WHEEL OF DHARMA - Buddhist Churches of America


Restrictions on the number of ordinations allowed annually by the imperial court in China meant that many aspiring monks were stuck in the position of pos- tulant for years or even decades. It is the fruit of good karma actions , conceived as a kind of spiritual energy that can be saved, invested, spent, or given away like cash. Heine, Steven. The awakened mind of the master presses directly, as it were, on the mind of the disciple, there- by replicating itself.

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Paperback Bunko. Tankobon Hardcover. See all free Kindle reading apps. Tell the Publisher! I'd like to read this book on Kindle Don't have a Kindle? Customer reviews. How are ratings calculated? Instead, our system considers things like how recent a review is and if the reviewer bought the item on Amazon. It also analyzes reviews to verify trustworthiness. In their view, Chan monks originally wandered about practicing austerities and meditation in the mountains and forests, then gradually settled into monastic commu- nities where they grew their own food and supported themselves through communal labor C.

This scenar- io, as explained in the following section, served the needs of modern apol- ogists who wished to portray Zen as a mode of spirituality that, in its his- torical origins and timeless essence, was and is free from religious super- stition and ritual.

More recent scholarship, however, has shown beyond a doubt that the Chan school in China was a movement that arose and grew to power within the state-controlled Buddhist monastic order, not outside it. The only rejection of Buddhist ritual that followers of the school demon- strably engaged in was purely rhetorical. The practice of communal labor, moreover, was not unique to Chan monks and was never intended or used to free monastic communities from dependence on lay supporters.

The so-called transmission of Zen from China to Japan in the Kamaku- ra period is best understood as the replication on Japanese soil of the elite Buddhist monastic institution of Song and Yuan China. The Chan school was a dominant force within that institution, and the abbacies of many major public monasteries were reserved by the imperial court for monks who were dharma heirs in the Chan lineage.

The monastic institu- tion of the Song and Yuan, however, also contained many elements of ge- neric and specialized Buddhist practice that, in China, were not identified as belonging to the Chan tradition.

And, it incorporated many elements of Chinese culture that were not Buddhist in origin. Large monasteries, for example, imitated the architecture and ground plan of the imperial court; their internal bureaucratic structure was patterned after that of the state; and their social etiquette was basically that of the literati scholar-bureau- crat class, from which many leading prelates came.

The philosophical, ar- tistic, and literary dimensions of literati culture did admit to some Buddhist and specifically Chan influences, but on the whole they were more firm- ly embedded in the Confucian tradition. Nobody in Song or Yuan China, certainly, thought that the ubiquitous social ritual of drinking tea, the lite- rati arts of calligraphy and ink painting, or the enjoyment of rock gardens C.

That Buddhism can be summed up as comprising three fundamental modes of practice C. Morality in Song Buddhism meant adherence to the ten novice precepts C.

Jieben, J. Concentration comprised many techniques for focusing the mind, but for novice monks in basic training it took the form of communal seated med- itation C. The ability to read and recite sutras was a requirement for novice ordination.

Sutra chanting C. Once novice monks had gone through a period of basic training in the three modes of practice, they could begin to specialize. Some became ex- perts in the Vinaya and the indigenous Chinese rules of purity that regu- lated monastic procedures and rituals.

But affiliation with the Chan school never entailed giving up any of the observances that occu-. Gregory, ed. He did so because he regarded the practice of morality, which had been treated rather lackadaisically by the Japanese Tendai and Shingon schools in the latter part of the Heian period , as fundamental to the Buddhist path.

Again, that was not because there was any ex- clusive association of seated meditation with the Chan lineage in China, but rather because zazen was deemed fundamental to the basic training of all Buddhist monks there, whereas it had been largely neglected by Japa- nese monks in the late Heian period.

Thereafter, it became a standard reference work in Soto Zen monasteries. That text, too, was originally intended to regulate only one monastic com- munity: the hermitage where Mingben resided in his later years. It includes guidelines for just a handful of key monastic offices—the hermitage chief C. It also establishes proce- dural guidelines for a just a few basic bureaucratic functions, such as tak- ing up residence C.

The bulk of the Rules of Purity for Huanzhu Hermitage is given over to an enumeration of daily, monthly, and annual observances and rites that the monks of the hermitage were to engage in, and the verses mostly dedi- cations of merit that they were to chant on those various occasions.

The text thus had the basic functions of a calendar and liturgical manual, as well as laying out a few rules and ritual procedures for monastic officers. Those are followed in the first fascicle with sam- ples of what to write on the formal invitations and signboards that were used to announce feasts, tea services, and the like.

The text then gives de- tailed procedural guidelines for the invitation and installation of new ab- bots, the appointment and retirement of officers, and numerous tea servic- es. The Auxiliary Rules of Purity is a lengthy work that includes virtually all of the religious rites, bureaucratic procedures, and guidelines for monas- tic officers found previously in the Rules of Purity for Chan Monasteries and Revised Rules of Purity.

In his preface the compiler Dehui states that he drew on the aforementioned Rules of Purity for Chan Monasteries, Revised Rules of Purity, and Auxiliary Rules of Purity for source materials, and that he had been commissioned by the em- peror to compile a single, comprehensive, authoritative set of rules for the entire Buddhist sangha.

ZZ For an English translation and analysis, see T. Lopez, Jr. It seems that the text has had a greater influence on Soto Zen than was previously imagined. When the Japanese saw the style of commu-. Many monks who were interested in rigorous Buddhist practice gravitated to those centers. Leaders of the Soto and Rinzai schools of Zen were stimulated to initiate reforms that resulted in the reinstatement of many of the forms of commu- nal monastic training that had been lost in the intervening centuries.

After the second world war, for example, most prayers for the emperor the texts of which had actually come directly from Song and Yuan Chinese rules of purity were replaced with wording that called for peace among na- tions instead. Note: Only some of the major lines of influence in the genesis of the Standard Ob- servances of the Soto Zen School are shown.

Standard Observances of the Soto Zen School may be described as a liturgi- cal handbook or ritual manual. Because there is a widespread misconcep- tion in the West that ritual is something extraneous, incidental, or even an- tithetical to Zen in its pure or original form, the question of the role of rit- ual in the history of Zen needs to be addressed. It is fallacious to imagine that. The traditional biographies and records of Tang masters that come down to us from the Song and Yuan dynasties there are very few that actually date from the Tang do contain many dialogues, couched in a colloquial style of Chinese, in which they employ apparently iconoclastic, antinomian, or sac- rilegious sayings and gestures to instruct their disciples.

It is clear, therefore, that the rejection of conventional Buddhist prac- tices attributed to the Tang masters was a rhetorical device that was never meant to be taken literally. The point of the rhetorical rejection of particular practices is not that monks should literal- ly cease engaging in them, but rather that they should cease clinging to the imaginary categories and fond hopes that are conventionally used to moti- vate practitioners.

One might read this, as a number of modern scholars have, as a literal rejection of the traditional Buddhist practice of seated meditation. There may have been a few scattered movements in Tang China, such as the Baotang school, that took the axi- om of innate buddha-nature and the corollary of non-cultivation literally as guides to cultivation and thus abandoned Buddhist practices, but there is little hard evidence to prove that.

As explained above, the transmission of Zen to Japan in the Kamakura peri- od was actually a replication in that country of the most conservative, state- sanctioned monastic institutions of Song, Yuan, and Ming dynasty China.

More than any other branch of mod- ern Japanese Buddhism, it preserves monastic procedures and rituals that can be traced all the way back to medieval Chinese adaptations of Vinaya materials that were originally translated from Indic languages. It was only in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries that schol- ars associated with the Zen denominations in Japan began to advocate a lit- eral reading of the iconoclastic rhetoric of the Chan masters of the Tang.

They did so because they wished to defend Zen against the charge, leveled against Japanese Buddhism as a whole, that it was a backward and super-. Most of what we know about the Baotang school derives from the writings of Apologists such as D. Such arguments not only played well among elites in early twentieth-century Japan, they struck a sympathetic chord among a number of intellectuals in the West and even a few in China, each of whom had their own culturally and historically specific reasons to find it attractive.

They are not consistent with the historical record, however, and are obviously at odds with the actual circumstances of the Zen schools in contemporary Japan. It is largely in the West that the false image of a Zen tradition inimical to Buddhist ritual has persisted down to the present day. These distinc- tions are not made in the statistics published by the Japanese government, but the nomenclature has long been in use within the Zen tradition. Gregory, eds.

Eiheiji remains at the site of its original construction in Echizen modern Fukui Prefecture. It is the place where the majority of monks in the assembly are to reside. They were paid for by wealthy lay pa- trons, who enshrined their own ancestral spirits there, as well, and had the small contingent of resident monks perform routine merit-dedicating ser- vices for them. A great many sub-temples were destroyed early in the Meiji period. Those that survive at Rinzai head temples in Kyoto have largely lost the single-family patronage they once had.

Many have taken on additional households as parishioners. Some have opened their gates to tourism as a source of income. In the process, their fine old buildings, works of art, and gardens have become emblematic around the world not only of Zen, but of traditional Japanese culture.

Visitors, es-. The primary function of these institutions is to ex- pose young monks to traditional forms of Zen Buddhist practice, includ- ing zazen, koan introspection, and doctrinal study, and to prepare them as ritual specialists for the careers they will have as ordinary temple priests.

The training monasteries that exist today perpetuate an Edo period reviv- al, albeit on a more modest scale, of forms of communal monastic practice that had originally been introduced to Japan from China in the Kamaku- ra period but had died out in the interim. At present, there are thirty-eight Rinzai training monasteries in operation. All but one of the fifteen Rinzai head temples has training monastery located on its grounds in a mortuary sub-temple converted to that purpose.

Some popular literature written in English as well as Japanese gives the impression that the Rinzai and Soto approaches to Zen practice are very different. Based on distinctions such as these, one might be led to believe that there are great variations in practice between the Soto and Rinzai schools. In actuality, the training monasteries and ordinary temples of both schools feature a nearly identical lineup of daily, monthly, annual, and occasional observances, which reflects their common roots in the monastic tradition of Song and Yuan China.

The two main branches of the Zen tradition also reacted differently to regula- tions imposed on them by the Meiji government, resulting in the different institutional structures that they exhibit today. In the Tokugawa period, the major Rinzai monasteries of Kyoto and Kamaku- ra—e. The monks who inhabited those big urban Rinzai monasteries, moreover, were all scattered among the sub-temples. Ordinary temples are supported largely by dona-. Built in , by the Edo period it had fallen into disuse and been converted into a warehouse.

A percentage of their income is passed on to their respective head organizations as dues for membership in the comprehensive corporation. The Soto school has by far the most, with five universities, three research centers, two junior colleg- es, seven high schools, and three middle schools.

Many of the faculty members and researchers at the Zen universities are themselves ordained members of the Zen cler- gy. Zen universities came into existence during the Mei- ji period and, like all other religious and state-run institutions of higher learning in modern Japan, were founded on a Western model. The sixty or so Zen training monasteries operating in Japan today pre- serve many of the traditional forms of Buddhist monastic ritual that were originally imported from Song and Yuan China in the Kamakura period, and reimported from Ming China in the Edo period.

The practice of zazen in training monasteries is a highly formal, ritual- ized affair. The monks bow. However dismissive D. The sacred monk was a standard feature of the com- munal meditation facilities found in all Chinese Buddhist monasteries from the Song through the Ming, facilities that were generally off-limits to any- one but properly ordained monks.

In zazen, maintaining the cor- rect posture, regardless of pain or drowsiness, is stressed above all else. No matter what inner turmoil one feels, one must remain without moving in the cross-legged, eyes-lowered posture of a sitting buddha, looking alert, calm, and collected. They are regarded as a vital part of the daily as well as monthly routine, for it is through them that all the spirits enshrined on altars in various monastery buildings are nourished and propitiated.

Merit S. It is the fruit of good karma actions , conceived as a kind of spiritual energy that can be saved, invested, spent, or given away like cash. In the East Asian context, the Buddhist transfer C. In Zen monasteries and temples, the recipients of merit in sutra chanting services are generally represented on an altar with some kind of icon—a sculpture, painting, or tablet—and the dedication of merit is generally coupled with offerings of incense and in more elaborate rites food and drink.

Western practitioners of Zen sometimes understand the chanting of sutras and dharanis itself to be the main ritual performance, and the verse for the dedication of merit as some sort of closing gesture or coda.

In the East Asian Buddhist tradition of which Japanese Zen is a part, however, people do believe in merit. It is as real to them as, say, mon- ey—that other symbolical, magical thing that has no substantial existence but nevertheless serves to organize human societies and get things done. There is no doubt that the main purpose of sutra-chanting services in Zen is the production of merit, and that the formal dedication of that merit is the performative heart and defining moment of the ritual.

The verses also reveal what the monas- tic community hopes to gain by enshrining and nourishing each spirit. The monks must set out their bowls, receive the food, make a small offering of rice to hungry ghosts, eat, and fi- nally clean and put away their bowls, all in a minutely prescribed manner, either in unison or in the case of the actual serving of food in order of se- niority.

The meal is punctuated by the group chanting of a number of verses that serve to sanctify it, but otherwise is taken in complete silence. All of. July 15th or August 15th , depending on local custom, since the adoption of the Gre- gorian calendar in the Meiji era; 3 the Other Shore i.

Even people who wish to deny the centrality of merit production and dedication in Zen practice would have a hard time rationalizing this rite, for it cannot be explained away as an educational or meditative exercise.

It is, however, quite theatrical. Because those are primarily aimed at the laity, they are explained in the following section. The three Buddha assemblies are major events in the ritual calendars of head temples and training monasteries.

In most cases, it is the abbot alone who wakes up early at or AM to take care of that sacred duty. Funerals and memorial services are the mainstay of the Zen tradition in Japan and its most important contribution to Japanese Buddhism at large. What is most strik- ing about the procedure is that it is based entirely on the funeral of a Bud- dhist monk, as that was practiced in Song and Yuan China.

A separate monk officiant is required to take the lead in each of those rites. Funerals in the Japanese Zen tradition are the most involved, dramatic, and expensive of rites involving the dead, but they are certainly not the last. The altar is decorated with candles and flowers, has a stand or shelf for offerings, and a censer for burn- ing incense. At such time, the entire family is ordinarily present for the service.

Usually household provides the priest with refreshments or a meal. There is always a monetary donation in return for the services rendered. Ashes of the deceased may be placed in a cavity under or within the stupa, which consists of sev- eral moveable stones resting one upon the other, or may be enshrined in a small box in the ancestors hall, near the tablets. When parishioners visit their family graves and ancestors hall tablets on the anniversaries of death days, they often request that the temple priest perform a sutra chanting service.

That expression of generosity, paradoxically, does not dilute or reduce the offering of merit to specifically named recipients, but rather intensifies it, for giving itself is deemed a highly meritorious act. The most popular times to visit family graves at a temple are during the Bon and Other Shore festivals.

On those occasions, parishioners find them- selves in the company of many other families come for the same purpose. This requires the participation at least six or eight priests, so each abbot calls on his usual cohort of cooperating colleagues; their ranks may also be augmented by a few monks in training on leave from their monas- teries.

Modern scholars such as D. Moreover, it is clear that most lay people have only a very vague notion of what is going on in the rite. As far as they are concerned, their own de- parted loved ones are the focus of the proceedings. After burning incense, each family carries their wooden stupa to the cem- etery and sets it up next to the family grave. The ambrosia gate, in short, is not a concession to the laity; it is an esoteric rite that is maintained by the Zen clergy for its own purposes and marketed to the laity as a particular- ly potent form of ancestor worship.

That model, of course, can be traced all the way back to medieval China. See Stephen F. As we saw in the case of the feeding of the hungry ghosts, although a large number of parishioners may gather at an or- dinary temple for a public rite, they do not necessarily feel any sense of com- mon purpose or group identity. For the most part, however, people approach Buddhist temples for their own rea- sons and at times of their own choosing, either as individuals or with fami- ly members.

Such activities do not require the presence of the priest or the making of a dona- tion, although a box for coin offerings is available. Lay participants, including many children, pour sweetened tea over the image, thereby reenacting the legendary bathing of the newborn Buddha by the devas. A more concise list of afflictions S. What it involves today, basically, is administer- ing the bodhisattva precepts to lay followers. The offerings involved tend to be reduced in significance to a kind of mechanical procedure meant to ensure the efficacy of the prayers.

The desired ends are sought through the direct manipulation of spiritual forces, rather than by supplicating deities believed to have the power to help. Having outlined in broad fashion the religious practices engaged in by pa- rishioners of Zen temples, it may be noted in closing that there is little in all of this to distinguish them from the parishioners of other schools of tradi- tional Japanese Buddhism.

Likewise, the sutras and dharanis chanted by the priests of other schools vary somewhat from those used in Zen, but the ba-. Architecturally, most ordinary Buddhist temples in Japan have similar lay- outs of buildings and grounds, which derive from the mortuary sub-tem- ples of the Zen tradition. The annual rituals that attract the greatest par- ticipation from parishioners in all schools of Buddhism—the Bon, Other Shore, and flower festival assemblies—are also the same.

In each school, to be sure, there are a relatively small number of lay followers who get in- volved in specialized practices that are unique to the particular tradition in question. The basic rituals that most parishioners are exposed to, however, vary lit- tle from one ordinary Buddhist temple to another, regardless of denomi- national affiliation. The 2nd, 7th, 12th, 17th, 22nd, and 27th days of every month.

The 3rd, 13th, and 23rd days of every month. In training monasteries, these are days for cleaning and recitation of buddha names. The 3rd, 8th, 13th, 18th, 23rd, and 28th days of every month. The 4th, 9th, 14th, 19th, 24th, and 29th days of every month. In training monasteries, these are days for bathing, tonsure, mending clothes, and moxa. The 8th, 18th, and 28th days of every month. In train- ing monasteries, these are days for cleaning and recitation of buddha names. The most senior officer in a monastery bureaucracy, the abbot is considered the spiritu- al leader of all the monks in residence and chief representative of the community to the outside world.

At Soto Zen monasteries and temples, the abbot must be a dhar- ma heir in the Soto lineage. In the past, the ab- bots of major Zen monasteries in Japan often served for a fixed period of time, such as three years.

At present, however, the abbots of most ordinary temples and many training monasteries hold their positions for life. Most resident. A private facility for the personal use dressing, sleep, study, relax- ation, etc.

By the tenth century in China, the term had come to signify the private quarters of the abbot in a Buddhist monastery. The compound was located to the north of the dharma hall and was usually connected to it by a covered corridor. The buildings themselves were decorated with fine art paintings and calligraphy and the best furnishings.

Their duties were to attend the enshrined ancestral spir- its and entertain lay patrons when they came to memorial services. A huge number of mortuary tem- ples were built, most of them patterned after the sub-temple compounds found at large Zen monasteries. Because ordinary temples do not have separate buddha halls or dharma halls, all the observances that are supposed according to Standard Observances of the Soto Zen School to take place in those fa- cilities are actually held in the main hall, i.

The expression is confusing because it mixes botanical and architectural metaphors. Merit that results from the collective good deeds of a group, especially the monastic sangha.

A servant or attendant to an abbot, former abbot, or other senior monk; often a younger monk who is a personal disciple. To be selected as an acolyte was a boost to the career of a young monk because it meant that he had been singled out as having the potential to become a dharma heir and was being groomed for high monastic office.

To be in close proximity to the abbot, even in a relatively menial position, was also regarded as an excellent opportunity for spiritual develop- ment.

In Soto Zen monasteries today, the names and some of the duties of the five acolytes remain, but they are not necessarily fixed, full-time positions. Not all acolytes wait on living people. Those two buildings were the vital centers of the management wing and the practice wing of the monastery, re- spectively. A ju- nior monk charged with menial work in the administration hall especially the kitchen of a monastery and with assisting senior monastic officers whose quarters are located there.

Monastic officers charged with the management of supplies, finances, repairs, and meals, as opposed to those directly involved in leading religious services, teaching, and training monks. These words, chanted by the rector in connection with auctioning the property of a deceased monk, derive from Buddhist monastic rules of Song dynasty China.

During the Song, the government introduced a new minting of copper coins that were debased with tin. The rules cit- ed here enjoin monks bidding for items not to pay for them using the debased cur- rency, i. Another eko text appeals to the arhats. A period of time following the death of Buddha when his followers, the arhats in particular, were able to successfully put his dharma teachings into practice and gain deliverance from suffering in the round of rebirth.

Merit accumulated by the monastic sangha during a retreat, which can be tapped to save hungry ghosts, who are beyond the reach of help by any other means. All buddhas of the past, present, and future. Mandatory atten- dance at a funeral for all members of a monastic community. All beings, mainly hun- gry ghosts and other suffering spirits, who come to partake of a food-offering as- sembly.

Prayer made in conjunction with dedication of merit. In lore con- cerning the early Zen lineage in China monastic robes and bowls are also said to have been given by masters to their disciples as public proof of dharma transmis- sion. If you have questions about the Centennial please email us at centennial wrbt. The celebration will be held at the Calvin L. Rampton Salace Palace Convention Center including a service, luncheon and workshops.

Please join us on this momentous occasion. For further information please log on to www. This year we had about 62 attendees and were fortunate to have a great keynote speaker in Rev.

Mark Unno. Unno who came down all the way from Eugene, Oregon gave a very thoughtful and inspiring Dharma talk. He spoke about how easy it is to lose sight of oneself in all of the digital glitter of technology. He emphasized the extreme importance of taking the time to dive beneath the technological noise and take in your surroundings. Above all, he stressed the importance of living in the moment. One of the many personal stories Rev. Unno shared with us was directly related to this topic.

He told of how he drove with his father from Eugene to Palo Alto. At one point, they stopped by Mount Shasta. When they got out of the car to stretch their legs, he noticed how full and bright the moon was. It was a story and a message that struck a chord with all of us. In order to do this, we worked very closely with Rev. Unno when planning the conference schedule.

By doing this, we hoped that the workshops, discussions, and shorter religious talks would better revolve around the ideas that Rev. Unno presented in his keynote speech. We are each unique individuals making our way through life together. Each of us brings a unique origin, a unique journey, a unique perspective, a unique path. The Buddha said there are over 84, paths to enlightenment. The path for me is not necessarily the path for you and recognizing this belief allows us to coexist in harmony.

As Buddhist s, although we recognize our individuality, we also have a common goal - taking refuge in the immeasurable Light and Life that is Amida Buddha. We welcome home our distinguished guest speakers, all from Minnesota: Rev.

Patti Nakai, minister of the Buddhist Temple of Chicago. Although all of our speakers are from Minnesota, they have come to their current positions in very different ways and bring diverse perspectives and insights. The event will continue through the weekend with informative sessions for both adults and children. More information can be found on our website tcbuddhist. In addition, a Facebook group is active for the Eastern Buddhist League.

All information regarding the conference and registration can be found there, or by e-mail at tcbuddhist q. One of the things that one can look forward to every conference is the great food.

Umezu made his famous curry for everyone on Friday night, ensuring everyone went to sleep with full stomachs and smiles on their faces. Francesca Lafayette, Mary Kikuchi, and Judy Kono planned out breakfast, lunch, and dinner for the rest of the weekend. Each year, the Saturday dinner gets better and better, and this year was no exception.

We dined on quinoa salad and Asian tacos. All of these meals would have been extremely difficult to prepare without the help of some gracious volunteers who spent literally all day in the kitchen. Another thing that everyone looks forward to is the happy hour and nighttime activity where we head across the street to a local bar.

There we responsibly socialize over drinks and music. I believe this to be a very important part of the conference because it allows everyone to get to know each other. It gives everyone some free time during the conference to establish friendships outside of the people they already know. More than anything, it gives us a change to celebrate our connection to each other.

Thank you all for allowing me this opportunity to give this dharma message today. My day job is psychiatrist and psychotherapist, and my evening job is wife and evil stepmother. I admit that giving this dharma message is freaking me out. From there, it was discovered that all of us had the same mentality — that we wanted to be active in the temple still, but that it was very hard to do.

This is because it seemed that there was no community for our age group within the larger temple community. People would go to temple up until they graduated from high school and then would disappear until their first child was born. I cannot tell you how exciting it is to go to this conference every year. Maybe 28 years now. Such power! Such influence!

People pay me the big bucks for my opinions, holy cow. Titles have a way of tricking the mind to the illusion, or delusion, of power, self power. There is a definite sense of belonging. Tell friends and family who may be interested as well!

There are new friends to meet, and connections to be made. We want to keep this conference going strong year after year, and serve as an example for similar conferences elsewhere. I hope to see you at the TechnoBuddha Conference!! Kodo Umezu. There is simply no way that we could have put on such a successful conference without their help.

We especially want to thank Rev. Umezu for his curry and to wish him good luck in his new position as Socho! In Gassho allowed to have an ego bigger than mine! Then I encountered the Nembutsu teaching, which really messed me up. I realized none of these things I call mine — my queendom, my possessions, my titles, my relationships, my whole life, my self-power -- would be possible without the work of countless others, without the Working Vow of Other Power.

Last month at the Winter Pacific Seminar led by Rev. I would also like to thank all the past and present members for their vision and support to keep the Buddhist Churches of America thriving. It is a great honor to serve you as your Bishop. I humbly ask for your support, cooperation and understanding.

Gassho Rev. Sakamoto Continued from Page 2 stress from work, problems in communication, and life. The minister of fered his guests tea. So, he went to the kitchen to prepare the tea, and returned with a large pot of tea and an assortment of tea cups. Some were porcelain, plastic, glass, some with handles, other with floral designs.

Some were quite expensive and, of course, there were styr of oam cups. What you all wanted was tea, but you kept eyeing each other and went for the better cups. Now, if life is like tea, then the jobs, money, computers, iPads and cell phones are the cups. They are just containers to hold and contain life, but the quality of life does not change. Sometimes, when we concentrate on the cup, we fail to enjoy the tea in the cup. Enjoy the tea. Each team was given clues like the show The Amazing Race, and we had to work as a team in order to complete each task in the correct order.

After the game had ended, we had free time; this consisted of just chilling and hanging with other Jr. We played Wii games, sang Karaoke, and played Mafia. The best part about coming to these retreats, is the people you are able to meet and the friendships you are able to create so that when you go to the Fresno Conference in November or the Bay District Conference in March and the Volleyball mixers, you know people and you are able to hang out with them and remember the times you shared at the summit and other retreats.

The jokes and good times you have made make it that much harder to say goodbye the next day. Contact us! Patti Oshita, poshita comcast.

Peter Inokoji-Kim, inokoji hotmail. So where is this gift? So the more I want it, the more I struggle with it. Temple and church leaders left the February National Council Meeting with a shared understanding of the importance for this effort and a strong commitment to see it Debt Relief Continued from Front Page dis-ease, affliction So if I struggle, does that mean I can have some of that peace and unconditional love?

What a relief! The Nembutsu teaching is really screwing me up again. Relief coexisting with the struggle. Download, share or upload your own one! Follow the vibe and change your wallpaper every day! Ken kaneki wallpaper, tokyo ghoul, kaneki ken, night, indoors. Discover the magic of the internet at imgur, a community powered entertainment destination. Kaneki ken, tokyo ghoul, one person, lifestyles, real people. Looking for the best tokyo ghoul wallpapers hd?

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As for explaining this dharma banner, it is like the parable of the poison-painted drum: when it is struck, those who hear it will die, and those who only hear it from afar will perish later. Now, more than years later, there are some who have become awakened by this reference, and some who have perished from it.

On the one hand, it cements the close relationship Chan monks like Huihong have with their literati friends and patrons who, after all, selected the abbots at public monasteries during eleventh and twelfth centuries. He was pardoned on It took nearly a year to make his way back to Junzhou. His friend and apparent student, the layman Zhu Yan Shiying , defends Huihong, drawing oblique parallels between the Buddhist-poetry Huihong composes with examples from Fenyang. Once while I was living in Linchuan, happily traveling around together with Zhu Shiying, suddenly the elder Shanglan Jujin arrived.

Towards the patch-robed monks I do not know fame, Yet the hundred followers in front [of me] cry out but cannot wake them. Shanglan turned away, and raised his hand to Shiying. The ordinary sages are unable to obtain complete understanding, The mutual appearances manifesting in front of you are few.

He saw self and others unobstructed in every hair, and from beginning to end he was unchanged with equal thoughts. Sudhana then possessed eternal understanding of this, realized the immovable position, and was clear about the near and far of dharmas; in a single thought one is changed, just like your time of extending the guard. When the lotus opens its blossom, inside there is already a seed, and inside that seed there is a secret, and inside the seed there is the fruit, and inside the fruit there is a seed; the three ages and present are also like this.

When its seed can be separated and displayed, only then can you understand this truth, now we should together supplement our knowledge without breaking then ten directions which are unobstructed.

The parable is like the a group of blind people [unable] to feel about for an image, yet considering themselves to have read that which they are able to follow. Therefore the image produced is biased as a tail, or the waist, or the teeth, so that the complete image remains hidden.

So he was appropriately called a trepit aka. There is a Chinese monk who is coming here to study the dharma, who is already on his way, and will take three long years to arrive. Grant Buddhist benevolence towards him so that again he can penetrate [the dharma] and transmit [the dharma], and your sins are your own to extinguish.

Whether or not he considered himself to be an enlightened, proper, Linji Chan monk is a matter of debate among modern scholars. Jason Protass, for example, argues that he wrote as much poetry as he did because he was in doubt. What remains intriguing to me is that Mujaku appears to have been well aware of developments in north and southern China during the eleventh and twelfth centuries.

Notes 1. Teachings refers to the scholastic schools or traditions of Chinese Buddhism as opposed to the teaching of the Chan patriarchs. See Buswell and Gimello, eds. The extant version of the Pure Rules we have today was compiled in the mid-fourteenth century — during the Mongol Yuan dynasty — Kerr and Sokol, Another Kyoto, — Linji lu, T.

Kerr and Sokol, Another Kyoto, The most insightful and succinct account of Chinese Buddhist canons and catalogs is in Sueki, Shimoda, and Horiuchi, eds.

See also the essays in Wu and Chia, eds. Biyan lu 1, T no. Biyan lu 8, T no. Yanagida, ed. Shike Goroku, 72a—82a. See Welter, The Linji Lu, — The text was printed in and In the modern editions of the Buddhist canons, the Linji zongzhi is separated from the Wujia yulu. Welter, The Linji Lu, — Wu, Enlightenment in Dispute, esp. Kakumon, ed. B , in 30 rolls, also exists in several editions. Kakumon included his own colophon, which is also dated Shimen wenzi Chan 25, J.

Linjian lu, XZJ Shi Huihong et al. The three mysterious gates and the three essentials are teaching methods employed by Linji Yixuan, who is presumably the former sage he speaks of here. The three essentials can also be described by this list: 1 the use of words in language that display a non-discriminating factor; 2 use of words in language with the profoundness of a thousand sages; and 3 use of words in language that break the path.

See also the Linji lu T no. These are temporary expedients, and there is function- ing. This technique has an interesting pedigree within the Linji lineage. Initially Linji preached it, second Fenyang spoke of it in several places, including T no.

Members of the opposing side of the lineage lectured on this topic as well, including Yuanwu Keqin and Dahui Zonggao, in T no. In this case, Huihong apparently lifted the selection from a Dharma-talk already underway.

In the preceding section, T no. If one attains the state of no-traces, then one breaks and extinguishes life, and one arrives at the meaning of the empty and still place. This also could refer to the general issue of causes and conditions, or hetupra- tyaya. The text of the Fenyang Wude chanshi yulu, T no. Fenyang Wude chanshi yulu: T no. See T no. Luzhou in the region of present-day Jiangxi province where Lushan is located.

Chanzong Zongpai Yuanliu Beijing: Zhongguo shehui kexue chubanshe, , See also Miura and Sasaki, Zen Dust, — See also Rentian yanmu, T no. Fenyang Wude chanshi yulu, T no. Feed your inner ghoul with our 99 tokyo ghoul 4k wallpapers and background images. We present you our collection of desktop wallpaper theme: Tokyo ghoul wallpapers 4k hd for desktop, iphone, pc, laptop, computer, android phone, smartphone, imac, macbook, tablet, mobile device.

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Honorific title given Keizan by the Meiji emperor in the late 19th century. The guest prefect han- dled all visitors to a monastery, including itinerant monks who might or might not want to register for a retreat, lay patrons who came to attend services or sponsor special offerings and feasts, lay pilgrims who sought temporary lodging, and govern- ment officials.

The position of guest pre- fect survives, for the most part, only as a honorific title and seating position in var- ious ritual observances, which some senior monk holds for the duration of the cer- emony. A junior monk charged with assisting the guest prefect in enter- taining lay and monk visitors, and in dealing with monks who have come to register in the monastery as resident trainees.

A junior monk charged with: 1 helping the hall prefect to prepare the buddha hall, dharma hall, or main hall for ritual observances, e. The hall prefect was responsible for maintaining the Sumeru altar in the buddha hall, where an image of Shakamuni Buddha was en- shrined, as well as altars for arhats, ancestral teachers and former abbots, tutelary deities, and the ancestral spirits of lay patrons.

Whenever offering services were held for those figures, their altars needed to be decorated with flowers and candles, etc. The position of hall pre- fect survives, for the most part, only as a honorific title and seating position in var- ious ritual observances, which some senior monk holds for the duration of the cer- emony.

An incense burner that may be carried during a ceremony. An incense burner with a handle, used in proces- sions and other ceremonies. In early Chinese translations of Indian Vinaya texts it referred to a monk in charge of nine miscellaneous tasks, including assigning seats, distributing robes and food, overseeing flowers and incense for of- ferings, etc. The job included overseeing the kitchen, so perhaps the later identification of tenzo as head cook derives from that.

In Song dynasty Chinese and medieval Japanese Zen monasteries, the head cook was the officer charged with providing meals for the great assembly of monks who were based in the sangha hall. Duties included planning the menu, obtaining ingre- dients, and overseeing a number of sous-chefs who cooked the rice, soup, and veg- etables, and lay postulants who assisted them, served meals in the sangha hall, and cleaned up afterwards.

In the Zen tradition the position of head cook came to be celebrated as epitomizing the ideals of frugality, resourcefulness, service to others, and mindfully practicing the dharma in the midst of everyday life. In contemporary Soto Zen, only training monasteries have a functioning office of head cook. The head seat resided in the sangha hall and served as leader of the great assembly that was based there.

The head seat was not necessarily the member of the sangha hall assembly who had the. In the bureau- cratic structure that took hold in medieval Japan, serving as head seat in a monas- tery for at least one retreat and being tested in a dharma combat ceremony became a prerequisite for promotion to an abbacy. In contemporary Soto Zen, the position of head seat remains an important and prestigious one at training monasteries.

The great majority of young men who undergo training at Soto monasteries are the sons of resident priests who are ex- pected to succeed their fathers as the abbots of ordinary temples, so they all need to serve as head seat for at least one retreat. Such affilia- tions have been voluntary since the establishment of the current constitution in the aftermath of the second world war, but many networks of temples still maintain those traditional relationships.

According to that story, Kannon Bodhisattva spoke to Shinkai in a dream and recommended that he have all the monks line up in order of monastic seniori- ty and circumambulate while chanting the Heroic March Dharani. That practice, its is said, had the desired effect of stopping the epidemic and thereafter became wide- spread as a means of protecting monastic retreats from all such unfortunate occur- rences. A Sino-Japanese transliteration of Sanskrit namas.

A verbal greeting that expresses respect, submission to, or reliance on another. Hourglass Drum Woods is the name of a mountain pass near the monastery. A Buddhist lay person. One of six realms of rebirth. Spirits of the dead whose desires, especially for nourishment, cannot be satisfied. In Japanese Buddhism, however, hungry ghosts are more often understood as uncon- nected spirits: spirits of the dead who have no living family to provide them with offerings of nourishment.

In any case, it falls to the Buddhist sangha to perform the ritual of feeding them. Polite expression of extreme humility used by head seat after dharma combat cer- emony. In effect, this a formal apology for temporarily taking the dharma seat, the position of ultimate authority on the meaning of Zen texts, which is normally held by the abbot.

To educate oneself by studying sutras or Zen records, or by listening to lectures given by a teacher. A theme often treated by painters in East Asia. He is depicted as an emaciated figure clad in ragged robes, deep in concen- tration, walking in the wilderness.

The impermanence of all things dharmas , and the realization that clinging to things causes suffering, are basic Buddhist teachings. The burning of incense as an offering to buddhas, bodhisatt- vas, devas, and ancestors is a ubiquitous feature of East Asian Buddhist ritual. The burning of fragrant wood may have originated as a substitute for burnt offerings of meat from sacrificial animals, which was practiced both in the brahmanic worship of devas in ancient India and in rites for nourishing ancestral spirits in pre-Bud- dhist China.

In any case, whatever is offered by fire disappears from the human realm, and the smoke apparently conveys it to the heavens where the devas and spir- its reside. In Buddhism the burning of incense was adopted as a means of worship- ping buddhas and other sacred beings that does not involve taking life.

In Bud- dhist rituals that involve censing offerings and official documents in incense smoke, the trope of purification is clearly at play.

Place in a monastery where sick monks are tended to. The tutelary deity enshrined in the infirmary was Amida Buddha, who is associated with death and rebirth in the Pure Land. In present day Japan, however, monks with serious illnesses are transferred to modern hospitals. A figure of speech used to emphasize the metaphorical all-pervasiveness of the smoke from an offering of in- cense. An eon. In the ancient Indian world view, the length of time that a universe exists.

The chapter explains how Kanzeon Bodhisattva can be relied upon to save people from every kind of disaster and life-threatening situation, if they but fix their minds on him and call for help.

The fruits of past actions karma , which in turn become the conditions that constrain and inform present and future actions. A euphe- mism for impending death. A disciple of Shakamuni Buddha, an arhat, renowned for his ascetic practice. In the mythology of the Zen lineage, Kasho is the first in the line of twen- ty-eight Indian ancestral teachers that culminates with Bodaidaruma. Keizan became a monk at Eiheiji at age Keizan seems to have compiled it as a handbook of ritual events and liturgical texts for use in the single monastery named in its title.

It thus had the basic functions of a schedule of activities and a liturgical manual, as well as laying out a few rules and ritual procedures for monastic officers. Kei- zan probably modeled his text on that or some other similarly organized work im- ported from Yuan dynasty China.

From that point on the text be- came a standard reference work used in many Soto Zen monasteries. A rectangular ceremonial vestment that is worn draped over the left shoulder by Buddhist monks in East Asia and is emblematic of the robes orig- inally worn by Buddhist monks in India.

The panels themselves comprise both long and short pieces of cloth. Buddhist monks in India were originally supposed to wear robes made from discarded cloth that was ritually polluted or literally filthy.

The procedure was to cut out usable piec- es of cloth, wash them, sew them together, and dye the resulting garment with ochre. As the monastic institution evolved, new cloth for robes came to be provid- ed by lay donors, but the practice of cutting the cloth into small pieces and sewing those together to make robes was retained.

Worn over a Chinese-style full-length sleeved robe that was tied at the waist with a belt or sash, the jiasha kesa lost its function as a practical piece of clothing to cover and protect the body but retained its meaning as an emblem of membership in the monastic order. As vestments used only when formally dressed for solemn Buddhist observances, there was a tenden- cy for jiasha to evolve into finery, crafted from pieces of colorful brocaded silk.

Soto monks today receive three kesas upon their ordination. An epi- thet of Monju Bodhisattva. The building includes their private sleeping and living quarters, kitchen, bath, and toilets, as in any normal home. It is general- ly off limits to lay parishioners and casual visitors to a temple, who are otherwise free to enter the grounds and main hall when the temple gate is open during the day.

To sit with knees and ankles on the floor, buttocks resting on heels, and upper body perfectly erect. The position of labor steward survives, for the most part, only as a honorific title and seating position in various ritual observances, which some senior monk holds for the duration of the ceremony.

The human body of the Buddha Shakamuni, who will enter nirvana and thus never be reborn. In contemporary Soto Zen, the late summer retreat begins on June 15 and the late winter retreat begins on December A male lay supporter. Laymen who practice Zen in a monastery along- side monks are also called koji.

A female lay supporter. Laywomen who practice Zen in a monastery alongside monks or nuns are also called daishi. The demon army that Mara sent against Shakamu- ni when he was about to attain awakening.

In the early Buddhist tra- dition, liberation meant attaining nirvana. In Mahayana sutras, liberation is often equated with insight into the emptiness of dharmas, which can be realized by bo- dhisattvas even as they remain in the round of rebirth to help living beings. A metaphor for the influence of the Buddha, which has continued on after his death. All sentient beings, however they are conceived, in all realms of existence.

Prayer made in conjunc- tion with dedication of merit. Theoretically, living beings experience suffering in all realms of rebirth, even that of devas, but this expression refers to hungry ghosts in particular. The lotus flower that a buddha or bodhisattva uses as a kind of throne.

Lotus plants are rooted in the muck at the bottom of shallow, murky ponds, but their beautiful blossoms rise above the water and are not sullied by it. A Mahayana sutra that has been tremendously influential in East Asian Buddhism.

In the highest grade, one is born seated in a golden lotus blossom which opens up to reveal the pure land. A movement that arose in Indian Buddhism, producing a large number of new sutras that were attributed to Shakamuni Buddha but were rejected by many in the monastic community as spurious.

Modern scholars debate whether the Mahayana movement in India had a clear social and institutional identity or whether it was chiefly an in- tellectual, ideological movement. According to this school. The largest bowl in a nested set of bowls; the outer bowl which contains all the others. Ordinary Zen temples today do not have separate buddha halls, dharma halls, or sangha halls, so all observances that formerly in me- dieval Zen monasteries took place in those facilities are also held in the main hall.

Mara personifies the mental afflictions that bind living beings to suffering in the round of rebirth. A dharani chanted daily in Japanese Zen monasteries as a mer- it-making device.

Tool used for breaking ground, usually for cultivation, but also for digging a grave. Monk appointed to wield mattock in funeral ceremony; the symbolic not actual digger of the grave, who intones a dharma phrase. A handbook of Soto Zen teachings that was compiled in the Meiji era It is now entitled simply Meaning of Practice and Verification and is chanted by Soto monks in training monasteries as well as in services involving lay parishioners.

Unhealthy states of mind that vitiate all actions and are the root causes of suffering. The results of good deeds, i. In contemporary Soto Zen, the middle summer re- treat begins on May 15 and the middle winter retreat begins on November The vast store of merit accumu- lated by the monastic sangha, which can be tapped to save hungry ghosts, who are beyond the reach of help by any other means. The future bud- dha, now a bodhisattva in a heaven awaiting his final birth on earth.

A mirror, originally of polished bronze; by extension, anything that serves as an exemplar, standard for judgement, or warning. An expression of self deprecation by those giving a gift, even if the gift is actually quite grand.

An expression of self deprecation by those making an offering, even if the offering is actually quite grand. Mulian, S. Being a good filial son, he made the usual ancestral offerings of food to his deceased parents and assumed that all was well with them. One day, however, he decided to use his magical powers to check up on them in the afterlife. Mokuren saw that his father had achieved a favorable rebirth as a brahmin, but was shocked and distressed to discover that his mother had become an emaci-.

She could not eat the ancestral offerings that he gave to her be- cause, due to her bad karma, the food burst into flames every time she brought it to her mouth.

In despair, Mokuren asked Buddha for help but was told that his moth- er had accumulated so much bad karma that she could not be saved by the actions of just one person. Buddha recommended that on the fifteenth of the seventh month, when the three-month-long monastic retreat is over and the monks are replete with good karma, Mokuren should make offerings of food to them.

The merit from that good deed, which tapped into the vast merit created by the Buddhist sangha mo- nastic order itself, could then be successfully dedicated to his mother. The spiritu- al power of the sangha, in short, could ensure that the traditional offerings of nour- ishment got through without bursting into flames. Af- ter Mokuren followed these instructions, his mother was reborn out of the path of hungry ghosts.

They survive today in the context of the Bon festival. A jiin is simply a jiin, regard- less of how many monks are in residence or what sorts of practices they engage in. In the Shakamuni triptych, Mon- ju rides a lion and attends the Buddha on his left side; Fugen rides a white elephant with six tusks and attends the Buddha on his right side. A statue of him, which depicts him as an ordinary monk seated in meditation, was enshrined in an altar in the center of the hall.

In Japan, however, from the Heian period on some men who shaved their heads and joined monastic orders began to be ordained using only bodhisattva pre- cepts. In present day Rinzai Zen, monks are men who have taken the traditional ten novice precepts. Throughout most of the history the Zen schools of Buddhism in Japan, celibacy was the norm for Zen monks. However, in the new Meiji government reversed state policies concerning the Buddhist sangha that had in been in force during the preceding Edo period , and since that time monks belonging to the Zen schools have been allowed to mar- ry.

Most Zen monks today are the sons of Zen temple priests, an occupation that has become largely hereditary. The day of the month 1st through 31st on which a parent or ancestor died, commemorated by offerings to the ancestral spirit. Monthly memorials are not con- sidered as important as annual memorials, so the offerings made are generally less elaborate, but they are only held for figures who are highly venerated or, by dint of personal relations, most dear to the heart.

It continues to be served for breakfast at Japanese Zen monasteries today. Such portraits typically de- pict the subject dressed as an abbot in full regalia giving a formal sermon. Such sub-temples are called stupa sites because they were built to. Some former abbots even conducted their own funeral services be- fore moving in.

Many mortuary sub-temples, especially those built on the grounds of major Zen monasteries in Kyoto, feature the best in traditional Japanese architec- ture. They contain many fine furnishings and works of art, especially Song Chinese style landscape paintings and calligraphy. Some have elegantly simple tea houses on their grounds, and most are surrounded by beautiful, tranquil gardens.

Such elegance and refinement came at a cost, which was generally borne by a wealthy lay patron of the abbot. They became, in effect, private villas reserved for the spiritual descendants monks of the founding abbot and the heirs of the founding patron, who continued to pay the bills and reap the benefits.

Modern scholarship has celebrated the wonderful aesthetics of Zen sub-temples and their gardens while ignoring or willfully sup- pressing their historical roots in funerary ritual and ancestor worship. Most famous Zen gardens, it is fair to say, were designed to provide the spirits a peaceful resting place and their living descendants a retreat from the hustle and bustle of the world.

The main gate of a Buddhist monastery. The former originally named the mountain on which a monastery stood, and still does in some cases. Later, however, the idea took root that all monasteries should have both names, so even those built on plains or in cities came to have formal moun- tain names. The ceremony of installing a new abbot. A metaphorical allusion to the realm of hungry ghosts. A wandering monk who comes to a monastery wishing to register for a retreat as a trainee in residence.

The complete cessation of all becoming; an exalted state entirely beyond karmic conditioning. An assembly to commemorate the nirvana of Shakamuni Buddha, in East Asia traditionally held on the 15th day of the 2nd month by the lunar calendar. Because all dharmas things are empty of own-being, they neither come into existence nor pass out of existence in the way that we ordinarily imagine.

In Japan, however, from the Heian period on some men and women who shaved their heads and joined monastic or- ders began to be ordained using only bodhisattva precepts. In present day Rinzai Zen, nuns are women who have taken the traditional ten nov- ice precepts. Unlike their male counterparts, who have been free to marry since the Mei- ji era , Japanese Zen nuns maintain the tradition of celibacy that is the norm for monks and nuns throughout most of the Buddhist world.

Most Japanese Zen nuns are not from temple fam-. Those who have children gave birth to them before they joined the monastic order. Zen nuns in Japan today comprise less than one percent of the total ordained Zen clergy, which numbers about 25, A metaphorical allusion to the realm of hun- gry ghosts.

Dharani written on first of eleven banners hung for food-offering assembly during the Bon festival. Dharani written on last of eleven ban- ners hung for food-offering assembly during the Bon festival. In either case, in the traditional view, when Bodaidaruma spoke this verse he accurately foretold the fu- ture. The monk who initiates some- one into the Buddhist monastic order by shaving their head and giving them the precepts. Deferential term of self-deprecation used when speaking formally to superiors.

Person being ordained as a monk. In India, Buddhist monks carried a bowl S. The bowl was one of the few personal possessions allowed a Buddhist monk. It was received upon or- dination as a novice monk and was, together with the patchwork ochre robe S. As Buddhism evolved in India, it became the accepted norm for monasteries to have stores of food, kitchens, and dining halls for communal meals, but the bowl or set of bowls in which the meal was received and eaten remained the personal property of individual monks.

In Soto Zen today, monks receive a set of nested bowls made of lacquered wood upon ordination and use them for formal meals when residing in training monas- teries. A set phrase used to refer to Shakamuni in liturgical texts. Facilities for housing wandering monks who are not registered as regular residents in a monastery. The two trees between which Shakamuni is said to have entered nirvana died.

A donor, usually a lay supporter, who donates money in sup- port of a monastery or any of its particular observances. To imagine, based on a sensory impression, something that is not really there. A kesa. Like their counterparts in the earthly bureaucracy, spirits were understood to be subject to promotion or demotion in status, in accordance with their efficacy and popularity.

Restrictions on the number of ordinations allowed annually by the imperial court in China meant that many aspiring monks were stuck in the position of pos- tulant for years or even decades.

As candidates for ordination, postulants followed the same moral precepts as monks, learned to read sutras in preparation for a quali- fying exam, and attended some religious services.

Their main function, however, was to serve as menials and assistants who worked under the direction of monastic offi- cers such as the comptroller, head cook, labor steward, guest prefect, and bath pre- fect.

In medieval Japanese Zen, as well, postulants were lay servants. That resulted in the develop- ment of the so-called bodhisattva precepts, which are the ones used for confession in contemporary Soto Zen. A raised platform that an ordinand mounts to receive Buddhist precepts. Rules of moral behavior that are binding on in- dividual Buddhists and define their status in the institutional hierarchy.

The five precepts for the Buddhist laity are the same as the first five of the ten novice precepts, with the exception that only im- proper sexual activity as opposed to all sexual activity is proscribed.

The full pre- cepts comprise rules for individual monks which are grouped according to the seriousness of the offenses and the means of expiating them. For example, the four most serious transgressions sexual intercourse, theft, killing a human being, and falsely claiming superhuman faculties are classed as offenses requiring expulsion from the sangha.

The next most serious class of transgressions are offenses requir- ing probation and temporary exclusion from the sangha. The least serious offenses are ones that can be atoned by simply confessing them and transgressions of minor etiquette for which there are no explicit sanctions. A metaphor for awakening, the most precious thing that is the goal of Buddhist practice. An abbreviation of ritual procedure in which an offering of sweet decoction is set out prior to the start of a ceremony, thereby skipping the formal rite of offering that normally opens the ceremony.

An abbreviation of ritual procedure in which an offering of tea and decoction is set out prior to the start of a ceremony, thereby skipping the formal rite of offering that normally opens the ceremony. The monk who initiates someone into the Buddhist monastic order by shaving their head and giving them the precepts.

The master who gave one dharma transmission in the Zen lineage. A reference to Bodaidaruma, first ancestor of the Zen lineage in China. He is said to have been a prince before he became a Buddhist monk, inherited the mind dharma in the Zen lineage, and trans- mitted it to China. In Song dynasty Chinese and medieval Japanese Zen monasteries, the prior was second in authority only to the abbot.

The position of prior survives, for the most part, only as a honorific title and seating position in various ritual observances, which some elder monk holds for the duration of the ceremony. The monastic sangha.

The arhats were all Indian monks, i. Buddhist teachings dispensed freely and indiscrimi- nately to all living beings, like the rain, which falls indiscriminately on and sustains all forms of plant life. A small kesa that is hung around the neck by a strap and worn on the chest like a bib. In East Asian Buddhism in general, this commonly refers to the recitation of buddha names to generate merit that is dedicated in support of prayers or to establish karmic affinities with the buddhas named.

Entire ceremonies that center around the chanting of the names of buddhas but involve other practices as well e. A collection of biog- raphies of ancestral teachers in the Zen lineage compiled by Keizan.

The etymology of the term is complex. In contemporary Soto Zen, only train-. The position of rector survives as an important one, however, in all observances that entail chanting sutras and dedicat- ing merit. Whenever the resident priests of affiliated temples get together at one of their temples to perform services for assembled parishioners, one priest will be des- ignated to act as rector for the occasion.

The veneration of relics of Shakamuni Buddha as a means of making merit is attest- ed from an early time in the history of the Buddhist sangha in India, and has con- tinued down to the present day in East Asia. Relics are also believed to have magi- cal powers of purification and healing. A period of intensified practice in the life of a monastery during which uninterrupted residence is manda- tory for registered monks in training.

All appointments to official positions in a monas- tic bureaucracy are formally confirmed at the start of the retreat and remain fixed for the duration of the retreat. The dates recommended in Standard Observances of the Soto Zen School are May 15 to August 15 for the summer retreat and November 15 to February 15 for the winter retreat. The retreat as it is observed in Buddhist monasteries around the world today is a ritual replication of the rains retreat S.

Modern scholars theorize that the phenomenon of permanent Buddhist monastic institutions evolved from that prac- tice. Monastic retreats have traditionally been understood within the Buddhist world to begin and end on the days of a full moon and last for three months, but there is much variation in their timing. Chinese sources attest to that variation in ancient India and Central Asia and evince considerable difference of opinions on the issue.

It is the oldest source to mention such a system, which may have begun in Central Asia or China. The practice of holding two annual retreats was well established in the pub- lic monasteries of Song dynasty China that served as a model for Jap- anese Zen.

It re- fers to retreats held at Zen monasteries, or especially in Rinzai Zen to large gath- erings of Zen monks who come from different monasteries and belong to different sub-branches of the Zen lineage.

In Indian Buddhism, a monk who has at least ten years of seniority since full ordination and is thus qualified to sponsor the ordination of others. Before receiving precepts, ordinands must purify themselves by repenting all evil actions preformed in the past. By synecdoche, all the personal belongings of a monk. In the traditional monastic funeral, these were to be auctioned off.

The ceremonial kesa, a vestige of the upper robe that covered one shoulder of Buddhist monks in India, is worn over the koromo. Formally dressed Zen monks thus wear two layers of traditional Japanese clothing kimono , covered by a Chinese Buddhist long robe koromo , which is topped by an Indian Buddhist robe kesa.

Some koan collections have a sec- ond layer of commentary added by yet another Zen master, but the root cases in them remain the same.

But he is also treated as the highest ranking monk in res- idence, being offered tea first, for example, when tea is served to the entire hall as-.

Variety of tree under which Shakamuni Buddha is said to have died. It was a large structure divided internally into an inner and an outer hall and surrounded by en- closed corridors that connected it with nearby ancillary facilities. The inner hall was further divided into front and rear sections and featured low, wide sitting platforms arranged in several blocks in the center of the floor space and along the walls. Registered monks of the great as- sembly spent much of their time at their individual places on the platforms, sit- ting in meditation, taking their meals, and spreading out bedding for sleep at night.

Their bowls were hung above their seats, and their few personal effects and monk- ish implements were stored in boxes at the rear of the platforms. Seats in the in- ner hall were also designated for the abbot and the monastic officers and assistants who directed the training there. Monks with no special duties were seated in order of seniority, according to years elapsed since ordination. Other officers, acolytes, and unregistered monks were assigned seating places in the outer hall, where the plat- forms were not deep enough to recline on.

They would gather in the sangha hall for meals, ceremonies, and a few periods of meditation but slept elsewhere. Observanc- es centered in the sangha hall included: recitations of buddha names to generate merit in support of prayers; rites marking the induction and retirement of monas- tic officers in the ranks of stewards and precepts; novice ordinations; sutra chant- ing; prayer services sponsored by lay patrons, who would enter the hall to make cash donations and hear their prayers recited; and formal tea services.

Apart from those group observances, however, the individual drinking of tea, sutra reading or chant- ing whether for study or devotional purposes , and writing were not allowed in the sangha hall, lest they interfere with the attitude of introspective concentration that monks were supposed to maintain there.

Monks of the great assembly could en- gage in such activities only at their seats in the common quarters. Contrary to the claims of some modern scholarship, sangha halls were a standard feature of all ma- jor Buddhist monasteries in Song and Yuan dynasty China.

The modes of practice that went on in them were neither invented by nor unique to monks belonging to the Zen school. To say that the founding abbot of. The dharma or teachings of Buddha, which is comparable in its breadth and depth to the ocean. The awakened mind of the master presses directly, as it were, on the mind of the disciple, there- by replicating itself. Eka C. The secretary was in charge of all of- ficial correspondence, especially that which went back and forth between a monas- tery and the civil authorities.

In China, Buddhist monasteries were obligated to sub- mit census records for their populations of monks, nuns, postulants, laborers, and serfs, as well regular reports on landholdings, crop yields, and activities such as ordi- nations held and building projects. They also had to get official approval for the ap- pointment of high ranking monastic officers, especially abbots, and to obtain trav-.

The secretary thus took care of the sort of legal business and corre- spondence that, in a modern institution such as a university, would be handled by attorneys. The position of secretary survives, for the most part, only as a honorific title and seating position in various ritual observances, which some senior monk holds for the duration of the ceremony. In Chinese monas- teries of the Song and Yuan dynasties and the medieval Zen monasteries that were modeled after them, the servers were lay postulants.

A period in the life of a Japanese Zen monastery, usually a week in length but sometimes just a few days, when the ordinary schedule of daily observance is adjust- ed to maximize the hours spent in zazen and reduce or eliminate time devoted to other routine activities such a communal labor and sleep.

The tra- ditional story of the life of Buddha Shakamuni is broken into major episodes in his career, often depicted in a series of sculptures or paintings.