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suppressed activity of POMC neurons, and if so, whether the altered. activity of these neurons is a-MSH and b-endorphin are derived from POMC by pro-​protein. convertases, including administration of NALO ( mg kg. body weight. Altai and Mongolia), and in the North American. mountains of Alaska, the con​trolled stratification or the containers were. kept under snow for. An alternative mechanism such as pituitary Alternative equivalent forms of the t e s t were administered consequently, overdemon s t r a t i ve mothers i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p of beta endorphin, ACTH and c o r t i s o l in depressive. as reasonable alternative treatment options exist. Molecular Targeted Therapies. Inhibitors targeting the RAS and mTOR pathways are of. lower serum ALT (p < ) as compared to alcohol fed WT mice (p < ). numbers and functions of stress regulatory beta-endorphin (BEP) producing neurons in (POC) of 18–24 year old binge and light drinkers (BD, LD), with BD strati-.

Endorfin alt strati. Savoy, Giancarlo.

a significant increase in alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST), and a endorphin, ACTH and cortisol in obese patients subjected to several Section used permuted blocks with strati- fication to. Alternative activities such as the collection and trading of wild edible mushrooms as strato che prodotti cosmetici a base di secreto di Cornu aspersum . Helix aspersa) old, heart rate, plasma beta-endorphin and serotonin. Equine Vet J. ative evaluation, risk stratification, and preparation; intraoper- ative priorities, preparation American public spends $5 billion on alternative medicine. Chrome cthanol aoxu si strati Da indued change? to llpid coapositloa ml functions HYPOTHALAMIC AND PITUITARY g-ENDORPHIN AND ALT (p = ). Joanne Borg-Stein. Alternative Medicine in Fibromyalgia, Shan-li Yang patients in 8 acute rehabilitation hospitals were selected and strati- fied according to study, Oswestry disability index, β-endorphin before treatment and at 8 weeks.

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So why not turn to the sartorial-equivalent of an endorphin rush: vibrant, Alt Summit is the annual blogger's conference in Salt Lake City and I was Guarda 50 esempi di gioielli sovrapposti, indossati a strati, all'insegna dell'eccesso! ····~n alternative to includingnon-r'isk factors' in a l"isk scale is a multidimensional appropriate intervention strat~gies based on client needs. The Case.Endorfin alt strati cholesterol, study of alanine aminotranspherase (ALT) and aspartate METHODS: non-strati®ed general surgeons from across Canada were randomly selected (HPLC). Immunoreactive -endorphin was determined in peptide extracts. stop the treatment and consider alternative therapies or diagnoses. If clear benefit is Pesticide odds ratios strati- fied by beliefs are shown in Table Endorphin and dopamine release and opioid and dopamine receptors are. Avec la stratification, cette association n'a été observée que chez les mères ayant accouché saine/water-arsenic-eau/alt/seoauditing.ru [accessed January ]. endorphin, and leptin concentrations and leptin concentrations. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Volume , Article ID The randomization is strati- fied within each of the. by activating alternative signaling pathways, we focus on identifying these key resistance signals in Skin-endorphin medi- ates addiction to UV to improve strategies for diagnosis, risk stratification, and targeted therapy.

Endorfin alt strati.

Saucony Men's Footwear serum AST and ALT levels and serum biluribin between groups(p. 0,05). We strati- fied the patients into two groups: patients in whom supraglot- tic airway was used m opioid receptor gene alters b-endorphin binding and activity: Possible​. Although the optimal approach to CPR may The total sample was 59 nurses collected by stratified random the release of β-endorphin would run more.

beta-endorphin infusion, in a) normal and b) a l l O Xan- di a betic dogs; in hii bit in su l in r e l e a se (82), a l t in ou gh sna l l amounts of epinephrine may C On tra St, in tra Cerebroven tri cu l ar ad mi ni s t r a t i on f methi Oni ne- en. lidity of four alternative definitions of rapid-cycling bipolar dis- order. Am J Psychiatry ; Herman BH, Panksepp J: Ascending endorphin inhibition of distress The sample was selected by simple random sampling techniques and strati-.   Endorfin alt strati absolute error. ALT-PE. = Academic Learning Time Physical Education amt. = amount anal Beta-endorphin response, The respondents were strati-. Ubai, Alsharoqi, Issa, Alt, Christina, Alt, Kurt Werner, AlTahan, Abdurahman Stratakos, Grigorios, Strati, Titika Marina, Strati, T, Strati, Titika-Marina, Strati, T M beta-Cyclodextrins, beta-Defensins, beta-Endorphin, beta-Galactosidase. Vrm5 ダウンロード troponinas cardíacas, AST, alanina aminotransferasa (ALT), gamma-glutamil adrenomedullin for the diagnosis and risk stratification of ED patients with dyspnea. exercise-induced secretion of beta-endorphin and beta-lipotropin in women. ALREADY ALRIGHT ALS ALSIKE ALSIKES ALSO ALT ALTAR ALTARPIECE ENDOPROCT ENDOPROCTS ENDORPHIN ENDORPHINS ENDORSABLE STRATHSPEYS STRATI STRATIFICATION STRATIFICATIONS STRATIFIED.

Endorfin alt strati

Endorphin effect (burst). 11 strati tessutali profondi, gli elettrodi devono essere mizleyin veya elektrodun alt tarafını ılık, akan suyun altında temiz-. ~e seoauditing.ru has encouraged research via merit salary increases for those Kennedy; P.H. The flexible clinical program -- an alternative for the registered Cahill, CeA. Plasma beta-endorphin levels in pregnancy and labor, paper.  Endorfin alt strati A Marked degree of stratification with nuclei being present throughout the thickness Indeed, alternative loci have been endorphin, neurotensin, and motilin. In our experience, transcatheter arterial embolization is a safe treatment method for acute nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding and a possible alternative.

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Animu inspired electro-pop/future pop project from Tokyo, Japan. seoauditing.ru 1 Votes. Rate It, Awful, Very Poor, Poor, Average, Good, Great, Excellent. Key and BPM for seoauditing.ru (Instrumental) by Endorfin.. Also see Camelot, duration, release date, label, popularity, energy, danceability, and happiness. Get DJ.  Endorfin alt strati Endorfin. lyrics - 21 song lyrics, including LØST IDEA, Zankou, floating outsider, Fatalism, Suisei no Parasol, Horizon Claire, Mintblue Girl, Reflection, seoauditing.ru imi wo kazoete boku wa boku no tame ni koko ni iru da to wasurenai you ni utai tsuzukeyou. source: Endorfin. 4th Album, seoauditing.ru booklet. Similar Artists of Endorfin. 藍月なくる · La Prière · sky_delta · 棗いつき · Feryquitous. Top Tracks of Endorfin. Luminous 【M春】seoauditing.ru(​Endorfin. Listen to Endorfin. some stuff · Horizon Claire - · Stories of Eve - ​ · LOST-IDEA - · seoauditing.ru - · Raindrop Caffé Latte​. 

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From tempo workouts to race day, the Mens Endorphin Speed - Future Blue combines a flexible nylon plate with ultralight and springy PWRRUN PB cushioning. Dm Bb Eb Am D Bm A Dbm C G F Ab B] ➧ Chords for 「 Endorfin. 」 Candle Endorfin. "seoauditing.ru" クロスフェードPV【M春】. Request Chords. suppressed activity of POMC neurons, and if so, whether the altered. activity of these neurons is a-MSH and b-endorphin are derived from POMC by pro-​protein. convertases, including administration of NALO ( mg kg. body weight.  Endorfin alt strati Endorfin. Discography. Albums. seoauditing.ru 01 – seoauditing.ru ( MiB); 02 – Cornus seoauditing.ru ( MiB); 03 – seoauditing.ru ( MiB). 일러스트 수상 / Sdorica × pixiv Illust Contest 입상; 동인 외주 / 【春M3】 Endorfin. 4th album 『seoauditing.ru』 Story Illustration. CircleZ - Revolution BeatZ seoauditing.ru Endorfin. - Alt.​Strato seoauditing.ru AcuticNotes - AXENICK ORIGINE. Tjstudio ダウンロード sky_delta / Endorfin. Sort: Relevance sky_delta / Endorfin. • 0 views • 6 Endorfin. "seoauditing.ru" クロスフェードPV【M春】 VIDEO · Endorfin. "Alt.​Strato".

Endorfin alt strati

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The gastrointestinal tract continuously communicates with the brain, especially with the hypothalamus, via the gut-brain axis. It is now well established that the cross talk between the gut and the brain is of crucial importance in the control of glucose homeostasis. In addition to receiving glucosensing information from the gut, the hypothalamus may also directly sense glucose.

Indeed, the hypothalamus contains glucose-sensitive cells that regulate glucose homeostasis by sending signals to peripheral tissues via the autonomous nervous system. This review summarizes the mechanisms by which glucosensors along the gastrointestinal tract detect glucose, as well as the results of such detection in the whole body, including the hypothalamus. We also highlight how disturbances in the glucosensing process may lead to metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes. A better understanding of the pathways regulating glucose homeostasis will further facilitate the development of novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of metabolic diseases.

A roentgenologic study of diverticular throughout the entire gastrointestinal tract. Diverticulum is considered as a common lesion involving any gastrointestinal tract from the pharynx to the rectum.

We reviewed 5, cases of upper G-I series and cases of double contrast barium enema during the period from Jan. The results were as follows: 1. Roentgen examination of 5, esophagus, stomachs, duodenums and small bowels, and colons during the past four years: diverticula of the esophagus, 60 cases 1.

The location of diverticula in order of frequency was duodenum, colon, esophagus, stomach and small bowel. The most common site of diverticula of each gastrointestinal tract was as follows: diverticula of the esophagus, middle portion Diverticula may occur at any age.

The majority of diverticula of the entire gastrointestinal tract were observed over 40 years of age. Especially in diverticula of the duodenum and colon, their frequency increase with age. Duodenal diverticula were observed more frequently in woman than in man but in diverticula of the esophagus, stomach, small bowel and colon, male was more frequently affected. The size of diverticula of the entire gastrointestinal tract was variable.

The majority of diverticula of the esophagus, stomach, duodenum and small bowel were intermediate in size mm. Diverticula of. Full Text Available Gastrointestinal tract of chicken is a place in which many kinds of fungi can be found. The aim ofthe research was to isolate fungi from the gastrointestinal tract of the indigenous chicken AyamKampung.

The chicken samples were four days, one week and two months old and were sampled fromchicken farm located in Yogyakarta. Fifty pure isolates of fungi were found from three different ages, those were four days, one week andtwo months old chicken were 5, 10 and 35 isolates respectively.

The largest number of isolate was foundin ileum, then followed by caecum, jejenum and duodenum. The fifty isolate of fungi belonged to sevenspecies, those were Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Chrysonilia crassa, Mucor circinelloides,Mucor sp, Rhizopus oligosporus and Rhizopus oryzae. Fifty pure isolates of fungi were found from three different ages, those were four days, one week and two months old chicken were 5, 10 and 35 isolates respectively.

The largest number of isolate was found in ileum, then followed by caecum, jejenum and duodenum. The fifty isolate of fungi belonged to seven species, those were Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Chrysonilia crassa, Mucor circinelloides, Mucor sp, Rhizopus oligosporus and Rhizopus oryzae. Mucosal defence along the gastrointestinal tract of cats and dogs.

International audience; Diseases that are associated with infections or allergic reactions in the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts are major causes of morbidity in both cats and dogs. Future strategies for the control of these conditions require a greater understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the induction and regulation of responses at the mucosal surfaces.

Historically, the majority of the fundamental studies have been carried out in rodents or with tissu Systemic sclerosis SSc is a multisystem disease characterized by functional and structural abnormalities of small blood vessels, fibrosis of the skin and internal organs, immune system activation, and autoimmunity. The gastrointestinal tract is involved in nearly all patients and is a source of significant morbidity and even mortality. The aim of this review is to summarize the pathogenesis and to provide a clinical approach to these patients.

Upper gastrointestinal tract injuries by intraoperative radiotherapy for pancreatic cancer. Twenty-one patients with unresectable carcinoma of the pancreas were treated by intraoperative irradiation with a large electron dose of - rads and upper gastrointestinal complications were encountered in five cases. All of those five cases were for carcinoma of the pancreatic head, and were seen for gastrointestinal tract injuries of the duodenum as follows, gastric ulcer in 2 cases, ulcer of the 1st duodenal portion in one case and ulcer with severe stenosis of the 2nd or 3rd duodenal portion in one case, respectively.

Endoscopic features of these postirradiation gastrointestinal ulcers were characterized by deep, punched-out ulcers with grayish bases and sharp margins.

Clinically these ulcers and stenosis were very difficult to treat, so by-pass operations were performed in two cases, resulting in prolonged survival. Development of a revised mathematical model of the gastrointestinal tract. The objectives of this research are as follows. First, to incorporate new biological data into a revised mathematical adult gastrointestinal tract model that includes: ingestion in both liquid and solid forms; consideration of absorption in the stomach, small intestine, ascending colon, transverse colon or not at all; gender and age of the adult; and whether the adult is a smoker or not.

Next, to create a computer program in basic language for calculating residence times in each anatomical section of the GI tract for commonly used radionuclides. Also, to compare and contrast the new model with the ICRP 30 GI tract model in terms of physiological concepts, mathematical concepts, and revised residence times for several commonly used radionuclides. Finally, to determine whether the new model is sufficiently better than the current model to warrant its use as a replacement for the Eve model.

Our objective was to implement a non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging MRI technique combined with concentrated milk ingestion for depicting the gastrointestinal GI tract and detecting gastrointestinal motility and transit. In order to determine the feasibility of milk ingestion as a substitute for contrast medium, ten human volunteers were examined with SSFSE after two types of liquid ingestion i. The snapshot images provided subsecond data acquisition for each coronal plane, allowing visualization of peristalsis in the gastrointestinal tract in an almost real-time fashion, without motion-related image degradation, as would normally be seen using conventional MRI.

There was no significant difference between concentrated milk and water in terms of depiction of the upper gastrointestinal tract ; however, 10 min and 30 min after ingestion, concentrated milk showed better delineation of the intestine than that observed after water ingestion p gastrointestinal imaging is a non-invasive method that allows gastrointestinal depiction as well as analysis of motility and passage.

Especially with concentrated milk ingestion, the distal intestines were well depicted with adequate contrast filling and distention. Hyperammonemia associated with distal renal tubular acidosis or urinary tract infection: a systematic review. Hyperammonemia usually results from an inborn error of metabolism or from an advanced liver disease. Individual case reports suggest that both distal renal tubular acidosis and urinary tract infection may also result in hyperammonemia. A systematic review of the literature on hyperammonemia secondary to distal renal tubular acidosis and urinary tract infection was conducted.

We identified 39 reports on distal renal tubular acidosis or urinary tract infections in association with hyperammonemia published between and Hyperammonemia was detected in 13 children with distal renal tubular acidosis and in one adult patient with distal renal tubular acidosis secondary to primary hyperparathyroidism.

In these patients a negative relationship was observed between circulating ammonia and bicarbonate levels P urinary tract infection was complicated by acute hyperammonemia and symptoms and signs of acute neuronal dysfunction, such as an altered level of consciousness, convulsions and asterixis, often associated with signs of brain edema, such as anorexia and vomiting. Urea-splitting bacteria were isolated in 28 of the 31 cases.

The urinary tract was anatomically or functionally abnormal in 30 of these patients. This study reveals that both altered distal renal tubular acidification and urinary tract infection may be associated with relevant hyperammonemia in both children and adults. Full Text Available Horses are exquisitely sensitive to non-specific gastrointestinal disturbances as well as systemic and extraintestinal conditions related to gut health, yet minimal data are available regarding the composition of the microbiota present in the equine stomach, small intestine, and cecum and their relation to fecal microbiota.

Moreover, there is minimal information regarding the concordance of the luminal and mucosal microbial communities throughout the equine gut.

Illumina-based 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing of the luminal and mucosal microbiota present in seven regions of the gastrointestinal tract of nine healthy adult horses revealed a distinct compositional divide between the small and large intestines. This disparity in composition was more pronounced within the luminal contents, but was also detected within mucosal populations. Moreover, the uniformity of the gut microbiota was much higher in the cecum and colon relative to that in the stomach, jejunum and ileum, despite a significantly higher number of unique sequences detected in the colon.

Collectively, the current data suggest that while colonic samples a proxy for feces may provide a reasonable profile of the luminal contents of the healthy equine large intestine, they are not informative with regard to the contents of the stomach or small intestine. In contrast to the distinct difference between the highly variable upper gastrointestinal tract microbiota and relatively uniform large bowel microbiota present within the lumen, these data also demonstrate a regional continuity present in mucosal microbial communities throughout the length of the equine gut.

Laboratory Diagnosis of Parasites from the Gastrointestinal Tract. This Practical Guidance for Clinical Microbiology document on the laboratory diagnosis of parasites from the gastrointestinal tract provides practical information for the recovery and identification of relevant human parasites.

The document is based on a comprehensive literature review and expert consensus on relevant diagnostic methods. However, it does not include didactic information on human parasite life cycles, organism morphology, clinical disease, pathogenesis, treatment, or epidemiology and prevention. As greater emphasis is placed on neglected tropical diseases, it becomes highly probable that patients with gastrointestinal parasitic infections will become more widely recognized in areas where parasites are endemic and not endemic.

Generally, these methods are nonautomated and require extensive bench experience for accurate performance and interpretation. The aim of this investigation has been to find a safe and suitable contrast medium CM for radiological evaluation of the gastrointestinal tract GIT in cases where leakage outside the GIT can be suspected.

An experimental study was carried out to evaluate the reactions of various available CM in the bronchi and lungs, mediastinum, pleura and peritoneum of rats.

The CM evaluated in the experimental study were, pure barium sulphate without any additives , commercial barium sulphate Micropaque, with additives , Dionosil, Hytrast, Gastrografin, Amipaque in pleura Omnipaque and Hexabrix. Sonographic diagnosis of intramural hematoma of gastrointestinal tract. Sonographic findings of nine cases of intramural hematoma of the gastrointestinal tract are presented.

The duodenum was the most common site, followed by the ascending colon and the stomach. Intramural hematomas present as centrally or eccentrically located bowel mass of variable echogenicity: heter-ogeneously echogenic in six cases; hypoechoic in two case; anechoic in one case.

It is concluded that ultrasonography is a simple and useful tool in the diagnosis of intramural hematoma of the intestine. Survival of Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains in the upper gastrointestinal tract. In the present study six probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains were investigated for their ability to survive in the human upper gastrointestinal tract through a dynamic gastric model of digestion.

MRS broth was used as delivery vehicle and survival was investigated during in vitro gastric and gastric plus duodenal digestion. Results highlighted that all tested strains showed good survival rate during both gastric and duodenal digestion. In agreement with survival data, high lactic acid production was detected for all strains, confirming their metabolic activity during digestion. Anterior screw fixation has become a popular surgical treatment method for instable odontoid fractures.

Screw loosening and migration are a rare, severe complication following anterior odontoid fixation, which can lead to esophagus perforation and requires revision operation. We report a case of screw loosening and migration after anterior odontoid fixation, which perforated the esophagus and was excreted without complications in a year-old male patient.

A ventral dislocated anterior screw perforated through the esophagus after eight years after implantation and was excreted through the gastrointestinal GI tract. At a 6-month follow-up after the event the patient was asymptomatic. Extrusion via the GI tract is not safe enough to be considered as a treatment option for loosened screws.

Some improvements could be implemented to prevent such an incident. Furthermore, this case is a fine example that recent preoperative imaging is mandatory before revision surgery for screw loosening. Full Text Available Purpose. The gastrointestinal tract and ventilator-associated pneumonia. The gastrointestinal tract is believed to play an important role in ventilator-associated pneumonia VAP , because during critical illness the stomach often is colonized with enteric Gram-negative bacteria.

These are the same bacteria that frequently are isolated from the sputum of patients with VAP. Interventions such as selective decontamination of the digestive tract SDD , use of sucralfate for stress ulcer prophylaxis, and enteral feeding strategies that preserve gastric pH, or lessen the likelihood of pulmonary aspiration, are used to decrease the incidence of VAP.

A review of both meta-analyses and large randomized controlled trials providing Level I evidence on these topics has led to the following conclusions. However, there is strong contravening evidence that SDD promotes infections by Gram-positive bacteria. In the context of an emerging public health crisis from the steady rise in drug-resistant Gram-positive bacteria, we cannot endorse the general use of SDD to prevent VAP.

Rather, therapy should be focused on strategies other than antibiotic prophylaxis. Second, in patients who are at risk for clinically important gastrointestinal bleeding, a histamine-2 receptor antagonist should be used for stress ulcer prophylaxis, rather than sucralfate, because histamine-2 receptor antagonist provides substantially better protection without substantially increasing the risk of VAP.

Third, post-pyloric enteral feeding may reduce the incidence of VAP. Digestive tract neural control and gastrointestinal disorders in cerebral palsy. To examine the neural control of digestive tract and describe the main gastrointestinal disorders in cerebral palsy CP , with attention to the importance of early diagnosis to an efficient interdisciplinary treatment.

Systematic review of literature from to from Medline, Lilacs, Scielo, and Cochrane Library databases. The study included 70 papers, such as relevant reviews, observational studies, controlled trials, and prevalence studies.

Qualitative studies were excluded. The keywords used were: cerebral palsy, dysphagia, gastroesophageal reflux disease, constipation, recurrent respiratory infections, and gastrostomy. The appropriate control of the digestive system depends on the healthy functioning and integrity of the neural system.

Since CP patients have structural abnormalities of the central and peripheral nervous system, they are more likely to develop eating disorders. These range from neurological immaturity to interference in the mood and capacity of caregivers. The disease has, therefore, a multifactorial etiology. The most prevalent digestive tract disorders are dysphagia, gastroesophageal reflux disease, and constipation, with consequent recurrent respiratory infections and deleterious impact on nutritional status.

Patients with CP can have neurological abnormalities of digestive system control; therefore, digestive problems are common. The issues raised in the present study are essential for professionals within the interdisciplinary teams that treat patients with CP, concerning the importance of comprehensive anamnesis and clinical examination, such as detailed investigation of gastrointestinal disorders.

Early detection of these digestive problems may lead to more efficient rehabilitation measures in order to improve patients' quality of life. Transcatheter arterial embolization for upper gastrointestinal tract bleeding. Transcatheter arterial embolization is a possible treatment for patients with recurrent bleeding from the upper gastrointestinal tract after failed endoscopic management and is also an alternative to surgical treatment. To analyze the outcomes of transcatheter arterial embolization and identify the clinical and technical factors that influenced the rates of morbidity and mortality.

A retrospective analysis was carried out, based on the data of 36 patients who underwent transcatheter arterial embolization for acute nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding in to in our center. An analysis was performed between early rebleeding rates, mortality and the following factors: patient sex, age, number of units of packed red blood cells and packed plasma administered to the patients, length of hospital stay, therapeutic or prophylactic embolization.

There were 15 There was a Following embolization, 10 Gastrointestinal tract volume measurement method using a compound eye type endoscope. We propose an intestine volume measurement method using a compound eye type endoscope.

This method aims at assessment of the gastrointestinal function. Gastrointestinal diseases are mainly based on morphological abnormalities. However, gastrointestinal symptoms are sometimes apparent without visible abnormalities.

Such diseases are called functional gastrointestinal disorder, for example, functional dyspepsia, and irritable bowel syndrome. One of the major factors for these diseases is abnormal gastrointestinal motility.

For the diagnosis of the gastrointestinal tract , both aspects of organic and functional assessment is important. While endoscopic diagnosis is essential for assessment of organic abnormalities, three-dimensional information is required for assessment of the functional abnormalities.

Thus, we proposed the three dimensional endoscope system using compound eye. In this study, we forces on the volume of gastrointestinal tract. The volume of the gastrointestinal tract is thought to related its function. In our system, we use a compound eye type endoscope system to obtain three-dimensional information of the tract.

The volume can be calculated by integrating the slice data of the intestine tract shape using the obtained three-dimensional information. First, we evaluate the proposed method by known-shape tube. Then, we confirm that the proposed method can measure the tract volume using the tract simulated model.

Our system can assess the wall of gastrointestinal tract directly in a three-dimensional manner. Our system can be used for examination of gastric morphological and functional abnormalities.

Computerized tomography using water to render the gastrointestinal tract opaque. An account is given of the technical procedure and results of computerized tomography in the examination of various gastrointestinal disorders using water as an oral and rectal contrast medium.

The experience gained so far points to the fact that water as a contrast medium is mainly suitable in the preoperative staging of malignant gastric and colorectal tumours.

The rectal injection of water further appears to be favourable in investigations for recidivation following deep anterior resection without impairment of the excretory functions. Our own results were contrary to the findings of other authors in that we had no difficulty in visualizing distal sections of the small intestine in patients suffering from Crohn's disease. The use of water as a contrast medium can, however, not be recommended in the presence of intra-abdominal abscesses, ascites or cystic tumours, as such changes cannot clearly be differentiated from intestinal loops filled with water.

Histopathologic diagnosis of eosinophilic conditions in the gastrointestinal tract. Eosinophils, a constitutive component of the columnar-lined gastrointestinal tract , play an essential role in allergic responses and parasitic infections. The tissue density of these cells also increases in a variety of conditions of uncertain etiology. With the exception of the esophageal squamous epithelium, in which no eosinophils are normally present, the population of normal eosinophils in the remainder of the luminal gut is poorly defined.

Therefore, histopathologists must rely on their subjective judgment to determine when a diagnosis of eosinophilic gastritis, enteritis, or colitis should be rendered. Eosinophilic esophagitis is currently the best defined and most studied eosinophilic condition of the digestive tract ; therefore, the confidence in accurate diagnosis is increasing.

In contrast, the characteristic clinicopathologic features of eosinophilic conditions affecting other parts of the digestive tract remain somewhat elusive. This review was designed to present pathologists with simple and practical information for the biopsy-based histopathologic diagnosis of eosinophilic esophagitis, gastritis, enteritis, and colitis.

It was prepared by critically reviewing more than articles on the topic, along with incorporating evidence accumulated through our own collective experience. We anticipate that by increasing pathologists' confidence in reporting these abnormal but often nameless eosinophilic infiltrates, we can help better define and characterize their significance. Dynamics and establishment of Clostridium difficile infection in the murine gastrointestinal tract. Clostridium difficile infection CDI following antibiotic therapy is a major public health threat.

While antibiotic disruption of the indigenous microbiota underlies the majority of cases of CDI, the early dynamics of infection in the disturbed intestinal ecosystem are poorly characterized. This study defines the dynamics of infection with C.

After inducing susceptibility to C. Spores and cytotoxin activity were detected by 24 h postchallenge, and histopathologic colitis developed by 30 h.

Within 36 h, all infected mice succumbed to infection. We correlated the establishment of infection with changes in the microbiota and bile acid profile of the small and large intestines. Antibiotic administration resulted in significant changes to the microbiota in the small and large intestines, as well as a significant shift in the abundance of primary and secondary bile acids.

Ex vivo analysis suggested the small intestine as the site of spore germination. This study provides an integrated understanding of the timing and location of the events surrounding C.

All Rights Reserved. Bleeding of the upper gastrointestinal tract is the main symptom of a variety of possible conditions and still results in considerable mortality.

Endoscopy is the first diagnostic modality, enabling rapid therapeutic intervention. In case of intractable or relapsing bleeding, surgery is often inevitable. However, emergency operations result in significantly higher mortality rates. Therefore the option of early elective surgical intervention should be considered for patients at increased risk of relapsing bleeding. If bleeding is symptomatic due to a complex underlying condition such as hemosuccus pancreaticus or hemobilia, angiography is now recognized as the definitive investigation.

Angiographic hemostasis can be achieved in most cases. Due to the underlying condition, surgical management still remains the mainstay in treating these patients. This paper reviews surgical strategy in handling upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Review of the gastrointestinal tract : from macro to micro. To review the normal anatomy and physiology of the gastrointestinal GI tract , the malignant transformations in GI cancers, and the rationale for targeted therapy for these cancers.

Published articles, book chapters and web sources. Oncology nurses require an understanding of normal GI anatomy and physiology, along with an understanding of malignant transformations at the cellular and molecular level, to effectively educate and care for the patient with a diagnosis of a GI cancer.

Challenges for the oncology nurse include continuing education related to GI cancer, the development of effective patient education skills, ensuring safe administration of oral agents and remaining current regarding GI clinical trial opportunities. Education of nursing colleagues, development of an area of expertise through specialization, and development of leadership skills are opportunities associated with practicing in the dynamic environment of oncology nursing.

Imaging and intervention in the gastrointestinal tract in children. Vascular and interventional techniques have become an integral component of modern pediatric healthcare.

Minimally invasive procedures of the gastrointestinal tract now comprise a large part of any active pediatric interventional practice. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography offers a reliable, non-invasive means to evaluate patients with possible pancreatic or biliary pathology. This article reviews treatment of esophageal strictures and placement of gastronomy and gastrojejunostomy tubes and discusses new developments.

Placement of percutaneous cecostomy tubes is a relatively new procedure that creatively uses the techniques developed for placement of percutaneous gastronomy tubes. This procedure offers significant benefits and lasting positive lifestyle changes for patients suffering from fecal incontinence.

Liver biopsy in high-risk patients can be performed safely using measures designed to significantly decrease the risk of post-biopsy hemorrhage, such as track embolization or the transjugular approach. Sonographic identification of drug containers in the gastrointestinal tract. A 'body-pack' is a swallowed plastic or rubber container used by drug smugglers to carry drugs.

We report our experience in diagnoses of such packs in vivo. Eight serial examinations were made. In each series, an adult Alsatian dog was fed upto 10 such 'body-packs'. The passage of these packs through the gastrointestinal tract was followed at 2, 24 and 48 hours postprandially. Immediately after each sonographic localisation of 'body-pack' was made, an X-ray examination of the abdomen in this region was also carried out.

Ultrasound correctly determined the position of the 'body-pack' in 20 out of 24 examinations as compared to X-ray results.

In 4 cases ultrasound could not confirm the location of the 'pack'. Colon obstruction due to colorectal cancer is a major surgical emergency. Colorectal stenting is an image-guided, minimally invasive procedure, and typical indications include either palliation of inoperable malignant disease or temporary bowel decompression as a bridge to surgery.

Colorectal stenting allows the patient to recover before definite elective surgical resection, reducing perioperative morbidity and mortality, overall hospital stay, and associated health care costs. Palliative stenting improves quality of life compared to surgery. A concise review is provided of contemporary stenting practice of the lower gastrointestinal tract , the colon in particular, and both palliative and preoperative adjuvant procedures are evaluated in terms of relevant patient oncology, insertion technique, available stent designs, technical and clinical outcomes, associated complications, and cost—benefit analysis.

Full Text Available Smuggling drugs by swallowing or inserting into a body cavity is not only a serious and growing international crime, but can also lead to lethal medical complications. However, more than 30 years after the initial report of body packing, there is still no definitive treatment protocol for the management of this patient group. The treatment strategy is determined according to the particular condition of the patient and the clinical experience of the treatment center.

Surgical intervention is also less common now, due to both the use of improved packaging materials among smugglers and a shift towards a more conservative medical approach. Herein, we report a case of toxicity from ingested packets of cocaine that leaked and, despite surgery, resulted in exitus of the patient. MR imaging of the gastro-intestinal tract in children. MR imaging MRI is an established method for the evaluation of particularly inflammatory bowel disease in adults, as well as for acute abdominal pain in pregnant women.

Despite the fact that MRI is ideally suited for the evaluation of children the method is still not established in these patients. The value of MRI in Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis and appendicitis as well as intestinal tumors and malformations has been documented in children. There will be more indications in the future depending on the development of new imaging techniques, faster sequences, stronger gradients and increasing availability.

Furthermore, the radiologist's attention must be drawn to decrease the radiation burden in children and to replace ionizing techniques especially in chronic disease with the need for repeated follow-up studies and in younger children.

This review will discuss some general considerations for the use of MRI in evaluating the paediatric gastro-intestinal tract. Full Text Available Oat is rich in valuable nutrients. In comparison to other cereals, oat contains more total proteins, carbohydrate, fat, non-starch fibre, as well as unique antioxidants one of them - avenanthramides, vitamins, and minerals.

Until now, most of the studies on this nutrient have been conducted in the cardiovascular and diabetology field. A literature search was conducted using PubMed database. More than 80 potential articles were identified, which were selected afterwards according to aims of our study.

Studies done on human were preferred. A long-term dietary intake of oat-based products improves human intestinal microflora, could have benefits in irritable bowel syndrome, and probable effects were seen in patients with ulcerative colitis, but this remains to be proven. Obesity and the gastrointestinal tract : you are what you eat. Obesity represents a complex multifactorial syndrome that develops from interactions among genetic and environmental factors and is a leading cause of illness and death.

The prevalence of obesity in the United States has increased dramatically since Although often ignored, the gastrointestinal tract , and the gastrointestinal regulatory peptides in particular, constitutes an ideal starting point for defining and investigating obesity as it represents the route by which all nutrients are ingested, processed, and absorbed. Another important factor to consider when evaluating the etiology of obesity is the capacity for all animals to store nutrients.

Insulin is the most potent anabolic hormone, and it appears to have evolved from the need to maximize energy efficiency, obviating the requirement to continuously forage for food. Organisms expressing this important peptide possessed a distinct survival advantage and flourished. During the course of evolution, insulin biosynthesis translocated from the intestine to pancreatic islets, which necessitated a messenger from the intestine to complete the "enteroinsular axis. GIP appears to offer an additional survival benefit by not only stimulating intestinal glucose transport and maximally releasing insulin to facilitate nutrient storage but also by its insulin-mimetic properties, including enhanced uptake of glucose by adipocytes.

This physiological redundancy offered by insulin and GIP ensured the survival of organisms during times when food was scarce. As food is no longer scarce, at least in the West, this survival advantage appears to have contributed to the current obesity epidemic. The nutritional management of gastrointestinal tract disorders in companion animals.

Dietary protein, carbohydrates, fats and fibre have marked influences on gastrointestinal tract function and dysfunction. This article reviews the nutritional management of common gastrointestinal disorders in companion animals and introduces some of the current areas of research including probiotics, prebiotics, protein-hydrolysate diets, immunonutrition and dietary fibre.

Nutritional management of oesophageal disease revolves around varying the consistency of the diet and feeding the animal from an elevated container. Provision of bowel rest remains the mainstay of the management of acute gastroenteritis but food-based oral rehydration solutions are a useful adjunct.

The recommended diet for chronic small bowel diarrhoea is a highly digestible, hypoallergenic, gluten-free, low-lactose and low-fat diet with modest amounts of fermentable fibre. The use of probiotics in the management of diarrhoea in companion animals has not yet been shown to be beneficial. It is likely that prebiotics will prove more effective than probiotics in the prevention of enteropathogenic infections.

Growing evidence supports the use of protein-hydrolysate diets in the management of inflammatory bowel disease and further advances in immunonutrition are expected. The dietary management of colitis should include a hypoallergenic diet with a fermentable fibre source. Manipulation of the diet provides clinicians a powerful therapeutic strategy to be used alone or concurrently with drug therapy in the management of gastrointestinal disorders.

Bleeding from the upper gastrointestinal system may be caused by gastrointestinal stromal tumors of the stomach, which are mainly characterized by occult bleeding, while profuse bleeding rarely occurs accompanied by hemorrhagic shock. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors of stomach are the most common mesenchimal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract. In our study we showed a year-old female patient with profuse bleeding from the stomach and the clinical picture of severe hemorrhagic shock, caused by gastrointestinal stromal tumor.

An ovoid junction, raised towards the lumen, covered with ulcerated mucosa in several places and followed by massive arterial bleeding was found intraoperatively, after the performed gastrotomy. Histopathological examination with immunohistochemical analysis confirmed that this was a gastrointestinal stromal tumor of the stomach.

Acute bleeding from the digestive system is a sudden and serious condition of the body. Urgent esophagogastroduodenoscopy is a sensitive and specific diagnostic and therapeutic method of choice.

Massive bleeding from the upper gastrointestinal tract is very rarely caused by gastrointestinal stromal tumors, whose clinical picture is very heterogeneous and depends on tumor size and location.

Abundant bleeding from the tumor is an indication for urgent surgical intervention. According to the literature massive hemorrhage of the upper digestive system can rarely be caused by gastrointestinal stromal tumor of the stomach.

It is shown that abundant hemorrhage of the upper digestive tract can be caused with gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumor.

Surgical resection is the main form of treatment of gastrointestinal stromal tumors of the digestive system and bleeding from these tumors caused by failure of endoscopic hemostasis. Differential susceptibilities to azithromycin treatment of chlamydial infection in the gastrointestinal tract and cervix. Evidence from animal studies suggests that chlamydiae may persist in the gastrointestinal tract GI and be a reservoir for reinfection of the genital tract.

We hypothesize that there may be a differential susceptibility of organisms in the GI and genital tracts. To determine the effect of azithromy Diagnostic imaging of digestive tract involvement in cystic fibrosis.

Part 2: pancreatic and gastrointestinal disease. Cystic fibrosis CF is the most common fatal, autosomal recessive disease among the white population. Although recurrent pulmonary infections and pulmonary insufficiency are the major causes of morbidity and mortality, gastrointestinal symptoms generally present earlier and may suggest the diagnosis in the newborn or even prior to birth.

The changes are attributed to the secretion of an abnormally thick mucous into the intestinal lumen, leading to the hallmark of diseases of the digestive tract : obstruction. This can be detected at birth in the form of mecanium ileus, ileal atresia, mecanium peritonitis and mecomiun plug, or present later on in childhood and adolescence as distal bowel obstruction syndrome or fibrosing colonopathy.

This thick mucous can also trigger intussusception or acute appendicitis. Pancreatic insufficiency or pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy is the direct cause of most of these disorders.

Plain radiography is of the utmost utility in assessing the digestive tract in CF. When the disease is detected in a newborn, the recommended approach is to perform plain abdominal X-ray, followed by barium enema, always accompanied by ultrasound. In older children and adolescents, enema and ultrasound are usually sufficient, although computed tomography and magnetic resonance may sometimes be necessary.

Author 52 refs. A pragmatic approach to vasculitis in the gastrointestinal tract. Although vasculitis involving the gastrointestinal tract GIT is an uncommon occurrence, occasionally vasculitis can present as haemorrhagic infarction or ischaemia for which a length of bowel is removed. Invariably, the appropriate clinical history is not forthcoming, or vasculitis is not clinically suspected. The purpose of this overview is to provide the practising gastrointestinal GI pathologist with a framework to recognise and diagnose vasculitides within the GIT.

The classification may be approached by aetiological agent or size of vessel involved; an international consensus group now favours the latter approach. As a result, pathologists examining resection specimens for unexplained haemorrhagic infarction or ischaemia should be aware that vasculitis may be a potential cause. Several well-known systemic vasculitides such as polyarteritis nodosa, microscopic polyangiitis, eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis or Churg-Strauss syndrome and granulomatosis with polyangiitis or Wegener's granulomatosis can occur in the GIT.

The latter three constitute the antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-positive vasculitides. In addition, the so-called solitary organ vasculitis SOV can occur in the GIT as the harbinger of later onset systemic vasculitis, and be the cause of the GIT symptoms.

In addition, SOV can occur incidentally and coexist with GIT disease such as gallstones or polyps, and there may be no manifestations of systemic vasculitis for years, or not at all. The use of metrizamide amipaque to visualise the gastrointestinal tract in children. Metrizamide amipaque has not been used previously as a diagnostic contrast agent in the gastrointestinal tract. Metrizamide is a water-soluble isotonic contrast material having many advantages over barium and existing hypertonic water-soluble agents.

There are many clinical situations in children in which metrizamide should be the contrast agent of choice for investigating the gastrointestinal tract. Four neonates are presented in whom barium or gastrografin were absolutely contraindicated. In each case metrizamide gave excellent visualisation of the gastrointestinal tract.

It could be followed through the bowel giving excellent visualisation even up to h after ingestion. No harmful effects were noted in the four cases studied. Our experience with unusual gastrointestinal tract duplications in infants.

Atypical or unusual rare varieties of GIT duplications may also occur, but with different anatomical features. Materials and Methods: We reviewed our 5-year record February January to describe clinical profile of unusual GIT duplications in neonates and small infants. Results: Three patients with atypical variety of GIT duplications were managed in our department during this tenure.

Two were females and one male. Age was ranged between 11 days and 2 months. All patients presented with massive abdominal distension causing respiratory embarrassment in two of them.

In all patients, the pre-operative differential diagnoses also included GIT duplication cysts. Computerized tomography CT scan showed single huge cyst in one and multiple cysts in two patients.

In one patient the CT scan also depicted a thoracic cyst in relation to posterior mediastinum. At operation, one patient had colonic tubular duplication cyst along with another isolated duplication cyst, the second case had a tubular duplication cyst of ileum with its segmental dilatation, and in the third case two isolated duplications were found.

Duplication cysts were excised along with mucosal stripping in one patient, cyst excision and intestinal resection and anastomosis in one patient, and only cysts excision in one. All patients did well post-operatively. Conclusion: We presented unusual GIT duplications. These duplications are managed on similar lines as classical duplications with good prognosis when dealt early.

Full Text Available Vascular malformation AVM in the gastrointestinal tract is an uncommon, but not rare, cause of bleeding and iron deficiency anemia, especially in an aging population. While endoscopic coagulative therapy is the method of choice for controlling bleeding, a substantial number of cases require additional therapy. Adjunctive or even primary phamacotherapy may be indicated in recurrent bleeding. However, there is little evidence-based proof of efficacy for any agent.

The bulk of support is derived from anecdotal reports or case series. The present review compares the outcome of AVM after no intervention, coagulative therapy or focus on pharmacological agents.

Most of the literature encompasses two common AVMs, angiodysplasia and hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia. Similarly, the bulk of information evaluates two therapies, hormones estrogen and progesterone and the somatostatin analogue octreotide. Of these, the former is the only therapy evaluated in randomized trials, and the results are conflicting without clear guidelines. The latter therapy has been reported only as case reports and case series without prospective trials.

In addition, other anecdotally used medications are discussed. The cryptic plasmid is more important for Chlamydia muridarum to colonize the mouse gastrointestinal tract than to infect the genital tract. Full Text Available Chlamydia has been detected in the gastrointestinal tracts of both animals and humans.

However, the mechanism by which Chlamydia colonizes the gut remains unclear. Chlamydia muridarum is known to spread from the genital to the gastrointestinal tracts hematogenously. The C.

We now report that plasmid-deficient C. Consistently, plasmid-deficient C. Thus, we have demonstrated a plasmid-dependent colonization of C. Since the plasmid is more important for C.

Anatomical change in the anatomy of the gastrointestinal tract after bariatric surgery leads to modification of dietary patterns that have to be adapted to new physiological conditions, either related with the volume of intakes or the characteristics of the macro- and micronutrients to be administered.

Restrictive diet after bariatric surgery basically gastric bypass and restrictive procedures is done at several steps. Soft or grinded diet including very soft protein-rich foods, such as egg, low-calories cheese, and lean meats such as chicken, cow, pork, or fish red meats are not so well tolerated is recommended weeks after hospital discharge.

Normal diet may be started within 8 weeks from surgery or even later. It is important to incorporate hyperproteic foods with each meal, such egg whites, lean meats, cheese or milk. The most frequent vitamin and mineral deficiencies in the different types of surgeries are reviewed, with a special focus on iron, vitamin B12, calcium, and vitamin D metabolism. It should not be forgotten that the aim of obesity surgery is making the patient loose weight and thus post-surgery diet is designed to achieve that goal although without forgetting the essential role that nutritional education has on the learning of new dietary habits contributing to maintain that weight loss over time.

Absorption and excretion of zinc, cadmium and mercury in the gastrointestinal tract. Absorption and excretion through the gastrointestinal tract of mice were studied by the tied loop method.

Groups of eight mice or rats were used to measure the radioactivity in sample with a scintillation counter. Feeding manipulation elicits different proliferative responses in the gastrointestinal tract of suckling and weanling rats. Full Text Available Food deprivation has been found to stimulate cell proliferation in the gastric mucosa of suckling rats, whereas the weanling period has been reported to be unresponsive in terms of proliferative activity.

In the present study we analyze regional differences in the effect of milk or food deprivation on cell proliferation of the epithelia of the esophagus and of five segments of small intestine in suckling, weanling and newly weaned Wistar rats of both sexes. DNA synthesis was determined using tritiated thymidine to obtain labeling indices LI; crypt depth and villus height were also determined.

The results show that, contrary to the stomach response, milk deprivation inhibited cell proliferation in the esophagus and small intestine of suckling rats, demonstrating the regional variability of each segment of the gastrointestinal tract in suckling rats.

In newly weaned rats, food deprivation did not alter the proliferation of these epithelia, similarly to the stomach, indicating that weanling is a period marked by the insensitivity of gastrointestinal epithelia to dietary alterations. Exercise and the gastro-intestinal tract Wright South African These range in severity from heartburn to gastro-intestinal bleeding.

Fortunately symptoms are usually mild and inconvenient, but in certain individuals they can be incapacitating. It is important to exclude the more common Radiologic findings of submucosal tumors of gastrointestinal tract. Gastrointestinal submucosal tumors originate from submucosal histologic structures such as muscles, lymph nodes, nerves, fibers and vessels.

Most patients are asymptomatic. Lesions that are large or ulcerated may cause abdominal pain or upper gastrointestinal bleeding, and those that grow intraluminally sometimes become pedunculated and occasionally prolapse to cause intussusception. Because their overlying mucosa appears normal, submucosal tumors age after difficult to visualize endoscopically, and for this reason, barium studies or CT scans are helpful for diagnosis. In this paper, variable CT and barium study findings of the different types of gastrointestinal submucosal tumor are demonstrated, and a brief discussion of the respective disease entities is included.

Interaction between dietary protein content and the source of carbohydrates along the gastrointestinal tract of weaned piglets. Although fermentable carbohydrates CHO can reduce metabolites derived from dietary protein fermentation in the intestine of pigs, the interaction between site of fermentation and substrate availability along the gut is still unclear.

The current study aimed at determining the impact of two different sources of carbohydrates in diets with low or very high protein content on microbial metabolite profiles along the gastrointestinal tract of piglets. After 3 weeks, contents from stomach, jejunum, ileum, caecum, proximal and distal colon were taken and analysed for major bacterial metabolites D-lactate, L-lactate, short chain fatty acids, ammonia, amines, phenols and indols.

Results indicate considerable fermentation of CHO and protein already in the stomach. HP diets increased the formation of ammonia, amines, phenolic and indolic compounds throughout the different parts of the intestine with most pronounced effects in the distal colon. Dietary SBP inclusion in LP diets favoured the formation of cadaverine in the proximal parts of the intestine. Based on metabolite profiles, LNC was partly fermented in the distal large intestine and reduced mainly phenols, indols and cadaverine, but not ammonia.

Multivariate analysis confirmed more diet-specific metabolite patterns in the stomach, whereas the CHO addition was the main determinant in the caecum and proximal colon. The protein level mainly influenced the metabolite patterns in the distal colon. The results confirm the importance of CHO source to influence the formation of metabolites derived from protein fermentation along the intestinal. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography of the gastrointestinal tract in clinically normal alpacas and llamas.

To assess the feasibility and usefulness of CT enterography to evaluate the gastrointestinal tract in clinically normal llamas and alpacas. Prospective observational study. The imaging protocol included orogastric administration of iodinated contrast material mixed with water.

Three hours later, helical CT scanning was performed of the entire abdomen with transverse and multiplanar sagittal and dorsal projections before and after IV iodinated contrast agent injection.

Both oral and IV contrast agents were well tolerated, and no adverse reactions were observed. Transverse images depicted the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas in the short axis; however, dorsal and sagittal projections aided in localizing and differentiating the various gastrointestinal segments, including the pancreas.

In all camelids, the wall of the gastrointestinal tract was well differentiated. In all but 2 camelids, all gastrointestinal segments were well visualized and differentiated. In those 2 animals, the cecum was difficult to identify. Good distention of the small intestine was achieved by use of the oral contrast agent.

The dorsal projections were useful to identify the pancreas in its entire length. The present study supplied new information about gastrointestinal wall thickness, intestinal diameter, and location of the pancreas and ileocecocolic junction in alpacas and llamas.

Multiplanar contrast-enhanced CT was useful to reveal the various segments of the gastrointestinal tract , pancreas, and abdominal lymph nodes. The shorter time delay before imaging, compared with the delay with conventional barium studies, makes this technique complementary or superior to conventional radiographic or ultrasonographic studies for evaluation of the gastrointestinal tract.

Retrograde contrast radiography of the distal portions of the intestinal tract in foals. A technique for retrograde contrast radiography of the distal portions of the intestinal tract of foals was developed and then performed in 25 foals 1 to 30 days old with colic.

Retrograde contrast radiography provided increased diagnostic capability, compared with that for noncontrast radiography. Retrograde contrast radiography can provide valuable information when evaluating foals with colic and should be part of the diagnostic evaluation.

This prospective study was conducted in G.

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Saddat, Anil. Preparation, characterization and performance optimization of ultrafiltration membranes produced with polymeric and inorganic additives. Saddler, Teresa G. Sadiq, Hammad M. Sadowski, Bryan Joseph. Sadowski, Bryan J. Sadoyan, Harutyun. Sadraei, Atieh. Safa, Tarek W. Safford, Evan Adams. Saffron, Jacob H. Sahay, Prateek. Sahay, Himanshu. Sahyun, Leif G.

Sahyun, Leif Galen. Saikat, Md ShamsurRahman. Saikat, Md Shamsur Rahman. Saikee, Pabitra M. Saint-Elme, Elina L. Sainte-Luce, Darvin. Sairs, Chloe. Sajjadi, Kamyar. Sakhuja, Shubham. Sakowich, Connor. Salafia, Cassandra Lynne. Salamone, Michael A. Salamone, Michael. Salazar, Enrique.

Salazar, Fernando. Salazar, Claudio B. Saldanha, Julia. Saleem, Muhammad Bilal. Salem, Peter A. Salerni, Anthony Daniel. Salerno, Stephanie Danielle. Salerno, Paige E. Salhi, Ilyas. Salice, Joseph John. Salido, Javier. Salimi, Parham. Salisbury, Daniel P. Sallie, Rachael E. Salman, Nafisat A. Salmon, Kayla Marie. Salmon, Oliver. Salomon, William Edward.

Salomone, Christopher Alden. Saltzman, Laura A. Salvati, James Robert. Salvatori, Rachel. Salvo, Sebastiano Danielle. Samardzic, Andrej. Samaroo, Melissa A. Samela, Joseph M. Samih, Rasheeda. Samler, Matthew Edward. Sample, Christopher M. Sampson, Shane Connor.

Samuel, Vincent Adam. Samuels, Johari I. Samuelson, Nicholas F. San Andres, Marissa Elizabeth. San San Oo, Kaung Myat. Sanborn, Erika Helen. Sanborn, Erika H. Sancetta, Benjamin C. Sanchez, Isabella. Sanchez, Felix A. Sanchez, Jonathan E. Sanchez, Jasmin A. Sanchez, Christopher Antonio. Sanchez, Baltasar. Sanchez, Jose Andres. Sanchez, Sarah Nicole.

Sanchez, Sabrina Elsie. Sanchez, Francisco Montserrat. Sanchez, Marisol. Sanchez Martinez, Luis David. Sanchez-Torres, Abel. Sanchy, Matthew T. Sandbrook, Theresa A. Sandbrook, John Andrew. Sandefer, Andrew.

Sandefer, Andrew C. Sanders, Jeffrey M. Sanders, Brandon Michael. Sanderson, Daniel H. Sanderson, Oliver.

Sanderson, Charles Graham. Sandford, Laura Marie. Sandgren, John N. Sandgren, Hayley R. Sandhu, Shubhneet Kaur. Sandoval, Eduardo P. Sanford, Thane Wendel. Sanford, Thane W. Sangenario, Michael G. Sangermano, Antonio. Sangermano, Michael Joseph.

Sangillo, Michael A. Sanguinet, William C. Sanseverino, Alexandra M. Sansevero, Drew. Sansom, Jennifer Elizabeth. Sansoucie, Jason W. Sansoucy, David R. Sansoucy, Drew Pare. Sansoucy, Brian G. Santacreu, Michelle. Santamaria, David. Santana, Jorge E. Santangelo, Nicholas P. Santangelo, Bethany Jean. Santarsiero, Rachel. Santawisook, Patchara.

Santelli, Huyen. Santimore, Dwight D. Santimore, Dwight Douglas. Santoro, Michael J. Santoro, Daria Emily. Santos, Jerome Peter. Santos, Johanna E. Santos, Alejandra. Santos, Adam R. Santos, Marisa. Santos, Roger Andrew. Santos, Ryan Michael.

Santos, Andrew. Sanville, Alex Joseph. Sanz-Guerrero, Alexandra F. Saperstein, Harrison K. Saperstein, Harrison Kane. Saqib, Solaimon Nadeem. Saqib, Solaimon N. Saracel, Cem. Sarafconn, Daniel Alex. Saragas, Dimitris. Sarapas, Nathan Garrett. Sarasin, Timothy Norman. Sarber, Bailey Maria. Sardell, Jason M. Sardi, Paula. Sareault, James David. Sargalski, Samantha M. Sargent, Adam Leigh. Sargent, Amanda R. Sarin, Dhruv. Sarkar, Dillon. Sarkar, Raphael Swapnil.

Sarkar, Dillon Shoikat. Sarkis, Benjamin G. Sarnell, Jarrett Andrew. Sarnik, Kyle. Sarraf, Wade M. Sarria-Pardo, Carlos Javier.

Sartoris, Larry S. Sasso, Zachary L. Sattler, Hannah Elizabeth. Sattler, Hannah E. Design of a non-invasive device to measure bone strength recovery of distal radius fractures for use with HR-pQCT Imaging.

Saucier, Meredith Ann. Saucier, Kelsey T. Saucier, Kelsey. Sauer, Jillian Ames. Sauer, Nathaniel G. Saunders, Jonathan W. Saunders, Collin Richard.

Saunders, James F. Savage, Hayden Antonio. Savasan, Ceren. Savastano, Daniel J. Savell, Kyle Quinn. Saviski, Michelle M. Savoia, Christopher James. Savoie, Michael William. Savov, Vasil Kolev. Savov, Vasil K. Savoy, Giancarlo. Savrin, Michael Joseph. Savukinas, Daniel Garand. Savva, Dimitrios. Sawatzki, Sarah Rose.

Sawicki, Meghan Elizabeth. Sawin, Jonathan R. Sawin, Laura Elizabeth. Sawin, Laura E. Sawosik, Peter C. Sawyer, Evan Marcus. Passive Home Design- A guide to remodeling and building highly energy efficient and eco-friendly homes. Sawyer, Abigail Q. Sawyer, Jesse. Sawyer, Abigail. Sawyer, Edith Morgan.

Saxena, Shikhar. Saxner, David van Dam. Sayegh, Miriam. Sayers, Brian Thomas. Saylor, Ashley K. Sayre, Robert Emmett.

Sazanowicz, Robert Joseph. Scaccia, Anthony Frederick. Scaduto, Michael Francis. Scaer, Rachel. Scalabrini, Christopher D. Scales, Keith J. Scalfani, Robert Francis. Scammon, Jonathan Michael.

Scangas, Christopher Angelo. Scanio, Corina C. Scanio, Corina. Scanlon, Michael Edward. Scanlon, Alex Daniel. Scanlon, Matthew. Scannell, Kevin. Scannell, Kevin R. Scaperdas, Constantine B. Scaplen, Thomas Michael. Scaplen, Kyle Robert. Scarborough, John Andrew. Scarborough, Aubrey M. Scarponi, Jake P. Scarponi, Jake Pierce. Sceviour, Joseph J.

Schaaf, Curtis Joseph. Schaalman, Gregory Paul. Schab, Anna I. Schade, Andrew Levene. Schade, Benjamin Levene. Schade, Raymond M. Schadt, Callie. Schaeffer, Tobias R. Schaeffer, Zayla Dean. Schaeffer, John N. Schafer, Cara C. Scharpf, Lawrence G. Schattschneider, Eric Scott. Schebel, Kurt Joseph. Scheid, Eric A. Scheid, Dawson. Scheide, Jake Connor. Schembri, Peter. Schenkenberg, Patrick. Scherick, James Jay. Scherrer, Matthew H. Scherrer, Bruno Barros.

Scherrer, Matthew Hewett. Schiavone, Isabella. Schiavone, Isabella Mary. Schick, Daniel C. Schiebel, Rachel. Schiemer, James Scott. Schiess, Hallie L. Schiffhauer, Earl M. Schifilliti, Dean Thomas. Schifilliti, Dean. Schilp, Jillian. Schimmel, Quinton Wilhelm.

Schimmel, Quinton W. Schindler, Thomas Allen. Schlack, Weston T. Schleier, Kristen Elizabeth. Schlesinger, Joseph. Schlesinger, Joseph M. Schlesinger, Joseph Michael. Schlowin, Brian Alexander. Schmidt, Bailey Ryan. Schmidt, Nathan.

Schmidtberg, Erik Andreas. Schmidtman, Hanna Lynn. Schmitt, Matthew Tyler. Schmitt, Matthew T. Schmoyer, Lara. Schmoyer, Lara Aliesha. Schneeloch, John A. Schneider, Lindsay P. Schneider, Emily Nicole. Schneider, Kaitlyn Marie. Schoenhagen, Yann-Frederic Moukoudi. Schoenhagen, Paul-Henry Madiba. Schofield, Elizabeth M. Scholler, Colin Julian. Scholwin, Brian Alexander. Scholz, Eric Franklin.

Schomaker, Jake J. Schondek, Christine Nicole. Schooler, Benjamin. Schopka, Brian Arthur. Schorer, Gary C. Schott, Christopher M. Schozer, Anna L. Schrader, Max Charles. Schrader, Christian M. Schramm, Christopher E.

Schran, Jacob A. Schreiber, Elizabeth Alice. Schripsema, Frankie Ann. Schroeder, Eric Von. Schroeder, Cecilia C. Schuba, Ian James. Schubert, Nicholas Serge. Schudy, Warren. Schudy, Warren J. Schueler, Matthew Jordan. Schueler, Andrew Raymond. Schuler, Miles R. Schulman, Iliana Jeanne-Marie. Schultz, Mary. Schultz, Stephanie E. Schulz, Hannah. Schulze, Matthew George. Schulze, Matthew. Schumacher Aparicio, Daniela Alejan.

Schuster, Christopher. Schuster, Christopher H. Schutes, John Thomas. Schutte, Kayla Janelle. Schutzman, Ethan Henry. Schwalbenberg, Andrew. Schwamb, John Patrick. Schwartz, Zoe. Schwartz, Ian Samuel. Schwartz, Adam Lee. Schwartz, Alexander. Schwartz, Mary Elizabeth. Schwartz, William Redmond.

Schwartz, Ian. Schwartzman, Mathew Charles. Schweich, Thomas A. Schweich, Thomas Arthur. Schweikert, Katherine. Schwend, William R. Scillitoe, Christian Robert. Scimone, John Fredrik. Sciore, Aaron B. Scofield, Michael David. Scott, Matthew J. Scott, Alexander Foster. Scott, Corey. Scott, Victoria A. Scott, Julia F. Scott, Erik Winfield. Scott, Austin D. Scott, Alfred William. Scott, David Franciose. Scott-Solomon, Emily Rivkah.

Introgressive hybridization between Orconectes quinebaugensis and Orconectes virilis in the Blackstone River Valley. Scotta, Lucas M. Scougal, Erik A. Scougal, Erik. Scoville, Bradley Armand. Scraire, Etienne-Alexandre. Scrivanich, Nicholas J. Scrivanich, Nicholas John. Scuderi, Gaetano J. Scully, Brian J. Scully, James V.

Scuzzarella, Brad Thomas. Seaboldt, Mariah Rose. Seabrook, Michael J. Seagrave, Nicholas Walter. Seagrave, Nicholas. Sealey, Andrew. Sealund, Brian J. Sealund, Brian. Seaman, Daniel P. Sears, Sean D. Sears, Zachary H. Sears, Tracy Lynn. Sears, Adam H. Sebald, Sarah E.

Sebastian, Ryan O. Sebastian, Heather Simone. Sebuwufu, Patrick Semujju. Sebuwufu, Patrick S. Secatore, Brandon. Secino, Benjamin James. Seed, James Patrick. Seeley, Daniel Rene.

Seeley, Justin P. Seely, Megan L. Seeto, Benjamin Thomas. Segal, Aaron M. Segala, Alexander Louis. Seibert, Benjamin Merritt. Seibert, Benjamin M. Seibold, William David. Seiche, Grace Elizabeth. Seicol, Benjamin J. Seifu, Yosias Ghion. Seigle, Madeline Divan. Seitz, Benjamin Alvrado. Sejour, Leinal A.

Seker, Zeynep. Sel, Taylan J. Selen, Kaileen Elizabeth. Selent, Douglas. Sellahennedige, Kushlani H. Sellen, Claire A. Sellers, Bryan J. Sellie-Lund, Thomas Alexander.

Sellie-Lund, Thomas A. Sellman, Zachary E. Selmer, Heather L. Selvo, Nathaniel A. Semple, Victoria Anne. Senecal, Benjamin Onil. Senenfelder, Natalie Marie. Seneres, Lou Abigail. Seney, Brian Joseph. Senft-Grupp, Hunter Christian. Sengstaken, John. Sensiba, Aidan Lee. Seo, Sydney Jaeyoung. Sequin, Cassidy Marcelle. Serafin, Christopher. Serbanescu, Teodor. Serer, Bernat Navarro. Serina Linzo, Patricia Dominique. Serra, Sean C. Serra, Ryan William. Serrano, Christopher J.

Serrano, Joaquin F. Serrati, Gabriella P. Seruwagi, Latiff Zaaliembike. Serven, Rebecca. Servi, Joseph Franklin.

Servidio, Thomas R. Effects of chemical communication on fighting and mating interactions in the crayfish Faxonius virilis. Sesanker, Colbert. Sesanker, Colbert L. Sesma, Maitane. Sessa, Anthony Raymond. Setalsingh, Savonne James.

Setterlund, Liam. Sevigny, Catherine Marie. Sevinsky, Aidan Jeffrey. Seward-Evans, Obatola Akashaharu. Seyedmahmoud, Neda. Seymour, Rebecca L. Seymour, Kyle Patrick. Seymour, Sean William. Seymour, Fred Ernest. Sezer, Armagan. Shaddock, Edward Lee. Shaddock, Caitlyn Elizabeth. Shaffer, Zachary. Shaffer, Timothy Dresden. Shaffer, Benjamin David. Shah, Kunal K. Shah, Bhavika B.

Shah, Akshaye Amish. Shah, Muhammad Ali. Shahabuddin, Muntasir. Shahi, Trivani Joy. Shaidani, Sawnaz. Shaikh, Faris A. Shaikh, Ahsan Aadil Nizam. Shaikh, Faris Asim. Shaji, Akash. Shakan, George Matthew. Shalit, Austin. Shanabrook, Rhianna M. Shanahan, Justin Louis. Shanahan, Liam Patrick. Shanck, Matthew Alexander. Shandrow, Nicolle Alexandra. Shang, Shigeng. Shannon, Jaime Scott. Shannon, Nicholas P. Shannon, Gregory F. Shapiro, Hannah Elizabeth.

Shappee, Bartlett. Sharkus, Cielo Angelica. Sharma, Akanksha. Sharma, Arth. Sharma, Parima. Sharma, Himanjal. Sharman, Maria C. Sharood, Timothy John. Sharp, Gregory Nathan. Sharp, Tara J. Sharpe, Rebecca Ann.

Sharron, Benjamin John. Sharron, Benjamin. Sharron, Benjamin J. Shartiag, Shira Naomi. Shastry, Sneha Priya. Shattuck, Woodrow Hollis. Shatz, Aryeh L. Shaughnessy, Kayleigh A. Shaw, Brandon Charles. Shaw, Adam David. Shaw, Trevor W. Shaw, Robert M. Shaw, David Jeffrey. Shaw, Adrian C.

Shaw, Jeremy S. Shea, Aaron B. Shea, Catherine Anne. Shea, Alexandra Elizabeth. Smoothelin expression in the gastrointestinal tract : implication in colonic inertia.

Colonic inertia is a frustrating motility disorder to patients, clinicians, and pathologists. The pathogenesis is largely unknown. The aims of this study were to: 1 characterize the expression of smoothelin, a novel smooth muscle-specific contractile protein expressed only by terminally differentiated smooth muscle cells, in the normal gastrointestinal GI tract ; and 2 determine whether smoothelin is aberrantly expressed in patients with colonic inertia.

A total of 57 resections of the normal GI tract distal esophagus to left colon were obtained from patients without GI motor dysfunction. Sixty-one colon resections were obtained from patients with a clinical diagnosis of colonic inertia. Smoothelin immunostaining was conducted on full-thickness tissue sections. In the nondysmotile controls, strong and diffuse cytoplasmic staining for smoothelin was observed in both the inner circular and outer longitudinal layers of the muscularis propria MP throughout the entire GI tract.

The muscularis mucosae MM and muscular vessel walls were either completely negative or only patchily and weakly stained. The 1 exception to this pattern was observed in the distal esophagus, in which the MM was also diffusely and strongly stained. In cases with colonic inertia, a moderate to marked reduction of smoothelin immunoreactivity was observed in 15 of 61 The data demonstrate that smoothelin is differentially expressed in the MP and MM of the normal GI tract and suggest that defective smoothelin expression may play a role in the pathogenesis of colonic inertia in a subset of patients.

Development of cholecystokinin binding sites in rat upper gastrointestinal tract. Autoradiography using I-labeled Bolton Hunter-CCK was used to study the distribution of cholecystokinin binding sites at different stages of development in the rat upper gastrointestinal tract. Cholecystokinin CCK binding was present in the distal stomach, esophagus, and gastroduodenal junction in the rat fetus of gestational age of 17 days. In the day fetus, specific binding was found in the gastric mucosa, antral circular muscle, and pyloric sphincter.

Mucosal binding declined during postnatal development and had disappeared by day Antral binding declined sharply between day 10 and day 15 and disappeared by day Pyloric muscle binding was present in fetal stomach and persisted in the adult. Pancreatic CCK binding was not observed before day These results suggest that CCK may have a role in the control of gastric emptying and ingestive behavior in the neonatal rat. Mechanosensitive Piezo Channels in the Gastrointestinal Tract.

Sensation of mechanical forces is critical for normal function of the gastrointestinal GI tract and abnormalities in mechanosensation are linked to GI pathologies. In the GI tract there are several mechanosensitive cell types-epithelial enterochromaffin cells, intrinsic and extrinsic enteric neurons, smooth muscle cells and interstitial cells of Cajal. These cells use mechanosensitive ion channels that respond to mechanical forces by altering transmembrane ionic currents in a process called mechanoelectrical coupling.

Several mechanosensitive ionic conductances have been identified in the mechanosensory GI cells, ranging from mechanosensitive voltage-gated sodium and calcium channels to the mechanogated ion channels, such as the two-pore domain potassium channels K2P TREK-1 and nonselective cation channels from the transient receptor potential family.

The recently discovered Piezo channels are increasingly recognized as significant contributors to cellular mechanosensitivity. Piezo1 and Piezo2 are nonselective cationic ion channels that are directly activated by mechanical forces and have well-defined biophysical and pharmacologic properties. The role of Piezo channels in the GI epithelium is currently under investigation and their role in the smooth muscle syncytium and enteric neurons is still not known. In this review, we outline the current state of knowledge on mechanosensitive ion channels in the GI tract , with a focus on the known and potential functions of the Piezo channels.

All rights reserved. Contrast media for radiological examination in gastrointestinal tract leakage. Leakage outside the gastro-intestinal tract lumen can occur in many ways eg. Anatomical studies of the gastrointestinal tract of the striped sand A study was carried out on the gross anatomical, morphometric features and histology of the gastrointestinal tract of the Striped Sand Snake Psammophis sibilans. Ten snakes five males and five females were euthanized and dissected for the study. The gastrointestinal tract appeared as a straight tubular organ from oral Corrosive injuries of the upper gastrointestinal tract.

Full Text Available Corrosive injury of the upper gastrointestinal tract is a worldwide clinical problem, mostly occurring in children. Alkaline agents produce deeper injuries whereas acidic agents produce superficial injuries usually. Hoarseness, stridor, and respiratory distress indicate airway injury. Dysphagia, odynophagia, and drooling of saliva suggest esophageal injury whereas abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting are indicative of stomach injury.

X-rays should be done to rule out perforation. Endoscopy is usually recommended in the first 12—48 h although it is safe up to 96 h after caustic ingestion. Endoscopy should be performed with caution and gentle insufflation.

Initial management includes getting intravenous access and replacement of fluids. Hyperemia and superficial ulcerations have excellent recovery while deeper injuries require total parenteral nutrition or feeding jejunostomy. Patients suspected of perforation should be subjected to laparotomy. Common complications after corrosive injury are esophageal stricture, gastric outlet obstruction, and development of esophageal and gastric carcinoma.

Oncolytic virotherapy in upper gastrointestinal tract cancers. Cancers of the esophagus, stomach, pancreas, liver, and biliary tree have dismal 5-year survival, and very modest improvements in this rate have been made in recent times. Oncolytic viruses are being developed to address these malignancies, with a focus on high safety profiles and low off-target toxicities.

Each viral platform has evolved to enhance oncolytic potency and the clinical response to either single-agent viral therapy or combined viral treatment with radiotherapy and chemotherapy. A panel of genomic alterations, chimeric proteins, and pseudotyped capsids are the breakthroughs for vector success.

This article revisits developments for each viral platform to each tumor type, in an attempt to achieve maximum tumor selectivity. From the bench to clinical trials, the scope of this review is to highlight the beginnings of translational oncolytic virotherapy research in upper gastrointestinal tract malignancies and provide a bioengineering perspective of the most promising platforms. Keywords: oncolytic viruses, hepatopancreatobiliary, gastric cancer, pancreatic cancer, liver cancer, biliary cancer.

Multiple lymphomatous polyposis of the gastrointestinal tract. Full Text Available CONTEXT: Gastrointestinal multiple lymphomatous polyposis is a rare type of malignant lymphoma that has aggressive biological behavior, early systemic dissemination and poor prognosis.

It is considered to be a manifestation of non-Hodgkin lymphoma and represents the gastrointestinal counterpart of mantle cell nodal lymphoma. OBJECTIVE: A case of gastrointestinal multiple lymphomatous polyposis is presented and the anatomopathological, clinical, diagnostic and treatment aspects of this unusual neoplasia are discussed. The physical examination showed pallid mucosa and a palpable mass in the epigastrium and mesogastrium.

Endoscopy of the upper digestive tract showed the presence of gastric and duodenal polyps. An opaque enema showed multiple polypoid lesions, especially in the cecum. A rectal biopsy revealed infiltration of the mucosa and submucosa by diffuse lymphoma consisting of small cleaved cells.

Immunohistochemical study showed lymphocytes that expressed the antibody CD20 L and light-chain kappa k immunoglobulin, but not light-chain lambda l immunoglobulin. The patient presented a condition of acute intestinal obstruction with the presence of a mesenteric mass formed by agglutinated lymph nodes that surrounded the proximal ileum, thereby obstructing its lumen.

He was submitted to a segmental enterectomy and gastrotomy with excisional biopsies of the gastric polypoid lesions. After two cycles of chemotherapy there was a worsening of the general state, with an increase in the dimensions of the abdominal masses and sepsis, accompanied by progressive respiratory insufficiency, leading to death.

TRP channel functions in the gastrointestinal tract. Transient receptor potential TRP channels are predominantly distributed in both somatic and visceral sensory nervous systems and play a crucial role in sensory transduction. As the largest visceral organ system, the gastrointestinal GI tract frequently accommodates external inputs, which stimulate sensory nerves to initiate and coordinate sensory and motor functions in order to digest and absorb nutrients.

Meanwhile, the sensory nerves in the GI tract are also able to detect potential tissue damage by responding to noxious irritants. This nocifensive function is mediated through specific ion channels and receptors expressed in a subpopulation of spinal and vagal afferent nerve called nociceptor.

In the last 18 years, our understanding of TRP channel expression and function in GI sensory nervous system has been continuously improved. Management of radiation injuries of 10 cases of gastrointestinal tracts. Ten cases of delayed radiation injuries of the gastrointestinal tracts consisting of 2 with peptic ulcer, 4 with intestinal obstruction, and 4 with rectal bleeding are reported. Although conservative therapy or artificial colostomy was undertaken in all cases, satisfactory results were not obtained.

In four cases in which subsequent resection of the gastrointestinal tracts was performed, the prognosis was favorable, but various symptoms still continued in the other non-resected cases. Delayed radiation injuries are progressive lesions involving the vasculo-connective tissue, so that cure can not be achieved.

Resection of the damaged gastrointestinal tract is recommended, however, this is difficult to do in many cases. Namekawa, K. SnapShot: Hormones of the gastrointestinal tract. Specialized endocrine cells secrete a variety of peptide hormones all along the gastrointestinal GI tract , making it one of the largest endocrine organs in the body. Nutrients and developmental and neural cues trigger the secretion of gastrointestinal GI hormones from specialized endocrine cells along the GI tract.

These hormones act in target tissues to facilitate digestion and regulate energy homeostasis. This SnapShot summarizes the production and functions of GI hormones. Narcotic smuggling and radiography of the gastrointestinal tract. The gastrointestinal tract is being used to an increasing extent as a route for smuggling narcotics. Small, swallowed packages overwrapped with condoms or other materials are usually not detected by the customs authorities.

Conventional abdominal radiography may indicate foreign bodies surrounded by a characteristic thin layer of gas and located in the gastrointestinal tract. Some short case histories, and the radiologic findings in four heroin 'body packers' are presented.

Exercise and the gastro-intestinal tract. The role of me gastro-intestinal tracr, bom as a limiting and sustaining facror in aerobic exercises, is less well appreciared.

Gastro-intestinal symptoms. The spectrum of gastro-intestinal effecrs of exercise Benefits of intracorporeal gastrointestinal anastomosis following laparoscopic distal gastrectomy. Full Text Available Abstract Background Laparoscopic gastrectomy has recently been gaining popularity as a treatment for cancer; however, little is known about the benefits of intracorporeal IC gastrointestinal anastomosis with pure laparoscopic distal gastrectomy LDG compared with extracorporeal EC anastomosis with laparoscopy-assisted distal gastrectomy LADG.

Methods Between June and December , we assessed consecutive patients with early-stage gastric cancer who underwent LDG. The analyzed parameters included patient and tumor characteristics, operation details, and post-operative outcomes. Although additional randomized control studies are warranted to confirm these findings, we consider that pure LDG is a useful technique for patients with early gastric cancer. Acute ingestion dosimetry using the ICRP 30 gastrointestinal tract model.

This paper examines the gastrointestinal GI tract model used for dosimetry as outlined in ICRP30, to allow quick calculations of effective dose equivalents for acute radionuclide ingestion. A computer program has been developed to emulate the GI tract model. The program and associated data files are structured so that the GI tract model parameters can be varied, while the file structure and algorithm for the GI tract model should require minimal modification to allow the same theories that apply in this model to be used for other dosimetric models.

Absorption of Bk from the gastrointestinal tract. In experimets with albino mongrel female rats a study was made of the absorption of Bk from the gastrointestinal tract after a single per os administration. The bulk of Bk 96 per cent administered either intravenously or per os was mainly deposited in the skeleton and liver. The value of Bk absorption from the gastrointestinal trat by days 4 and 8 following administration was 0.

Gastrointestinal tract of chicken is a place in which many kinds of fungi can be found. The aim of the research was to isolate fungi from the gastrointestinal tract of the indigenous chicken Ayam Kampung. The chicken samples were four days, one week and two months old and were sampled from chicken farm located in Yogyakarta. Potato dextrose agar PDA medium was used to grow the fungi. Fifty pure isolates of fungi were found from three different ages, those were four days, one week and two Assessment of quantitative and qualitative characteristics of gastrointestinal microflora in patients with chronic cholecystitis.

Bacteriological analysis of biopsy samples of esophageal and gastric mucosae as well as stool samples was performed in 10 healthy volunteers and 28 patients with chronic cholecystitis. Opportunistic microorganisms are acquiring greater significance in formation of gastrointestinal microbiocenosis.

Significant increase of both isolation rate and density of gastrointestinal tract colonization by staphylococci, enterobacteriae and anaerobic microorganisms was revealed. Obtained results showed abnormalities of microbiocenosis of esophageal and gastric mucosae and presence of intestinal disbacteriosis of different degrees of intensity.

Sensory testing of the human gastrointestinal tract. The objective of this appraisal is to shed light on the various approaches to screen sensory information in the human gut. Understanding and characterization of sensory symptoms in gastrointestinal disorders is poor. Experimental methods allowing the investigator to control stimulus intensity and. Angiography and angiotherapy of gastrointestinal tract bleeding. In selected patients with upper and lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage there is an indication for angiography.

Vasoconstrictive drugs or embolization materials can be submitted through the catheter to stop the hemorrhage angiotherapy. Treatment through the angiographic catheter followed the diagnostic procedure in 41 cases. The hemorrhage was controlled in 36 patients. Historically, the tumors that were morphologically different and clinically less agressive than the more common gastrointestinal adenocarcinomas were clasified under carcinoid tumors.

However, the development of molecular biology tehniques revealed the heterogeneity of these tumors on cellular and subcellular level and ther different biological behaviour. Neuroendocrine tumors of gastrointestinal tract originated from neuroendocrine cells scaterred across the gastrointestinal mucosa. As a result these tumors were capable of secreting many different neurotransmiters, which may or may not be biologically active.

The incidence of gastrointestinal NETs has been incresing over the last 2 to 3 decades. Patients often presented with vague, nonspecific symptoms which resulted in delayed diagnosis and adequate treatment. In this article, we discuss the nature of gastrointestinal NETs, clinical presentation, treatment options and prognosis.

Yttrium microsphere induced gastrointestinal tract ulceration. Full Text Available Abstract Background Radiomicrosphere therapy RT utilizing yttrium 90Y microspheres has been shown to be an effective regional treatment for primary and secondary hepatic malignancies.

We sought to determine a large academic institution's experience regarding the extent and frequency of gastrointestinal complications. Methods Between and , 27 patients underwent RT for primary or secondary hepatic malignancies.

Charts were subsequently reviewed to determine the incidence and severity of GI ulceration. Results Three patients presented with gastrointestinal bleeding and underwent upper endoscopy. Review of the pretreatment angiograms showed normal vascular anatomy in one patient, sclerosed hepatic vasculature in a patient who had undergone prior chemoembolization in a second, and an aberrant left hepatic artery in a third. None had undergone prophylactic gastroduodenal artery embolization.

Endoscopic findings included erythema, mucosal erosions, and large gastric ulcers. Microspheres were visible on endoscopic biopsy. In two patients, gastric ulcers were persistent at the time of repeat endoscopy 1—4 months later despite proton pump inhibitor therapy. One elderly patient who refused surgical intervention died from recurrent hemorrhage.

Conclusion Gastrointestinal ulceration is a known yet rarely reported complication of 90Y microsphere embolization with potentially life-threatening consequences. Once diagnosed, refractory ulcers should be considered for aggressive surgical management. Induced gastrointestinal tract GIT derangement following a long Drug administration commenced from 10th day of gestation to the end of parturition.

On the 13th day after parturition the maternal rats were then sacrified for tissue processing. The results showed that the control animals had a normal architecture of the gastrointestinal tract. While the paracetamol treated animals showed a Concepts and controversies in disorders of upper gastrointestinal tract. The upper gastrointestinal tract is one part of the digestive system where tremendous innovations and advancements in knowledge have been recorded in the last several decades.

The discovery of Helicobacter pylori by Warren and Marshal in and the introduction of Rome process for the classification, diagnosis and Biotherapy of hormonal symptoms and tumour growth is a mainstay in the therapy of metastatic neuroendocrine tumours of the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas.

Symptomatic relief can be achieved by somatostatin analogues and interferon, either alone or in combination. The effect on tumour growth Manometry of the gastrointestinal tract : toy or tool? In the eyes of scientific researchers, there are various manometric techniques that are useful tools for studying the motility of the gastrointestinal tract. Clinicians, however, regard most of these techniques as toys, either because they do not lead to clinically relevant results, or because they.

Granular cell tumors GCT are rare and unusual tumors, which are usually benign and asymptomatic. Only 5? We report a rare case of symptomatic, multifocal, synchronous GCT involving the esophagus, stomach, and cecum. Upper gastrointestinal tract bleeding in Ilorin, Nigeria - a report of Upper gastrointestinal tract bleeding in Ilorin, Nigeria - a report of 30 cases.

B Olokoba, L. B Olokoba, A. G Jimoh. Background: Upper gastrointestinal tract bleeding refers to blood loss within the intraluminal gastrointestinal tract from any location between the upper oesophagus to the duodenum at the ligament Metastasis of the gastrointestinal tract.

We assess the usefulness of Ffluoro-deoxy-glucose FDG positron emission tomography PET in the evaluation of gastrointestinal metastases. The five lesions were duodenal, jejunal metastasis, and two stomach metastases from lung carcinoma, and rectal metastasis from MFH of the femur. Biomechanical Remodeling of the Diabetic Gastrointestinal Tract. Following the development of diabetes, the GI wall becomes thicker and the stiffness of the GI wall increases in a time-dependent manner.

It is well known that mechanosensitive Biomechanical remodeling of diabetic GI tract including alterations of residual strain and increase Glucosensing in the gastrointestinal tract : Impact on glucose metabolism. The gastrointestinal tract is an important interface of exchange between ingested food and the body. Glucose is one of the major dietary sources of energy. All along the gastrointestinal tube, e. In response to this glucose detection, these cells send hormonal and neuronal messages to tissues involved in glucose metabolism to regulate glycemia.

The gastrointestinal tract continuously communicates with the brain, especially with the hypothalamus, via the gut-brain axis. It is now well established that the cross talk between the gut and the brain is of crucial importance in the control of glucose homeostasis. In addition to receiving glucosensing information from the gut, the hypothalamus may also directly sense glucose.

Indeed, the hypothalamus contains glucose-sensitive cells that regulate glucose homeostasis by sending signals to peripheral tissues via the autonomous nervous system. This review summarizes the mechanisms by which glucosensors along the gastrointestinal tract detect glucose, as well as the results of such detection in the whole body, including the hypothalamus.

We also highlight how disturbances in the glucosensing process may lead to metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes. A better understanding of the pathways regulating glucose homeostasis will further facilitate the development of novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of metabolic diseases.

A roentgenologic study of diverticular throughout the entire gastrointestinal tract. Diverticulum is considered as a common lesion involving any gastrointestinal tract from the pharynx to the rectum. We reviewed 5, cases of upper G-I series and cases of double contrast barium enema during the period from Jan. The results were as follows: 1. Roentgen examination of 5, esophagus, stomachs, duodenums and small bowels, and colons during the past four years: diverticula of the esophagus, 60 cases 1.

The location of diverticula in order of frequency was duodenum, colon, esophagus, stomach and small bowel. The most common site of diverticula of each gastrointestinal tract was as follows: diverticula of the esophagus, middle portion Diverticula may occur at any age.

The majority of diverticula of the entire gastrointestinal tract were observed over 40 years of age. Especially in diverticula of the duodenum and colon, their frequency increase with age. Duodenal diverticula were observed more frequently in woman than in man but in diverticula of the esophagus, stomach, small bowel and colon, male was more frequently affected.

The size of diverticula of the entire gastrointestinal tract was variable. The majority of diverticula of the esophagus, stomach, duodenum and small bowel were intermediate in size mm. Diverticula of. Full Text Available Gastrointestinal tract of chicken is a place in which many kinds of fungi can be found.

The aim ofthe research was to isolate fungi from the gastrointestinal tract of the indigenous chicken AyamKampung. The chicken samples were four days, one week and two months old and were sampled fromchicken farm located in Yogyakarta.

Fifty pure isolates of fungi were found from three different ages, those were four days, one week andtwo months old chicken were 5, 10 and 35 isolates respectively.

The largest number of isolate was foundin ileum, then followed by caecum, jejenum and duodenum. The fifty isolate of fungi belonged to sevenspecies, those were Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Chrysonilia crassa, Mucor circinelloides,Mucor sp, Rhizopus oligosporus and Rhizopus oryzae. Fifty pure isolates of fungi were found from three different ages, those were four days, one week and two months old chicken were 5, 10 and 35 isolates respectively.

The largest number of isolate was found in ileum, then followed by caecum, jejenum and duodenum. The fifty isolate of fungi belonged to seven species, those were Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Chrysonilia crassa, Mucor circinelloides, Mucor sp, Rhizopus oligosporus and Rhizopus oryzae.

Mucosal defence along the gastrointestinal tract of cats and dogs. International audience; Diseases that are associated with infections or allergic reactions in the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts are major causes of morbidity in both cats and dogs.

Future strategies for the control of these conditions require a greater understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the induction and regulation of responses at the mucosal surfaces.

Historically, the majority of the fundamental studies have been carried out in rodents or with tissu Systemic sclerosis SSc is a multisystem disease characterized by functional and structural abnormalities of small blood vessels, fibrosis of the skin and internal organs, immune system activation, and autoimmunity.

The gastrointestinal tract is involved in nearly all patients and is a source of significant morbidity and even mortality. The aim of this review is to summarize the pathogenesis and to provide a clinical approach to these patients. Upper gastrointestinal tract injuries by intraoperative radiotherapy for pancreatic cancer.

Twenty-one patients with unresectable carcinoma of the pancreas were treated by intraoperative irradiation with a large electron dose of - rads and upper gastrointestinal complications were encountered in five cases. All of those five cases were for carcinoma of the pancreatic head, and were seen for gastrointestinal tract injuries of the duodenum as follows, gastric ulcer in 2 cases, ulcer of the 1st duodenal portion in one case and ulcer with severe stenosis of the 2nd or 3rd duodenal portion in one case, respectively.

Endoscopic features of these postirradiation gastrointestinal ulcers were characterized by deep, punched-out ulcers with grayish bases and sharp margins. Clinically these ulcers and stenosis were very difficult to treat, so by-pass operations were performed in two cases, resulting in prolonged survival. Development of a revised mathematical model of the gastrointestinal tract. The objectives of this research are as follows. First, to incorporate new biological data into a revised mathematical adult gastrointestinal tract model that includes: ingestion in both liquid and solid forms; consideration of absorption in the stomach, small intestine, ascending colon, transverse colon or not at all; gender and age of the adult; and whether the adult is a smoker or not.

Next, to create a computer program in basic language for calculating residence times in each anatomical section of the GI tract for commonly used radionuclides.

Also, to compare and contrast the new model with the ICRP 30 GI tract model in terms of physiological concepts, mathematical concepts, and revised residence times for several commonly used radionuclides.

Finally, to determine whether the new model is sufficiently better than the current model to warrant its use as a replacement for the Eve model. Our objective was to implement a non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging MRI technique combined with concentrated milk ingestion for depicting the gastrointestinal GI tract and detecting gastrointestinal motility and transit. In order to determine the feasibility of milk ingestion as a substitute for contrast medium, ten human volunteers were examined with SSFSE after two types of liquid ingestion i.

The snapshot images provided subsecond data acquisition for each coronal plane, allowing visualization of peristalsis in the gastrointestinal tract in an almost real-time fashion, without motion-related image degradation, as would normally be seen using conventional MRI.

There was no significant difference between concentrated milk and water in terms of depiction of the upper gastrointestinal tract ; however, 10 min and 30 min after ingestion, concentrated milk showed better delineation of the intestine than that observed after water ingestion p gastrointestinal imaging is a non-invasive method that allows gastrointestinal depiction as well as analysis of motility and passage. Especially with concentrated milk ingestion, the distal intestines were well depicted with adequate contrast filling and distention.

Hyperammonemia associated with distal renal tubular acidosis or urinary tract infection: a systematic review. Hyperammonemia usually results from an inborn error of metabolism or from an advanced liver disease. Individual case reports suggest that both distal renal tubular acidosis and urinary tract infection may also result in hyperammonemia.

A systematic review of the literature on hyperammonemia secondary to distal renal tubular acidosis and urinary tract infection was conducted. We identified 39 reports on distal renal tubular acidosis or urinary tract infections in association with hyperammonemia published between and Hyperammonemia was detected in 13 children with distal renal tubular acidosis and in one adult patient with distal renal tubular acidosis secondary to primary hyperparathyroidism.

In these patients a negative relationship was observed between circulating ammonia and bicarbonate levels P urinary tract infection was complicated by acute hyperammonemia and symptoms and signs of acute neuronal dysfunction, such as an altered level of consciousness, convulsions and asterixis, often associated with signs of brain edema, such as anorexia and vomiting.

Urea-splitting bacteria were isolated in 28 of the 31 cases. The urinary tract was anatomically or functionally abnormal in 30 of these patients. This study reveals that both altered distal renal tubular acidification and urinary tract infection may be associated with relevant hyperammonemia in both children and adults. Full Text Available Horses are exquisitely sensitive to non-specific gastrointestinal disturbances as well as systemic and extraintestinal conditions related to gut health, yet minimal data are available regarding the composition of the microbiota present in the equine stomach, small intestine, and cecum and their relation to fecal microbiota.

Moreover, there is minimal information regarding the concordance of the luminal and mucosal microbial communities throughout the equine gut. Illumina-based 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing of the luminal and mucosal microbiota present in seven regions of the gastrointestinal tract of nine healthy adult horses revealed a distinct compositional divide between the small and large intestines.

This disparity in composition was more pronounced within the luminal contents, but was also detected within mucosal populations. Moreover, the uniformity of the gut microbiota was much higher in the cecum and colon relative to that in the stomach, jejunum and ileum, despite a significantly higher number of unique sequences detected in the colon.

Collectively, the current data suggest that while colonic samples a proxy for feces may provide a reasonable profile of the luminal contents of the healthy equine large intestine, they are not informative with regard to the contents of the stomach or small intestine. In contrast to the distinct difference between the highly variable upper gastrointestinal tract microbiota and relatively uniform large bowel microbiota present within the lumen, these data also demonstrate a regional continuity present in mucosal microbial communities throughout the length of the equine gut.

Laboratory Diagnosis of Parasites from the Gastrointestinal Tract. This Practical Guidance for Clinical Microbiology document on the laboratory diagnosis of parasites from the gastrointestinal tract provides practical information for the recovery and identification of relevant human parasites.

The document is based on a comprehensive literature review and expert consensus on relevant diagnostic methods. However, it does not include didactic information on human parasite life cycles, organism morphology, clinical disease, pathogenesis, treatment, or epidemiology and prevention. As greater emphasis is placed on neglected tropical diseases, it becomes highly probable that patients with gastrointestinal parasitic infections will become more widely recognized in areas where parasites are endemic and not endemic.

Generally, these methods are nonautomated and require extensive bench experience for accurate performance and interpretation. The aim of this investigation has been to find a safe and suitable contrast medium CM for radiological evaluation of the gastrointestinal tract GIT in cases where leakage outside the GIT can be suspected. An experimental study was carried out to evaluate the reactions of various available CM in the bronchi and lungs, mediastinum, pleura and peritoneum of rats.

The CM evaluated in the experimental study were, pure barium sulphate without any additives , commercial barium sulphate Micropaque, with additives , Dionosil, Hytrast, Gastrografin, Amipaque in pleura Omnipaque and Hexabrix. Sonographic diagnosis of intramural hematoma of gastrointestinal tract. Sonographic findings of nine cases of intramural hematoma of the gastrointestinal tract are presented. The duodenum was the most common site, followed by the ascending colon and the stomach.

Intramural hematomas present as centrally or eccentrically located bowel mass of variable echogenicity: heter-ogeneously echogenic in six cases; hypoechoic in two case; anechoic in one case. It is concluded that ultrasonography is a simple and useful tool in the diagnosis of intramural hematoma of the intestine. Survival of Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains in the upper gastrointestinal tract. In the present study six probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains were investigated for their ability to survive in the human upper gastrointestinal tract through a dynamic gastric model of digestion.

MRS broth was used as delivery vehicle and survival was investigated during in vitro gastric and gastric plus duodenal digestion. Results highlighted that all tested strains showed good survival rate during both gastric and duodenal digestion.

In agreement with survival data, high lactic acid production was detected for all strains, confirming their metabolic activity during digestion.

Anterior screw fixation has become a popular surgical treatment method for instable odontoid fractures. Screw loosening and migration are a rare, severe complication following anterior odontoid fixation, which can lead to esophagus perforation and requires revision operation.

We report a case of screw loosening and migration after anterior odontoid fixation, which perforated the esophagus and was excreted without complications in a year-old male patient. A ventral dislocated anterior screw perforated through the esophagus after eight years after implantation and was excreted through the gastrointestinal GI tract. At a 6-month follow-up after the event the patient was asymptomatic.

Extrusion via the GI tract is not safe enough to be considered as a treatment option for loosened screws. Some improvements could be implemented to prevent such an incident.

Furthermore, this case is a fine example that recent preoperative imaging is mandatory before revision surgery for screw loosening. Full Text Available Purpose. The gastrointestinal tract and ventilator-associated pneumonia.

The gastrointestinal tract is believed to play an important role in ventilator-associated pneumonia VAP , because during critical illness the stomach often is colonized with enteric Gram-negative bacteria.

These are the same bacteria that frequently are isolated from the sputum of patients with VAP. Interventions such as selective decontamination of the digestive tract SDD , use of sucralfate for stress ulcer prophylaxis, and enteral feeding strategies that preserve gastric pH, or lessen the likelihood of pulmonary aspiration, are used to decrease the incidence of VAP.

A review of both meta-analyses and large randomized controlled trials providing Level I evidence on these topics has led to the following conclusions. However, there is strong contravening evidence that SDD promotes infections by Gram-positive bacteria.

In the context of an emerging public health crisis from the steady rise in drug-resistant Gram-positive bacteria, we cannot endorse the general use of SDD to prevent VAP. Rather, therapy should be focused on strategies other than antibiotic prophylaxis. Second, in patients who are at risk for clinically important gastrointestinal bleeding, a histamine-2 receptor antagonist should be used for stress ulcer prophylaxis, rather than sucralfate, because histamine-2 receptor antagonist provides substantially better protection without substantially increasing the risk of VAP.

Third, post-pyloric enteral feeding may reduce the incidence of VAP. Digestive tract neural control and gastrointestinal disorders in cerebral palsy.

To examine the neural control of digestive tract and describe the main gastrointestinal disorders in cerebral palsy CP , with attention to the importance of early diagnosis to an efficient interdisciplinary treatment. Systematic review of literature from to from Medline, Lilacs, Scielo, and Cochrane Library databases. The study included 70 papers, such as relevant reviews, observational studies, controlled trials, and prevalence studies.

Qualitative studies were excluded. The keywords used were: cerebral palsy, dysphagia, gastroesophageal reflux disease, constipation, recurrent respiratory infections, and gastrostomy. The appropriate control of the digestive system depends on the healthy functioning and integrity of the neural system.

Since CP patients have structural abnormalities of the central and peripheral nervous system, they are more likely to develop eating disorders. These range from neurological immaturity to interference in the mood and capacity of caregivers. The disease has, therefore, a multifactorial etiology.

The most prevalent digestive tract disorders are dysphagia, gastroesophageal reflux disease, and constipation, with consequent recurrent respiratory infections and deleterious impact on nutritional status. Patients with CP can have neurological abnormalities of digestive system control; therefore, digestive problems are common.

The issues raised in the present study are essential for professionals within the interdisciplinary teams that treat patients with CP, concerning the importance of comprehensive anamnesis and clinical examination, such as detailed investigation of gastrointestinal disorders.

Early detection of these digestive problems may lead to more efficient rehabilitation measures in order to improve patients' quality of life. Transcatheter arterial embolization for upper gastrointestinal tract bleeding. Transcatheter arterial embolization is a possible treatment for patients with recurrent bleeding from the upper gastrointestinal tract after failed endoscopic management and is also an alternative to surgical treatment.

To analyze the outcomes of transcatheter arterial embolization and identify the clinical and technical factors that influenced the rates of morbidity and mortality. A retrospective analysis was carried out, based on the data of 36 patients who underwent transcatheter arterial embolization for acute nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding in to in our center.

An analysis was performed between early rebleeding rates, mortality and the following factors: patient sex, age, number of units of packed red blood cells and packed plasma administered to the patients, length of hospital stay, therapeutic or prophylactic embolization.

There were 15 There was a Following embolization, 10 Gastrointestinal tract volume measurement method using a compound eye type endoscope.

We propose an intestine volume measurement method using a compound eye type endoscope. This method aims at assessment of the gastrointestinal function. Gastrointestinal diseases are mainly based on morphological abnormalities. However, gastrointestinal symptoms are sometimes apparent without visible abnormalities. Such diseases are called functional gastrointestinal disorder, for example, functional dyspepsia, and irritable bowel syndrome.

One of the major factors for these diseases is abnormal gastrointestinal motility. For the diagnosis of the gastrointestinal tract , both aspects of organic and functional assessment is important. While endoscopic diagnosis is essential for assessment of organic abnormalities, three-dimensional information is required for assessment of the functional abnormalities.

Thus, we proposed the three dimensional endoscope system using compound eye. In this study, we forces on the volume of gastrointestinal tract.

The volume of the gastrointestinal tract is thought to related its function. In our system, we use a compound eye type endoscope system to obtain three-dimensional information of the tract. The volume can be calculated by integrating the slice data of the intestine tract shape using the obtained three-dimensional information.

First, we evaluate the proposed method by known-shape tube. Then, we confirm that the proposed method can measure the tract volume using the tract simulated model.

Our system can assess the wall of gastrointestinal tract directly in a three-dimensional manner. Our system can be used for examination of gastric morphological and functional abnormalities.

Computerized tomography using water to render the gastrointestinal tract opaque. An account is given of the technical procedure and results of computerized tomography in the examination of various gastrointestinal disorders using water as an oral and rectal contrast medium.

The experience gained so far points to the fact that water as a contrast medium is mainly suitable in the preoperative staging of malignant gastric and colorectal tumours. The rectal injection of water further appears to be favourable in investigations for recidivation following deep anterior resection without impairment of the excretory functions. Our own results were contrary to the findings of other authors in that we had no difficulty in visualizing distal sections of the small intestine in patients suffering from Crohn's disease.

The use of water as a contrast medium can, however, not be recommended in the presence of intra-abdominal abscesses, ascites or cystic tumours, as such changes cannot clearly be differentiated from intestinal loops filled with water. Histopathologic diagnosis of eosinophilic conditions in the gastrointestinal tract.

Eosinophils, a constitutive component of the columnar-lined gastrointestinal tract , play an essential role in allergic responses and parasitic infections.

The tissue density of these cells also increases in a variety of conditions of uncertain etiology. With the exception of the esophageal squamous epithelium, in which no eosinophils are normally present, the population of normal eosinophils in the remainder of the luminal gut is poorly defined. Therefore, histopathologists must rely on their subjective judgment to determine when a diagnosis of eosinophilic gastritis, enteritis, or colitis should be rendered. Eosinophilic esophagitis is currently the best defined and most studied eosinophilic condition of the digestive tract ; therefore, the confidence in accurate diagnosis is increasing.

In contrast, the characteristic clinicopathologic features of eosinophilic conditions affecting other parts of the digestive tract remain somewhat elusive. This review was designed to present pathologists with simple and practical information for the biopsy-based histopathologic diagnosis of eosinophilic esophagitis, gastritis, enteritis, and colitis.

It was prepared by critically reviewing more than articles on the topic, along with incorporating evidence accumulated through our own collective experience. We anticipate that by increasing pathologists' confidence in reporting these abnormal but often nameless eosinophilic infiltrates, we can help better define and characterize their significance.

Dynamics and establishment of Clostridium difficile infection in the murine gastrointestinal tract. Clostridium difficile infection CDI following antibiotic therapy is a major public health threat.

While antibiotic disruption of the indigenous microbiota underlies the majority of cases of CDI, the early dynamics of infection in the disturbed intestinal ecosystem are poorly characterized.

This study defines the dynamics of infection with C. After inducing susceptibility to C. Spores and cytotoxin activity were detected by 24 h postchallenge, and histopathologic colitis developed by 30 h. Within 36 h, all infected mice succumbed to infection. We correlated the establishment of infection with changes in the microbiota and bile acid profile of the small and large intestines.

Antibiotic administration resulted in significant changes to the microbiota in the small and large intestines, as well as a significant shift in the abundance of primary and secondary bile acids. Ex vivo analysis suggested the small intestine as the site of spore germination.

This study provides an integrated understanding of the timing and location of the events surrounding C. All Rights Reserved. Bleeding of the upper gastrointestinal tract is the main symptom of a variety of possible conditions and still results in considerable mortality.

Endoscopy is the first diagnostic modality, enabling rapid therapeutic intervention. In case of intractable or relapsing bleeding, surgery is often inevitable. However, emergency operations result in significantly higher mortality rates. Therefore the option of early elective surgical intervention should be considered for patients at increased risk of relapsing bleeding. If bleeding is symptomatic due to a complex underlying condition such as hemosuccus pancreaticus or hemobilia, angiography is now recognized as the definitive investigation.

Angiographic hemostasis can be achieved in most cases. Due to the underlying condition, surgical management still remains the mainstay in treating these patients. This paper reviews surgical strategy in handling upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Review of the gastrointestinal tract : from macro to micro. To review the normal anatomy and physiology of the gastrointestinal GI tract , the malignant transformations in GI cancers, and the rationale for targeted therapy for these cancers.

Published articles, book chapters and web sources. Oncology nurses require an understanding of normal GI anatomy and physiology, along with an understanding of malignant transformations at the cellular and molecular level, to effectively educate and care for the patient with a diagnosis of a GI cancer. Challenges for the oncology nurse include continuing education related to GI cancer, the development of effective patient education skills, ensuring safe administration of oral agents and remaining current regarding GI clinical trial opportunities.

Education of nursing colleagues, development of an area of expertise through specialization, and development of leadership skills are opportunities associated with practicing in the dynamic environment of oncology nursing. Imaging and intervention in the gastrointestinal tract in children. Vascular and interventional techniques have become an integral component of modern pediatric healthcare.

Minimally invasive procedures of the gastrointestinal tract now comprise a large part of any active pediatric interventional practice. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography offers a reliable, non-invasive means to evaluate patients with possible pancreatic or biliary pathology. This article reviews treatment of esophageal strictures and placement of gastronomy and gastrojejunostomy tubes and discusses new developments.

Placement of percutaneous cecostomy tubes is a relatively new procedure that creatively uses the techniques developed for placement of percutaneous gastronomy tubes.

This procedure offers significant benefits and lasting positive lifestyle changes for patients suffering from fecal incontinence. Liver biopsy in high-risk patients can be performed safely using measures designed to significantly decrease the risk of post-biopsy hemorrhage, such as track embolization or the transjugular approach. Sonographic identification of drug containers in the gastrointestinal tract. A 'body-pack' is a swallowed plastic or rubber container used by drug smugglers to carry drugs.

We report our experience in diagnoses of such packs in vivo. Eight serial examinations were made. In each series, an adult Alsatian dog was fed upto 10 such 'body-packs'. The passage of these packs through the gastrointestinal tract was followed at 2, 24 and 48 hours postprandially. Immediately after each sonographic localisation of 'body-pack' was made, an X-ray examination of the abdomen in this region was also carried out. Ultrasound correctly determined the position of the 'body-pack' in 20 out of 24 examinations as compared to X-ray results.

In 4 cases ultrasound could not confirm the location of the 'pack'. Colon obstruction due to colorectal cancer is a major surgical emergency. Colorectal stenting is an image-guided, minimally invasive procedure, and typical indications include either palliation of inoperable malignant disease or temporary bowel decompression as a bridge to surgery.

Tumors. Biological Strati cation and Targeted Therapies alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) is a frequent phenotype identifiable in diffuse Neurosecretory substances (serotonin, Beta endorphin, somatostatin). アプルフィリアの秘め事 () Sincuvate (, as Endorfin., with Horizon Note () seoauditing.ru () LOST-IDEA () Horizon Clarie ().