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Pictograph of a heavy iron pole with bars extending in both directions. Cowrie shells were used in remote antiquity, at least among the elite, as currency, and it was customary to tie several of these seashells to a rope to facilitate transactions. The Japanese language does not use an alphabet to represent every word and sound, rather there are two syllabaries hiragana and katakana and at least logographic characters of Chinese origin called kanji. There is also an appendix with a list of phonetic patterns that students can consult and use at their convenience.

Locale Data Summary for Japanese [ja]

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退魔ノ隷刻 vol 06 第08 09話

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Usually performed on words composed of two or more kanji. Usually performed when single kanjis that appear alone or followed by syllables written in hiragana. There are some characters that have more than one onyomi reading or more than one kunyomi reading. There are also some rare composite words in which one of the kanji has a kunyomi reading and the other kanji has an onyomi reading.

Finally, there are also words with special readings gikun that are used only in one word. These exceptional cases can only be learned by memorizing the relevant vocabulary. These types of composite words are called jukugo. In cases where a character has several on readings, it will only be possible to determine which of them should be used by learning the relevant vocabulary, but it has to be said that most kanji have only a single onyomi 24 reading, and those with several of them are usually fairly common characters, whereas one of the possible readings is often used much more frequently than the rest.

The syllables written in hiragana that follow a kanji read in kunyomi is called okurigana, and this okurigana may be inflected, making it variable, but the kunyomi reading will be acting as an invariable fixed lexeme. I chose this character in particular because it is a character with an exceptionally high number of possible readings.

To make handwriting comprehensible and aesthetically appealing; 2. To know the first stroke and the number of strokes a character has when you want to look for it in dictionaries—or in one of the indices of this book6—; and 3. Moreover, the learning of kanji can always be more enriching if it is done according to aesthetic rules that will integrate the student into the compendium of the sinitic calligraphic tradition.

The calligraphic tradition of Chinese characters establishes three key points or laws: 1. Law of strokes: Each character is composed of a specific number of strokes. A stroke is every brush movement that is made without lifting the pen from the paper. Law of sequence: The strokes of each character must be written in an established order following a given sequence and direction.

All characters also have to be able to be written within the boundaries inferred by an equilateral square. Each kanji, therefore, is made up of a few strokes that must be written in a particular order so that they occupy more or less the size of a square. The existence of these rules as opposed to the Latin script, which does not specify a specific stroke order is mainly due to one reason: to bring some clarity and comprehensibility upon the large number of existing characters and to allow an accurate distinction between them.

If writing is done slowly, the resulting characters are likely to be intelligible despite the differences in stroke order, but as soon as writing is streamlined and strokes begin to come together or mingle due to the speed of the brush, it is imperative to follow a standard sequence that allows the reader to discern what path the writing utensil has followed while tracing the character.

In order for the student to achieve a correct writing and, perhaps most importantly, to be able to discern at first glance the order and the 6 Character Index 27 number of strokes of a character, he or she must acknowledge and apply the three aforementioned rules, which I will explain one at a time in more detail hereafter.

Within the whole set of Chinese characters there is a series of repeating strokes and these can be easily sorted out. Let us see, then, what are the strokes used in the sinitic writing: 1. In addition to these four common strokes and their variants there is also a series of compound strokes.

These strokes are technically the combination of two common stroke shapes, but united by a single brush stroke: 5.

LAW OF SEQUENCE The next aspect to take into account when writing kanji is the order in which the strokes of each character are written, that is, the Law of the Sequence, which follows the principle that the writing of characters has to be economical: so that the hand makes the fewest movements to write a greater number of strokes.

This principle, applied to almost all of the sinograms, has allowed the stroke sequence to remain virtually unchanged over the years. Compound characters, thus, follow predetermined compositional structures with regard to the location of the components. They are the most common compounds. There are characters with components that look narrower on the left e. There are also compounds formed of three vertical components e. Vertical components are written from left to right, that is, the first component to be written as a whole is the one on the left and the last the one on the right.

There are components that appear more squashed at the top e. There are also horizontal compounds formed by three components e. This type of compound is written from top to bottom, that is, the component on top is written first and the component below at last. This type of compound is one of the least frequent.

In the left wrappings the stroke order is as follows: top line, content, lower corner. In the lower wrappings the order is: content, lower corner, column. The wrapping corner can be at the top left e. The writing order of this type of compound is as follows: left column, upper corner, content, bottom line.

As you may have already inferred, the written order of components follows precepts similar to the stroke order of primitive characters. Compound characters should therefore be written as follows: Component 1 stroke sequence , component 2 stroke sequence. When the ancient Chinese people began to develop their writing system they did so by looking at the world around them and by representing the concepts expressed by the language with a limited series of pictographic symbols—also called primitive characters— which were given a sound and a meaning.

These symbols would later start to get combined with each other to form the large amount of Chinese characters that exist today of which are considered indispensable in Japanese. The World of Kanji takes the premise that the student of kanji will be able to advance much faster in his learning if he has a notion of what these primitive pictorial symbols are and how they work.

The Human Realm concerns people and their social functions, the parts of the human body, and the actions performed by the limbs. The Natural Realm concerns the natural elements, plants and their applications, and animals.

The Material Realm concerns everyday objects, work tools and vessels. Finally, the Territorial Realm encompasses weapons used in warfare for territorial gain, physical spaces and constructions. In addition, the student will learn each character in a not only associative but also gradual way.

Each new character the student 34 first encounters will be a primitive component, and the following characters will only have components that have appeared previously.

The student of kanji, thanks to this book, will be able to acquire a new representative and a symbolic consciousness of the world around him, and he will be able to see in every new Chinese character he founds a scene that speaks directly to his mind. Once the student finishes the book, he will have acquired a new world view of his own—related to the characters—, and he will be able to maintain an unimagined conceptual dialogue with the wonderful logographic system used in Japanese writing.

Once the student accomplishes the adventure of The World of Kanji, Chinese characters will have gone from being a threat or obstacle to being the most intimate ally. STUDY PROCESS The student, following the order of the book, should pause at each entry, carefully reading the explanations and finally concentrating on the composition and meaning of each kanji or component in order to retain it in his memory.

It is suggested that during this memorization process, the student writes down each character several times. When the reader has finished with those groups of characters, he or she will be able to go to that list and review the meanings from memory.

The memorization of the readings of each kanji is not the main objective of this book, since they are very varied and it is advisable to learn them together with some vocabulary, but these readings are indicated in each entry in hiragana kunyomi readings and katakana onyomi readings for informative purposes. If the student does not know how to read the syllabaries, he may consult the appendix dedicated to them at the end of the book.

There is also an appendix with a list of phonetic patterns that students can consult and use at their convenience. It is necessary to know them in order to read the readings shown in the character entries. It can be used as a reference or reinforcement when the student is already familiar with the book. Although the phono-semantic components also indicate similar phonemes, only characters with an identical phoneme appear in this list.

This list may be used by the student as a guide to remember onyomi readings of several characters at the same time. Radicals are components appearing at least once along with another component.

Radicals are usually the most frequently occurring components. The list of radicals is composed of semantic components and 8 graphic elements that act as radicals, forming a total list of elements. Within a group with the same radical characters are grouped by total number of strokes. To consult a character in this list, one should 36 identify first its radical when there are two apparent radicals, the leftmost or uppermost shall be chosen.

Once the radical has been identified, it should be counted the total number of strokes of the character and then find it within the radical group. Within these characters, a division can be made between the primitive and component characters and the characters composed of these components—or compounds.

Each of these two character types is rendered a little bit differently. Only the kunyomi readings recognized by the Japanese Ministry of Education are included, shown along their most frequent okurigana.

If the component is only of a semantic nature, the main glyph is depicted in a strong red color, whereas the variant used only as a component is colored in a softer red color, as shown in the previous example.

In this case, these characters appear only in light color and their reading—in the phonosemantic components—appears in gray. Entries for the compounds, therefore, are somewhat simpler. Also it indicates an occasional phonosemantic use of a character that normally acts just a semantic component. NOTE Compound characters bearing this label require an additional etymological explanation.

To understand the outside world, it is necessary first to know the inner world. The ego, the person, and people's personal relationships are the existential elements at which human beings firstly and most frequently aim their consciousness. It is not surprising, then, that among the first artistic expressions made by prehistoric peoples there are, in fact, direct representations of themselves: the human being.

It is notorious that these peoples established themselves as one of the primordial centers of their cosmographies. The creators of Chinese characters were no exception to that. Taking into account that the ritual inscriptions of the Shang people were developed within an activity of social functionality, it is also no coincidence that the representations of people and their actions play a key role within the whole corpus of primitive pictograms.

The human being is, therefore, one of the main subjects of Chinese characters. Graphemes grouped within the Human Realm are divided into the three following groups: Characters used to represent human figures in their own right, characters used to represent different parts of the human body and their functions, and, lastly, characters that place special emphasis on the different actions performed by hands and feet.

The Upright Man 2. The Different Postures 3. Women and Gestation 4. The Individual and Society 5. Bones 2. Heart 3. Eyes 4. Nose, Ears and Hair 5. Hands 2. Arms 3. By changing the orientation of this simple iconographic image, several other primordial graphemes were created. It is the most basic character and component because it is used to represent concepts related to humankind and the activities we do as people. The current character is the outlining of a pictograph showing a standing person, seen from the side, slightly curved to the left.

A person seen from the side, looking to the right. The current meaning of the character was taken on making a relation to the movement of the sun, as it heads south at noon in the Northern Hemisphere : going northwards understood as giving the back to the sun.

A person carrying another person on her back, taking care of him. It may designate both the action of working as well as that of holding something. The strokes of the agricultural tool were eventually merged with the strokes representing the person, thus making the form of the current character. Women play a key role in the sinitic logical graphical representations for their own shake, and its icon diverts to a large number of secondary components and compound characters. It is worth to notice that this character is the reversed form of the glyph newborn baby.

But even greater than the physical dimensions of man is the transcendence obtained by the spiritual endeavors. A man who is aware of heaven. In many of the characters in which there was originally a thick line or a stain, there is now a thin horizontal line, due to the simplification attained while using brushes as a means of writing.

In the modern form of the character, however, only the outline remains, and the design of the tattoo itself has disappeared from the graph. It is notorious that prior to the international standardization of measures of length, most human groups used the human body as a reference. Chinese characters reflect this fact in two primitive characters. We have seen how people can be divided by age, sex, activity or social position, among other things.

Another thing in regard to people that has to be taken into account is their material nature. A person is inconceivable without his physical body. Later on, this meaning began to be associated with any kind of human representation and, eventually, earthen and wooden dolls.

Nevertheless, this meaning may be associated with the concept of the beforehand need for the existence of a marrow and a connected spinal column in order to make the movement of vertebrate animals possible. The meaning of this character and component is usually taken figuratively, in most cases it refers to surfaces, contours or actions such as facing something.

In any case, it is important to note that the present graph never acts as a standalone character, but only as a primitive component for other compound characters. A person with the authority to speak with transcendence, someone with the powers to take care of family matters: the firstborn, the elder brother. This character, thus refers to an obedient people and a stable kingdom. This graphically resounding character is also currently used in various Japanese and Chinese place names.

The tongue looks forked as that of a snake and has two dots in the middle evolved later into a single 85 straight, crossing line , just to evoke the idea of the movement the tongue makes while talking. Someone consistent with his principles. A reversed 90 mouth represents somebody speaking words from top to bottom, someone who speaks to another person from a higher position, denoting a sense of power or control.

Nevertheless, we still have to analyze a primordial element of the human being, without which it could not perform most of the daily activities. This latter meaning may be related to the figurative idea of an added aiding outstretched hand that can be used again and again.

This ideogram suggests the idea of something very delicate or fragile. This ideogram evokes the idea of a child being taken by the ear while being scolded.

Be it as it may, the concept represented by this character is that of a weapon used in attack. This component can also imply the action of hitting something with an object. The meaning of this glyph usually refers to the action of hitting or blowing something. On the other hand, when acts as a standalone it adopts the connotation of a unit of length 3 cm that approximately matches the average length of a human wrist.

If this component appears in the upper part of a compound, it takes the compressed form. This arm stance seems to evoke the image of a biceps increasing its volume as the arm bents, making an allusion to physical strength. In many instances this component is used to indicate standing, still feet. In origin this character probably was making reference to some kind of administrative institution, but over time it was taken to designate religious temples, and more concretely Buddhist temples—where, in any case, manual work is constantly required.

Ancient people divided nature into the intangible and the tangible. The intangible is essential to maintain the spiritual and divine order and the tangible is essential to maintain the material and economic order. Both aspects were considered indispensable for keeping social stability.

Within the intangible aspect there are not only gods and divine power, but also time, meteorology, astronomy and what is related to divination, a fundamental part of life at the time when Chinese characters were created.

As a matter of fact, Chinese characters owe their development to divination, since Chinese writing emerged and spread thanks to being a fundamental part of divinatory rites. The tangible aspect includes everything related to plants and animals, elements that are paramount for the survival of any society. Elements of nature—earth, water, fire, air or energy —stars, plants and trees, oviparous animals and mammals, all of them are extensively present within the corpus of Chinese characters.

All these glyphs are grouped, within the natural realm, into the following three groups: Characters used to represent the active elements of nature, characters used to represent plants and trees, and lastly, characters used to represent animals and some of their by-products. Energy 2. Stars 3. Water 4. Fire 5. Earth 6. Small Plants 2. Trees 3. Oviparous 2.

Mammals 3. Animal Manipulation 4. Energy, therefore, can be understood as a conceptualization of the spirit or anima, a spirit that is invisible and intangible. But how can one represent what cannot be seen nor touched? Chinese characters give an answer by representing energy as a flow of movement, depicted by abstract lines.

This character makes reference, therefore, to the intangible energy that makes men move and act. The bare skull implies here a deceased person. This character that was originally represented with a continuous line, over time began to be depicted with a square inside another square in order to make its writing faster and easier.

The FLAG identifies the interests involved. Crotch meat on the altar?!!! The temporal nature of this kanji explains the appearance of DAY. Note the vertical stoke is cut off at the top or bottom, respectively, depending on whether there is an element above or below it. Similar to a rake, but slightly curved on the bottom, is a MOP. Be careful it means something else when it appears on the right hand side of a kanji. A life-LINE then pulls him out.

Of course, later on, they call him SIRE. TREE lends a kind of structural presence to this kanji. A financial bond is the meaning. Unfortunately, this creates SMOKE, which alerts the natives to the presence of the unwelcome interlopers. TREE of course is found in this kanji. Pictograph of a heavy iron pole with bars extending in both directions. This primitive for KEY looks like the number one. WARD lends a sense of the various divisions of the European countries. The SUN is what you wait for all night as you shift uncomfortably.

You keep things IN a purse, the bottom of which is represented by the last stroke. Notice how the first downward stroke of WELL has been straightened out. The two drops and the horizontal line are familiar from the kanji for MAMA. Note: inside an enclosure, the tail disappears, which means he's standing still. It refers to the opening of farmlands.

If only they were all this easy! S: 85 L: 1 C: ID: S: 44 L: 0 C: ID: S: 10 L: 0 C: ID: S: L: 0 C: ID: Authorized: Yes Submitter: Erai-raws Size: S: 27 L: 0 C: ID: S: 65 L: 0 C: ID: S: 17 L: 0 C: ID: S: 1 L: 0 C: ID: S: 5 L: 0 C: ID: S: 51 L: 0 C: ID: S: L: 3 C: ID: S: 38 L: 0 C: ID: S: 64 L: 0 C: ID:

 

S: 17 L: 0 C: ID: S: 1 L: 0 C: ID: S: 5 L: 0 C: ID: S: 51 L: 0 C: ID: S: L: 3 C: ID: S: 38 L: 0 C: ID: S: 64 L: 0 C: ID: S: 26 L: 0 C: ID: Authorized: Yes Submitter: Ohys Size: S: 25 L: 0 C: ID: S: 24 L: 0 C: ID: S: 31 L: 0 C: ID: S: 21 L: 1 C: ID: S: 7 L: 0 C: ID: It is necessary to know them in order to read the readings shown in the character entries.

It can be used as a reference or reinforcement when the student is already familiar with the book. Although the phono-semantic components also indicate similar phonemes, only characters with an identical phoneme appear in this list. This list may be used by the student as a guide to remember onyomi readings of several characters at the same time. Radicals are components appearing at least once along with another component.

Radicals are usually the most frequently occurring components. The list of radicals is composed of semantic components and 8 graphic elements that act as radicals, forming a total list of elements. Within a group with the same radical characters are grouped by total number of strokes. To consult a character in this list, one should 36 identify first its radical when there are two apparent radicals, the leftmost or uppermost shall be chosen.

Once the radical has been identified, it should be counted the total number of strokes of the character and then find it within the radical group. Within these characters, a division can be made between the primitive and component characters and the characters composed of these components—or compounds. Each of these two character types is rendered a little bit differently. Only the kunyomi readings recognized by the Japanese Ministry of Education are included, shown along their most frequent okurigana.

If the component is only of a semantic nature, the main glyph is depicted in a strong red color, whereas the variant used only as a component is colored in a softer red color, as shown in the previous example. In this case, these characters appear only in light color and their reading—in the phonosemantic components—appears in gray.

Entries for the compounds, therefore, are somewhat simpler. Also it indicates an occasional phonosemantic use of a character that normally acts just a semantic component. NOTE Compound characters bearing this label require an additional etymological explanation. To understand the outside world, it is necessary first to know the inner world.

The ego, the person, and people's personal relationships are the existential elements at which human beings firstly and most frequently aim their consciousness. It is not surprising, then, that among the first artistic expressions made by prehistoric peoples there are, in fact, direct representations of themselves: the human being.

It is notorious that these peoples established themselves as one of the primordial centers of their cosmographies. The creators of Chinese characters were no exception to that. Taking into account that the ritual inscriptions of the Shang people were developed within an activity of social functionality, it is also no coincidence that the representations of people and their actions play a key role within the whole corpus of primitive pictograms.

The human being is, therefore, one of the main subjects of Chinese characters. Graphemes grouped within the Human Realm are divided into the three following groups: Characters used to represent human figures in their own right, characters used to represent different parts of the human body and their functions, and, lastly, characters that place special emphasis on the different actions performed by hands and feet.

The Upright Man 2. The Different Postures 3. Women and Gestation 4. The Individual and Society 5. Bones 2. Heart 3. Eyes 4. Nose, Ears and Hair 5. Hands 2. Arms 3. By changing the orientation of this simple iconographic image, several other primordial graphemes were created.

It is the most basic character and component because it is used to represent concepts related to humankind and the activities we do as people. The current character is the outlining of a pictograph showing a standing person, seen from the side, slightly curved to the left.

A person seen from the side, looking to the right. The current meaning of the character was taken on making a relation to the movement of the sun, as it heads south at noon in the Northern Hemisphere : going northwards understood as giving the back to the sun. A person carrying another person on her back, taking care of him.

It may designate both the action of working as well as that of holding something. The strokes of the agricultural tool were eventually merged with the strokes representing the person, thus making the form of the current character.

Women play a key role in the sinitic logical graphical representations for their own shake, and its icon diverts to a large number of secondary components and compound characters. It is worth to notice that this character is the reversed form of the glyph newborn baby. But even greater than the physical dimensions of man is the transcendence obtained by the spiritual endeavors. A man who is aware of heaven. In many of the characters in which there was originally a thick line or a stain, there is now a thin horizontal line, due to the simplification attained while using brushes as a means of writing.

In the modern form of the character, however, only the outline remains, and the design of the tattoo itself has disappeared from the graph. It is notorious that prior to the international standardization of measures of length, most human groups used the human body as a reference.

Chinese characters reflect this fact in two primitive characters. We have seen how people can be divided by age, sex, activity or social position, among other things. Another thing in regard to people that has to be taken into account is their material nature. A person is inconceivable without his physical body.

Later on, this meaning began to be associated with any kind of human representation and, eventually, earthen and wooden dolls. Nevertheless, this meaning may be associated with the concept of the beforehand need for the existence of a marrow and a connected spinal column in order to make the movement of vertebrate animals possible.

The meaning of this character and component is usually taken figuratively, in most cases it refers to surfaces, contours or actions such as facing something. In any case, it is important to note that the present graph never acts as a standalone character, but only as a primitive component for other compound characters. A person with the authority to speak with transcendence, someone with the powers to take care of family matters: the firstborn, the elder brother.

This character, thus refers to an obedient people and a stable kingdom. This graphically resounding character is also currently used in various Japanese and Chinese place names.

The tongue looks forked as that of a snake and has two dots in the middle evolved later into a single 85 straight, crossing line , just to evoke the idea of the movement the tongue makes while talking. Someone consistent with his principles.

A reversed 90 mouth represents somebody speaking words from top to bottom, someone who speaks to another person from a higher position, denoting a sense of power or control. Nevertheless, we still have to analyze a primordial element of the human being, without which it could not perform most of the daily activities. This latter meaning may be related to the figurative idea of an added aiding outstretched hand that can be used again and again.

This ideogram suggests the idea of something very delicate or fragile. This ideogram evokes the idea of a child being taken by the ear while being scolded. Be it as it may, the concept represented by this character is that of a weapon used in attack. This component can also imply the action of hitting something with an object. The meaning of this glyph usually refers to the action of hitting or blowing something. On the other hand, when acts as a standalone it adopts the connotation of a unit of length 3 cm that approximately matches the average length of a human wrist.

If this component appears in the upper part of a compound, it takes the compressed form. This arm stance seems to evoke the image of a biceps increasing its volume as the arm bents, making an allusion to physical strength.

In many instances this component is used to indicate standing, still feet. In origin this character probably was making reference to some kind of administrative institution, but over time it was taken to designate religious temples, and more concretely Buddhist temples—where, in any case, manual work is constantly required. Ancient people divided nature into the intangible and the tangible.

The intangible is essential to maintain the spiritual and divine order and the tangible is essential to maintain the material and economic order. Both aspects were considered indispensable for keeping social stability.

Within the intangible aspect there are not only gods and divine power, but also time, meteorology, astronomy and what is related to divination, a fundamental part of life at the time when Chinese characters were created.

As a matter of fact, Chinese characters owe their development to divination, since Chinese writing emerged and spread thanks to being a fundamental part of divinatory rites. The tangible aspect includes everything related to plants and animals, elements that are paramount for the survival of any society.

Elements of nature—earth, water, fire, air or energy —stars, plants and trees, oviparous animals and mammals, all of them are extensively present within the corpus of Chinese characters. All these glyphs are grouped, within the natural realm, into the following three groups: Characters used to represent the active elements of nature, characters used to represent plants and trees, and lastly, characters used to represent animals and some of their by-products.

Energy 2. Stars 3. Water 4. Fire 5. Earth 6. Small Plants 2. Trees 3. Oviparous 2. Mammals 3. Animal Manipulation 4. Energy, therefore, can be understood as a conceptualization of the spirit or anima, a spirit that is invisible and intangible. But how can one represent what cannot be seen nor touched?

Chinese characters give an answer by representing energy as a flow of movement, depicted by abstract lines. This character makes reference, therefore, to the intangible energy that makes men move and act. The bare skull implies here a deceased person. This character that was originally represented with a continuous line, over time began to be depicted with a square inside another square in order to make its writing faster and easier. The elements of the sky govern the passing of time, the days and the nights, the hours and the months.

Over time, by analogy, this character went on to designate a large number not only of people in the open, but also a large number of animals and, ultimately, a large number of insects or a swarm, which is the current main meaning of the character when it appears as a standalone. This glyph has undergone a great graphical transformation over time. When the component is placed at the bottom, it takes the form. But earth should not be understood just as a means of obtaining construction material, but also as the soil and ground on top of which people live.

Stone, closing the cycle, becomes a construction material harder as it is clay. In either case the scene undoubtedly represents a sign of misfortune. The notion conveyed by this character is always that of gradual steps done in a given action and never that of literal steps done with the feet. In ancient China divinatory rituals were an essential part of the spiritual and political life, and in order to perform such rituals turtle shell bones or scapulae of other animals were heated to make appear cracks that were to be interpreted so prophecies and divinations could be made upon them.

Over time such divinations began to be written on the surface of the bones besides the formed cracks, leaving for posterity the first examples of writing in Chinese characters. This symbol is used within Chinese characters to figuratively designate, at first, a large, indefinite quantity.

The germination process of the plants is also represented. That characteristic chirping sound would later be associated with the humorous, sharp tone that is commonly used when mocking someone. This component symbolizes the overall concept of all types of plants rather than the notion of multiple plants. Since it grows very fast, spreading in all directions, it can end up being threatening to the environment.

Over time, this depiction of capital punishment became metaphorical and started to allude to the burning of food or cooking. The long cultivation time happens to be symbolically associated, therefore, with longevity. Over time this character underwent a visible graphical transformation. The present character also shows the use of lush plants as a decorative element and refers to a kind of ceremonial dance, probably shamanistic. The semantics of this character, when acting as a component, points in some occasions to the wobbly movement and elasticity shown by bamboo plants.

Each of those logs was altogether essential for the stability of the bridge. This ideogram probably denotes a primitive tribal hunting or fighting scene in which hunters or warriors had to survey the terrain from above before starting an ambush. This glyph also suggests the idea of people who come home with fruits in their hands after having collected them.

This ideogram could also refer, in origin, to the stubble burning that was traditionally done in autumn in ancient agricultural societies. Over time, the character began to denote anything the size of a seed, or put it another way, something tiny.

This glyph of positive connotations was adopted in any case by the Chinese Tang dynasty royal family to refer to its clan. This ideogram evokes the scene of a certain kind of animal in relation to another animal of another species, making reference to the interdependence that all living beings maintain, all belonging to the same nexus.

This character takes its meaning in reference to the fact that fish always, time and again, fall into the fishing traps. Over time, however, this glyph began to designate any type of mound or heap. In contrast, the present character can be associated with the active energetic role that the male bird takes in the reproductive act. Over time, that connotation was extended to any type of defense or protection. Ideographic composition that encompasses the most synthesized typology of living beings: plants, animals and human beings.

The meaning of the standalone character alludes to the need to seek furry animals for making clothes. The body of the horn proper is depicted by. The sheep is considered within the compendium of Chinese characters as an auspicious symbol.

It seems that sheep were one of the preferred animals in ancient China Shang Dynasty for the sacrifice to the gods in prospects of good crops and fortune. Silk has a very important role in ancient Chinese culture and trade.

The almost transparent color of the thread evokes the midpoint between the visible and the invisible, the real and the unreal, the world of illusions. It is this type of artisan object to which this character alludes. The character, thus alludes to a long, serpentine and malleable shape. Artificial objects, made by men, vary greatly in form and complexity, and also in degree of appreciation and consideration.

Such consideration is usually measured by the material in which the object in question is made. Objects made of wood or bamboo have a lesser consideration and are usually relegated to everyday use. On the other hand, metal objects—bronze in the period when Chinese characters were developed—were held in high esteem and were reserved for special uses.

The consideration for the objects also depends on their functionality, since there are tools that are indispensable for the expansion of a domain or territory, such as counting tools, monetary tools and, above all, work tools.

Also, vessels are especially important, since they were key in the various religious rituals of the Shang dynasty. Different types of objects, tools and vessels take prominence within Chinese characters and can be grouped within the material realm, which is divided into the following groups: Characters used to represent everyday objects, characters used to represent tools, and lastly, characters used to represent vessels.

Wooden Objects 2. Bamboo Objects 3. Counting Tools 2. Monetary Tools 3. Work Tools 4. Nets and Baskets 1. Food and Drinking Vessels 2. Bags and Boxes 3. Plates and Trays 4. Ultimately the meaning derived into anything uncontrollable that produces discomfort and torment. The meaning of this character comes from the structural function of beams, that of supporting the roofs under which people live. The selection of this character for the time period may be due to the relationship between noon time and cooking, for which the use of a mortar and pestle was often necessary.

This pictogram was originally used to represent a mortar, but later it started to designate any type of food container and, finally, tin cans. From the layout of these bamboo books derives the traditional way of writing the Chinese characters from top to bottom and also their square proportion. A financial bond is the meaning. Unfortunately, this creates SMOKE, which alerts the natives to the presence of the unwelcome interlopers.

TREE of course is found in this kanji. Pictograph of a heavy iron pole with bars extending in both directions. This primitive for KEY looks like the number one. WARD lends a sense of the various divisions of the European countries. The SUN is what you wait for all night as you shift uncomfortably. You keep things IN a purse, the bottom of which is represented by the last stroke. Notice how the first downward stroke of WELL has been straightened out.

The two drops and the horizontal line are familiar from the kanji for MAMA. Note: inside an enclosure, the tail disappears, which means he's standing still. It refers to the opening of farmlands.

If only they were all this easy! Note: the middle horizontal line also extends further outward than in FIVE. Related documents. Languages at York St John University. Download advertisement. Add this document to collection s. You can add this document to your study collection s Sign in Available only to authorized users. Description optional. Visible to Everyone. Just me.