the Vedoop system, an application that reads and encrypts the token is activated, and the encrypted data is transferred to the computer at the corresponding bank information center so that the balance can be known.

There, the token is decrypted and its validity is confirmed but no payment is made. The bank computer responds to the Bedoupe system to indicate the token balance on the card. Instead, the user You must provide authentication data that represents your permission to access that information.

This permission data can be a PIN code. Alternatively, the user may provide authentication by presenting a second Bedoud-encoded object, such as a driver's license, to the Bedoupe system.

Many other bedoop systems can conveniently use or require the use of two or more bedoop objects, presented alternately or all at once. A visual or audible prompt can be provided to instruct the user to present the dope object as needed.

This data is encoded on the ticket and sensed by a Bedoup sensor at each lift. The common server keeps track of the number of lift tickets actually purchased and updates the count as it is used, to which sensors are networked. The skier is informed of the remaining times each time he gets on the lift or gets off. Statistics can be gathered on traces of use eg, N percent of skiers skied all day with only two lifts, etc.

You can apply for a vacation package. In accordance with the above, the bearer of the ticket can be discounted on the selected item. By showing the card to the Bedoupe sensor, an outdoor goods store such as REI can guide the user to a library of maps of the United States Geological Survey USGS , a homepage on current fishing and hunting regulations, and the like.

Of course, you can also quickly access the shop's online ordering site. There are kiosks everywhere in the theme park, where visitors present tickets, Assemble the stay into a specific storyline. When the car is taken to the shop for inspection, the mechanic presents the key to the Bedoupe sensor so that the maintenance history of the car can be obtained from the remote server that is maintaining it.

At home, the key can be navigated through various websites about cars by presenting and manipulating the key to the Bedoupe sensor.

A user surfing the web and arriving at the car rating site can present the key to the Bedoop scanner. Using the bedoop data, access a remote database containing the make, model, options, etc. This data is provided to a database engine that returns the estimated car price to the user. For example, ask a shopping counselor to help a customer shopping for a dress choose shoes and accessories that fit the dress. In response to such a tag, the Bedoupe system queries a database to obtain a mini-catalog of previously identified clothing and accessories as matching the dress identified by the tag.

These items are It is displayed individually on the screen connected to the system. Alternatively, the virtual model wearing the dress can be synthesized and projected with one or more recommended accessories.

Depending on the model wearing the dress, wearing various shoes, etc. The Bedoup data on the card has led to the registration of a database that holds credit card numbers and expiration dates.

So the Bedoupe application Send this information to the website optionally after encrypting it , along with instructions for purchasing the displayed product. Such or other bedoud applications may help mitigate this kind of hurdle. Consider a consumer buying a pair of golf shoes. By presenting the box to the Bedoupe system, where the box is Bedoud-encoded, consumers can access a home page that displays various promotional offers. Consumers may, for example, choose to play one round of golf for free at one or more specific local golf courses, or print coupons that can save any order from online sock dealers by 10 percent.

A variety of measures can be taken to prevent redemption of duplicate goods from a single box, one of which is a serial number, which is tracked by its homepage or cross-marketer and is only used once. Alternatively, another means is to identify the consumer's corresponding identity and track it to prevent duplicate redemptions. The user is Nike With apparel item tags, you can go to Nike's online store and shop there. In the case of a tag attached to a soccer jersey, certain manipulations of the tag eg, turning left will lead the user to a soccer specialty page, such as a World Cup page.

A tag on a golf glove could lead to a local golf course website. Twist the tag to the left to reserve a start time. Twist to the right to view the course map and statistics.

Some retail stores have Bedoud kiosks, which allow consumers to take advantage of such Bedoupe features. If not already printed, this information eg, confirmation can be printed by the consumer.

If the consumer wants to make a dinner or golf reservation, they present this object to the Bedoupe system, either at the user's home or at an airport kiosk. The system recognizes the type and encoded data of the object and establishes a link to a remote computer that provides various information about the resort and scheduling services.

By manipulating the object or otherwise , the consumer selects the desired dinner or golf start time. Since the system already has a reservation number labeled by UID , this kind of redundant data provision is avoided. The travel agency also maintains a DNS leaf node server.

The computer provides a home page with or without the brand of the travel agency and also provides the user with the desired scheduling. Options are provided. Also provided are links to other information and services eg, offering admission tickets to nearby attractions or advertising nearby restaurants.

Presenting these items to the Bedoupe system at the traveler's home or at the airport allows you to review and change your travel itinerary, book hotels and rental cars, make sure you are upgraded to First Class, check seat assignments on airplanes, It is possible to check the status as a frequent airline passenger, scan travel guidance at a destination, and the like.

The person who watches the movie returns home and presents the stub of the ticket to the Bedoupe system. As one of the options presented by the corresponding Bedoup application, the pay-per-view screening of the previously watched movie program is started at a certain discount rate. Another option is to download the movie to a writable DVD disc at the viewer's home.

In this case, perhaps a serial number or a setting to allow only a small number of playbacks so that they can only be played on the viewer's DVD player, etc. Yet another option is to display web-distributed video clips from the movie. Another option is to allow related products to be offered at a discount to the retail price for purchase. These may be valid only for a certain period of time after the date encoded on the ticket stub.

Alternatively, another option is the same genre, or by the same director or performer, or by the same studio Attention customers about the upcoming, premiere movie. Yet another option is to direct the web browser to an online ticket dealer for other movie tickets.

The consumer navigates between these options by manipulating the ticket stub or otherwise. The data that is Vedoop encoded in the print is the data that the Vedoop system either built into the video recorder or separate sets the recording time, date, and channel. This type of box contains a processor and usually has a return channel for control functions. The provision of the vedoop chip and the optical sensor can greatly expand the functions that these devices currently have. By submitting the ticket to the Bedoupe system, users can access the website and see either team's recent scores and statistics.

The user can also take a virtual tour of the arena based on the web and browse the seat map. The same scene of the stadium as viewed from the position of the user's seat is displayed.

In addition to ordering tickets for upcoming games, pay-per-view games and team souvenirs will be ordered. For expensive tickets, the user is entitled to premium web features. For example, the day before the game, an online written, audio, or video chat session with the team's star could be provided. The nominal seat is printed on the ticket, but the user presents the ticket to the Bedoupe sensor and accesses a website where another seat can be reserved.

When a participant presents the ticket to the Bedoupe sensor when participating in the event, the sensor reads the UID of the ticket and examines the last allocation selected by the participant. Then, a ticket for which the participant has the right to secure the seat selected earlier is printed from the website where the transaction is made.

Such rings, or other jewelry items owned by individuals, are encoded by texturing or printing with bedoud data and presented to the bedoud system as needed. A secure website that displays the person's name and other information with the extracted Bedoud data ie, a website that takes hacker prevention measures to prevent stored identity from being tampered with Will be guided to.

The artwork on the tattoo is By arranging the ve-doop data so as to be steganographically encoded, a person or object having a tattoo can be easily recognized by a machine. Young people All you need to do is take a digital photo of your friends with your personal digital assistant who can shoot and edit your contact database. Such computing devices decrypt the watermark, access a web survey of information about the person in the photograph, and add this information to a contact database.

Xerox Nicholas K Sheridon as K. Electronic paper, developed by Sheridon and mass produced by 3M, is a thin layer of clear plastic with millions of small beads, such as toner particles, dispersed therein.

Each bead is in a cavity filled with liquid and is free to rotate within this cavity. The beads are in a "two-color" configuration consisting of hemispheres of contrasting colors eg, black and white. Under the influence of the voltage applied to the sheet surface, the beads rotate and show the viewer either the side of one color or the side of the other color. Using bits, a pattern of voltage can be applied to the surface to create a character or picture-like image.

The image persists until a new voltage pattern is applied to generate a new image. It is assumed that the reader is familiar with the Sheridon US patent for this technology.

When such a note is presented to the Bedoupe system, the system launches an application that stores a snapshot of the note. More specifically, the application hides the note portion in the image data from other image data and virtually remaps it to a standardized pixel-sized rectangular format, and the resulting The compressed image is JPEG compressed and stored in a specific computer subdirectory.

The latter two data can also be indicated by the data contained in the Bedoupe payload. If the color of the note is indicated by digital data eg, in the file name , the image itself is stored in grayscale. When recalled later for display, the white image background can be filled with a color based on the digital color data. When an object is identified as a post-it note whose image is to be saved, the system analyzes several such frames and Identify the one that is best for storage eg, check the spatial frequency portion of the note as it is imaged in each frame and identify the one with the highest quality details and save it I do.

Instead, The system waits for further instructions eg, gestures that indicate what action is being requested. Through such a presentation approaching the memo, the imaging system can also obtain more detailed frames of image data.

Each note can be displayed at its original size or resized to fill the height or width of the tile. User interface controls in response to gestures, mouse operations, keyboard scroll arrows, etc. In the example just described, for example, the Bedoupe system responds to all post-it notes in the same manner. Thus, a shortened Bedoupe format that simply indicates "I am a post-it note, yellow, 3" x3 "in size may be sufficient. By reducing the payload, more robust encoding can be performed on small objects.

It can be used for purposes other than triggering a response. The deviation can be corrected. For example, a copier does not require a precise and precise document resting on a glass platen in order to produce an accurate copy. After scanning the bent document, the scanner detects the steganographic registration markings in the resulting scan data. This data is then processed to effectuate a re-registration so that the registration marking is at the desired location.

The processed scan data is then sent to an electrostatographic copying unit, which produces a copy free of the effects of bending. If such a device creates an image of an object with steganographic registration markings e. Postal services are not suitable for such information because of the waiting time between when a document is printed and when it is finally delivered to a recipient. However, according to Bedoupe's principle, the recipient can receive the printed mailing object long before delivery and use it upon receipt That is, the latest information can be obtained by presenting to the Bedoupe system.

Every one millionth visitor wins one million peningas eg, with proper safeguards preventing one or more inputs per hour. Further insight can be gained by considering the early part of the process, the coding. The encoding in the first stage is a static marking, where the document designer, prepress service bureau, advertising company, etc.

The second stage is dynamic marking, in which an automated system encodes or changes the "immediately" vedoop data. In such a system, the bedoop data can be tailored specifically to the context, for example, time, location, user, and the like. The third step is marking of the consumer, where the bedoop data is added to the document during printing. Consider an American Express home page that contains travel information to Hawaii. DN The S-leaf node server designates this page in response to certain bedoop data, for example, a picture of a Hawaiian coastal landscape on a magazine.

If the encoding is performed by , the source vedoop system or the mediation system through which the vedoop data passes informs that arbitrary data can be inserted into the UID field of the vedoop packet. The originating Bedoupe system, for example, may use a dynamically configured sequence of bits, Can be inserted into this field. With some of these bits, The user's profile can be provided to the remote server so that the Bedoupe's response can be customized for that user.

To alleviate privacy concerns, the user will, of course, approve information for such use in advance. The next 4 bits are in a range obtained by dividing the age of the user into 16 for example, 3 years old or less, 4 to 5, 6 to 7, 8 to 9, 10 to 11, 12 to 13, 14 to 15, , , , etc. By referencing such data, the remote server knows that the same user is repeatedly accessing and adjusts the response accordingly eg, the user has previously entered and stored on the remote server Recall information to avoid having to re-enter data.

Providing a digital camera as an integral component of some computers eg, Sony Vaio laptops is only one sign of this trend. Another example is a camera-on-a-chip system. It is represented by U. Solid State Semiconductor Circuit, Vol. Yet another example is a head mounted camera as currently used in computer augmented vision systems.

All of these and other image input devices are suitable for use in the Vedoop system. The hardware is configured to find and decode bedup data from image data regardless of size, rotation, different dimensions, and the like.

The hardware is also provided with gesture decoding, and the resulting data is output on a serial output bus in packet form. Thus, such a chip may have several outputs: image data either in raw pixel format, or in the form of a data stream representing one image in various image formats , and vedup data serial.

Or parallel 64 bits and decoded gesture data can be output. M can be included. The Vedoop system gazes at and captures frames. It can be portable. Some such systems employ, for example, a palmtop computer with an optical sensor array. If a live network could be connected to the palmtop eg, wirelessly , a remote computer-based bedoop application could be implemented as described above.

If the palmtop does not have a live network connection, any Bedoup application that relies on a remote computer will simply queue such communications and the next time the palmtop is remotely accessed eg, When the palmtop is then put in the charger and connected to a modem that can establish Internet access , it can transmit them.

Such sensors may be connected by a cable to the associated computer or may use a wireless interface. In order to read the digital data on which the object is marked, the peripheral is placed on top of the item. Built-in lighting may also be required, as the device may cover the encoding with its shadow. Some forms of such peripherals are compatible with both general purpose digital cameras and vedoop sensors.

It can be modified to do the job. For example, when "reading" a magazine or book, it is more intuitive to place a Vedoop reader "above" the object being read than to keep the object in the air in front of the Vedoop sensor It is.

For example, in a magazine page, etc. This is particularly useful if you want to check. To direct your browser to a specific bookmarked destination, Simply place the peripheral device on the page or a portion thereof marked with the corresponding bedoop data. Each area indicates a favorite web destination. Indeed, mouse pads with certain pre-coded maps are suitable as promotional materials.

The company may suggest printing family photos on such a mouse pad. Encoded in the photo or pad texture, This is the address of the website that paid for access by this method on the user's desk.

In most of the above examples, the sensors were stationary and gestures were achieved by moving the object. Of course, if the sensor is movable e.

The device includes a multi-element light sensor integrated on an IC with various detectors and processing circuits, a short focal length image lens and an LED light source all available from Agilent, as described below. And work together.

The circuit tracks the movement of the pattern across the sensor's field of view, Thereby, the movement of the mouse is inferred. The Microsoft product collects data sets per second, which is a much higher frame rate than is generally required for current applications. Some of these embodiments combine the function of a mouse with the function of a Vedoop image sensor.

Give a simple palm camera facing the desk to generate frames. Alternatively, the burden of this processing is placed on the associated computer system, and the peripherals simply process and format the raw sensor data into continuous frame image data output to the system. Is relieved of cable limitations. Share will be described in detail. The scanner is configured to work with any type of identifier, for example, a watermark, barcode, OCR, and the like.

Such information is published as technical literature and includes, for example, Allen, Ros. Et al. The capsha scanner uses an optical sensor tracking engine assembly.

Perform a continuous, non-straight line scan of. The area scanned by these CCDs is illuminated obliquely with IR light to emphasize the features of the fine media surface. When recognizing the pattern of the surface feature detected by each CCD, the CPU tracks the movement of the pattern in one frame and the next frame, and identifies the movement of the two CCDs.

By knowing the movement of the two CCDs, the movement of the scanner itself can also be known. Using this scanner motion information, the non-straight scan data obtained from the linear scanner array is remapped to composite pixel data with uniform scan line spacing.

This remapped data is the final scan data mainly provided to the end user or application. When a line scan resolution of dpi is required for a 4-inch scan section, a element linear CCD is used. The spacing of the CCD elements is selected based on the size of the feature on the surface to be tracked. RAM is used both for storing raw data and for storing final results. The ROM stores an operating system of the scanner, algorithms for pattern matching and data processing, and other program codes.

In a special embodiment, this is done in a two-stage process. First, the final result data is examined by the CPU to determine if there are any salient features associated with the watermarked data eg, as detailed in US Pat. The presence of a calibration signal. With such features, a more computationally intensive watermark decoding algorithm is performed. By checking the watermark information in such a two-step process, CPU time is not wasted when trying to extract a watermark from image data that does not clearly have a watermark.

In another embodiment, the watermarking process is invoked in response to a user command entered via the user interface In yet another embodiment, the associated auxiliary device 22 4 eg, a remote personal computer, remote server computer, specialized Internet equipment, etc.

In other embodiments, if the auxiliary device does not initially request the data, the data is not transmitted. Such a request from the auxiliary device is made by a software program executed by the auxiliary device, for example, via an API call. Or, the scanner forwards the decrypted watermark to the remote device , which then responds with supplemental data for display to the user, as described in detail elsewhere herein.

A 2D sensor provides 2D information immediately, for example, without the delay time associated with remapping ID data from a linear CCD array to a final format. The 2D information provided immediately is analyzed to confirm whether a calibration signal exists. As a result, analysis of the calibration signal, possibly in the final data, can be shortened or avoided.

In FIG. The composition of this arc is Revealed by the data collected by the two 2D CCDs acting as motion encoders. Where successive lines are close to each other as in region A , the raw scan data is of higher resolution relatively "oversampling". Conversely, where continuous lines are separated as in region B Raw scan data is of lower resolution relatively "undersampling". In selecting or analyzing the delicate watermark data, the CPU is instructed to look at the area A first.

The reason is that the quality of the raw data in this region is high and it is likely that it contains usable watermark information. For example, if the image being scanned is Consider the case where a completely planar eg, rectangular signal is not transmitted.

One example is shown in FIG. This figure shows the watermark calibration signal shown here as a clear grid for clarity. By referring to the difference between the data sensed by the two CCDs spaced apart, the CPU estimates the size, rotation, or other image deformation at the midpoint, and scans to compensate for such distortion.

The data can be corrected. Appropriate corrections may be applied by inferring the same or related attributes at intermediate positions using other optically sensed attributes at two spaced apart points. Consider FIG. Here, a scanner 10 having two CCD sensors a, b spaced apart is illustrated, imaging distorted objects eg, warped paper ground, curved objects like drink cans. The illustrated first CCD a detects a very sharp surface texture image, while the second CCD b detects an image similar to the first CCD, but as if it had passed through a low-pass filter.

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For example, by preventing the contest data from being repeatedly transmitted once or more per hour on the user computer, the same protection against brute force can be performed.

More sophisticated, brute-force defenses can, of course, also be provided. Once the link is established, to perform various functions, such as moving towards the camera to order products, moving away from the camera to obtain product information, etc. The user can be instructed to operate the object in a different mode than described above. If you move the object towards the camera to place an order, then further manipulate the object to make a delivery choice eg, turn left for late night flights, turn right for regular flights The user receives an instruction.

When moving the object away from the camera to obtain product information, further manipulate the object to specify the type of information desired eg, turn left for recipes, FDA The user is prompted to turn to the right for nutrition information, to move up for information about other products in the family, or down to send e-mail to the product manufacturer.

The computer recognizes the user, When responding, take various actions. Another response is to set up the loading of the user's profile file so that the computer can know how to arrange the desktop in the way the user prefers.

By manipulating Vedoop-encoded objects, The user can further change the environment eg, turn left to launch standard business productivity applications and software development applications. Lunch entertainment, eg stock renewals, recreation games, etc. Turn right to start. By presenting your driver's license, you link the computer with the bedoupe in the hotel room to the remote site indicated by the bedoupe data, obtain priority data for the user, and get the user's familiar work computer With a configuration that mimics the environment, applications can be launched on a hotel computer.

Any of these objects can be presented to the Vedoop device to link to the relevant website. There, the customer manipulates the object chooses otherwise and selects various options. Another option is to allow you to watch music video clips featuring the same artist.

As yet another option, Some orders tickets for the upcoming concert of the artist. In-store kiosks allow lost customers to hear sample tracks before buying.

For videos, a list of other movies can be included, such as a movie by the same director, a movie with the same star.

In the case of software, precautionary statements, troubleshooting, product updates and upgrades, etc. Of course, the user can purchase from the site, for example, different music of the same artist, other videos featuring the same star, software upgrades, and the like. Children learn to see the pictures on the pages of the book and enjoy hearing stories about the pictures.

In general, adults read the words, and children understand the story while looking at the pictures. Children enjoy listening to the words of the story repeatedly. Combining seeing a picture with listening to words is a great mechanism for learning to read and enjoy a book. With such a configuration, children are provided with fun while teaching children how to read and love books.

At the same time, it will give children independence and familiarize themselves with automation mechanisms. As the child turns the pages of the book, the camera captures the image and the connected computer reads the watermark. Then, using the watermark, a headline is locally or remotely located in the storage location of the data, and the character corresponding to the page being viewed is obtained.

After that, the character is converted into a voice by a character-to-speech converter and is played to the child. Alternatively, data storage may include digitized utterances rather than simple characters, for example, giving different voices to different characters in the story.

The child listens to the words printed on the pages of the book while turning the pages. By turning the page, the child controls the process.

Children naturally learn the relationship between printed words and the words that the computer plays. Vedoop can provide such a function. Bedoud data from some advertisements can direct customers to the site. By monitoring the UID of Bedoupe's queries to the site, the travel agent can identify which magazine eg, Can determine the highest consumer response.

Again, by analyzing the UID used when accessing the site, it is possible to indicate which advertisement was more effective. Respond to the ad by granting access to a previously saved personal profile, or by filling in a web-based form, or manipulating the ad for example, Please move the advertisement towards your Bedoupe Sensor.

If a refrigerator ice machine breaks down, people at home can find a business card for an electronics repairman used several years ago and present it to the Bedoupe sensor. To the repairman company A link is provided e. On the website, the mechanic provides basic information such as, for example, vacant hours and a current list of charges. The home worker may consult a video conference call eg, The option to launch Net Meeting is set to By business card gesture or other method.

Or, the person at home Choose another option to send an email. As yet another option, the housekeeper can book an on-site repair on the mechanic's weekly itinerary. In yet another option, a homeowner can watch one or more short videos that teach customers how to repair a common appliance failure. When this card is presented to the Vedoop system, an application that reads and encrypts the token is activated, and the encrypted data is transferred to the computer at the corresponding bank information center so that the balance can be known.

There, the token is decrypted and its validity is confirmed but no payment is made. The bank computer responds to the Bedoupe system to indicate the token balance on the card. Instead, the user You must provide authentication data that represents your permission to access that information. This permission data can be a PIN code. Alternatively, the user may provide authentication by presenting a second Bedoud-encoded object, such as a driver's license, to the Bedoupe system.

Many other bedoop systems can conveniently use or require the use of two or more bedoop objects, presented alternately or all at once. A visual or audible prompt can be provided to instruct the user to present the dope object as needed.

This data is encoded on the ticket and sensed by a Bedoup sensor at each lift. The common server keeps track of the number of lift tickets actually purchased and updates the count as it is used, to which sensors are networked. The skier is informed of the remaining times each time he gets on the lift or gets off.

Statistics can be gathered on traces of use eg, N percent of skiers skied all day with only two lifts, etc. You can apply for a vacation package. In accordance with the above, the bearer of the ticket can be discounted on the selected item. By showing the card to the Bedoupe sensor, an outdoor goods store such as REI can guide the user to a library of maps of the United States Geological Survey USGS , a homepage on current fishing and hunting regulations, and the like.

Of course, you can also quickly access the shop's online ordering site. There are kiosks everywhere in the theme park, where visitors present tickets, Assemble the stay into a specific storyline. When the car is taken to the shop for inspection, the mechanic presents the key to the Bedoupe sensor so that the maintenance history of the car can be obtained from the remote server that is maintaining it. At home, the key can be navigated through various websites about cars by presenting and manipulating the key to the Bedoupe sensor.

A user surfing the web and arriving at the car rating site can present the key to the Bedoop scanner. Using the bedoop data, access a remote database containing the make, model, options, etc. This data is provided to a database engine that returns the estimated car price to the user. For example, ask a shopping counselor to help a customer shopping for a dress choose shoes and accessories that fit the dress. In response to such a tag, the Bedoupe system queries a database to obtain a mini-catalog of previously identified clothing and accessories as matching the dress identified by the tag.

These items are It is displayed individually on the screen connected to the system. Alternatively, the virtual model wearing the dress can be synthesized and projected with one or more recommended accessories. Depending on the model wearing the dress, wearing various shoes, etc. The Bedoup data on the card has led to the registration of a database that holds credit card numbers and expiration dates. So the Bedoupe application Send this information to the website optionally after encrypting it , along with instructions for purchasing the displayed product.

Such or other bedoud applications may help mitigate this kind of hurdle. Consider a consumer buying a pair of golf shoes. By presenting the box to the Bedoupe system, where the box is Bedoud-encoded, consumers can access a home page that displays various promotional offers.

Consumers may, for example, choose to play one round of golf for free at one or more specific local golf courses, or print coupons that can save any order from online sock dealers by 10 percent. A variety of measures can be taken to prevent redemption of duplicate goods from a single box, one of which is a serial number, which is tracked by its homepage or cross-marketer and is only used once. Alternatively, another means is to identify the consumer's corresponding identity and track it to prevent duplicate redemptions.

The user is Nike With apparel item tags, you can go to Nike's online store and shop there. In the case of a tag attached to a soccer jersey, certain manipulations of the tag eg, turning left will lead the user to a soccer specialty page, such as a World Cup page. A tag on a golf glove could lead to a local golf course website. Twist the tag to the left to reserve a start time. Twist to the right to view the course map and statistics.

Some retail stores have Bedoud kiosks, which allow consumers to take advantage of such Bedoupe features. If not already printed, this information eg, confirmation can be printed by the consumer.

If the consumer wants to make a dinner or golf reservation, they present this object to the Bedoupe system, either at the user's home or at an airport kiosk. The system recognizes the type and encoded data of the object and establishes a link to a remote computer that provides various information about the resort and scheduling services. By manipulating the object or otherwise , the consumer selects the desired dinner or golf start time.

Since the system already has a reservation number labeled by UID , this kind of redundant data provision is avoided. The travel agency also maintains a DNS leaf node server.

The computer provides a home page with or without the brand of the travel agency and also provides the user with the desired scheduling.

Options are provided. Also provided are links to other information and services eg, offering admission tickets to nearby attractions or advertising nearby restaurants. Presenting these items to the Bedoupe system at the traveler's home or at the airport allows you to review and change your travel itinerary, book hotels and rental cars, make sure you are upgraded to First Class, check seat assignments on airplanes, It is possible to check the status as a frequent airline passenger, scan travel guidance at a destination, and the like.

The person who watches the movie returns home and presents the stub of the ticket to the Bedoupe system. As one of the options presented by the corresponding Bedoup application, the pay-per-view screening of the previously watched movie program is started at a certain discount rate.

Another option is to download the movie to a writable DVD disc at the viewer's home. In this case, perhaps a serial number or a setting to allow only a small number of playbacks so that they can only be played on the viewer's DVD player, etc. Yet another option is to display web-distributed video clips from the movie. Another option is to allow related products to be offered at a discount to the retail price for purchase.

These may be valid only for a certain period of time after the date encoded on the ticket stub. Alternatively, another option is the same genre, or by the same director or performer, or by the same studio Attention customers about the upcoming, premiere movie.

Yet another option is to direct the web browser to an online ticket dealer for other movie tickets. The consumer navigates between these options by manipulating the ticket stub or otherwise. The data that is Vedoop encoded in the print is the data that the Vedoop system either built into the video recorder or separate sets the recording time, date, and channel.

This type of box contains a processor and usually has a return channel for control functions. The provision of the vedoop chip and the optical sensor can greatly expand the functions that these devices currently have. By submitting the ticket to the Bedoupe system, users can access the website and see either team's recent scores and statistics.

The user can also take a virtual tour of the arena based on the web and browse the seat map. The same scene of the stadium as viewed from the position of the user's seat is displayed. In addition to ordering tickets for upcoming games, pay-per-view games and team souvenirs will be ordered.

For expensive tickets, the user is entitled to premium web features. For example, the day before the game, an online written, audio, or video chat session with the team's star could be provided. The nominal seat is printed on the ticket, but the user presents the ticket to the Bedoupe sensor and accesses a website where another seat can be reserved.

When a participant presents the ticket to the Bedoupe sensor when participating in the event, the sensor reads the UID of the ticket and examines the last allocation selected by the participant. Then, a ticket for which the participant has the right to secure the seat selected earlier is printed from the website where the transaction is made.

Such rings, or other jewelry items owned by individuals, are encoded by texturing or printing with bedoud data and presented to the bedoud system as needed. A secure website that displays the person's name and other information with the extracted Bedoud data ie, a website that takes hacker prevention measures to prevent stored identity from being tampered with Will be guided to.

The artwork on the tattoo is By arranging the ve-doop data so as to be steganographically encoded, a person or object having a tattoo can be easily recognized by a machine. Young people All you need to do is take a digital photo of your friends with your personal digital assistant who can shoot and edit your contact database. Such computing devices decrypt the watermark, access a web survey of information about the person in the photograph, and add this information to a contact database.

Xerox Nicholas K Sheridon as K. Electronic paper, developed by Sheridon and mass produced by 3M, is a thin layer of clear plastic with millions of small beads, such as toner particles, dispersed therein. Each bead is in a cavity filled with liquid and is free to rotate within this cavity. The beads are in a "two-color" configuration consisting of hemispheres of contrasting colors eg, black and white.

Under the influence of the voltage applied to the sheet surface, the beads rotate and show the viewer either the side of one color or the side of the other color. Using bits, a pattern of voltage can be applied to the surface to create a character or picture-like image.

The image persists until a new voltage pattern is applied to generate a new image. It is assumed that the reader is familiar with the Sheridon US patent for this technology.

When such a note is presented to the Bedoupe system, the system launches an application that stores a snapshot of the note. More specifically, the application hides the note portion in the image data from other image data and virtually remaps it to a standardized pixel-sized rectangular format, and the resulting The compressed image is JPEG compressed and stored in a specific computer subdirectory.

The latter two data can also be indicated by the data contained in the Bedoupe payload. If the color of the note is indicated by digital data eg, in the file name , the image itself is stored in grayscale. When recalled later for display, the white image background can be filled with a color based on the digital color data. When an object is identified as a post-it note whose image is to be saved, the system analyzes several such frames and Identify the one that is best for storage eg, check the spatial frequency portion of the note as it is imaged in each frame and identify the one with the highest quality details and save it I do.

Instead, The system waits for further instructions eg, gestures that indicate what action is being requested. Through such a presentation approaching the memo, the imaging system can also obtain more detailed frames of image data. Each note can be displayed at its original size or resized to fill the height or width of the tile. User interface controls in response to gestures, mouse operations, keyboard scroll arrows, etc.

In the example just described, for example, the Bedoupe system responds to all post-it notes in the same manner. Thus, a shortened Bedoupe format that simply indicates "I am a post-it note, yellow, 3" x3 "in size may be sufficient.

By reducing the payload, more robust encoding can be performed on small objects. It can be used for purposes other than triggering a response. The deviation can be corrected. For example, a copier does not require a precise and precise document resting on a glass platen in order to produce an accurate copy. After scanning the bent document, the scanner detects the steganographic registration markings in the resulting scan data.

This data is then processed to effectuate a re-registration so that the registration marking is at the desired location. The processed scan data is then sent to an electrostatographic copying unit, which produces a copy free of the effects of bending.

If such a device creates an image of an object with steganographic registration markings e. Postal services are not suitable for such information because of the waiting time between when a document is printed and when it is finally delivered to a recipient. However, according to Bedoupe's principle, the recipient can receive the printed mailing object long before delivery and use it upon receipt That is, the latest information can be obtained by presenting to the Bedoupe system.

Every one millionth visitor wins one million peningas eg, with proper safeguards preventing one or more inputs per hour. Further insight can be gained by considering the early part of the process, the coding. The encoding in the first stage is a static marking, where the document designer, prepress service bureau, advertising company, etc.

The second stage is dynamic marking, in which an automated system encodes or changes the "immediately" vedoop data. In such a system, the bedoop data can be tailored specifically to the context, for example, time, location, user, and the like.

The third step is marking of the consumer, where the bedoop data is added to the document during printing. Consider an American Express home page that contains travel information to Hawaii. DN The S-leaf node server designates this page in response to certain bedoop data, for example, a picture of a Hawaiian coastal landscape on a magazine. If the encoding is performed by , the source vedoop system or the mediation system through which the vedoop data passes informs that arbitrary data can be inserted into the UID field of the vedoop packet.

The originating Bedoupe system, for example, may use a dynamically configured sequence of bits, Can be inserted into this field. With some of these bits, The user's profile can be provided to the remote server so that the Bedoupe's response can be customized for that user.

To alleviate privacy concerns, the user will, of course, approve information for such use in advance. The next 4 bits are in a range obtained by dividing the age of the user into 16 for example, 3 years old or less, 4 to 5, 6 to 7, 8 to 9, 10 to 11, 12 to 13, 14 to 15, , , , etc. By referencing such data, the remote server knows that the same user is repeatedly accessing and adjusts the response accordingly eg, the user has previously entered and stored on the remote server Recall information to avoid having to re-enter data.

Providing a digital camera as an integral component of some computers eg, Sony Vaio laptops is only one sign of this trend. Another example is a camera-on-a-chip system. It is represented by U. Solid State Semiconductor Circuit, Vol. Yet another example is a head mounted camera as currently used in computer augmented vision systems.

All of these and other image input devices are suitable for use in the Vedoop system. The hardware is configured to find and decode bedup data from image data regardless of size, rotation, different dimensions, and the like. The hardware is also provided with gesture decoding, and the resulting data is output on a serial output bus in packet form. Thus, such a chip may have several outputs: image data either in raw pixel format, or in the form of a data stream representing one image in various image formats , and vedup data serial.

Or parallel 64 bits and decoded gesture data can be output. M can be included. The Vedoop system gazes at and captures frames.

It can be portable. Some such systems employ, for example, a palmtop computer with an optical sensor array. If a live network could be connected to the palmtop eg, wirelessly , a remote computer-based bedoop application could be implemented as described above. If the palmtop does not have a live network connection, any Bedoup application that relies on a remote computer will simply queue such communications and the next time the palmtop is remotely accessed eg, When the palmtop is then put in the charger and connected to a modem that can establish Internet access , it can transmit them.

Such sensors may be connected by a cable to the associated computer or may use a wireless interface. In order to read the digital data on which the object is marked, the peripheral is placed on top of the item.

Built-in lighting may also be required, as the device may cover the encoding with its shadow. Some forms of such peripherals are compatible with both general purpose digital cameras and vedoop sensors.

It can be modified to do the job. For example, when "reading" a magazine or book, it is more intuitive to place a Vedoop reader "above" the object being read than to keep the object in the air in front of the Vedoop sensor It is. For example, in a magazine page, etc. This is particularly useful if you want to check.

To direct your browser to a specific bookmarked destination, Simply place the peripheral device on the page or a portion thereof marked with the corresponding bedoop data. Each area indicates a favorite web destination. Indeed, mouse pads with certain pre-coded maps are suitable as promotional materials. The company may suggest printing family photos on such a mouse pad.

Encoded in the photo or pad texture, This is the address of the website that paid for access by this method on the user's desk. In most of the above examples, the sensors were stationary and gestures were achieved by moving the object. Of course, if the sensor is movable e. The device includes a multi-element light sensor integrated on an IC with various detectors and processing circuits, a short focal length image lens and an LED light source all available from Agilent, as described below.

And work together. The circuit tracks the movement of the pattern across the sensor's field of view, Thereby, the movement of the mouse is inferred. The Microsoft product collects data sets per second, which is a much higher frame rate than is generally required for current applications.

Some of these embodiments combine the function of a mouse with the function of a Vedoop image sensor. Give a simple palm camera facing the desk to generate frames. Alternatively, the burden of this processing is placed on the associated computer system, and the peripherals simply process and format the raw sensor data into continuous frame image data output to the system.

Is relieved of cable limitations. Share will be described in detail. The scanner is configured to work with any type of identifier, for example, a watermark, barcode, OCR, and the like. Such information is published as technical literature and includes, for example, Allen, Ros.

Et al. The capsha scanner uses an optical sensor tracking engine assembly. Perform a continuous, non-straight line scan of. The area scanned by these CCDs is illuminated obliquely with IR light to emphasize the features of the fine media surface. When recognizing the pattern of the surface feature detected by each CCD, the CPU tracks the movement of the pattern in one frame and the next frame, and identifies the movement of the two CCDs.

By knowing the movement of the two CCDs, the movement of the scanner itself can also be known. Using this scanner motion information, the non-straight scan data obtained from the linear scanner array is remapped to composite pixel data with uniform scan line spacing.

This remapped data is the final scan data mainly provided to the end user or application. When a line scan resolution of dpi is required for a 4-inch scan section, a element linear CCD is used. The spacing of the CCD elements is selected based on the size of the feature on the surface to be tracked.

RAM is used both for storing raw data and for storing final results. The ROM stores an operating system of the scanner, algorithms for pattern matching and data processing, and other program codes. In a special embodiment, this is done in a two-stage process.

First, the final result data is examined by the CPU to determine if there are any salient features associated with the watermarked data eg, as detailed in US Pat. The presence of a calibration signal. With such features, a more computationally intensive watermark decoding algorithm is performed. By checking the watermark information in such a two-step process, CPU time is not wasted when trying to extract a watermark from image data that does not clearly have a watermark.

In another embodiment, the watermarking process is invoked in response to a user command entered via the user interface In yet another embodiment, the associated auxiliary device 22 4 eg, a remote personal computer, remote server computer, specialized Internet equipment, etc. In other embodiments, if the auxiliary device does not initially request the data, the data is not transmitted. Such a request from the auxiliary device is made by a software program executed by the auxiliary device, for example, via an API call.

Or, the scanner forwards the decrypted watermark to the remote device , which then responds with supplemental data for display to the user, as described in detail elsewhere herein. A 2D sensor provides 2D information immediately, for example, without the delay time associated with remapping ID data from a linear CCD array to a final format. The 2D information provided immediately is analyzed to confirm whether a calibration signal exists.

As a result, analysis of the calibration signal, possibly in the final data, can be shortened or avoided. In FIG. The composition of this arc is Revealed by the data collected by the two 2D CCDs acting as motion encoders.

Where successive lines are close to each other as in region A , the raw scan data is of higher resolution relatively "oversampling". Conversely, where continuous lines are separated as in region B Raw scan data is of lower resolution relatively "undersampling". In selecting or analyzing the delicate watermark data, the CPU is instructed to look at the area A first.

The reason is that the quality of the raw data in this region is high and it is likely that it contains usable watermark information. For example, if the image being scanned is Consider the case where a completely planar eg, rectangular signal is not transmitted. One example is shown in FIG. This figure shows the watermark calibration signal shown here as a clear grid for clarity. By referring to the difference between the data sensed by the two CCDs spaced apart, the CPU estimates the size, rotation, or other image deformation at the midpoint, and scans to compensate for such distortion.

The data can be corrected. Appropriate corrections may be applied by inferring the same or related attributes at intermediate positions using other optically sensed attributes at two spaced apart points. Consider FIG. Here, a scanner 10 having two CCD sensors a, b spaced apart is illustrated, imaging distorted objects eg, warped paper ground, curved objects like drink cans.

The illustrated first CCD a detects a very sharp surface texture image, while the second CCD b detects an image similar to the first CCD, but as if it had passed through a low-pass filter.

It is blurred. A portion of the object under the CCD a is immediately adjacent to the scanner and also in contact with the vicinity of the linear CCD array , while a portion of the object under the CD b is From the scanner by software instructions to the CPU When detecting a watermark, the CPU It recognizes that the data from the end of the linear scanner that is away from the computer lacks important high frequency information.

In many watermark detection algorithms, the CPU can ignore data from such parts of the linear scanner. Thereby, it is possible to focus on an image data portion having a necessary high frequency component, and to generate a more reliable result more quickly. One was transmitted depending on high frequency image components and the other was largely coded with low frequency image components i. Encoded in anticipation of the given situation.

Recognizing that the linear scan data has few high frequency components, the CPU can be programmed to look for only low frequency watermark data. The CPU can apply conventional pattern recognition algorithms to raw or final scan data.

Once the pattern is identified, it can be easily decoded by applying a known barcode alphabet. Similarly, The decoded barcode data can be provided to the auxiliary device whenever detected or in response to an inquiry of the auxiliary device. In many embodiments, the scanner UI is used to, for example, This supplementary information can be provided to the user by a software command for displaying the HTML command on the I display screen. When reconnecting to the Internet, this UI control for example, a button can be similarly used to receive user commands and commands.

Such phones are A 1D or 2D image sensor can be provided, the output of which is sent to a Vedoop decoding circuit in the phone. This decoding circuit can be a main CPU of the telephone or a dedicated processing circuit for the bedoop function. In this case, as in the other embodiments, decoding is performed by dedicated hardware or a general-purpose CPU.

The decoding can be performed by the decoding software or the like executed in the above. As one of them, a mobile phone generally has an LCD or similar screen for displaying character or graphic information, and further has a menu option displayed on the screen for example, by moving a cursor.

It also has buttons or other controls for making selections. In addition, mobile phones, of course, have audio input and output devices ie, microphones and speakers. Further, since the protocol for transmitting data by the mobile phone includes data for identifying the mobile phone, there is no need to separately encode such data. Then, the mobile phone naturally establishes a ready link to the remote computer system.

In summary, the performance of such a mobile phone is comparable to that of a fully equipped desktop computer system. So, essentially, All of the applications detailed elsewhere herein can be implemented using the mobile phone's Vedoop system. Transfer to a remote system or computer network. In some embodiments, the telephone number is encoded as is as part of the Bedoop data payload. In other cases, the telephone number is stored in a memory in the telephone, and a heading is added based on an identifier decrypted from the bedou data.

Some of them require interaction with the user. For example, the remote system first responds by presenting the user with an option menu eg, purchase, add to shopping list, request sample, add notepad, etc. The landlord lives in Wyoming. You know what I mean? I have to vacate in two weeks. What would you do? He contends that, in dealing with emotions and attitudes in communication, language serves to establish and maintain a feeling of solidarity and well-being among group members.

How are you? Writers of both business and social documents may use phatic language in order to establish an appropriate relationship with their readers, e. Therefore, it is unsuitable to place advertisements and posters on the bench. Just eliminating the phatic expressions makes the translation more idiomatic. Excessive phaticity is one of the causes of unnaturalness in Exercise 1.

And where do you live, Mrs. The Makiokas are a patrician merchant family whose fortunes are in decline. They live in the Senba district of Osaka, which has developed its own dialect and cultural milieu. During World War II, Tanizaki refused to cooperate with the military and wrote this novel to celebrate traditional upper-middle-class culture. Its publication was prohibited by the military government because it was deemed to be unsuitably frivolous for a time of emergency Keene Therefore, a faithful translation of such phrases would sound ridiculous.

Register Another concept in the realm of indexical meaning that merits special attention is register. Register consists of variations of language according to the technicality of the topic, the social roles of the interlocutors, the formality of the situation, and so forth. Social registers include dialectal regional and sociolectal social-class based variations.

Taeko was helping Sachiko tie the obi. Every time you breathed. I swore I would never let you wear that obi to another concert. However, the story also includes speakers of the Tokyo dialect. He strives to preserve the dialectal contrast by using the difference in speech tempo: the Kansai dialects usually sound slower and employ longer sentences than the Tokyo dialect, which is generally perceived as crisper Seidensticker and Nasu —8.

If you look you can see the yellow in my eyes. Seidensticker employs contractions only with the former. He hopes that the non-contracted lines convey the nuance of unhurried speech, rather than formality. Lack of knowledge of the dialect s used in the ST can result in mistranslation. This deviation in pronunciation is due to hypercorrection. The Edo dialect, predecessor of the Tokyo dialect, was notorious for its confusion of hi with shi: e.

Therefore, when people heard futon o shiku, they erroneously corrected it to futon o hiku. This hypercorrection has survived until today. According to Miyawaki —4 , conversation is the most prominent part in English-to-Japanese translation as well. He frequently notes breakdowns when a translator translates utterances by the opposite sex.

Alternatively, one may be intentionally offensive, even insulting, e. Its pathetic tubercular protagonist has been abandoned by his squad. He wanders the jungle, starved to the point of cannibalism. Individuals engaged in specialized activities usually develop correspondingly different ways of using language. Such traits, primarily manifested in specialized vocabularies, are referred to as substantive registers.

Persons who use expressions drawn from such a register are demonstrating that they consider themselves to have a command of the repertoire associated with the appropriate domain of activity Hervey The following is an excerpt from a report prepared by the National Police Agency of Japan regarding Internet security.

The target audience of this document is primarily server administrators; therefore, the text does not provide explanations for technical terms. The substantive register of the translation should match that of the ST. In , we detected about , accesses from external networks and some 94, host servers as attack sources. These attacks were from computers in countries or territories including some unknown source locations.

Language users adjust their style to the needs and cultural expectations concomitant with particular kinds of social transaction e. Both are on a volitional basis, and there may be strong pragmatic links between tonal and genre registers Hervey Considering the following as a hotel announcement, a is appropriate, but b is not.

Tebukoro o kaini, written in , was well known because, until recently, it was included in elementary-school textbooks. When a cold winter comes to the forest, mother fox decides that her son needs woolen mittens. So he makes an overnight journey to a village where humans live and buys a pair of mittens. That book was made by Mr.

Mark Twain, and he told the truth, mainly. There was things which he stretched, but mainly he told the truth. That is nothing. I never seen anybody but lied one time or another, without it was Aunt Polly, or the widow, or maybe Mary.

Chapter 3 Kinds of meaning II Chapter 3 continues to discuss different kinds of meaning: symbolic meaning Section 3. Symbolic meaning Every culture has entities that have some symbolic meaning, or symbolic value. If translated literally, they may convey nothing, or possibly even an incorrect or misleading meaning.

A senior couple is seated at a table, about to drink tea. It is considered a lucky omen. Larson —9 points out that the meaning of symbolic action may differ from culture to culture. If an appropriate adjustment is not made in the translation process, the TT might well be confusing. He became angry, rather than He shook his fist in anger.

Kenta bashfully shrugged his shoulders, while the other pupils nodded with smiles. In this case, therefore, smiling should be substituted for narrowing her eyes. Kobayashi Joan grinned and did a thumbs up. The chairperson tapped her glass with a spoon, suggesting that we make a toast.

Allusive meaning Allusive meaning emerges when the reader recognizes an expression as a reference to another text and realizes that further interpretation is required based on the meaning of the alluded-to text. The reader must then cognitively bridge the gap between the alluding text and the alluded-to text. For example, T. Consequently, allusive passages not enclosed in quotation marks or italicized may go unrecognized by the reader and translator alike Magedanz An allusion could be perceived as confrontational and its creator as pretentious.

The reference is to the syllabled poem called haiku. A teacher of mathematics would be a laughing stock, if his well bucket were carried away by a morning-glory vender. Finally, changing the subject, he asked me if I wrote haiku.

Haiku are for Bashd or dilettantes with plenty of time on their hands. Translation by Alan Turney, Natsume c. Finally, he changed the subject completely and hit me with a question about whether I ever composed haiku. Haiku is either for masters like Bashd, or for guys like hair stylists. What business does a math teacher have fooling around with little poems about morning glories and the bucket at the well?

If not explained, the reference to the morning glories haiku is unlikely to be meaningful for most TT readers. What business does a math teacher have fooling around with a little poem about an old pond and a jumping frog? It was powerfully built, standing over six feet tall on its hind legs.

Translation by Jay Rubin, cited by Shibata Although both are adventure stories, a reader who recognized this allusion and attempted to draw parallels between the two works might feel frustrated. Ishmael is the narrator of Moby Dick. Through his eyes the reader experiences the story of the battle between Captain Ahab and the white whale. Associative and collocative meaning In this section, we look at two kinds of meaning, associative and collocative, which are among the kinds of meaning enumerated by Hervey and Higgins Kinds of meaning II 73 Associative meaning is meaning that consists of expectations widely associated with the referent of the expression.

For example, nurse is almost universally associated with woman pp. Such associations are not always universal, however. For example, while female bus drivers are common in urban communities and school districts in the United States, they are still rare in Japan.

So passages such as the following may create some confusion: I was once accused by a bus driver of not paying my fare. She refused to drive off until I returned to pay. Meanwhile, other passengers were waiting and probably thinking what a jerk I was.

If potential confusion is predicted, preventive measures will help facilitate smooth reading. For example, resounding occurs so frequently with crash that it is capable of evoking its collocative partner; the same can be said with pretty collocative with a female entity and handsome with a male entity Hervey and Higgins Some collocative meanings are so notable that they hardly need triggering by context, e. In recent years, many terms used in information technology have acquired collocative meaning, e.

Communication is possible only when a critical amount of information is shared by the interlocutors, e. The amount of shared information determines the amount of information that needs to be explicitly stated in the text.

Thus, speakers and writers customarily leave out such presumably known information to avoid the risk of misleading or insulting the addressee. The implicit information is part of the meaning of the ST which is to be communicated by the translation; if not shared by the TT audience, it may need to be explicit in the TT. After four operations, she left the hospital today. Although grain has a long shelf life, it eventually goes bad. California bans magazines having more than 10 rounds.

Textual meaning There is a clear difference between a text and a random collection of sentences such as the following: Reservations are highly recommended, especially for weekend services. The kind of community they have portrayed is not always harmonious. The economic situation is getting worse. Textual meaning, also referred to as discoursal or organizational meaning, is the meaning realized through the text-forming resources of the language.

A text is a unit in which propositional and other types of meanings are organized coherently as well as cohesively. Coherence is the way in which the parts of a text are semantically connected. Coherence is usually not a major translation issue given that the ST is coherent.

We will discuss this issue in Section 6. Cohesion is an inventory of linguistic lexical and grammatical resources to connect parts of the text together.

The following is cohesive in a contrived way, but not at all coherent: Reservations are highly recommended, especially for weekend services. Nevertheless, the kind of community they have portrayed is not always harmonious. Consequently, the economic situation is getting worse. This is an extreme case, but we sometimes encounter non-sequitur statements linked by consequently, therefore, etc.

Reference signals the reader regarding what kind of information must be retrieved in order to comprehend the sentence. There are two types of reference: if an expression using, for example, demonstratives such as this and that refers to something physically present in the speech situation, it is called exophora; if an expression refers to some part of the text, it is called endophora.

When the referent i. Substitution is replacement of one expression with another. Other common substitution expressions in English are one and the same: My laptop is getting very slow, so I need to buy a faster one. Hoey 9 reports that over 40 percent of cohesive ties in the texts that Halliday and Hasan analyzed are lexical, and thus lexical cohesion is the most frequently used cohesive device in English.

Lexical cohesion includes i repetition of an earlier item, the use of ii a synonym, iii an antonym or opposite, iv superordinate or hyponym, or v a related general word. The following are examples of each type: 78 Kinds of meaning II I. Repetition The Big Three automakers directly employ nearly , Americans.

Overall, the industry accounts for roughly 5 million jobs. Every state has a stake in the industry — suppliers in Ohio, dealerships in Texas and port workers in New Jersey. The panel has determined that cell phones are unnecessary to carry to school and recommends that boards of education and schools create rules to forbid them at school.

It is assumed that 90 percent of software sold at auction sites are pirate copies. Antonym or opposite The advantage of solid state drives is speed and robustness. The disadvantage is their high cost. Asahi Shimbun, December 8, IV. It was during these impressionable years of his youth, while serving his apprenticeship, that this charismatic entrepreneur is said to have developed his instincts for business and his knack for success.

Anaphoric reference is typically accomplished by use of third-person pronouns. Japanese third-person pronouns include kare masculine, singular , kanojo feminine, singular , karera masculine, plural , and kanojora feminine, plural.

We need to be aware that the Japanese language did not spontaneously develop such pronouns but coined them only as translational equivalents of those in European languages. Kinds of meaning II 81 another entity is located. Thus translating newspaper article 1 with kare as in 2 is inappropriate.

Either omission of the pronoun 3 or repetition of the proper noun 4 is more natural in Japanese. But before then, he needs to form an administration to run the country. CNN, November 6, 2. Furthermore, English tends to rely heavily on pronouns to trace references, while Japanese strongly favors ellipsis. On the other hand, Japanese seems to be more accepting of repetition and redundancy. For sono uchi no ichido, 7 Referring to a person with kare or kanojo is normally considered impolite.

Therefore, it is inappropriate to say, KinD Aoki-sensei ni oaishimashita. I changed the structure of the second half to encode sono toki in subordination. Notice that okurimono is repeated here as an element of lexical cohesion. Okurimono is repeated again. The expression ageru, which is synonymous to okuru, is used for lexical cohesion. Aite refers to gift recipients. Sono hito is an instance of anaphora, referring back to aite. Command of gender-neutral language has become increasingly important in speech and writing today.

The lexical cohesion tie ageru appears again. Kinds of meaning II 83 F. Because it is redundant, I omitted the second half. This is a stylistic choice.

Prior to this passage, the author mentions that novelist Sato Haruo praised Mushanokoji Saneatsu, another novelist, as a true stylist. Public humiliation is a surprisingly effective and low-cost way of deterring criminals and expressing the moral order of a community. It is used by a few judges, but much too sparingly.

This is limited, in practice, to nonviolent criminals, including some burglars and thieves. Judges in Sarasota, Fla. Figurative meaning Traditionally, the terms figurative meaning, figurative language, or figures of speech refer to an expressive use of language in which words convey meanings in a non-literal sense in order to appeal aesthetically by means of illuminating comparisons, resemblances, and contiguity of ideas.

They serve to seize our attention and to inform, and sometimes to persuade. In this section, we will consider three of the several major tropes: simile, metaphor, and metonymy.

Unlike metaphor, e. Time is a river, similes employ such markers as like or as, e. Time is like a river. Similes are usually constructed upon some feature recognizable as salient by the people of a particular speech community, e. Translational approximations in two languages might share similar connotations: He was hungry and tired, like a stray dog. In such a case, the simile should be substituted with an explanatory description.

Better to send nothing at all, right? The sound of the freezing of snow over the land seemed to roar deep into the earth. There was no moon. The stars, almost too many of them to be true, came forward so brightly that it was as if they were falling with the swifness of the void.

As the stars came nearer, the sky retreated deeper and deeper into the night color. The layers of the Border Range, indistinguishable one from another, cast their heaviness at the skirt of the starry sky in a blackness grave and somber enough to communicate their mass.

The whole of the night scene came together in a clear, tranquil harmony. It concerns a sporadic affair between a Tokyo writer and a lonely geisha from the country. The novel begins with the protagonist in a train coming through a long tunnel under the mountains and arriving in a secluded hot-spring resort where the winter is long, dark, and silent. My boss is as dumb as a bucket of rocks. The night was as black as ink. Translation is like a man.

When handsome, he is unfaithful. When faithful, he is not handsome. His legendary strategy has been depicted in numerous novels e. Kaiko Takeshi — was a postwar Japanese novelist, essayist, literary critic, newspaper correspondent, and copywriter. By reason of weird translation, many such sets of instructions read like poems anyhow.

Brian Ferneyhough Mohammad Ali She grew on him like she was a colony of E. Coli, and he was roomtemperature Canadian beef. His thoughts tumbled in his head, making and breaking alliances like underpants in a dryer without Cling Free.

The metaphor consists of two parts: the tenor and the vehicle. The tenor is the entity to which attributes or characteristics are ascribed; the vehicle is the entity from which the attributes are borrowed Richards It can also be construed as a mapping from the source domain including a snake to the target domain including Tony. By such metaphorical transfer of senses, words extend their meanings: e. In this sense metaphor can be seen as a characteristic of literary, especially poetic, language Wales In recent years, however, metaphor has come to be understood to be a ubiquitous and not deviant use of language Lakoff and Johnson , Lakoff , Gibbs , Gill and Whedbee It plays a much larger role than merely adding ornamentation to a text because the fundamental form of human understanding is metaphorical in nature.

That is, humans can grasp an unfamiliar idea only by comparison to or in terms of what is already known. In this perspective, metaphor structures human conceptualizations of experience.

There are three types of metaphors: dead, stock, and original. I consider it unnecessary to separate recent metaphor as a type. Kinds of meaning II 89 common that the original, literal meaning is superseded, e. Dead metaphors are part of the regular lexicon and not usually a special issue in translation.

Stock metaphors are conventional metaphors; original metaphors are sometimes called private or poetic metaphors. Like similes, metaphors may or may not be transferable across languages, and similar metaphors might highlight quite different aspects of an event or person. For instance, adding water to some liquid can be conceived as diluting and weakening it usually a move downward , or as making its amount greater an upward movement.

He watered down his proposal. There are seven types of strategizing in metaphor translating: i reproducing the same image in the TL, ii translation of the metaphor with a simile, retaining the original image, iii replacing the image in the SL with a standard TL image, iv the same metaphor combined with sense, v translation of the metaphor with a simile plus sense, vi conversion of the metaphor to sense, and vii deletion.

These strategies, except for vii , are demonstrated below: I. The results of this election cast a dark shadow over environment issues. I have a dream that one day on the red hills of Georgia, the sons of former slaves and the sons of former slave-owners will be able to sit down together at the table of brotherhood. Martin Luther King, Jr. There is chemistry between them. Toriumi is a fountain of knowledge, an endless source of information. The low-hanging fruit in the energy issue is not wind, solar, biomass, or geothermal.

It was music to my ears. In some cases, however, the literal interpretation also makes a certain kind of sense and may lead to mistranslation. He later realized that shoebox was a metaphor for a small room or apartment. I surf the net anonymously by using some proxy sites. The lawyer grilled the witness during cross-examination. The prices of houses rose 60 percent between and , before the housing bubble burst.

Congress must not issue a blank check to bail out the auto industry. Art washes away from the soul the dust of everyday life. Pablo Picasso No man is an island. John Donne Some books are to be tasted, others to be swallowed, and some few to be chewed and digested; that is, some books are to be read only in parts; others to be read, but not curiously; and some few to be read wholly, and with diligence and attention.

Which strategies do you use? We stand now where two roads diverge. The road we have long been travelling is deceptively easy, a smooth superhighway on which we progress with great speed, but at its end lies disaster.

It gathers momentum with the work of many investigators and as it is fed by other streams of thought; it is deepened and broadened by the concepts and generalizations that are gradually evolved. In other words, metonymy indirectly describes an entity by referring to something associated with it.

Some researchers consider metonymy to be different from, rather than inclusive of, synecdoche. Both metaphor and metonymy involve substitution of one expression for another. However, while metaphor depends on similarity between the two entities, metonymy works by the contiguity, association, or relationship between them.

As mentioned earlier, metaphor might create a relationship between the entities, but in order to understand metonymy, the reader must know beforehand the relationship between the entities. Therefore, direct translation of some types of metonymy may not be comprehensible for the TT audience.

The assemblywoman gave her word that she would not vote for the bill. President Bush has bombed Afghanistan and Iraq. The press treated the candidate horribly.

I received a pink slip much earlier than anticipated. New England won the Super Bowl. She is ready to take legal action to protect her name. He quickly drank the bottle. This paper proposes a new approach to the investigation of human cognitive capabilities. Does the person mean to offend you and start an altercation?

Or is it meant as a joke? In any case, we have not understood an utterance if we cannot identify its communicative function s. In other words, we know that language is used not only to say things, i. In uttering a sentence, a speaker is generally involved in three different acts. First, there is a locutionary act, the act of speaking itself.

In addition, the speaker intends an utterance to constitute an apology, command, promise, warning, etc. This intentional aspect of the speaker is called the illocutionary act, or illocutionary force. While the illocutionary force can be implicit in the utterance, in some cases it is made explicit with a perfomative verb, e. I admit I was stupid, He congratulates you, I order you to get out, We promise to return.

It is necessary to distinguish between the locution and the illocution because different locutions can have the same illocutionary force, and a single locution can have different illocutionary forces depending on the context.

Frequently, declarative sentences are utilized to make statements e. However, no consistent correspondences exist between the sentence types and the kinds of illocutionary force.

For example, declarative sentences can be used to decline an offer of a loan of a book e. ShDsetsu wa amari yomimasen , making a request e. Likewise, interrogative sentences can be used for making a statement e. Dare ga sensD ni nanka ikitagaru? Jikan wakarimasu? Konna keisan machigatchatta no? As these examples demonstrate, English and Japanese have in common different sentence types used to accomplish various speech acts on behalf of their speakers. Recall the translation discussed in Section 1.

The prisoner stood straight now, his legs still exposed. Such illustrations show foods typically attractively garnished and served in fancy tableware. What the sentence attempts to convey is that the picture on the package is different from or does not accurately represent the actual content; however, if you translate it thusly, it will sound fraudulent, which is not likely intended. Identify their illocutionary force s , and translate them. Thank you for not touching the artifacts.

You did a good job. Long time no see. Be careful going home tonight. I know where you live. I would appreciate it if you would reconsider my grade. Congratulations on your purchase of our product. You really made me feel at home. Jury service lies at the heart of our American judicial system. For many, serving as a juror is a memorable and even a profound experience.

While voting is a privilege of citizenship, jury service is a civic obligation and often the most direct participation that individuals have in their government. Ronald M. George, Chief Justice of California 3. Ambiguity and vagueness 3. Ambiguity To conclude this chapter about meaning, we consider the notions of ambiguity and vagueness. Many words, phrases, and sentences are polysemous, allowing Kinds of meaning II 99 more than one interpretation in a given context.

The possibility of multiple interpretations is referred to as ambiguity. Newmark —20 posits seven types of ambiguity. Six are listed below: A.

Grammatical ambiguity occurs when a phrase permits more than one interpretation although the meaning of each word is uniquely determined. Pragmatic ambiguity consists of an expression that can be used to signal something other than its literal meaning.

Cultural ambiguity arises when the function or the substance to which an expression refers changes at a point in time and the period background is unclear in the ST. Japanese has no clearly established tense, and forms for past and present are often interchanged without creating any confusion for the reader. Therefore, it is more reasonable to consider that Futabatei employed the lunar calendar in Ukigumo.

This is not my cup of tea. They spilled the beans. The father tried to teach his little son something in a barbaric way. The employee came back with no results. Normally, the translator must decide which interpretation should be adopted. The cottage stands all on its own at the end of a rutted cart-track that leads off from the main road to the village, about a mile away. A slight hump in the terrain and a stand of beech trees screen the cottage and its outbuildings from the road. David Lodge, Home Truths 3.

Vagueness The second notion to consider is vagueness, i. Kempson —6 recognizes four types of vagueness, three of which are relevant to the translation process. We agree that a city is where a larger number of people live, whereas a town is likely to be smaller. This referential vagueness tends to multiply in translation. Indeterminacy of meaning arises when the meaning of an expression seems indeterminate, e.

When the ST is indeterminate, matching its vagueness within the norm of the TT is dexterous, e. He went to the station can be used to describe walking, running, biking, driving a car, to mention only a few.

Translate it into English. However, analysis of its structure and recognition of all lexical meanings provided him no clue as to how to interpret the sentence as a whole. He eventually gave up hopelessly with: There is a house or possibly houses in a certain place. Currently, the house is not dissimilar to something else, probably to other houses or looks long unchanged.

Someone asks someone else a question: Where can someone or who or something or what go into it? In the past, there was no back door. Little actually happens in the novel: we witness the dissolution of a once-viable way of life in a time of economic and emotional hardship. Discourse genre is a category to which a given text in a given culture is recognized as belonging, and within which the text is seen to share a type of communicative purpose and effect with other texts Hervey and Higgins A wellconstructed discourse in any language, regardless of genre, obeys a variety of constraints designed to produce its characteristic discourse structure.

Language users are normally able to identify the type of discourse they are reading or hearing. Translating different text genres requires different strategic priorities.

The norms governing all types of letter writing, as one example, vary considerably from language to language and from period to period. In these cases,.

Discourse genre A translation normally results in a text of the same genre as the original. That is, a narrative ST needs to be translated as a narrative in the TT; it should not sound, for example, like an expository text. For this, one needs to be able to recognize differences among genres. A given discourse typically contains a number of different basic genres: a narrative opens with a location description, but in most cases, one characteristic stands out as dominant. Narrative discourse 4.

Alice was not a bit hurt, and she jumped up on to her feet in a moment: she looked up, but it was all dark overhead: before her was another long passage, and the White Rabbit was still in sight, hurrying down it.

Around noon, all of us — my wife and I, the painter S-san, and the young innkeeper K-san and his wife — had gathered in my room to play cards.