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St The stage 4 frequency rate-of-change protection picks up. The dumping of the charge on the burning pile smothers the fire. These metering values are being undated per 0. Other configurable binary outputs which are not listed in above table only can be configured through the setting [XXXX.

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St The stage 1 overcurrent protection picks up. Op The stage 1 overcurrent protection operates. St The stage 2 overcurrent protection picks up. Op The stage 2 overcurrent protection operates. St The stage 3 overcurrent protection picks up.

Op The stage 3 overcurrent protection operates. St The stage 4 overcurrent protection picks up. Op The stage 4 overcurrent protection operates. St The No. Op The No. St The stage 1 negative sequence overcurrent protection picks up.

Op The stage 1 negative sequence overcurrent protection operates. St The stage 2 negative sequence overcurrent protection picks up. Op The stage 2 negative sequence overcurrent protection operates.

St The stage 1 sensitive earth fault protection picks up. Op The stage 1 sensitive earth fault protection operates. St The stage 2 sensitive earth fault protection picks up. Op The stage 2 sensitive earth fault protection operates. St The stage 3 sensitive earth fault protection picks up.

Op The stage 3 sensitive earth fault protection operates. St The stage 4 sensitive earth fault protection picks up. Op The stage 4 sensitive earth fault protection operates. St The broken conductor protection picks up. Op The broken conductor protection operates. St The thermal overload protection picks up. Op The thermal overload protection operates.

St The breaker failure protection picks up. Op The breaker failure protection operates. ReTrp The breaker failure protection re-trip operates. St The stage 1 undervoltage protection picks up. Op The stage 1 undervoltage protection operates. St The stage 2 undervoltage protection picks up. Op The stage 2 undervoltage protection operates. St The stage 1 overvoltage protection picks up. Op The stage 1 overvoltage protection operates.

St The stage 2 overvoltage protection picks up. Op The stage 2 overvoltage protection operates. St The negative sequence overvoltage protection picks up. Op The negative sequence overvoltage protection operates. St The stage 1 zero sequence overvoltage protection picks up.

Op The stage 1 zero sequence overvoltage protection operates. St The stage 2 zero sequence overvoltage protection picks up. Op The stage 2 zero sequence overvoltage protection operates.

St The stage 1 under-frequency protection picks up. Op The stage 1 under-frequency protection operates. St The stage 2 under-frequency protection picks up.

Op The stage 2 under-frequency protection operates. St The stage 3 under-frequency protection picks up. Op The stage 3 under-frequency protection operates. St The stage 4 under-frequency protection picks up. Op The stage 4 under-frequency protection operates. St The stage 1 over-frequency protection picks up. Op The stage 1 over-frequency protection operates. St The stage 2 over-frequency protection picks up.

Op The stage 2 over-frequency protection operates. St The stage 3 over-frequency protection picks up. Op The stage 3 over-frequency protection operates. St The stage 4 over-frequency protection picks up. Op The stage 4 over-frequency protection operates. St The stage 1 frequency rate-of-change protection picks up. Op The stage 1 frequency rate-of-change protection operates. St The stage 2 frequency rate-of-change protection picks up. Op The stage 2 frequency rate-of-change protection operates.

St The stage 3 frequency rate-of-change protection picks up. Op The stage 3 frequency rate-of-change protection operates. St The stage 4 frequency rate-of-change protection picks up. Op The stage 4 frequency rate-of-change protection operates. InProg The auto-recloser picks up. St The dead zone protection picks up. Op The dead zone protection operates. St The undercurrent protection picks up. Op The undercurrent protection operates.

Fault information listed below may be displayed. Therefore, the default display will be replaced by the alarm report. The format of the alarm report is shown as below. The alarm report will keep being displayed on LCD until the relevant alarm situation is restored to normal state.

It means that this relay does not detect any alarm situation. Alarm elements listed below may be displayed. See Section 4. Alm The protection voltage transformer circuit is failed. Alm The current transformer is failed. Alm The thermal overload situation occurs. X reserved alarm signal is issued. The handling suggestions of the alarm events are listed as below. Alm Please check the secondary circuit of the protection voltage transformer. Alm Please check the secondary circuit of the current transformer.

Alm Please check whether the thermal overload condition is satisfied. If any abnormal condition is detected, information or report will be displayed and a corresponding alarm will be issued. A common abnormality may block a certain number of protection functions while other functions can still work. When hardware failure is detected, all protection functions will be blocked and the corresponding alarm signal will be issued. This relay can not work normally in such a situation and a manual maintenance is required to fix the failure.

If this device is blocked or alarm signal is issued during operation, do please find out its reason by help of the history reports. If the reason can not be found on site, please inform the manufacturer NR Electric Co. Only the input password is correct, the relevant operation can be done.

The following figure shows the password input interface for control operation and device setting modification. The following figure shows the password input interface for modifying settings.

It selects substation as the core of data management and the device as fundamental unit, supporting one substation to govern many devices. The software provides two kinds of operation modes: on-line mode and off-line mode. The on-line mode supports the Ethernet connection with the device through the standard IEC and can be capable of uploading and downloading the configuration files through Ethernet net; the off-line mode supports the off-line setting configuration.

In addition, it also supports programmable logic to meet the demands of a practical engineering. OnLoad undervoltage protection The binary signal for inputting the system on load state of the stage 2 17 27P2. Blk overcurrent protection The binary signal for enabling the No. En1 sequence overcurrent protection The binary signal for blocking the No.

Blk sequence overcurrent protection The binary signal for enabling the No. Blk protection 54 50BC. En1 The binary signal for enabling the broken conductor protection 55 50BC. Blk The binary signal for blocking the broken conductor protection 56 50BF. En1 The binary signal for enabling the breaker failure protection 57 50BF. Blk protection 62 En1 The binary signal for enabling the thermal overload protection 63 Blk The binary signal for blocking the thermal overload protection 64 Clr The binary signal for clearing the heat of thermal overload protection 65 59P1.

En1 The binary signal for enabling the stage 1 overvoltage protection 66 59P1. Blk The binary signal for blocking the stage 1 overvoltage protection 67 59P2. En1 The binary signal for enabling the stage 2 overvoltage protection 68 59P2. Blk The binary signal for blocking the stage 2 overvoltage protection 69 27P1.

En1 The binary signal for enabling the stage 1 undervoltage protection 70 27P1. Blk The binary signal for blocking the stage 1 undervoltage protection 71 27P2. En1 The binary signal for enabling the stage 2 undervoltage protection 72 27P2.

Blk The binary signal for blocking the stage 2 undervoltage protection The binary signal for enabling the negative sequence overvoltage 73 59Q. En1 protection The binary signal for blocking the negative sequence overvoltage 74 59Q.

Blk protection The binary signal for enabling the stage 1 zero sequence overvoltage 75 59G1. En1 protection The binary signal for blocking the stage 1 zero sequence overvoltage 76 59G1. Blk protection The binary signal for enabling the stage 2 zero sequence overvoltage 77 59G2. En1 protection The binary signal for blocking the stage 2 zero sequence overvoltage 78 59G2. Blk protection 79 81U1. En1 The binary signal for enabling the stage 1 under-frequency protection 80 81U1.

Blk The binary signal for blocking the stage 1 under-frequency protection 81 81U2. En1 The binary signal for enabling the stage 2 under-frequency protection 82 81U2. En1 The binary signal for enabling the stage 3 under-frequency protection 84 81U3. Blk The binary signal for blocking the stage 3 under-frequency protection 85 81U4. En1 The binary signal for enabling the stage 4 under-frequency protection 86 81U4. Blk The binary signal for blocking the stage 4 under-frequency protection 87 81O1.

En1 The binary signal for enabling the stage 1 over-frequency protection 88 81O1. Blk The binary signal for blocking the stage 1 over-frequency protection 89 81O2. En1 The binary signal for enabling the stage 2 over-frequency protection 90 81O2. Blk The binary signal for blocking the stage 2 over-frequency protection 91 81O3.

En1 The binary signal for enabling the stage 3 over-frequency protection 92 81O3. Blk The binary signal for blocking the stage 3 over-frequency protection 93 81O4. En1 The binary signal for enabling the stage 4 over-frequency protection 94 81O4. Blk The binary signal for blocking the stage 4 over-frequency protection The binary signal for enabling the stage 1 frequency rate-of-change 95 81R1. En1 protection The binary signal for blocking the stage 1 frequency rate-of-change 96 81R1.

Blk protection The binary signal for enabling the stage 2 frequency rate-of-change 97 81R2. En1 protection The binary signal for blocking the stage 2 frequency rate-of-change 98 81R2. Blk protection The binary signal for enabling the stage 3 frequency rate-of-change 99 81R3.

En1 protection The binary signal for blocking the stage 3 frequency rate-of-change 81R3. Blk protection The binary signal for enabling the stage 4 frequency rate-of-change 81R4. En1 protection The binary signal for blocking the stage 4 frequency rate-of-change 81R4.

Blk protection En1 The binary signal for enabling the auto-recloser Blk The binary signal for blocking the auto-recloser B En1 The binary signal for enabling the cold load pickup function CLP. Blk The binary signal for blocking the cold load pickup function CLP.

En1 The binary signal for enabling the No. Blk The binary signal for blocking the No. Blk The binary signal for blocking the dead zone protection En1 The binary signal for enabling the undercurrent protection Output Signal Description 1 FD.

Close The auto-recloser operates. Active The auto-recloser is active. Ready The auto-recloser is ready for operation. Fail The operation of auto-recloser is failed.

Reset The auto-recloser is restored. Opn The No. Cls The No. St The cold load pickup element picks up. InstAlm The fast voltage transformer supervision is issued. InstAlm The fast current transformer supervision is issued.

OnLoad The system on load condition is satisfied. Dpos The dual-position state of the circuit breaker. Dpos The dual-position state of the circuit breaker of the No. Each signal is a four-state output state, and the state codes are listed as below. Binary Input Description Default 1 B Blk 6 B Binary Output Description Default 1 B Other configurable binary outputs which are not listed in above table only can be configured through the setting [XXXX.

For more details about these settings, please see Chapter 7. Setting the relevant communication parameter can select the expected protocol see Section 7. The EIA RS standardized interfaces are isolated, as well as the Ethernet interfaces, and are suitable for permanent connection whichever protocol is selected. It should be noted that the descriptions contained within this section do not aim to fully detail the protocol itself.

The relevant documentation for the protocol should be referred to for this information. This section serves to describe the specific implementation of the protocol in the relay. This port has a common ground terminal for the earth shield of the communication cable. See Section 6. The rear ports provide RS serial data communication and they are intended for use with a permanently wired connection to a remote control center.

By using the keypad and LCD, configure the relevant communication protocol parameters, the corresponding protocol and will be selected. If the master is unable to communicate with the product, and the communication parameters match, then it is possible that the two-wire connection is reversed.

Some devices may be able to provide the bus terminating resistors by different connection or configuration arrangements, in which case separate external components will not be required. However, this product does not provide such a facility, so if it is located at the bus terminus then an external termination resistor will be required.

Stubs and tees are expressly forbidden, such as star topologies. Two-core screened cable is recommended. The specification of the cable will be dependent on the application, although a multi-strand 0. Total cable length must not exceed m. The screen must be continuous and connected to ground at one end, normally at the master connection point; it is important to avoid circulating currents, especially when the cable runs between buildings, for both safety and noise reasons.

This product does not provide a signal ground connection. If a signal ground connection is present in the bus cable then it must be ignored, although it must have continuity for the benefit of other devices connected to the bus. This is for both safety and noise reasons. Jabber occurs when the signal level has an indeterminate state because the bus is not being actively driven.

This can occur when all the slaves are in receive mode and the master is slow to turn from receive mode to transmit mode. This may be because the master purposefully waits in receive mode, or even in a high impedance state, until it has something to transmit.

Jabber causes the receiving device s to miss the first bits of the first character in the packet, which results in the slave rejecting the message and consequentially not responding. Symptoms of these are poor response times due to retries , increasing message error counters, erratic communications, and even a complete failure to communicate.

Biasing requires that the signal lines be weakly pulled to a defined voltage level of about 1V. There should only be one bias point on the bus, which is best situated at the master connection point. The DC source used for the bias must be clean; otherwise noise will be injected. Note that some devices may optionally be able to provide the bus bias, in which case external components will not be required.

Failure to do so will result in an excessive bias voltage that may damage the devices connected to the bus. There are four sections for an IP address. Figure A picture is shown below. Dual-network is recommended in order to increase reliability.

The SCADA is also connected to the exchanger and will play a role of master station, so the every equipment which has been connected to the exchanger will play a role of slave unit.

This relay operates as a slave in the system, responding to commands from a master station. The standard configuration for the IEC protocol is based on the Ethernet. The DNP3. The following IEC facilities are supported by this interface: initialization reset , time synchronization, event record extraction, general interrogation, cyclic measurements, general commands and disturbance records.

The baudrate is optional: bps, bps, bps, bps, bps or bps. The unattached Ethernet ports are available for IEC in this relay. The link layer strictly abides by the rules defined in the IEC In addition to the above identification message, if the relay has been powered up it will also produce a power up event.

The relay will correct for the transmission delay as specified in IEC Whether the time synchronization message is sent as a send confirmation or a broadcast send without any reply message, a time synchronization Class 1 event will be generated.

An attempt to set the time via the interface will cause this relay to create an event with the current date and time taken from the IRIG-B synchronized internal clock.

Referring the IEC standard can get the enough details about general interrogation. The cause of transmission is 2. The rate at which the relay produces new measured values is fixed about one second.

It should be noted that the measurands transmitted by the relay are sent as a proportion of corresponding times the rated value of the analog value. The relay will not respond to other commands, and short-term communication interruption will occur.

For more details about generic functions, see the IEC standard. A pickup of the fault detector or an operation of the relay can make the relay store the disturbance records. The disturbance records are stored in uncompressed format and can be extracted using the standard mechanisms described in the standard of IEC The IEC standard is the result of years of work by electric utilities and vendors of electronic equipment to produce standardized communication systems.

It is strongly recommended that all those involved with any IEC implementation obtain this document set. This protocol has been in existence for a number of years and provides a set of services suitable for the transfer of data within a substation LAN environment. The connection is initiated by the client, and communication activity is controlled by the client.

Servers are usually substation equipment such as protection relays, meters, RTUs, transformer, tap changers, or bay controllers. GOOSE is the method of peer-to-peer communication. Substation configuration language SCL A substation configuration language is the number of files used to describe the configuration of substation equipment. An IEC physical device can contain one or more logical device s for proxy.

Each logical device can contain many logical nodes. Each logical node can contain many data objects. Each data object is composed of data attributes and data attribute components. Services are available at each level for performing various functions, such as reading, writing, control commands, and reporting. The physical device contains one logical device, and the logical device contains many logical nodes. The data content must be configured before the data can be used.

GGIO provides digital status points for access by clients. Buffered reporting should generally be used for SOE logs since the buffering capability reduces the chances of missing data state changes.

There is one MMXU available for each configurable source. Hz: frequency MMXU. The specified relay will contain a subset of protection elements from this list. Varilla de nivel de aceite Codo de escape Sensor sobrecalentamiento de escape Drenaje de agua del motor Sensores sobrecalentamiento de escape 2. Interruptor de circuito y fusibles 3. Apagachispas 4. Carburador 5. Tapa del motor 6. Alternador 7. Codos de escape 8. Bomba de combustible Correa del alternador Filtro de combustible Agua lavado del motor 48 Drenaje de agua del motor 1.

Entrada filtro de aceite remoto 6. Salida filtro de aceite remoto 7. Alternador 8. Filtro de aceite del motor 9. Varilla de aceite motor Correa trapezoidal Llenado de aceite motor Apagachispas Varilla de aceite motor 5. Alternador Entrada de agua 6.

Conjunto filtro de aceite remoto Drenaje de agua exterior del motor1 7. Salida filtro de aceite remoto Sensor sobrecalentamiento de escape 8. Entrada filtro de aceite remoto 9. Filtro de aceite del motor Bomba de agua 4. Entrada de agua 5. Salida de agua 6. Cambiador de calor 8. Entrada de agua 4. Bomba de agua 7.

Salida de agua 8. Llenado de aceite 3. Drenaje de aceite 2. Sensor de trimado 4. Llenado de aceite 4. Entrada de agua 2. Sensor de trimado 5. Drenaje de aceite 3.

Procedimientos de rodaje Durante el periodo de rodaje, vigilar lo siguiente al principio de funcionamiento: - Descargar de www. Comprobar con frecuencia el nivel de aceite C. Durante las primeras 20 horas de funcionamiento controlar a menudo el nivel de aceite, ya que su consumo es elevado hasta que se hayan asentado debidamente los aros de los pistones. Ambas condiciones reflejan un funcionamiento normal del motor.

Controlar la varilla de nivel. Observe el indicador de la temperatura del motor para tener la seguridad de que circula correctamente el refrigerante. Las dos primeras horas 1.

Mantenga el planeo para evitar una carga excesiva al motor. Durante las diez horas finales del rodaje, Ud. Al final de las 20 horas de rodaje, vaciar el aceite del motor y sustituir el filtro. NOTA: Insista para que el concesionario utilice siempre piezas originales Volvo Penta al sustituir componentes del motor. Sin embargo, una velocidad de crucero de rpm ahorra combustible, reduce ruidos y prolonga la vida de servicio del motor. Tener siempre presente el peligro de fugas de combustible.

En caso de percibir olores o escapes de combustible parar inmediatamente el motor. Controle que el funcionamiento se hace sin dificultad. Aceite mineral - una vez por temporada o cada horas de funcionamiento, lo que ocurra primero. Lubricar una vez por temporada o cada 50 horas de funcionamiento, lo que ocurra primero. Sustraer la cota B de la cota A y anotar el resultado C. La cota C no ha de ser inferior a 35,6 cm.

Colocar un nivel en la parte superior del espejo de popa, medir desde el fondo del nivel a la parte superior del codo B y anotar la medida. Sustituya el distribuidor por otro nuevo si lo considera necesario. Limpiarlos o sustituirlos en caso necesario. Lea siempre y siga las advertencias contenidas en el libro de instrucciones.

Compruebe si hay: - Descargar de www. Los humos del escape pueden dar lugar a situaciones peligrosas tanto para el conductor como para los pasajeros. Los fuelles pueden solicitarse por separado o como parte de un kit de accesorios. Adquiera siempre la gasolina de un proveedor conocido. No utilice estos combustibles pues pueden obturar los inyectores y dar lugar a fugas. Carburador GL En el carburador se vaporiza el combustible y se mezcla con aire en las cantidades adecuadas para satisfacer las varias necesidades del motor.

Si aparecen problemas de funcionamiento, acuda al concesionario Volvo Penta. Apagachispas Desmonte el apagachispas cada 50 horas de funcionamiento. Para los motores 8. Si ocurren estas, entregue la bomba inmediatamente al concesionario Volvo Penta. Si la necesidad de servicio es mayor, acuda a su concesionario Volvo Penta.

No utilice otro tipo de filtro. Disponga del mismo en forma segura. Use el olfato para detectar combustible en la sentina. Limpie la sentina hasta que ya no se note olor de combustible. Parar el motor. Utilice aceite para motor limpio, lubrique ligeramente la junta C y el sello interior D del nuevo filtro. Enrosque el filtro nuevo con la mano, siguiendo las instrucciones que aparecen en el filtro.

Limpiar siempre el combustible derramado. Arrancar el motor y controlar que no haya fugas. Acuda a su concesionario Volvo Penta si las bombas funcionan haciendo ruidos inusuales. Lubrique ligeramente la junta y el sello interior del nuevo filtro.

Limpieza del tamiz de combustible motores de carburador de 3. Desconecte el tubo de combustible por el extremo del carburador. Quite la tuerca de la entrada de combustible, la junta y el tamiz B. Limpie el tamiz en disolvente y dejar que se seque. Vuelva a instalar el tamiz, la junta y la tuerca de entrada de combustible.

Apriete firmemente la tuerca de entrada de combustible. Complete si es necesario con agua destilada. Haga funcionar durante por lo menos 5 minutos el extractor de humos de la sentina. Abra la tapa del motor o la escotilla y compruebe que no hay vapores de gasolina en la misma.

Coking coal refers to a coal that melts and fuses to form larger lumps, even though the coal may have been in small pieces. Bituminous is usually a good coking coal and anthracite is not. Carbon in the ash - if some of the coal is heated enough to drive off the volatile matter but does not finish burning all of the carbon, the ash will contain some pieces of unburned carbon or coke. Cverfire air - air is injected above the fuel bed instead of through it as is nor- mal.

The overfire air is forced through jets or nozzles in the furnace walls. The purpose of the overfire air jets is to increase the mixing or turbulence of the gases to insure complete combustion and prevent smoke.

Slagging - when molten ash particles build up on the walls or tubes of a boiler and flow together, the deposit is called slag and the process is called slagging. Plume Visibility 4. The visible plume from coal combus- tion may be caused by condensed water vapor, sulfur trioxide, sulfuric acid mist, organic liquids or solids, particulates, and smoke. Smoke - the black clouds called smoke are actually small, unburned or partially burned solid carbon particles and solid or liquid hy- drocarbon particles.

They result from the in- complete combustion of the volatile products of the fuel. The carbon of the smoke does not arise from the free carbon of the fuel but from the cooling of the hot hydrocarbon gases of the volatile matter. If these particles are depo- sited inside the combustion system, they are called soot. Once formed, carbon soot is difficult to burn. To prevent this soot from being car- ried away as pollution, the hydrocarbons should be burned as close as possible to the fuel bed before they are decomposed by the heat into soot and smoke.

It has been found that there is a marked rise in the percentage of both carbon soot and tar benzene soluble contained in the particulate as the smoke density increases.

The black smoke plume is visible be- cause of the size of its solid and liquid par- ticles. They range between 0. These particles between 0. Most of the mass is in the larger particles, which have little effect in absorbing or scattering light. The black shade of a combustion plume can be reduced by a good adjustment of air- to-fuel ratio.

One indication of this is the flame in the furnace: a With a good adjustment of air to the coal feed, the flame will be yellowish orange in color with no black tips.

It will appear soft. And its lu- minosity will give a maximum of radiant heat-energy transfer. Its radiant heat energy will be lessened. Since a reducing atmosphere is now well indicated, soot may be formed and collect at some point in the system. The smoke will be dark. When a flame impinges on a cold sur- face, smoke and soot are formed. Complete combustion should be obtained before the flame is allowed to hit a cold surface.

Mechanical Coal-Firing Equipment 4. Overfeed stokers - earliest type con- sisted of a steeply inclined grate with alter- nate stationary and movable sections. Coal moved down the grate when a lever outside the furnace was moved.

Underfeed stokers - two forms: single retort and multiple retort. Single retort - consists of coal hop- per, one feed trough or retort containing a feeding device a screw or pusher with the grate above it.

This stoker moves coal a from front to rear in retort, b from retort upward to the grate where it is burned, c sideways on the grate to the ash pits at the sides. Widely used with smaller boilers. Multiple retort - early variety had one coal hopper across several parallel re- torts. Ash was dumped periodically from the rear into an ash pit. Later, all the retorts were driven by a single crankshaft.

They re- quire forced draft fans. There may be as many as 18 multiple retorts. Traveling grate stoker - grate sur- face consists of an endless belt with sprock- ets at either end.

Coal hopper with a gate at one end controls the coal feed. Grate is moved with gears powered by an electric motor or turbine. Coal is laid on the grate from the hopper and is moved through the furnace as the burning takes place. Ash is dropped off the grate into an ash pit at the rear. Presently forced-draft fans are used with traveling grate stokers. Vibrating grate stoker - consists of a water-cooled grate structure on which the coal moves from the hopper at the front of the boiler through the burning zone by means of a high-speed vibrating mechanism.

As with the traveling grate, the fuel bed progresses to the rear, where the ash is continuously discharged. Vibrating stokers may emit slightly higher concentrations of fly ash than traveling-grate stokers because of in- creased agitation of the fuel bed.

Spreader stoker - consists of a coal hopper, a feeding mechanism, and a device that injects the coal into the furnace usually a rotating flipper. The coal is thrown into the furnace and partly burned in suspension. The larger particles fall to the grate and burn there.

Essentially, the spreader stoker employs overfeed burning, an inherently smoky method, plus suspension burning, an inherently smoke-free method producing fly ash. Over- fire jets have been found essential to smoke- free operation. They also reduce dust emis- sion significantly, but not enough to meet most ordinances, unless a particulate collec- tor is used.

Pulverized-fuel firing unit - in this system, coal is pulverized to particles, at least 70 percent of which pass through a mesh sieve median size of the particles is 5. In direct-firing systems, raw coal is dried and pulverized simulta- neously in a mill and is fed to the burners as required by the furnace load. A prede- termined coal-air ratio is maintained for any load.

In indirect-firing systems there are storage bins and feeders between the pulveri- zers and burners. Pulverized-fuel firing units are of two basic types--wet bottom and dry bottom. In a wet-bottom unit, the tem- perature in the furnace is maintained high enough so that the slag does not solidify or fuse and it can be removed from the bottom as a liquid. The dry-bottom furnace maintains a temperature below this point so that the ash will not fuse.

The steam elec- tric plants, where pulverized fuel firing is used most, emit percent of the ash fired in the coal as fine fly ash. Therefore, all modern plants of this type must have high- efficiency dust collectors. Cyclone furnace - fires crushed coal that is nearly as fine as pulverized coal in- to a water-cooled, refractory lines cylindri- cal chamber 8 to 10 feet in diameter.

The coal and air swirl in a cyclonic manner as the burning proceeds. Combustion is so in- tense that a small portion of the molten ash coating the wall of the chamber is vaporized. Approximately 85 percent of the ash fired is retained as molten slag; hence, the fly-ash load is much lower than with pulverized coal. However, the ash which does escape the cy- clone is extremely fine and thus difficult to collect.

Pulverized-coal burners and cyclone furnaces are the universal equipment for firing coal in the large new electric-gene- rating stations. Some types of burning equipment underfeed stokers, overfeed stokers, spreader stokers, and pulverized-fuel burners make use of a certain amount of fly-ash reinjection. In this process, cinders are returned to the grate from the fly-ash collector and burned again to reduce the loss of unburned carbon.

Improper combustion - if a furnace pro- duces smoke, either the fuel and air are not in balance or the three T's of combustion are not being satisfied. The cause may be one or more of the following conditions: a Insufficient, air for the amount of fuel b Improper distribution of the air or fuel c Too much air usually overfire air , which chills the flame before all combustion is com- plete d Insufficient turbulence or mixing of the air e Cold fire box - often caused by excessive furnace draft, which pulls outside air into the fire box through doors and leaks; it usually occurs at low load.

Possible causes for improper distri- bution of air or fuel a Uneven depth of fuel bed b Plugged air holes in the grate c Clinkei which shuts off air flow d Leaky seals around the edges of the grate area e Improper burner adjustment Possible reasons for insufficient tur- a Insufficient overfire air b Plugged overfire air nozzles c Nozzles that are improperly aimed d Incorrect burner adjustment e Excessive furnace draft 4.

Importance of coal and equipment in particulate emissions a Type of firing - least emission occurs with underfeed stokers, the greatest with pulveri- zed coal b Furnace design - least emis- sion with large furnaces and greatest with small furnaces of pulverized coal furnaces c Secondary air jets tend to reduce emission d Coal size - the greater the proportion of small sizes, the greater the emissions. Smaller sizes are more easily swept up the chimney.

Low-volatile fuel burns with a short, transparent flame. And as the velocity increases, more and larger particles are carried out of the furnace. The most important variable in hand- fired furnaces is the volatile content of the fuel burned, the smoke potential increasing rapidly as volatile content increases. Several types of control equipment have been used to collect the particulates from coal combustion: a Settling chambers b Large-diameter cyclones c Multiple small-diameter cyclones d Wet scrubbers e Electrostatic precipitators.

The settling chamber is a low-effi- ciency, low-cost, low-pressure-drop device. It generally is applied to natural-draft, sto- ker-fired units. Collection efficiency is 50 to 60 percent. Large-diameter cyclones have higher pressure drops.

Their efficiency ranges from 65 percent for stoker-fired units to 20 per- cent for cyclone furnaces. Multiple small-diameter cyclone units are used as precleaners for electrostatic pre- cipitators or as final cleaners. Efficiencies range from 90 percent for stoker-fired units to 70 percent for cyclone furnaces. Wet scrubbers are limited to the con- trol of particulate emissions during soot blowing, although alkaline scrubbers to re- move both fly ash and sulfur dioxide are under development.

Electrostatic precipitators are the most commonly used devices for cleaning the gases from large, stationary combustion sour- ces such as those burning pulverized coal. They are capable of efficiencies up to 99 per- cent. Efficiency of collection for cyclone collectors increases as the load increases. An increase in the carbon content of coal is usually associated with an increase in size distribution. Thus, as firing rate increases or the carbon content of the coal increases, the centrifugal collector becomes more effi- cient.

The electrostatic precipitator be- comes less efficient as the load increases. An increase in carbon content is associated with an increase in electrical resistivity. Electro- static precipitators are not generally used for high-carbon ash, which is derived from stokers.

They are best adapted to pulverized coal-fired units. Coal Burning Equipment. Design of Coal Combustion Equipment. Cuffe and R. More efficient combustion of these fuels can reduce the opacity of the plumes produced from these sources.

Other types of combustion, both for the production of usable energy and for the burning of waste materials, will produce black and non-black plumes. Some of these combustion sources and the cause and control of their plumes are dis- cussed in this section. Solid Waste Disposal by Incineration 5. The methods of burning solid waste in- clude the use of open-top or trench incinera- tors, conical metal "tepee" burners, domestic incinerators, apartment-house incinerators, and municipal incinerators as well as open burning.

Incinerators can be classified in sev- eral ways, such as by their size, their method of feeding, the type of waste they will handle, or the number of combustion chambers they con- tain. A single-chamber incinerator is de- signed so that feeding, combustion, and ex- haust to a stack take place in one chamber. The multiple-chamber incinerator has three or more separate chambers in series for admission and combustion of the solid refuse, mixing and further combustion of the fly ash and gaseous emissions, and settling and col- lecting of the fly ash.

Multiple-chamber incinerators are of two general types: a Retort, in which the ignition chamber, mixing chamber, and combustion chamber are arranged in a "U" b In-line, in which the three chambers follow each other in a line. The tepee burner has been used by the lumber industry to incinerate wood wastes and by some small cities to dispose of municipal refuse. These burners range from 10 to feet in height.

They are single-chamber in- cinerators and are not designed to minimize atmospheric emissions; thus, they rarely meet visible emission regulations when in use and have considerable fly-ash fallout.

The tepee burner may be fed by a bull- dozer, a dump truck, or a conveyor. Feeding with bulldozers or trucks requires that the doors at the base of the burner be opened. This stops the motion of the draft air in- side the burner and cools the combustion gases. The dumping of the charge on the burning pile smothers the fire.

All of these factors contribute to incomplete combustion and additional smoke. Domestic incinerators may range from units such as a single-chamber backyard wire basket to dual-chamber incinerators having a primary burner section followed by an after- burner section. Many air pollution control agencies have banned backyard incinerators and some have banned all types of domestic incinerators. The emissions of smoke and fly ash from apartment-house incinerators are often high because of low combustion temperatures and improper air regulation.

Apartment-house incinerators may be of two types--flue-fed and chute-fed. In the single-chamber flue-fed unit, refuse is charged down the same passage that the pro- ducts of combustion use to leave the unit. Refuse dropped onto the fuel bed during burn- ing smothers the fire, causing incomplete combustion and emission of smoke. A chute-fed multiple-chamber incin- erator has separate passages for refuse charging and combustion-product emission.

Nevertheless, the emissions from this incin- erator often exceed emission standards. One cause is the high natural draft in the flues of the tall stacks that go to the top of the apartment house. This high draft carries with it a large amount of particulates. Incinerators used for commercial or industrial establishments may be single or multiple-chamber types and may handle from 50 to several thousand pounds of refuse per hour. The average capacity of municipal incinerators is tons of refuse per day.

They may be fed in batches or continuously. The gases leaving an incinerator may have temperatures as high as F, which is much higher than the F maximum for steam- generating boilers. Some rules that should be met by any incinerator to minimize the particulate emis- sions are as follows: a Air and fuel must be in proper proportion and mixed adequately. NOTE - these rules are a restatement of the "three T's of combustion". This can be done to achieve more efficient incineration of wet garbage or it can be done to reduce smoke by mixing smoky materials, such as plastics and rubber, with paper waste.

The draft can frequently be reduced by partially closing the damper, which is installed in the breeching between the furnace and the stack. Dark smoke from incinerators consists primarily of small carbon particles resulting from incomplete combustion. The dark smoke may mask the light-colored plumes also emitted from the incinerator.

Light-colored plumes are emitted from most municipal incinerators. These plumes are caused by volatilization of particles or by chemical reactions in the fuel bed. Analysis of the plume shows appreciable quantities of metallic salts and oxides in microcrystalline form which were transformed into the vapor state in the fuel bed and then condensed. Removal of these very small particles from the flue gases is difficult. The equivalent opacity of the plume can be partially reduced by proper incinerator design.

Large fly-ash particles may be either charred material or incombustible particles. If complete combustion is achieved, there should be no charred particles. The incom- bustible material may come from chemical reac- tions in the fuel bed. It may also be from small particles that were present in the re- fuse. The size of the particles formed by chemical reactions may range from submicron to mlcron diameters.

Much of the weight of the particulate matter is in the particles greater than 5 microns. These can be removed from the combustion emissions by collecting devices. Their utilization depends on considerations of temperatures and moisture content of the gas stream as well as the pressure drop across the filter.

The per capita quantity of solid waste generated in the United States has been increasing in recent years. The physi- cal and chemical properties of the garbage have also been changing. Moisture content has been decreasing with diminishing house- hold garbage. As a consequence of the de- creasing use of coal for home heating, there are less ashes for disposal. The combustible content and the heat value of the solid waste have been increasing, principally because of the greater use of paper and plastics.

In a study of incineration in tepee burners, several observations were made re- garding the density of smoke produced when different types of material were burned: a Plastic products polyvinyl chloride, etc.

Further- more, the buildup of a large pile of charged refuse cut down on the draft through the pile and con- tributed to additional incomplete combustion.

The study recommended that plastic, rubber, asphalt, and leather products not be burned in tepee burners. Agricultural Burning 5. Open burning of several kinds is done in connection with agriculture. The burning is done for waste disposal, for disease pest con- trol, and as part of harvesting or land manage- ment. All of these types of burning will re- sult in visible smoke and other air pollution effects such as visibility reduction, fallout of carbonaceious residues, contributions to photochemical smog, and odors.

For some of this burning, there is a flexibility in the time when the burning can be done in the area that can be burned during any one fire. In these cases, the burning should be scheduled for periods when meteoro- logical conditions such as wind speed and in- version height are conducive to good disper- sion of the smoke. However, the winds cannot be too strong or there may be a chance of the fire getting out of hand.

Burning of this type includes the cleaning out of weeds and brush when chemical methods are undesirable, the removal of the slash remaining after logging operations, the clearing of potato vines, peanut vines, and sugarcane leaves prior to harvest.

Other agricultural burning cannot be scheduled. One example is the burning of smudge pots in orchards to reduce the hazard from frost. Another is disposal of cattle affected by hoof and mouth disease at a time of the year when burial is not possible be- cause of frozen ground or other reasons.

Other agricultural burning includes the burning of field crops such as barley and rice, the removal of prunings from fruit and nut trees, the incineration of brush, and the burning of cotton gin waste to aid in the con- trol of bollworms. The density of the smoke from agri- cultural burning will depend upon the com- bustion temperature and the residence time of the fuel at that temperature. If the moisture content of the fuel is high, the smoke will be of a white shade indicating the presence of water vapor.

The greener the plant life, the more moisture it contains and the whiter the smoke will be. Combustion of Natural Gas 5.

The particulate emissions from the normal combustion of natural gas are insig- nificant compared with those from coal and oil. Control equipment is not utilized to control the emission from natural gas com- bustion equipment. The table compares the chemical com- position of typical samples of coal, fuel oil, and natural gas: Content, percent Hydrogen Carbon Sulfur N2, 02, etc. One should note the high percentage of hydrogen in natural gas. This high per- centage results in a large amount of water vapor being present in the gases exhausted from combustion.

As a consequence, the plume from natural gas combustion under certain ambient temperature and moisture conditions can be a very dense white plume of condensed water vapor. The water produced in combustion will absorb Btu's in changing from the liquid to the vapor state. Thus, fuels containing more hydrogen provide less available heat than fuels containing small amounts of hydrogen. In heat-generating installations, one of the principal components is the heat ex- changer.

The heat exchanger contains the me- dium, such as water, that is to be heated, and its outside surface area is exposed to the hot gases generated by the burning fuel. Boilers are rated on the total area of heating surface of their heat exchangers. Burners can be divided into two broad classifications - atmospheric and mechanical draft.

The atmospheric burner depends en- tirely upon the negative pressure within the furnace to draw combustion air through the burner assembly.

Natural draft can be created by a stack. Theoretically, the draft is pro- portional to the difference between the stack temperature and ambient temperature and to the height of the stack. With this type of burner a low-profile building with a short "stub" stack can be used to house the boiler. Smoke from the stack of a natural gas installation is evidence of improper operation of the gas burner, specifically, that there is insufficient combustion air.

There must be some permanent provision not just an open window to ensure that fresh air will always be supplied to the combustion equipment. One of the first indications of an inadequate air supply is a hot, stuffy feeling in the boiler Engines Used in Transportation 5. There are three commonly-used en- gines used in the United States to propel surface vehicles and aircraft. These are the spark-ignited internal combustion engine, the compression-ignited internal combustion engine, which is frequently referred to as the diesel, and the aircraft gas-turbine en- gine.

The first of these is used in auto- mobiles, light-duty trucks, light aircraft, motorcycles, outboard motors, and small gaso- line utility engines. The diesel engine is used in large trucks, buses, locomotives, ships, and heavy construction equipment. The gas-turbine engine is commonly used on large aircraft. Both types of internal combustion engines can be subdivided into four-stroke- cycle and two-stroke-cycle engines. These two operating cycles differ in the number of times the piston rises in the cylinder during the combustion of the fuel in the cylinder.

Both cycles consist of four parts. The opera- tions that take place in the spark-ignition engine during the four parts of the cycles are: a Intake of air and fuel b Compression of fuel-air mix- ture during which ignition of the mixture is set off by the spark from a spark plug c Expansion of the burning mix- ture, forcing down the piston and delivering the power which drives the vehicle d Exhaust of the burned gases out of the cylinder.

The differences between the gasoline and diesel engines are the method of ignition and the fuel systems. In the diesel engine the fuel does not enter the cylinder as a mixture with the air but is injected into the cylinder through nozzles during the phase when the air is being compressed to a high pressure and high temperature. Fuel injected into this high-temperature air ignites with- out a spark.

The aircraft gas turbine consists of four main sections: a compressor, a combus- tion chamber or combustor, a turbine, and a tailpipe. When a plane is moving, air is forced into the front of the engine where the com- pressor is.

The compressor, a multibladed fan, compresses the air to several times its density, increasing its temperature and pressure. The compressed air then passes into the combustors, into which fuel is sprayed. The mixture of fuel and air is ignited pro- ducing a high-temperature exhaust gas.

This exhaust gas is expanded into the turbine. The expansion drives the turbine, giving it sufficient power to rotate the com- pressor blades.

After passing through the turbine, the exhaust gas may still have enough velo- city to provide a backward push against the outside air helping to thrust the aircraft forward. There are three categories of air- craft gas-turbine engines: turbojet, turbo- prop, and turbofan. The turbojet engine uses a great pro- portion of the energy of the turbine exhaust gases to provide thrust for the aircraft.

This is done by designing a suitable exit nozzle. Turbojet engines perform best at high altitudes and high speeds. Turboprop engines have a propeller mounted in front of the compressor. They are designed so that most of the energy of the expanding exhaust gases is used in turning the turbine and subsequently to rotate the pro- peller. These engines operate best at low altitudes. In the turbofan engine the fans of the first stages are larger in diameter than the others.

The air taken into the center portion of the compressor passes through as with the turbojet engine. The exhaust gases turn the turbine, driving the compressor, and expand out the rear of the engine producing additional jet thrust. Because of the in- creased frontal area of this engine, it is better adapted to subsonic than to supersonic flight.

Visible Emissions From Mobile Sources 5. Particulate matter is emitted from a gasoline engine in the exhaust gases and in the blowby gases, which escape past the piston rings into the crankcase and then into the ex- haust. Carbon, metallic ash, and hydrocar- bons in aerosol form are the principal parti- culate emissions. If an automobile is per- forming properly these particles will essen- tially all be less than 5 microns in size and not visible as smoke. The color of smoky exhausts may be blue, black, or white.

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Typographic and Graphical Conventions The following symbols are used in drawings: Input signal of a function block, such as a logic setting, a blocking signal or a analog comparator signal etc. Input inversion signal of a function block, such as a logic setting, a blocking signal or a analog comparator signal etc. Improper use in particular reproduction and dissemination to third parties is strictly forbidden except where expressly authorized.

The information in this manual is carefully checked periodically, and necessary corrections will be included in future editions. If nevertheless any errors are detected, suggestions for correction or improvement are greatly appreciated. We reserve the rights to make technical improvements without notice. The chapter contents are summarized as below: 1 Introduction Briefly introduce the application, functions and features about this relay.

It also lists all the information which can be view through the HMI, such as settings, measurements, all kinds of reports etc. A guide to the mechanical and electrical installation of this relay is also provided, incorporating earthing recommendations. A typical wiring connection to this relay is indicated. This relay is suitable for wall surface mounted indoors or outdoors or flush mounted into a control panel. This relay can sample the analog values from the traditional instrument transformers, or receive the sampled values from the electronic current and voltage transformers via a merging unit.

The binary inputs and outputs of this relay can be configured according to the demands of a practical engineering through the PCS-Explorer configuration tool auxiliary software, which can meet some special requirements of protection and control functions. This relay can fully support the IEC communication protocol and GOOSE function, and can completely meet the demands of a modern digitalized substation.

The function diagram of this relay is shown in Figure 1. Figure 1. Rear communication ports: Ethernet, RS, Printer port Time synchronization port: RS z Auxiliary testing functions Auxiliary Testing Functions Virtual tripping report generation and communication testing Virtual self-supervision report generation and communication testing Virtual binary input state change report generation and communication testing Virtual metering values generation and communication testing 1.

Various function optional modules can satisfy various situations according to the different requirements of the users. It is also provides dedicated current transformers for metering, and ensures the high accuracy of telemetering with point high speed sampling rate per cycle. The protection functions do not depend on the communication network, so the failure of communication network will not affect the normal operation of the protection functions.

Each protective element is independent, so it is very convenient for whether adopting the selected protective element. The following sections detail the individual protection functions of this relay. In each functional element, the signal input [XXXX. En1] is used for inputting the enabling signals; and the signal input [XXXX.

Blk] is used for inputting the blocking signals. They can be configured through PCS-Explorer configuration tool auxiliary software. If the signal input [XXXX. The startup conditions of the auto-recloser are satisfied if the auto-recloser is enabled and ready for operating. Any one of the phase currents is in excess of the setting of the stage 1 overcurrent protection multiplied by 0. Any one of the phase currents is in excess of the setting of the stage 2 overcurrent protection multiplied by 0.

Any one of the phase currents is in excess of the setting of the stage 3 overcurrent protection multiplied by 0. Any one of the phase currents is in excess of the setting of the stage 4 overcurrent protection multiplied by 0. The No. The negative sequence current is in excess of the setting of the stage 1 negative sequence overcurrent protection multiplied by 0. The negative sequence current is in excess of the setting of the stage 2 negative sequence overcurrent protection multiplied by 0.

The sensitive earth fault current is in excess of the current setting of the stage 1 sensitive earth fault protection multiplied by 0. The sensitive earth fault current is in excess of the current setting of the stage 2 sensitive earth fault protection multiplied by 0.

The sensitive earth fault current is in excess of the current setting of the stage 3 sensitive earth fault protection multiplied by 0. The sensitive earth fault current is in excess of the current setting of the stage 4 sensitive earth fault protection multiplied by 0.

Any one of the phase currents is in excess of the setting of the SOTF overcurrent protection multiplied by 0. Any one of the phase currents is in excess of [ Any one of the initiation signals of the breaker failure protection is detected if the breaker failure protection is enabled. The voltages are less than the setting of the stage 1 undervoltage protection multiplied by the dropout coefficient setting of the stage 1 undervoltage protection if the stage 1 undervoltage protection is enabled.

The voltages are less than the setting of the stage 2 undervoltage protection multiplied by the dropout coefficient setting of the stage 2 undervoltage protection if the stage 1 undervoltage protection is enabled.

The voltages are greater than the setting of the stage 1 overvoltage protection multiplied by the dropout coefficient setting of the stage 1 overvoltage protection if the stage 1 overvoltage protection is enabled. The voltages are greater than the setting of the stage 2 overvoltage protection multiplied by the dropout coefficient setting of the stage 2 overvoltage protection if the stage 2 overvoltage protection is enabled.

The zero sequence voltage is greater than the setting of the stage 1 zero sequence overvoltage protection multiplied by 0. The zero sequence voltage is greater than the setting of the stage 2 zero sequence overvoltage protection multiplied by 0. The negative sequence voltage is greater than the setting of the negative sequence overvoltage protection multiplied by 0.

The frequency is less than the setting of the stage 1 under-frequency protection and all the phase-to-phase voltages are greater than the voltage setting of the voltage blocking element of the frequency protection if the stage 1 under-frequency protection is enabled and ready for operating. The frequency is less than the setting of the stage 2 under-frequency protection and all the phase-to-phase voltages are greater than the voltage setting of the voltage blocking element of the frequency protection if the stage 2 under-frequency protection is enabled and ready for operating.

The frequency is less than the setting of the stage 3 under-frequency protection and all the phase-to-phase voltages are greater than the voltage setting of the voltage blocking element of the frequency protection if the stage 3 under-frequency protection is enabled and ready for operating. The frequency is greater than the setting of the stage 1 over-frequency protection and all the phase-to-phase voltages are greater than the voltage setting of the voltage blocking element of the frequency protection if the stage 1 over-frequency protection is enabled and ready for operating.

The frequency is greater than the setting of the stage 2 over-frequency protection and all the phase-to-phase voltages are greater than the voltage setting of the voltage blocking element of the frequency protection if the stage 2 over-frequency protection is enabled and ready for operating. The rate-of-change of frequency is greater than the setting of the stage 1 frequency rate-of-change protection if the stage 1 frequency rate-of-change protection is enabled.

The rate-of-change of frequency is greater than the setting of the stage 2 frequency rate-of-change protection if the stage 2 frequency rate-of-change protection is enabled. The rate-of-change of frequency is greater than the setting of the stage 3 frequency rate-of-change protection if the stage 3 frequency rate-of-change protection is enabled.

The rate-of-change of frequency is greater than the setting of the stage 4 frequency rate-of-change protection if the stage 4 frequency rate-of-change protection is enabled. Anyone the binary inputs of the mechanical protections is energized if the corresponding mechanical protection is enabled.

All the phase currents are less than the setting of the undercurrent protection multiplied by 1. Anyone of the phase currents is greater than the setting of the dead zone protection multiplied by 0. The FD Fault Detector element will reset to normal operation status 10s later if the auto-recloser is enabled or ms later if the auto-recloser is disabled, after the last one of the above items is reverted. Each stage can be enabled or disabled independently by the logic settings respectively.

All overcurrent element, directional element, voltage control element and harmonic blocking element settings apply to all three phases but are independent for each of the four stages.

Configuring the relevant settings can enable or disable the corresponding protection. The demonstration characteristic figure of the DT overcurrent protection and IDMT overcurrent protection is shown as below.

The overcurrent block is a level detector that detects whether the current magnitude is above the threshold. The logic diagram of the stage 4 overcurrent protection with definite time characteristic is shown in Figure 3. Figure 3. Various methods are available to achieve correct relay coordination on a system; by means of time alone, current alone or a combination of both time and current. Grading by means of current is only possible where there is an appreciable difference in fault level between the two relay locations.

Grading by time is used by some utilities but can often lead to excessive fault clearance times at or near source substations where the fault level is highest. For these reasons the most commonly applied characteristic in coordinating overcurrent relays is the IDMT type. TMS] is used as Tp in this relay. TMS] is 0. It is also can be programmed according to the demand of the special practical application through the PCS-Explorer configuration tool auxiliary software.

C] do not need to be set, and this relay will use these values as listed in above table. The logic diagram of the stage 4 overcurrent protection is shown in Figure 3. In this case, a reduction in system voltage will occur; this may then be used to reduce the pick up level of the overcurrent protection.

The VCO function can be selectively enabled on the four stages of the main overcurrent element, which was described in Section 3. When the VCO is enabled, the overcurrent setting can be modified just to be in excess of the maximum value of the load current.

The fault characteristic of this protection must then coordinate with any of the downstream overcurrent relays that are responsive to the current decrement condition. It therefore follows that if this relay is to be applied on an outgoing feeder from a generator station, the use of voltage controlled overcurrent protection in the feeder relay may allow better coordination with the VCO relay on the generator.

For the operation accuracy of the VCO protection, it is necessary to take the status of the voltage transformer into account. If the voltage transformer has a fault, the numerical relay will issue a [VTS.

Alm] signal and block all the elements that relate to the voltage measurement. The logic diagram of the voltage control overcurrent protection is shown in Figure 3. Each stage of the overcurrent protection can be set with voltage control by its relevant independent setting respectively. The detailed logic diagram for the voltage control element of phase A for the stage 1 overcurrent protection is shown as below.

Alm] is the alarm signal of the protection voltage transformer supervision. It is therefore a requirement that the relay operates with maximum sensitivity for currents lying in this region.

This is achieved by means of the relay characteristic angle RCA setting; this defines the angle by which the current applied to the relay must be displaced from the voltage applied to the relay to obtain maximum relay sensitivity.

For a close up three-phase fault, all three voltages will collapse to zero and no healthy phase voltage will be present. For this reason, the relay includes a synchronous polarization feature that stores the pre-fault positive sequence voltage information and continues to apply it to the directional overcurrent elements for a time period of 25 fundamental wave cycles, after which, it will keep the result of the directional element, this ensures that either the instantaneous or the time delayed directional overcurrent elements will be allowed to operate, even with a three-phase voltage collapse.

Setting Value 0 1 2 Directional Mode Non-directional Forward directional Reverse directional Any of the four overcurrent stages may be configured to be directional. When the element is selected as directional, a VTS block option is available. The logic diagram of the phase directional overcurrent protection is shown in Figure 3.

Each stage of the overcurrent protection can be set with directional element control by its relevant independent setting respectively. The detailed logic diagram for the phase A directional element for the stage 1 overcurrent protection is shown as below. The logic diagrams of voltage control elements of phase B and phase C can be gotten on the analogy of this. En] [VTS. The following figure shows the logic diagram of the harmonic blocking element of phase A for the stage 1 overcurrent protection.

The logic diagrams of the harmonic blocking elements of phase B and phase C can be gotten on the analogy of this. For the information about the common explanation of the settings, see Section 7.

TMS 0. Alpha 0. Thus, heating is directly proportional to current squared. The thermal time characteristic used in the relay is therefore based on current squared, integrated over time. The relay automatically uses the largest phase current for input to the thermal model. Equipment is designed to operate continuously at a temperature corresponding to its full load rating, where heat generated is balanced with heat dissipated by radiation etc. This relay provides a thermal overload model which is based on the IEC standard.

The thermal overload formulas are shown as below. The characteristic curve of thermal overload model is shown in Figure 3. The input signal [ Clr] it can be led from a binary input of this relay can clear the thermal accumulation without blocking the thermal overload protection, if it is energized.

The thermal overload protection also can be used to issue an alarm signal [ Alm], if the logic setting [ The logic diagram of the thermal overload protection is shown as below. En1] is the binary signal for enabling the thermal overload protection; [ Blk] is the binary signal for blocking the thermal overload protection; [ Clr] is the binary signal for clearing the thermal accumulation.

Menu text Explanation Range Step The reference current setting of the thermal 1 Each stage can be enabled or disabled independently by the corresponding logic setting respectively, and can be controlled with the directional element, harmonic blocking element respectively. The zero sequence current of the No.

Correct selection of faulty phase in zero sequence protection can not be ensured by detection of such a current. Since all protection equipments are connected with each other via network and information resource can be shared in the substation automation system, so the faulty feeder can be identified firstly by comparing information from various feeders which are connected to the same busbar and then decided finally by trial tripping of the circuit breaker of the selected feeder.

In this case, the zero sequence current has to be led from a zero sequence current transformer. When this relay is used in small resistance grounding system, the grounding zero sequence current during earth fault is larger and can be used for tripping directly.

All stages are equipped for the zero sequence current protection. In this case, the zero sequence current for tripping can be calculated or directly led from a zero sequence current transformer. Here, take the No. The operation theory of the No. The following figure shows the logic diagram of the No. The logic diagram of the No. The zero sequence overcurrent block is a level detector that detects whether the current magnitude is above the threshold. En] is the logic setting of the No. With earth fault protection, the polarizing signal is required to be a representative of the earth fault condition.

As residual voltage is generated during earth fault conditions, this quantity is commonly used to polarize DEF elements. This relay internally derives this voltage from the 3-phase voltage input that must be supplied from three single-phase voltage transformers.

These types of VT design allow the passage of residual flux and consequently permit the relay to derive the required residual voltage. In addition, the primary star point of the VT must be earthed. It is possible that small levels of residual voltage will be present under normal system conditions due to system imbalances, VT inaccuracies, relay tolerances etc.

The detailed logic diagram of the zero sequence directional element of the stage 1 zero sequence overcurrent protection is shown as below. The following figure shows the logic diagram of the harmonic blocking element for the stage 1 zero sequence overcurrent protection. All the settings of the No. Each stage can be enabled or disabled independently by the corresponding logic setting respectively, and can be controlled by the directional element respectively.

Each stage can be used for tripping or alarming through the PCS-Explorer and the default is for tripping. When this relay is used in non-effective grounding such as the delta side of a transformer or small current grounding system, the grounding zero sequence current during earth fault is basically small capacitive current.

One current transformer input is dedicated to the sensitive earth fault SEF protection. The input CT is designed specially to operate at very low current magnitudes. The logic diagram of the IDMT sensitive earth fault protection is shown as below. The sensitive earth fault current block is a level detector that detects whether the current magnitude is above the threshold. As residual voltage is generated during earth fault conditions, this quantity is commonly used to polarize directional elements.

The residual voltage is also derived from the 3-phase voltage input, which are same with the directional element for the zero sequence overcurrent protection. The detailed logic diagram of the directional element of the stage 1 sensitive earth fault protection is shown as below.

Unbalanced loads create counter-rotating fields in three-phase induction motors, which act on the rotor at double frequency. This especially goes for motors which are tripped via vacuum contactors with fuses connected in series. With single phasing due to operation of a fuse, the motor only generates small and pulsing torques such that it soon is thermally strained assuming that the torque required by the machine remains unchanged. In addition, the unbalanced supply voltage introduces the risk of thermal overload.

Due to the small negative sequence reactance even small voltage asymmetries lead to large negative sequence currents. This relay provides a two-stage negative sequence overcurrent protection with definite time delay characteristics. Each stage can be enabled or disabled by scheme logic settings independently.

The two stages have same protection logics if they are set with definite time characteristics. The logic diagram for the stage 1 negative sequence overcurrent protection is shown as below. The negative sequence overcurrent block is a level detector that detects whether the negative sequence current magnitude is above the threshold.

Blk] is the binary signal for blocking the NOC1 protection. The logic diagram of the negative sequence overcurrent protection is shown as below. The negative sequence current block is a level detector that detects whether the current magnitude is above the threshold.

Blk] is the binary signal for blocking the NOC2 protection. This will be affected to a lesser extent than the measurement of negative sequence current alone, since the ratio is approximately constant with variations in load current.

Hence, a more sensitive setting may be achieved. At the moment when the circuit breaker is closed, because the three poles of the circuit breaker are discrepant for a very short time, and if the broken conductor protection is enabled, it is easy to make the broken conductor protection pick up, and it will restore after the load current is stable. The logic diagram is as shown below. En] is the logic setting of the broken conductor protection; [50BC. En1] is the binary signal for enabling the broken conductor protection; [50BC.

Blk] is the binary signal for blocking the broken conductor protection. The breaker failure protection in this relay has two independent definite time delay characteristics. For some special faults for example, mechanical protection or overvoltage protection operating , maybe the faulty current is very small and the current criterion of the breaker failure protection can not be satisfied, in order to make the breaker failure protection can operate in such a situation, the auxiliary contact of the circuit breaker can be taken into account.

So this relay provides four criteria logics to meet different requirements. The criteria conditions are list as below: A the phase current is greater than the setting [50BF. St] [50BF. Op] [50BF. En] [50BF. ReTrp] [50BF. En] is the logic setting of the breaker failure protection; [50BF. En1] is the binary signal for enabling the breaker failure protection; [50BF. Blk] is the binary signal for blocking the breaker failure protection; [50BF.

The time setting of the breaker failure protection should be based on the maximum circuit breaker operating time plus the dropout time of the current flow monitoring element plus a safety margin which takes into consideration the tolerance of the time delay.

Such faults may be due to a fault condition not having been removed from the feeder, or due to earthing clamps having been left on the following maintenance. In either case, it may be desirable to clear the fault condition in an accelerated time, rather than waiting for the time delay associated with overcurrent protection. Switch onto fault overcurrent protection and zero sequence accelerated overcurrent protection are equipped in this equipment. Acceleration before or after tripping can be configured by setting the logic setting [SOTF.

Acceleration after tripping includes accelerated tripping for manual switching-onto-fault or automatic reclosing-onto-fault.

Current settings and delays of these two accelerated tripping protections can be configured independently. The logic diagram of the switch onto fault protection is shown as below. Ready] is used to denote the auto-recloser is ready for operating; [ Therefore, it allows the protection settings to be set closer to the load profile by automatically increasing them following circuit energization.

The CLP logic thus provides stability, whilst maintaining protection during starting. The CLP function acts upon the overcurrent protection and the No. The output signal of the CLP logic also can be used as a blocking signal for a selected protective element through the PCS-Explorer configuration tool software.

The logic diagram of the cold load pickup function is shown in Figure 3. The cold load pickup logic operates when the circuit breaker remains open for a time greater than [CLP. The status of the circuit breaker is provided either by means of the load current [CLP. The signal [CLP. After the delay [CLP. And if a fast resetting signal is received, the normal protection settings are applied after the delay [CLP.

ShortRst] [CLP. St] [CLP. Init] [CLP. En] [CLP. Blk] Figure 3. OnLoad] is the signal denotes anyone of the phase currents is greater than 0. ShortRst] is the binary signal of the short resetting function; [CLP.

Init] is the binary signal for initiating the cold load pickup logic function for example, a binary input signal from other relevant relay ; [CLP. En] is the logic setting of the cold load pickup logic function; [CLP.

IMult 1. The two stages have same protection logics. This protection can support all kinds of VT connection: three phase voltage Ua, Ub, Uc , three phase-to-phase voltages Uab, Ubc, Uca , two phase-to-phase voltages Uab, Ubc , anyone of three phase voltages or anyone of three phase-to-phase voltages.

Two methods are used to check the undervoltage condition by the setting [27P. If setting [27P. The setting [27P. So the voltage setting must be set in accordance with the setting [27P.

If the system voltage is lost, the undervoltage protection is blocked. The criterion of the system voltage lost detects that all the three phase voltages are less than 15V, and the load current can be taken into account according to the application demands through [27P1. OnLoad] which denotes whether there has load current anyone of the three phase currents is greater than 0.

The signal [27P1. En] is the logic setting of the stage 1 undervoltage protection; [27P1. En1] is the binary signal for enabling the stage 1 undervoltage protection; [27P1. The dropout coefficient [27Px. Two methods are used to check the overvoltage condition by the setting [59P. If setting [59P.

The setting [59P. So the voltage setting must be set in accordance with the setting [59P. En] is the logic setting of the stage 1 overvoltage protection; [59P1. En1] is the binary signal for enabling the stage 1 overvoltage protection; [59P1.

Blk] is the binary signal for blocking the stage 1 overvoltage protection. The dropout coefficient [59Px. However, when an earth fault occurs on the primary system, the balance is upset and a residual voltage is produced.

Hence, a zero sequence overvoltage protection can be used to offer earth fault protection on such a system. This relay provides a two-stage zero sequence overvoltage protection with definite time delay characteristics. The following figure shows the logic diagram of the stage 1 zero sequence overvoltage protection. En] is logic setting of the stage 1 zero sequence overvoltage protection.

En1] is the binary signal for enabling the stage 1 zero sequence overvoltage protection; [59G1. Blk] is the binary signal for blocking the stage 1 zero sequence overvoltage protection. However, when an unbalance situation occurs on the primary system, the negative sequence voltage is produced.

This relay provides a one-stage negative sequence overvoltage protection with definite time delay characteristic. The negative sequence voltage is self-calculated. The following figure shows the logic diagram of the negative sequence overvoltage protection. En] is logic setting of the negative sequence overvoltage protection. En1] is the binary signal for enabling the negative sequence overvoltage protection; [59Q. Blk] is the binary signal for blocking the negative sequence overvoltage protection.

If the frequency is out of the allowable range, the appropriate actions are initiated, such as load shedding or separating a generator from the system. A decrease in system frequency occurs when the system experiences an increase in the real power demand, or when a malfunction occurs with a generator governor or automatic generation control AGC system.

The frequency protection function is also used for generators, which for a certain time operate to an island network. This is due to the fact that the reverse power protection cannot operate in case of a drive power failure. The generator can be disconnected from the power system using the frequency decrease protection. An increase in system frequency occurs, e.

This entails risk of self-excitation for generators feeding long lines under no-load conditions. The calculation of the frequency is based on the voltage sampled values.

Four cycles of the voltage sampled values are fixedly adopted for the frequency calculation. It provides a four-stage under-frequency protection with independent definite time delay characteristics in this relay, and the four stages have same protection logics. This protection can be enabled after ms only when the frequency is greater than the frequency setting [81Ux. Meanwhile, this protection will be blocked when the system frequency is less than The logic diagram of the stage 1 under-frequency protection is shown as below.

En] is the logic setting of the stage 1 under-frequency protection; [81U1. En1] is the binary signal for enabling the stage 1 under-frequency protection; [81U1. Blk] is the binary signal for blocking the stage 1 under-frequency protection.

This protection can be enabled after ms only when the frequency is less than the frequency setting [81Ox. Meanwhile, this protection will be blocked when the power frequency is less than The logic diagram of the stage 1 over-frequency protection is shown as below.

En] is the logic setting of the stage 1 over-frequency protection; [81O1. En1] is the binary signal for enabling the stage 1 over-frequency protection; [81O1. Blk] is the binary signal for blocking the stage 1 over-frequency protection. Depending upon whether the rate-of-change of frequency threshold is set above or below zero, each stage can respond to either rising or falling rate-of-change of frequency conditions: if the setting [81Rx.

The logic diagram of the stage 1 frequency rate-of-change protection is shown as below. En] is the logic setting of the stage 1 frequency rate-of-change protection; [81R1. En1] is the binary signal for enabling the stage 1 frequency rate-of-change protection; [81R1. Blk] is the binary signal for blocking the stage 1 frequency rate-of-change protection.

The calculation of the rate-of-change of frequency is based on the calculated frequency values. Four cycles of the calculated frequency values are fixedly adopted for the calculation of the rate-of-change of frequency in this relay.

Menu text Explanation Range Step The setting of the low voltage blocking element of 1 This relay will initiate the auto-recloser for fault clearance by the phase overcurrent protection, the earth fault protection etc. At the end of the dead time of each shot, if all the auto-reclosing conditions are satisfied, a circuit breaker close signal is given.

The auto-reclosing output time pulse width is configurable through the setting [ The CB close signal is cut-off when the circuit breaker is closed. If the CB position check function is enabled the setting [ If the CB closed position condition is not met in the period [ Fail] will be issued.

When the auto-reclosing command is issued, the reclaim timer starts. If the circuit breaker does not trip again, the auto-recloser resets at the end of the reclaim time. If the protection operates during the reclaim time delay [ The reclaim time should be set long enough to allow this relay to operate when the circuit breaker is automatically closed onto a fault. If any blocking condition is met in the process of the auto-recloser, the auto-recloser will be blocked at once.

And if any shot of the auto-recloser can not operate successfully, the signal [ Once the circuit breaker has opened, a dead time interval in accordance with the type of fault is started. Once the dead time interval has elapsed, a closing signal is issued to reclose the circuit breaker. If the fault is cleared, the reclaim time expires and the automatic reclosing is reset in anticipation of a future fault. The fault is cleared. If the fault is not cleared, then a final tripping signal is initiated by one or more protective elements.

The shot number of reclosing can be set. The first reclose cycle is, in principle, the same as the single-shot auto-reclosing. If the first reclosing attempt is unsuccessful, this does not result in a final trip, but in a reset of the reclaim time interval and start of the next reclose cycle with the next dead time.

This can be repeated until the shot number of reclosing has been reached. If one of the reclosing attempts is successful, i. The fault is terminated. All reclosing attempts were unsuccessful. After the final circuit breaker trip, the automatic reclosing system is dynamically blocked. An example of a timing diagram for a successful second reclosing is shown as below.

En] [ En1] [ Ready] [ Blk] [ Inprog] 25A. En] is the logic setting of the auto-recloser; [ Ready] denotes that the auto-recloser is ready for operation; [ En1] is the binary signal for enabling the auto-recloser; [ Blk] is the binary signal for blocking the auto-recloser; [ OnLoad] denotes that anyone of the phase currents is greater than 0.

Init] is the auto-recloser initiation signal which can be configured through PCS-Explorer. Any protection element is not in startup status; i. If the auto-recloser is ready, there is a full charged battery sign on the right bottom of LCD. The logic diagram of the auto-recloser ready conditions is shown as below.

Ready 0 tPWBlk [ En1] Figure 3. The auto-reclosing startup logic diagram is shown in Figure 3. Only when the circuit breaker has tripped completely, the auto-recloser will be put into service. Each mode can be selected through a corresponding logic setting. The protection voltage is greater than the setting [ The synchro-check voltage is greater than [ For the details about the settings [ If the above conditions are satisfied at the same time for longer than [25A.

When the reclosing operation is executed, this relay checks the synchronism check closing conditions in the period of the setting [25A. If the synchro check closing conditions are satisfied, this relay will issue the reclosing command.

These burners can be divided into two classes--horizontal ro- tary and vertical rotary. The vertical ro- tary is used only for domestic burners under 10 gallons per hour.

Horizontal rotary cup burners are used for the residual fuel oils. The oil is distributed on the cup or plate in a thin film. The primary air from the burner fan is discharged through an air nozzle which has vanes to give the air a rotary motion opposite that of the oil.

Additional air for combus- tion--secondary air--must also be injected into the combustion chamber for complete bur- ning. Mechanical atomizing burners employ both high oil pressure and centrifugal action. The fuel oil is given a strong whirling action before it is released into the orifice. These are the burners most often found at large steam power plants. The key to optimum oil burner opera- tion is careful control of fuel viscosity. A given burner functions properly only if the viscosity at the burner orifice is held be- tween narrow limits.

If the viscosity is too high, effec- tive atomization does not take place. If the viscosity is too low, oil flow through the orifice is too great, upsetting the balance between combustion air and fuel. Most heavy residual oil must be warm to allow pumping. Preheaters are used to heat the oil and keep it flowing. For high-visco- sity oils, the preheater is likely to be loca- ted at the supply tank.

With oils of lower viscosity, preheaters are often located at the burner. Before the oil reaches the burner, it is passed through a strainer or filter to re- move the sludge. This filtering process pro- longs pump life, reduces burner wear, and in- creases combustion efficiency. The most important consideration in combustion chamber design is heat release, or British thermal unit release per cubic foot of furnace volume. Too high a heat release will result in excessive furnace temperatures.

Too low a heat release will result in exces- sive cooling of the flame and smoking fires. The size of the combustion chamber will determine the heat release.

The shape of the chamber will prevent the flame from impinging on the sides of the furnace where it would cool, resulting in incomplete com- bustion and smoke. Draft systems can be classified as natural, induced, or forced or combinations of these. Natural draft results from the dif- ference in pressure between the stack and the outside air.

Stacks that are too small for the firing rate will create back pressure. Too large a stack will cause the same condi- tions because of internal turbulence and too cool a stack temperature. Induced draft systems require a fan that sucks combustion products through the boiler and forces them up the stack.

Forced-draft systems suck air in from the boiler room, push it into the boiler, and force the combustion products up the stack. The burning of oil can produce sulfur oxides, inorganic ash, nitrogen oxides, car- bon, and unburned hydrocarbons. The sulfur oxides and inorganic ash are attributable to the fuel. The air contaminants affected by burner design and operation are carbon, car- bon monoxide, aldehydes, organic acids, and unburned hydrocarbons.

If a burner is operated properly, no visible emissions should be caused by oxidi- zable air contaminants, and the concentrations of items such as aldehydes and carbon monoxide should be negligible.

Thus, when an oil- burning system smokes, emits appreciable odor, or causes eye irritation, there is something wrong in atomization, mixing, or burning. The burner and fuel may not be compatible or the burner may not be properly adjusted. Incomplete atomization of the oil caused by improper fuel temperature, dirty, worn, or damaged burner tips, or improper fuel or steam pressure may cause the furnace to smoke. A poor draft or improper fuel-to- air ratio may also cause smoking.

Other factors they may cause smoking are poor mixing and insufficient turbulence of the air and oil mixture, low furnace tem- peratures, and insufficient time for fuel to burn completely in the combustion chamber. There are two kinds of hydrocarbon combustion--hydroxylation and decomposition cracking. Hydroxylation or blue-flame burning takes place when the hydrocarbon molecules combine with oxygen and produce alcohols or peroxides that split into aldehydes and water.

Decomposition or yellow-flame burn- ing takes place when the hydrocarbons "crack" or decompose into lighter compounds. The lighter compounds then crack into carbon and hydrogen, which burn to form C02 and H-O. A mixture of yellow- and blue-flame burning is ideal. Boiler Types 3. The vast majority of combustion equipment is used to heat or vaporize water. These boilers and heaters fall into three general classifications: fire-tube, water- tube, and sectional. In fire-tube boilers, the heated gases resulting from combustion pass through heat-exchanger tubes while water, steam, or other fluid is contained outside the tubes.

Fire-tube boilers make up the lar- gest share of small- and medium-size indus- trial boilers including the Scotch marine and fire-box types.

In all water-tube boilers, the water, steam, or other fluid is circulated through tubes while the hot combustion gases pass out- side the tubes. All large boilers for steam generation are of this type. The smallest and largest industrial units are likely to be of a water-tube design.

Sectional boilers use irregularly shaped heat exchanges and cannot be classi- fied as either water-tube or fire-tube types. Hot combustion gases are directed through some of these passages, transferring heat through metal walls to water or steam in other passa- ges. These units are manufactured in identi- cal sections which can be joined together. A sectional boiler consists of one or more sec- tions. Soot Blowing 3. Whenever fuels of measurable ash con- tent are burned, some solids such as carbon and inorganic ash adhere to heat-transfer sur- faces in the combustion equipment.

These de- posits must be removed periodically to main- tain adequate heat-transfer rates. It is common practice to remove these deposits with jets of air or steam from a long, retractable soot blower while the combustion equipment is in operation.

These removed soot particles are entrained in the combustion gases. Thus, during these periods of soot blowing the plume may have an excessive opacity. Whenever residual fuel oils or solid fuels are burned in large steam generators, tube cleaning is usually conducted at least once during every 24 hours of operation. When tubes are blown at 2- to 4- hour intervals, there is little increase in the opacity of stack emissions. Intervals of 8 hours or more between soot blowing can result in excessive visible opacities.

Black Smoke and White Smoke 3. When residual oils or solid fuels are burned in a deficiency of oxygen, car- bon particles and unburned hydrocarbons im- part a visible blackness to the exit gases'.

Visible emissions ranging from gray through brown to white can also be created by the combustion of hydrocarbon fuels, par- ticularly liquid fuel. These non-black plumes generally are caused by va- porization of hydrocarbons in the combustion chamber. This is sometimes accompanied by cracking and the subsequent condensation of droplets. White smoke frequently is attri- buted to excessive combustion air or loss of flame. Visible plumes of greater than 40 percent opacity are frequently observed at large oil-fired steam generators, where in- complete combustion is a relative rarity.

These opaque emissions are commonly attribu- ted to inorganic particulates and sulfuric acid aerosols formed by the combination of sulfur trioxide, moisture, and flue gases. The condensation of the sulfuric acid aero- sol may be enhanced by the presence of par- ticulate matter, which provides condensation nuclei. Particulates 3. Where combustion is nearly complete, inorganic ash constitutes the principal par- ticulate emission. The quantity of these inorganic solid particulates is entirely de- pendent upon the fuel.

Distillate fuels do not contain appreciable amounts of ash. In residual oils, however, inorganic ash-forming materials are found in quantities up to 0. However, even that amount, when emitted from efficient burning, is not likely to exceed air pollution control statutes.

The particulates emitted from normal oil firing are principally in the submicron range of diameters where they can cause scat- tering of light. Over 85 percent of the par- ticles from efficient oil burning are less than 1 micron in diameter. If incomplete combustion occurs and carbon or hydrocarbon particles are emitted, then the average particle size is larger. If a light fuel oil is burned in a deficiency of oxygen, the resulting carbon particles are likely to be very fine.

Cenospheres are hollow, black, coke-like spherical particles of low density usually having a minimum dimension of 0. Particulates emitted from residual fuel oil combustion consist of 10 to 30 per- cent ash, 17 to 25 percent sulfate, and 25 to 50 percent cenosphere.

Sulfur Trioxide 3. Of the sulfur contained in fuel oil, 95 percent shows up in the exhaust gases as sulfur dioxide, a colorless gas. Up to 5 per- cent of the sulfur may be converted to sulfur trioxide. If the SOj come into contact with surfaces below the dew point of the gas, the SOj combines with water vapor to produce sul- furic acid.

This sulfuric acid mist is visi- ble. Concentrations of SOj are negligible in small equipment, even when fired with high- sulfur fuel oils. As the equipment sizes and firebox tempertures increase, SOo concentra- tions increase rapidly. Large steam generators may emit SOo mist of greater than 40 percent opacity when fired with oil of greater than 1. Sulfur trioxide tends to acidify par- ticulate matter discharged from combustion equipment. This is commonly evidenced by acid spots on painted and metallic surfaces as well as on vegetation.

Acid damage generally is the result of soot blowing. See 3. Formation of SOj depends upon several factors. Concentrations of sulfur dioxide in- crease with increases in a Combustion chamber tempera- ture b Oxygen concentration c Vanadium, iron, and nickel oxide content of the fuel oil. The visible plume from a large oil- fired unit normally varies from white to brown, depending upon weather conditions and the composition of the particulate matter.

In some cases, the SOj plume will be detached from the stack. It will become vi- sible at the point where the sulfuric acid mist is cooled below its dew point. These deposits can be re- moved by washing, but only at the infrequent intervals when the steam generator is out of service.

Air Pollution Engineering Manual. Control Equipment 3. The only air pollution control de- vices that have found ready acceptance on oil-fired power plant boilers are dust collec- tors used to control particulates during soot blowing. Dry, small-diameter, multiple cy- clones are the most common soot-control de- vices installed.

Use of centrifugal collectors during normal operations is worthless since the col- lectors are not efficient in removing parti- culates of less than 5-microns diameter, which is the range in which over 95 percent of the oil-fired emissions lie. The use of electrostatic precipita- tors for oil-fired power plants is limited to areas where restrictive legislation requires low particulate loadings and low opacity of stack effluents. They collect nearly all the particulates including the liquid sulfuric acid droplets.

The particulate loading may be decreased by as much as 90 percent and the emission may be cut in half. Oil Burning Equipment. Other Emissions From Fuel Combustion. The types of coal are a Anthracite hard coal b Bituminous soft coal c Lignite brown coal.

Anthracite coal is mined in Pennsyl- vania, Rhode Island, and Arkansas. There are 23 districts in the United States which mine bituminous coal. Anthracite is less smoky and gives off less sulfur dioxide, but it is not as abundant as bituminous. After coal is mined, it is generally prepared before it is used. Raw or unprepared coal is used in some power plants--mine mouth plants. Preparation of coal includes crushing and cleaning to remove impurities, drying to remove moisture, and separation into the de- sired sizes.

Two basic methods are normally used to describe the composition of coal: the Pro- ximate Analysis and the Ultimate Analysis. Proximate Analysis gives the percen- tages by weight of the following which are found in the coal: a Volatile Matter - portion of the coal that will form gases and vapors hydrocarbons, hy- drogen, and carbon monoxide and be driven off when the coal is heated to F for 7 min- utes.

It is mostly carbon, burns slowly, and will give a bluish flame. Slate, clay, sandstone, shale, carbonates, pyrite, and gypsum. This Pro- ximate Analysis may be made on the coal as received AR or dry excluding the moisture.

The Ultimate Analysis gives the che- mical composition of the coal by dividing the coal, except for the ash, into its basic ele- ments. Another measurement which describes the coal is the Screen Analysis, or Size Con- sist.

It tells the percentage of the coal that will fall through a screen with a certain size opening but which will not fall through the next smaller size screen. The Screen Analysis can be made with a screen having either round or square holes, but the two screens will give different totals. Thus, the type of holes should be specified. From the air pollution viewpoint, the amounts of volatile matter, ash, and sulfur, along with the heating value, are the most im- portant part of the Proximate Analysis.

Vola- tile matter is related to the emission of smoke; ash is related to particulate emission. Sulfur content is related to sulfur oxide emissions. Heating value is related to the total amount of pollutant production.

The size of the coal is important to the smoke and flue dust emission. The optimum coal size is determined by the method of firing.

The impurities in coal are ash, moist- ure, and sulfur. The ash is dispersed throughout the coal as finely divided matter or is present as pieces of slate, rock, or clay.

The pieces of ash can be removed in preparation plants by crushing and washing. Power plants usually burn higher ash coals, while lower ash coals go to the retail market. Moisture may be present as finely di- vided amounts of water dispersed throughout the coal or as water clinging to the coal surface. A certain amount of moisture is helpful in re- ducing the tendency of coal to form strong coke in some stokers.

It also prevents a dust prob- lem. Sulfur is found in coal in three forms: a As an iron disulfide, FeS2, called pyritic sulfur or as golden colored iron pyrites in the form of very heavy balls or lenses and in small flakes or crystals or bands as part- ings. This sometimes is called "Fools Gold". High-sulfurcoal is characterized by the fact that content of all three forms of sulfur is high. Very often with high-sulfur coal, the pyritic form will be as prevalent or more so than the organic and sulfate forms combined.

The pyritic sulfur is found in small discrete particles within the coal; a percen- tage of this sulfur may be removed by washing or other mechanical means. However, even after washing, most of the sulfur in the coal will be of the pyritic form. At present, no economical means is feasible for the removal of any of the organic or sulfate forms of sulfur from the coal prior to its initial use.

Basics of Coal Combustion and Combustion Equipment 4. Some of the terminology describing characteristics of most coal-burning furnace systems are as follows: a Fuel bed - layers of coal distri- buted over a grate which allows the air to move through the coal layers.

In effect, the breeching thus becomes a series of short duct-work connectors. Coal will not burn as a solid; no fuel will. The combustion process must va- porize, gasify, or break down a solid into individaul molecules by the addition of heat.

The underfeed operation introduces the primary air and the fuel from below the grate. The fuel burns from the top to the bottom of the bed. Overfeed operation introduces coal to the grate from the top and the primary air from below.

Burning occurs from the bottom to the top of the fuel bed. When coal burns in an overfeed bed on a grate, the process takes place in layers: a At the bottom of the bed and above the grate where a layer of ash serves to protect the grate and preheat the primary air. This is the hottest part of the fuel bed. Unless more air secondary air is introduced, the hydrocarbons and tars crack, decompose, or condense and are emitted to the atmosphere as white, yellow, or black smoke.

If oxygen is present in sufficient quantity at the time the volatile matter is distilled, the hydrocarbons oxidize completely without forming soot and smoke through the thermal cracking and condensation reactions. Secon- dary air is sometimes called combustion air and, since it is introduced above the fire, it is often identical to "overfire air".

Overfeed fuel beds are smoky because burning gases rise through fresh fuel, thus resulting in rapid devolatilization of the fresh fuel in a zone having a deficiency of oxygen. Underfeed beds are inherently smoke free. The air and fresh fuel flow upward to- gether. The zone of ignition, which is near the point of maximum evolution of the combus- tible gases, is supplied with ample well mixed air which promotes complete combustion.

Heat-exchange equipment converts the heat released by the burning of the coal into a form that can be used. There are five cate- gories : a Radiant heat absorbers - can line furnace walls with watercooled surfaces. These surfaces trans- mit to the water the heat which is radiated to them. Next, the heated gases from the furnace were directed around the water tank and through a large tube which passed through the tank.

Next, this return tube was replaced by many small tubes 3 or 4-in. There are three types of boilers in use currently: 1 Fire-tube boiler - fire is made in the large tube and the gases make several passes through the smaller tubes. Some Terms Used in Coal Combustion 4. Draft is a measure of the positive pressure or negative pressure vacuum or air or gases in various parts of a combustion sys- tem.

There are several types of draft: a Forced draft - air pressure is supplied by a fan pushing air into the system. This causes primary air to be drawn into the furnace system to balance out the negative pressure. If it is positive, the gases will leak out of the furnace.

If it is negative, gases will leak in. Forced draft functions from the opposite or feed end of the system. Coke is the fixed carbon and ash which are left after the coal has been heated and the volatile matter has been driven off.

Coking coal refers to a coal that melts and fuses to form larger lumps, even though the coal may have been in small pieces. Bituminous is usually a good coking coal and anthracite is not. Carbon in the ash - if some of the coal is heated enough to drive off the volatile matter but does not finish burning all of the carbon, the ash will contain some pieces of unburned carbon or coke.

Cverfire air - air is injected above the fuel bed instead of through it as is nor- mal. The overfire air is forced through jets or nozzles in the furnace walls. The purpose of the overfire air jets is to increase the mixing or turbulence of the gases to insure complete combustion and prevent smoke. Slagging - when molten ash particles build up on the walls or tubes of a boiler and flow together, the deposit is called slag and the process is called slagging.

Plume Visibility 4. The visible plume from coal combus- tion may be caused by condensed water vapor, sulfur trioxide, sulfuric acid mist, organic liquids or solids, particulates, and smoke. Smoke - the black clouds called smoke are actually small, unburned or partially burned solid carbon particles and solid or liquid hy- drocarbon particles.

They result from the in- complete combustion of the volatile products of the fuel. The carbon of the smoke does not arise from the free carbon of the fuel but from the cooling of the hot hydrocarbon gases of the volatile matter. If these particles are depo- sited inside the combustion system, they are called soot. Once formed, carbon soot is difficult to burn. To prevent this soot from being car- ried away as pollution, the hydrocarbons should be burned as close as possible to the fuel bed before they are decomposed by the heat into soot and smoke.

It has been found that there is a marked rise in the percentage of both carbon soot and tar benzene soluble contained in the particulate as the smoke density increases. The black smoke plume is visible be- cause of the size of its solid and liquid par- ticles.

They range between 0. These particles between 0. Most of the mass is in the larger particles, which have little effect in absorbing or scattering light. The black shade of a combustion plume can be reduced by a good adjustment of air- to-fuel ratio. One indication of this is the flame in the furnace: a With a good adjustment of air to the coal feed, the flame will be yellowish orange in color with no black tips.

It will appear soft. And its lu- minosity will give a maximum of radiant heat-energy transfer. Its radiant heat energy will be lessened. Since a reducing atmosphere is now well indicated, soot may be formed and collect at some point in the system.

The smoke will be dark. When a flame impinges on a cold sur- face, smoke and soot are formed. Complete combustion should be obtained before the flame is allowed to hit a cold surface. Mechanical Coal-Firing Equipment 4. Overfeed stokers - earliest type con- sisted of a steeply inclined grate with alter- nate stationary and movable sections. Coal moved down the grate when a lever outside the furnace was moved. Underfeed stokers - two forms: single retort and multiple retort. Single retort - consists of coal hop- per, one feed trough or retort containing a feeding device a screw or pusher with the grate above it.

This stoker moves coal a from front to rear in retort, b from retort upward to the grate where it is burned, c sideways on the grate to the ash pits at the sides. Widely used with smaller boilers. Multiple retort - early variety had one coal hopper across several parallel re- torts. Ash was dumped periodically from the rear into an ash pit.

Later, all the retorts were driven by a single crankshaft. They re- quire forced draft fans. There may be as many as 18 multiple retorts. Traveling grate stoker - grate sur- face consists of an endless belt with sprock- ets at either end.

Coal hopper with a gate at one end controls the coal feed. Grate is moved with gears powered by an electric motor or turbine. Coal is laid on the grate from the hopper and is moved through the furnace as the burning takes place. Ash is dropped off the grate into an ash pit at the rear. Presently forced-draft fans are used with traveling grate stokers. Vibrating grate stoker - consists of a water-cooled grate structure on which the coal moves from the hopper at the front of the boiler through the burning zone by means of a high-speed vibrating mechanism.

As with the traveling grate, the fuel bed progresses to the rear, where the ash is continuously discharged. Vibrating stokers may emit slightly higher concentrations of fly ash than traveling-grate stokers because of in- creased agitation of the fuel bed. Spreader stoker - consists of a coal hopper, a feeding mechanism, and a device that injects the coal into the furnace usually a rotating flipper. The coal is thrown into the furnace and partly burned in suspension.

The larger particles fall to the grate and burn there. Essentially, the spreader stoker employs overfeed burning, an inherently smoky method, plus suspension burning, an inherently smoke-free method producing fly ash. Over- fire jets have been found essential to smoke- free operation. They also reduce dust emis- sion significantly, but not enough to meet most ordinances, unless a particulate collec- tor is used. Pulverized-fuel firing unit - in this system, coal is pulverized to particles, at least 70 percent of which pass through a mesh sieve median size of the particles is 5.

In direct-firing systems, raw coal is dried and pulverized simulta- neously in a mill and is fed to the burners as required by the furnace load.

A prede- termined coal-air ratio is maintained for any load. In indirect-firing systems there are storage bins and feeders between the pulveri- zers and burners. Pulverized-fuel firing units are of two basic types--wet bottom and dry bottom. In a wet-bottom unit, the tem- perature in the furnace is maintained high enough so that the slag does not solidify or fuse and it can be removed from the bottom as a liquid.

The dry-bottom furnace maintains a temperature below this point so that the ash will not fuse. The steam elec- tric plants, where pulverized fuel firing is used most, emit percent of the ash fired in the coal as fine fly ash. Therefore, all modern plants of this type must have high- efficiency dust collectors. Cyclone furnace - fires crushed coal that is nearly as fine as pulverized coal in- to a water-cooled, refractory lines cylindri- cal chamber 8 to 10 feet in diameter.

The coal and air swirl in a cyclonic manner as the burning proceeds. Combustion is so in- tense that a small portion of the molten ash coating the wall of the chamber is vaporized. Approximately 85 percent of the ash fired is retained as molten slag; hence, the fly-ash load is much lower than with pulverized coal. However, the ash which does escape the cy- clone is extremely fine and thus difficult to collect. Pulverized-coal burners and cyclone furnaces are the universal equipment for firing coal in the large new electric-gene- rating stations.

Some types of burning equipment underfeed stokers, overfeed stokers, spreader stokers, and pulverized-fuel burners make use of a certain amount of fly-ash reinjection. In this process, cinders are returned to the grate from the fly-ash collector and burned again to reduce the loss of unburned carbon.

Improper combustion - if a furnace pro- duces smoke, either the fuel and air are not in balance or the three T's of combustion are not being satisfied. The cause may be one or more of the following conditions: a Insufficient, air for the amount of fuel b Improper distribution of the air or fuel c Too much air usually overfire air , which chills the flame before all combustion is com- plete d Insufficient turbulence or mixing of the air e Cold fire box - often caused by excessive furnace draft, which pulls outside air into the fire box through doors and leaks; it usually occurs at low load.

Possible causes for improper distri- bution of air or fuel a Uneven depth of fuel bed b Plugged air holes in the grate c Clinkei which shuts off air flow d Leaky seals around the edges of the grate area e Improper burner adjustment Possible reasons for insufficient tur- a Insufficient overfire air b Plugged overfire air nozzles c Nozzles that are improperly aimed d Incorrect burner adjustment e Excessive furnace draft 4.

Importance of coal and equipment in particulate emissions a Type of firing - least emission occurs with underfeed stokers, the greatest with pulveri- zed coal b Furnace design - least emis- sion with large furnaces and greatest with small furnaces of pulverized coal furnaces c Secondary air jets tend to reduce emission d Coal size - the greater the proportion of small sizes, the greater the emissions.

Smaller sizes are more easily swept up the chimney. Low-volatile fuel burns with a short, transparent flame. And as the velocity increases, more and larger particles are carried out of the furnace. The most important variable in hand- fired furnaces is the volatile content of the fuel burned, the smoke potential increasing rapidly as volatile content increases.

Several types of control equipment have been used to collect the particulates from coal combustion: a Settling chambers b Large-diameter cyclones c Multiple small-diameter cyclones d Wet scrubbers e Electrostatic precipitators.

The settling chamber is a low-effi- ciency, low-cost, low-pressure-drop device. It generally is applied to natural-draft, sto- ker-fired units. Collection efficiency is 50 to 60 percent.

Large-diameter cyclones have higher pressure drops. Their efficiency ranges from 65 percent for stoker-fired units to 20 per- cent for cyclone furnaces.

Multiple small-diameter cyclone units are used as precleaners for electrostatic pre- cipitators or as final cleaners. Efficiencies range from 90 percent for stoker-fired units to 70 percent for cyclone furnaces. Wet scrubbers are limited to the con- trol of particulate emissions during soot blowing, although alkaline scrubbers to re- move both fly ash and sulfur dioxide are under development.

Electrostatic precipitators are the most commonly used devices for cleaning the gases from large, stationary combustion sour- ces such as those burning pulverized coal. They are capable of efficiencies up to 99 per- cent. Efficiency of collection for cyclone collectors increases as the load increases. An increase in the carbon content of coal is usually associated with an increase in size distribution. Thus, as firing rate increases or the carbon content of the coal increases, the centrifugal collector becomes more effi- cient.

The electrostatic precipitator be- comes less efficient as the load increases. An increase in carbon content is associated with an increase in electrical resistivity. Electro- static precipitators are not generally used for high-carbon ash, which is derived from stokers. They are best adapted to pulverized coal-fired units. Coal Burning Equipment. Design of Coal Combustion Equipment. Cuffe and R.

More efficient combustion of these fuels can reduce the opacity of the plumes produced from these sources. Other types of combustion, both for the production of usable energy and for the burning of waste materials, will produce black and non-black plumes. Some of these combustion sources and the cause and control of their plumes are dis- cussed in this section.

Solid Waste Disposal by Incineration 5. The methods of burning solid waste in- clude the use of open-top or trench incinera- tors, conical metal "tepee" burners, domestic incinerators, apartment-house incinerators, and municipal incinerators as well as open burning. Incinerators can be classified in sev- eral ways, such as by their size, their method of feeding, the type of waste they will handle, or the number of combustion chambers they con- tain. A single-chamber incinerator is de- signed so that feeding, combustion, and ex- haust to a stack take place in one chamber.

The multiple-chamber incinerator has three or more separate chambers in series for admission and combustion of the solid refuse, mixing and further combustion of the fly ash and gaseous emissions, and settling and col- lecting of the fly ash. Multiple-chamber incinerators are of two general types: a Retort, in which the ignition chamber, mixing chamber, and combustion chamber are arranged in a "U" b In-line, in which the three chambers follow each other in a line.

The tepee burner has been used by the lumber industry to incinerate wood wastes and by some small cities to dispose of municipal refuse. These burners range from 10 to feet in height. They are single-chamber in- cinerators and are not designed to minimize atmospheric emissions; thus, they rarely meet visible emission regulations when in use and have considerable fly-ash fallout. The tepee burner may be fed by a bull- dozer, a dump truck, or a conveyor. Feeding with bulldozers or trucks requires that the doors at the base of the burner be opened.

This stops the motion of the draft air in- side the burner and cools the combustion gases. The dumping of the charge on the burning pile smothers the fire. All of these factors contribute to incomplete combustion and additional smoke. Domestic incinerators may range from units such as a single-chamber backyard wire basket to dual-chamber incinerators having a primary burner section followed by an after- burner section.

Many air pollution control agencies have banned backyard incinerators and some have banned all types of domestic incinerators. The emissions of smoke and fly ash from apartment-house incinerators are often high because of low combustion temperatures and improper air regulation.

Apartment-house incinerators may be of two types--flue-fed and chute-fed. In the single-chamber flue-fed unit, refuse is charged down the same passage that the pro- ducts of combustion use to leave the unit. Refuse dropped onto the fuel bed during burn- ing smothers the fire, causing incomplete combustion and emission of smoke.

Unstable and weak amplitudes were recorded during phasic, tonic and endurance voluntary contractions. Shafik and El-Sibai 39 found that patients with vaginismus exhibited increased electromyography activity at rest and upon penetration when monitoring the levator ani, puborectalis and bulbocavernosus. Stabilizing muscle variability overall and predominantly at rest was a major factor in effective treatment rather than focus on increases in the contractile amplitude.

Each one is 60 repetitions of s contractions alternating with s relaxation phases. Patients are asked to contract the pelvic floor muscles maximally with all other surrounding muscles. They are required to use home surface electromyography training devices with intravaginal sensors. Gradually, the clinician may observe increased contractile amplitudes, decreased variability of the contraction and relaxation amplitude, and faster rise and recovery times with subjective reports of less pain.

According to Glazer, the surface electromyography changes demonstrate a reduction of the hypertonicity and instability associated with chronic uncoordinated discharge of fast twitch fibers seen in the resting surface electromyography of vulvovaginal pain patients.

Perianal external surface sensors can be used initially, progressing to a small intravaginal sensor the size of a tampon for those with Marinoff level 3 dyspareunia. McKay et al. There are reasonably priced rental programs throughout the USA that offer month-long home use of a single-channel, surface electromyography unit, allowing most patients the opportunity to utilize this treatment.

Tries 42 encourages standardization in protocols of biofeedback techniques using two or more channels of information to reinforce stable abdominal and bladder pressures concurrently with pelvic floor muscle contractions lasting up to 30 s. Patients should be instructed in at least four training sessions before home programs are used exclusively.

Theile's massage. Glazer's protocol and modified Glazer's protocol. The typical sEMG findings for pain patients are an elevated resting baseline, instability of the signal during resting measured by changes in standard deviation, and instability of the signal during the contraction. External surface sensors placed perianal either side of the anal rim rather than an internal surface sensor. Contractions can be performed by isolated pelvic floor muscles or in combination with accessory muscles.

Use a one- or two-channel home rental sEMG unit for daily practice in varied positions of sitting, supine, and standing. Frequent self-monitoring of the pelvic floor muscles during daily activities is possible with focus concentration followed by pelvic floor muscle contractions.

Gentle bulging to release and lengthen the pelvic floor muscles six times a day for 6 s. The goal is increased relaxation of the pelvic floor muscles most of the time when not activated for stability, posture, or activities.

Fitzgerald and Kotarinos 10,11 suggest that hypertonic painful pelvic floor muscles are too short and need lengthening. Intravaginal manual therapy muscle stretching techniques are followed by active squatting coupled with gentle bulging and voluntary muscle relaxation. After patients have learned to relax and lengthen the pelvic floor muscles, they can proceed with vaginal or rectal penetration, using progressively larger dilators and surface electromyography for muscle awareness and re-education.

Step-by-step patient instructions are outlined in Table Dilator instructions with sEMG. Now that you are able to contract and relax the muscles around the vagina and the rectum at will, it is time to use that knowledge to re-educate your muscles to stay relaxed while having penetration. The thought of having penetration intercourse can be enough to contract your muscles in anticipation of the pain.

So, even before attempting penetration with the dilator, try these steps also the idea of these exercises is to retrain your muscles to stay relaxed during penetration so that there is less discomfort. Under no circumstances should these exercises cause pain some stretching feelings or slight tingling are acceptable , but not pain.

While connected to the sEMG machine, try to imagine the steps leading up to penetration intercourse and see if you can keep your muscles relaxed and the activity of your muscles quiet. Have 1 mv or less as your goal. If the muscles are more active, try squeezing them for 10 s and then relaxing for 10 s to get the baseline down.

Once you feel comfortable with that step, try bringing your hand down to your perineum and placing it on your labia. There may be a bit of movement in the graph or lights on the machine from the movement of your hand, but if the muscles are relaxed, the baseline should soon return to a low resting of 1 mv or less.

Then, try placing your hand on your labia and separating the labia. See if you can control the muscle activity to remain quiet. You may find that having your legs in an open position is causing a strain on the inside adductor muscles and you may want to try positioning your knees on pillows so that they do not need to be held so far apart.

Some women find that placing a pillow under the buttocks also can help the pelvic floor muscles relax. Take the dilator, place water soluble lubricant on it, try a s pelvic floor muscle squeeze, and then, while relaxing, slide the dilator into the vaginal canal for 2 inches. Remember, the canal usually angles down slightly toward the rectum, and for some women the canal can angle to the left or to the right.

Try to relax with it in place for a few minutes do not think you have to insert the dilator in all the way. If the insertion of that dilator was comfortable and you wish to proceed with the next size, repeat step no. If that size was comfortable, try the next size until you feel that it is enough of a stretch. Some women, try doing their Kegel exercises pelvic floor muscle contractions with the dilator in place inside the canal, but for some women it is too uncomfortable.

After removing the dilator, most women find that their resting baseline of muscle activity is practically zero because of the gentle stretching that occurred. Close your eyes and feel that muscle relaxation, for this is the muscle feeling you want to reproduce.

Take the dilator out of the vaginal canal, wash your perineum thoroughly with cold water, and wash the dilator with soap and water. If you feel slight tingling or irritation around the opening of the vagina, rinse yourself with cold water, after urinating, for the next couple of hours, or place a bag of frozen peas to your perineum on the outside of your underwear to cool off the area. Variations on this exercise using dilators can include placing the dilator into the vaginal canal when standing in the shower like placing a tampon into the vagina , inserting the dilator while in the bathtub, having your partner carefully insert the dilator into your vagina with your instructions, moving the dilator in and out to mimic thrusting, pressing the tip of the dilator against a specific pain spot in the vagina and waiting for the muscle to relax, or using the dilator as an internal massage tool for a specific muscle trigger point.

Painfree insertion of the largest dilator is not an automatic indicator that penetration intercourse with your partner will be painfree and easy every time, but it helps to stretch out the tissues, re-educate the muscles to do what you want them to, break the anticipated pain response to penetration, and offer understanding and awareness as to what sexual positions might work best for you.

Patients experiencing dyspareunia and vaginismus benefited from electrical stimulation one time a week for 10 weeks by increasing their ability to contract the pelvic floor muscles. They had decreased pain measured on a visual analog scale and resumed sexual intercourse. A review of randomized, controlled studies on the application of ultrasound for perineal pain and dyspareunia is inconclusive based on minimal studies.

Reduction of edema and inflammation through pulsed current, or increased tissue elasticity and mobility through continuous current have been documented. Standardization of settings for intensity and optimal duration have not been established. Although aging results in changes in anatomy and physiology of the genitals, and many women have lubrication difficulty, 46,47 postmenopausal women preserve their genital responsivity when sufficiently sexually stimulated by viewing erotic imagery.

The need for lubricant, the proper application of a lubricant, the benefits of a lubricant without propylene glycol if the vulva is hypersensitive, and the importance of foreplay to generate lubrication are topics to discuss with patients in preparation for pain-free penetration. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation is a noninvasive, affordable method for reducing perineal pain sensations.

It has been used effectively to reduce pelvic pain during labor and delivery, and has been recommended for use in gynecologic pain conditions. The cutaneous nerve supply to the vulva includes the ilioinguinal nerve Lj , the genital branch of the genitofemoral nerve L 1 —L 2 , the perineal branch of the femoral cutaneous nerve L 2 -L 3 , and the perineal nerve.

The symphysis pubis is innervated by the iliohypogastric nerve T 12 and branches of the genitofemoral nerve L 1 —L 2. Compression, traction, or entrapment of the nerves from abdominal surgeries, injury, or muscle hypertonus may contribute to sensory changes. Patients with sexual pain often have histories ofherniated or bulging lumbar disks with or without laminectomy. Mobilizing the scar tissue or palpating lumbar or pelvic muscle trigger points will reproduce vulvar pain, vaginal pain, and coccyx, rectal, or even clitoral pain.

Sensation of the perineum can be objectively assessed by Symmes-Weinstein monofilaments along established dermatomes. Abdominal and pelvic neurophathies. Sensory-burning pain below inguinal ligament radiating to medial superior thigh and lateral scrotum or Labia majora Motor-weakness of transversus abdominus and internal oblique Bulging of anterior abdominal wall Ambulates with a flexed trunk.

Blow to abdominal wall or incision appendectomy, cesarean section, hysterectomy, inguinal hernia repair, sling suspension , trauma, pubis symphysis joint separation, ilial upslip. Blow to abdominal wall or incision appendectomy, cesarean section, hysterectomy, inguinal hernia repair, sling suspension , trauma, pubic symphysis joint separation, ilial upslip. Sensory-femoral branch-proximal anterior thigh Genital branch- with round ligament to labia majora Motor-portion of the lateral bulbocavernous.

Sensory-radiating pain posterior thigh Paraesthesia posterior leg to foot Motor-weakness and atrophy of hamstring Gait instablity. Lesions, tumors, trauma, childbirth lithotomy position, laceration or puncture at inguinal ligament retroperitoneal hematoma, pelvic surgery. Tumor, mass, lesion within pelvic girdle and psoas, childbirth, lower abdominal or gynecological surgery, trauma to pelvis, hip, ischial tuberosity, pelvic fracture, surgical positioning with prolonged hip flexion.

Sensory-lateral superior thigh with increased symptoms when standing, walking, - relieved when sitting. Injury to inguinal ligament upper and lateral aspect , hernia repair, pregnancy. Childbirth injury, entrapment, compression, traction injuries, pelvic fracture, joint malalignment.

Physical or manual therapy techniques such as myofascial release, trigger point release, strain-counterstrain or positional release, ischemic pressure, friction massage, muscle energy techniques, and joint mobilization may alter tissue mobility or realign bony structures, thus reducing the pressure on the nerve and decreasing the symptoms.

Addressing hypertonus in the levator ani, particularly the pubococcygeus and iliococcygeus, 51 iliopsoas, 27,52 piriformis, adductors, 19 quadratus lumborum, hamstrings, obturator internus, coccygeus, and gluteus medius 27 muscles is essential for complete treatment of this region. The objective musculoskeletal findings in patients with sexual pain are: abnormal sensations and allodynia upon palpation of the vulva; burning, stinging, prickling, searing or pain in the clitoris, urethra, vagina, perineal body, anus, posterior thigh, and gluteal and abdominal areas; 19 lumbar, sacroiliac, coccyx, symphysis pubis, and hip joint restriction, and malalignment and instability of the pelvis; 27 functional impairment of sitting, walking, urination, defecation, sexual activity, 51 and household and community activities of daily living; high resting baseline on surface electromyography, excessive signal variability, and low net rise; 36 muscle hypertonus and trigger points external and internal to the urethral, vaginal, and rectal canals; and muscle weakness in the urogenital triangle muscles, levator ani, obturator internus, gluteals, iliopsoas, hip adductors, and internal and external hip rotator muscles.

The commonality of all these findings results in restriction or inability to participate fully in pleasurable sexual activities. They can assess and treat many of the mechanical joint, muscle, and nerve problems and train patients to work through the pain and fear and avoidance behaviors by demonstration of anatomy and functional anatomy, hands-on manual therapy techniques 53,54 , biofeedback instruction, electrical modalities, and exercise prescriptions. They are vital participants in the interdisciplinary team to evaluate and treat female sexual dysfunction.

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