(PDF) Introduction to Gas Technology | Bahaa Abdel Nasser - seoauditing.ru

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High significant IL-5 mean values were found in homogenates from patients with positive H. Arrhythmia in chronic kidney diease. Bearing housing Trump has been the subject of parody, comedy, and caricature. Urease and H.

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PDF tool. Download Convert images to PDF tool and enjoy it on your iPhone, iPad and iPod touch. PDF هل تبحت عن تطبيق محترف لتحويل الصور وعدد لا نهاني إلى ملف The developer, Rachida Benhassi, has not provided details about its privacy practices and handling of data to Apple. Size: MB. seoauditing.ru › search › result. تحميل تطبيق قارئ الملفات والمستندات PDF Reader لتحرير وعرض ملفات PDF This image has been processed by 3 pictures in different lighting to create the. Guidance Manual for Landfill Environmental Auditing (English) Solid Waste Management” has been developed and under implementation with this framework. with the concerned JSCs to provide barrels to those who had willingness to operation for the waste sorting facility and to reduce its environmental impact. seoauditing.ru › seoauditing.ru_Announcement_File.

تقليص حجم ملف pdf دي اف الى 400 جداره. Outcome of extremely low birth weight infants to grams over a year period.

seoauditing.ru › book › sup=رسائل_ماجستير_ودكتورا_PDF. seoauditing.ru › languages › siw. System Information for Windows= // Main Menu &File=&ملف &Edit=&تحرير MediaPlayer DVD Diagnostic=تشخيص أخطاء ميديا بلاير دي في دي Windows MediaPlayer Sparse File=ملف ذو فراغات System=مجلد النظام Temporary=مؤقت File Size=حجم seoauditing.ru​seoauditing.ru This manual has been divided into ten sections as detailed in the index for .‫ارﺟﻊ إﻟﻰ اﻟﺒﺘﺮول‬ Cycling ‫اﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ اﻟﻤﺘﻌﺎﻗﺒﺔ‬ The injection of dry gas into a gas ‫ه ﻲ ﻋﻤﻠﻴ ﺔ ﺣﻘ ﻦ ﻏ ﺎز ﺟ ﺎف ﻓ ﻲ‬ اﻟﺒﺌ ﺮ barrel of oil or as volume of gas to ‫ أو ﺣﺠ ﻢ ﻣ ﻦ اﻟﻐ ﺎز‬،‫ﻟﻜ ﻞ ﺑﺮﻣﻴ ﻞ ﻣ ﻦ اﻟﺰﻳ ﺖ‬ ﻗ ﺎع اﻟﻮﻋ ﺎء The condensate can be washed with water to reduce methanol. discretionary access control used to protect data of file system, in which that mation flow is a well studied area [26]; many work has been done in proving static.

International Journal for Sciences and Technology - PDF Free Download

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تقليص حجم ملف pdf دي اف الى 400 جداره

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  تقليص حجم ملف pdf دي اف الى 400 جداره  

تقليص حجم ملف pdf دي اف الى 400 جداره.

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تقليص حجم ملف pdf دي اف الى 400 جداره

The rating involves a heat. It is within this area that the. The draft. Stack height may be increased to reduce the ground level concentration of pollutants. Pump shaft 2. Coupling with spacer to join shaft and driver 3. Deflector ring external to stop contamination of lubricating oil by process liquid if there is a seal failure 4.

Impeller key to locate impeller on shaft 6. Impeller to apply force to liquid 7. Casing to contain liquid 8. Radial ball bearing to balance radial thrust and hold shaft in position 9. Base for pump and driver Oil seal to prevent oil leakage along shaft Shaft sleeve is replaceable and prevents wear on the shaft from the seal Oiling ring carries oil to bearings from oil reservoir Thrust ball bearing to balance axial thrust and hold shaft position Deflector ring internal acts as a distributor ring Bearing housing Wear rings area of high potential corrosion To reduce this, a flow splitter is added.

The valves are often spring loaded. The suction pipe is led to the underside of the suction valves and the discharge pipe is led away from the top of the discharge valve. The passage from the top of the cylinder leads to the valve chest. On double acting pumps, there are passages from both the top and bottom ends of the pump to separate valve chests. As the plunger moves downward, the suction valves open and the barrel fills with fluid.

As the plunger moves upward, the fluid is forced out of the top of the barrel through the discharge valves and fluid is drawn into the bottom end of the barrel. As the plunger moves downward, the fluid at the bottom end of the pump is discharged. Thus, it can be seen that while one side of the plunger is on the suction stroke, the other side is on the discharge stroke. The plunger is fitted with rings to form a seal between the plunger and the barrel. The pump rod enters the end of the barrel through a stuffing box, which prevents leakage along the pump rod.

The degree of protection afforded will depend on the likelihood of maloperation and to no small extent of the size of the pump or the value of investment!

The most likely problem to be encountered is cavitation, and the most likely causes of cavitation are:- a Loss of suction pressure b Operation at reduced or zero flow c Operation at excessive flow Loss of Suction Pressure can occur if the suction is throttled and control valves on pump suctions are to be deplored!

Protection should be achieved by suction pressure or level switches to trip the pump before the onset of cavitation. Operation at Reduced Flow can occur if determined by a downstream level control valve, or temperature control valve. At zero flow, virtually all the energy put into the pump is converted to heat, raising the temperature and vapour pressure of the trapped fluid until cavitation occurs. It is, therefore, prudent to protect against this event by ensuring that a minimum flow is maintained at all times, either by constant recirculation back to the suction vessel in which case remember to take this into account when calculating the duty flow or by a control valve operated by sensing low flow or high temperature at the pump.

The connection for minimum flow protection should be taken off the pump discharge upstream of the discharge isolating valve some mini-flow or leak-off devices are incorporated within the discharge non-return valve and should be returned to the suction vessel to allow the heat gained across the pump to be dissipated.

Small inefficient pumps operating with very high NPSH margins may be able to operate for some time without any minimum flow protection, as can some submerged pumps where any heat generated can be rapidly dissipated by the surrounding fluid. If there is any doubt as to the requirement for minimum flow protection the manufacturer should be consulted.

It is worth mentioning that a minimum flow requirement may not be necessary purely to prevent cavitation, but other factors such as high dynamic loads and vibration can occur on some pumps operating well off their maximum efficiency point.

Consider two parallel pumps delivering Qb into system CB each pump delivering 0. On failure of one pump the other pump will try to run out to meet the system curve at D where the system curve and the characteristic of the remaining connected pump or pumps intersect. The mere fact that the pump manufacturer's estimated or test curve does not extend to Q is no indication that the pump will not operate at that flow, provided that the NPSH available and motor over-current trips allow it.

In any case, if the running pump has a rising power characteristic and is motor-driven, it may trip out on overload high current protection after a period resulting in a total loss of that system.

To protect against this occurrence, the system designer should ensure either that there is sufficient capability built into the pump to operate beyond the duty point or the design maximum flow or to pressure control the pump discharge header to quickly restore the header pressure to the set point.

In the latter case there will be a loss of system throughput until a standby pump can be brought on to line. Water hammer is a science in itself and relates to the high or low pressures that can develop when a long column offluid is started in motion or stops. Most engineers are aware of the high pressures that are developed by the more or less rapid closure of a valve; less well known is the risk associated with pump shut- down.

In these circumstances, low pressures are developed between the tripped pump and the still-moving liquid column, and maybe such that the column separates, comes to a stand, and then flows in reverse if there is any static head to drive it.

Parallel pumping or slow closure of the discharge valve are no solution to this problem, as the worst case is that which follows complete power failure to the pumphouse. As with water hammer, pump sump design is a specialised field although a number of design guides do exist.

The meters are provided with filters upstream to ensure that the meters are not blocked or restricted. Filled systems for simple, local control purposes. Resistance thermometers. Powerful and embedded control 2. Very high system availability. System flexibility. Advanced control and. This holds for both liquid and gas flow. Controlling vapour. Closure of all wells surface controlled subsurface safety valves. Platform depressurisation. Closure of the sealine valves.

Shutdown of all auxiliary process facilities e. Shutdown of all wellheads. De-energise gas manifold valves. Closure of gas production. Platform PSD Shutdown of plant inlet valves. All actions caused by the PSD. Shutdown all auxiliary systems. Plant blowdown. Shutdown of the gas export valves. Shutdown of all process. All actions caused by the USD. This section deals with multiple control loops which is a general name for a number of control Systems involving various combinations of more than one measured variable, controller and control valve.

These multiple control loops are frequently used and can be seen as building blocks for more complicated control systems. Four systems will be discussed, i. An example is given in figure 8. The purpose of the master and slave system can best be discussed by first considering the single level control loop in figure 8. Liquid is pumped from column C-I to column C When disturbances occur in C-2 the pressure may either drop co 19 bar or raise to 21 bar. The pressure drop over the control valve will change and for the same valve lift as before the flow through the valve for the two extreme cases will be: Hence a pressure disturbance in C-2 results in a considerable flow change through the control valve which in turn results in a level change in C-I.

The slow level controller will eventually restore level and flow to a new equilibrium but in the meantime flow and level have been disturbed, which may further propagate to other parts of the process.

By introducing a slave flow controller figure 8. When pressure changes in C-2 occur the fast flow controller will immediately restore the disturbed flow to the original value requested by the LC. The level in C-1 will hardly be disturbed or not at all. It is obvious that the master slave system only makes sense when the slave is faster than the master. Furthermore only those disturbances which effect the slave loop can be eliminated or reduced. A disturbance in the level of C-1 for instance will not be detected by the FC and can only be corrected for by the LC.

The flow slave cannot help to prevent that. Another widely applied master and slave system is given in figure 8. The slave pressure controller in the fuel oil line corrects for changes in fuel oil pressure which are for instance the result of other heaters being started or shutdown.

The PC prevents the disturbances from entering the process. Adjustments of a master and slave control system The tuning of the master and slave controllers is as follows: - Put the master controller on manual and adjust the slave controller - Check the damping of the slave loop one overshoot and undershoot.

The true controlled variable is the ratio between two measured variables: X and X I 2 Control is usually effected by manipulating one of these variables, while the other is uncontrolled or "wild'9. The ratio control is accomplished in the set-point circuit. In figure 8. The secondary flow is supplied from a tank and can therefore be controlled. The primary flow is the product of a plant and therefore varies with the production of that plant.

The primary flaw is therefore only measured with a flaw transmitter the output of which is connected via a ratio relay to the set value of the flow controller in the secondary flow. Hence there is a fixed relation between the primary and secondary flaws depending on the setting of the ratio relay.

Assume that the primary flow is a heavy fuel oil which has to be mixed with a quantity of diluent, the secondary flow, to obtain a bunker fuel with a viscosity as required for firing on board of 5hipa. Turndown An important aspect of ratio systems is the turndown rangeability.

Supreme Court declined to hear a case from the Texas attorney general which asked the court to overturn the election results in four states won by Biden. Trump withdrew from public activities in the weeks following the election. The Electoral College formalized Biden's victory on December Trump did not attend Biden's inauguration, leaving Washington for Florida hours before.

On January 6, , while congressional certification of the presidential election results was occurring in the Capitol, Trump held a rally nearby where he called for the election result to be overturned and called on his supporters to "take back our country" by marching to the Capitol to "show strength" and "fight like hell.

On January 11, , an article of impeachment charging Trump with incitement of insurrection against the U. In Gallup's annual poll asking Americans to name the man they admire the most, Trump placed second to Obama in and , tied with Obama for most admired man in , and was named most admired in Globally, a Gallup poll on countries comparing the approval ratings of U.

Overall ratings were similar to those in the last two years of the George W. Bush presidency. Trump's presence on social media attracted attention worldwide since he joined Twitter in He frequently tweeted during the election campaign and as president, until his ban in the final days of his term.

Trump's tweets frequently contained falsehoods. In the days after Trump incited his supporters at a rally on January 6, , and they subsequently stormed the Capitol , he was banned from Facebook, Instagram, and Twitter, [] [] [] as well as other platforms. As a candidate and as president, Trump frequently made false statements in public speeches and remarks [] [] to an extent unprecedented in American politics.

Trump's false and misleading statements were documented by fact-checkers , including at the Washington Post , which tallied a total of 30, false or misleading statements made by Trump over his four-year term. Some of Trump's falsehoods were inconsequential, such as his claims of a large crowd size during his inauguration.

Despite the frequency of Trump's falsehoods, the media rarely referred to them as lies. Some view the nature and frequency of Trump's falsehoods as having profound and corrosive consequences on democracy.

By calling facts into question, people will be unable to properly evaluate their government, with beliefs or policy irrationally settled by "political power"; this erodes liberal democracy , wrote Pfiffner. Before and throughout his presidency, Trump has promoted numerous conspiracy theories, including " birtherism ," the Clinton Body Count theory, QAnon and alleged Ukrainian interference in U.

During and since the United States presidential election , Trump has promoted various conspiracy theories for his defeat including the "dead voter" conspiracy theory, [] and without providing any evidence he has created other conspiracy theories such as that "some states allowed voters to turn in ballots after Election Day; that vote-counting machines were rigged to favor Mr Biden; and even that the FBI, the Justice Department and the federal court system were complicit in an attempt to cover up election fraud.

Throughout his career, Trump has sought media attention, with a "love—hate" relationship with the press. In the campaign, Trump benefited from a record amount of free media coverage, elevating his standing in the Republican primaries.

As a candidate and as president, Trump frequently accused the press of bias, calling it the "fake news media" and "the enemy of the people. As president, Trump privately and publicly mused about revoking the press credentials of journalists he views as critical.

Trump has employed the legal system as an intimidation tactic against the press. Many of Trump's comments and actions have been considered racist. In , he settled a Department of Justice lawsuit that alleged housing discrimination against black renters.

As of , he maintained this position. Trump relaunched his political career in as a leading proponent of "birther" conspiracy theories alleging that Barack Obama, the first black U. According to an analysis in Political Science Quarterly , Trump made "explicitly racist appeals to whites" during his presidential campaign.

Trump's comment on the far-right rally in Charlottesville, Virginia —that there were "very fine people on both sides"—was widely criticized as implying a moral equivalence between white supremacist demonstrators and counter-protesters. In a January Oval Office meeting to discuss immigration legislation, Trump reportedly referred to El Salvador, Haiti, Honduras, and African nations as "shithole countries.

The same results of increasing in carbohydrate in response to increase light intensity was noticed by 7. Higher carbohydrate content was reported It was noticed by 33 that an increase of light intensity had an affect on the hydrolysis process of photosynthesis.

Bioethanol production of C. While It was Other previous studies noticed the same results. A study conducted by 23 showed an increased production of ethanol from S. Another study also reported that the ethanol produced from algae Spirogyra in anaerobic conditions was Results of a study conducted by 35 reflected the success of producing 85 ml of ethanol from extracted carbohydrate by S. The different light intensities influenced the carbohydrate content, and increased the bioethanol production of C.

Acknowledgments The authors present their high appreciation and thanks for the support of the Department of Biology, College of Sciences, University of Babylon. Uriarte FA. Biofuels from plant oils. Tatli ZH. Computer based education: Online learning and teaching facilities. Energy Edu. Part B. The structure of European financial system and financial integration. Bioethanol production from marine algae biomass: prospect and troubles. Third generation biofuels via direct cellulose fermentation.

Biofuels from algae for sustainable development. Development of biofuels for the UK automotive market. The use of graphical pinch analysis for visualizing water footprint constraints in biofuel production. Agricultural crop-based biofuels resource efficiency and environmental performance including direct land use changes. Cleaner Prod. Microalgal biomass as a fermentation feedstock for bioethanol production.

Biodiesel from Microalgae. Second generation biofuels: high-efficiency microalgae for biodiesel production. Bioenergy Res. Handbook of bioethanol: production and utilization. Eshaq FS. Production of bioethanol from next generation feedstock alga Spirogyra species.

CO2 fixation and ethanol production with microalgal photosynthesis and intracellular anaerobic fermentation. Bioethanol production from green alga Chlorella Vulgaris under different concentrations of nitrogen. Production of somphyto-and zooplankton and their use as live food for fish larva. Algae culture and phytoplankton ecology. University of Wisconsin Press, Wisconsin, U. P Jiminez C. Relationship between physiochemical variables and productivity in open ponds for the production of Spirulina: a predictive model of algal yield.

Fermentation potentials of Zymomonasmobilis and its application in ethanol production from low-cost raw sweet potato. Ethanol production from algae spirogyra with fermentation by Zymomonasmobilis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Basic Appl. A novel solid state fermentation coupled with gas stripping enhancing the sweet sorghum stalk conversion performance for bioethanol. Biofuels Bellinger EG. Freshwater algae identification and use bioindicators. John Wiley and Sons Ltd. P Prescott GW. Algae of the Western Great Lakes areas.

Willam, C. Iowa, 16 th ed. John RP. Micro and macroalgal biomass: A renewable source for bioethanol. Effect of light supply and carbon source on cell growth and cellular composition of a newly isolated microalga Chlorella vulgaris ESP Life Sci. Microalgae Chlorella sp. Light and temperature effects on the growth rate of three fresh water algae isolated from a autotrophic lake.

Enhanced growth and lipid production of microalgae under mixotrophic culture condition: Effect of light intensity, glucose concentration and fed-batch cultivation. Growth performance and biochemical analysis of Spirulinaplatensisunder different culture conditions. Biomass Utln. Photoinhibition: a historical perspective. Aerobic and anaerobic processes of Spirogyra extract using different doses of Zymomonasmobilis.

Ethanol production from marine algae using yeast fermentation. Ebraheem Dept. The present study aimed to investigate the general health risks of this detergent with emphasis on anatomical, histopathological, weight and general behavior effects by ingesting 30 mice weighting about g with detergent solutions.

The mice were randomly divided in to five groups with 6 mice in each group. The relative growth rate RGR in percentage of the control mice was 6. The anatomical alterations were observed in the internal organs heart, lung, liver and kidney structures of the experimental mice including marked black spots, hemorrhage and swollen, and the prominent features were shown in lung.

The most important histopathological changes observed in the internal organs heart, lung, liver and kidney of the experimental mice included hemorrhage, congestion, infiltration of inflammatory cells and vacuolar degeneration in compared with the control mice. Results demonstrated that abnormal behaviors such as sluggishness, stress and increased mortality rates increased as the increase of the concentration of detergent solutions.

The results indicated that the exposure to the toilet bowl detergent is highly health hazard even at small amount, and must be taken into consideration. Keywords: flash, anatomical alterations, mortality rates, mice, relative growth rate RGR. Until the s, soap was the only important detergent in the market, but today, soap is one of the numerous detergent products 1. However, modern technology has led to the creation of synthetic detergents that have gradually replaced soap in the laundry.

Today, detergent market is highly competitive, where different brands are competing to get more consumers 2. Detergents are widely used in both industrial and domestic premises to cloths, equipments, installation, heavy-duty machines and vehicles 3,4.

The increasing domestic health hazards and environmental pollution arising from detergent exposure are reducing the popularity of its usefulness 5. There is no doubt that detergent exposure poses health risks to man and other animals, but the most important issue relies on what they actually act and cause and how dangerous they really are 6. Toilet cleaning agents were also popular because they were available in almost every house. They involve in both intentional and unintentional exposure.

Exposure to toilet cleaner could cause severe gastrointestinal injury and permanent morbidity 7. A study from Turkey reported that corrosive ingestions led to high fatality 8.

Public education regarding the danger of toilet cleaner should be implemented 7. Toxic effects of surfactants are usually presented after a direct contact with eyes and skin, mainly characterized by irritation, redness, itching, scaling in eyes, and erythema, contact dermatitis skin , or harmful effects if swallowed e. Inhalation of aerosols causes respiratory tract irritation, and have carcinogenic, teratogenic and mutagenic effects after chronic exposition, but there is usually a lack of experimental data material safety data sheets.

Surfactants act as deleterious agents mainly in microorganisms and water organisms, thus are chiefly used as disinfections or inhibitors of the fungal or algae growth 9. The aim of this study was to examine the histpathological and anatomical alterations in the organs of mice heart,lung, liver and kidney that induced by exposure to different concentrations of the toilet detergent trading brand Flash. Animal husbandry Thirty mice of both sexes weighting about g were obtained from animal house at the College of Education, University of Basra.

The animals were left in the laboratory for one week to acclimatize before the experimental work and the mice were fed with a mixture of ground wheat, yellow corn and protein Experimental design Mice were randomly divided into five groups with 6 mice in each group after taken their initial weights. The control group was administrated by ordinary water. Then The internal organs heart, lung, liver and kidney were processed in a routine paraffin embedding procedure.

Stained sections were examined by a light microscope. Statistical analysis Data analysis was created with Microsoft Office Excel Comparison of data among experimental and control groups were calculated using students t-test. The mean weight change of the control mice was 3. Also, the relative growth rate of the control mice in percentage was 6. The most prominent features were shown in lung.

The results of anatomical examination of internal organs were shown in Figures 1, , , and Figure 1 : anatomical examination of internal organs. Figure : Control mice showed the normal anatomical structures of internal organs, a: heart b: lung c: live. Figure : Experimental mice showed hemorrhage marked hemorrhage in a: lung, b: congested and swelling in liver and c: heart. Figure : Experimental mice showed hemorrhage and black spots in a: kidney.

The results of histopathology examination of the internal organs of the experimental mice showed marked pathological changes. Finally, the experimental mice showed marked reduce in body weight, sluggishness and high mortality rate compared to the control group. The changes recorded in body weights and relative growth of experimental mice in this study may resulted from detoxification 12 , poor physiological conditions of the exposed mice which led to loss of appetite, sluggishness and high metabolic demand Toilet cleaner which contained hydrochloric acid caused more sever gastrointestinal injury after ingestion 7 , this may cause nausea, sever digestive tract burns and weigh loss in experimental mice.

The present study indicated that toilet flash detergent solution induced marked anatomical macroscopic alterations in the internal organs heart,lung, kidney and liver , of experimental mice such as black spots,hemorrhage and swollen. Similar results, have been reported by others 14, Congestion is a blood circulation disturbance due to the increase volume of the blood in the blood capillary.

Macroscopically, the congestion of the fish liver showed dark red colorization, and microscopically, the blood capillary was widened and full of erythrocyte Vacuolar degeneration is known as an acute swelling of the organ The vacuolar degeneration cannot be seen macroscopically, and it is usually shown by the swollen of the organ with pale colorization The mechanism of swelling starts as a decrease in O2 levels which causes a drop in aerobic respiration.

To maintain ATP levels, the cells must rely more on glycolysis. Glycolysis leads to lactic acid builds up, which causes the intracellular ph to drop. A study from Japan also recorded autopsy finding for the woman was ingested liquid detergent that the heart weighed g, and contained large amounts of dark-red liquid blood.

The left and right lungs weighed and Moreover, histological examination with Hematoxylin and Eosin stain revealed that the lungs were congested and edematous The major histopathological investigation of the internal organs heart, lung liver, and kidney of the experimental mice revealed that the detergent solutions are pathogenic to mice.

The histopathological changes were as a result of cytotoxic agents in the detergent solutions which caused multi-organ injuries 10, This result supports the findings of 10, who reported that the ingestion of detergent solutions can cause multi-organ damage 10 leading to nervous system disorders,respiratory illness, birth defects, cancer and even death except the cancer probably due to short duration of the study 10, In the present study,dilated of hepatic and cortical renal tubules of the experimental mice may be due to the toxic effects of the detergent solutions; this result support by 17 , who reported, this is justifiable since the renal tubules are particularly sensitive to toxic influences, in part because they have high oxygen consumption and vulnerable enzyme systems, and in part because they have complicated transport mechanisms that may be used for transport of toxins and may be damaged by such toxin.

Also in the present investigation, the experimental mice showed abnormal behavior such as sluggishness, stress and high mortality rate with increase the concentration of detergent solutions in contrast the control mice. The sluggishness, low fecundity and high mortality rate observed in the exposed mice were direct consequences of impaired health and poor physiological conditions of the mice 9.

Moreover it was reported that the pesticide and toilet cleaning agents caused severe morbidity and mortality 7. Probably, due to sudden death of the experimental mice in about days after exposure to this concentration. In conclusion, this study demonstrated a direct correlation between detergent exposure and histopathological changes observed in the internal organs heart, lung,liver and kidney , also the histopathological alterations and mortality rate depend on the concentration and period of exposure to the detergent.

Finally, it is hoped that the results of this study will be useful for educating people on health risks that induced by detergents exposure and planning of health care. Also, more researches should be done on the genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of the toilet cleaning agents that available in most houses.

Ronni W. Detergent chemistry foundations and application: encyclopedia. Khurana R. Detergents: counting the cost of cleanliness. Toxic Link Fact Sheet, Lightowlers P. Still dirty: A review of action against toxic products in Europe. Chun WC. Nonionic surfactant Brij35 effects on toluene biodegradation in a composite bead bio-filter. Evaluation of acute toxicity of cadmium and lead to amphibian tadpole Toad: Bufo maculates and frog: Ptychadena bibroni and frog. Effects of laundry detergent on the environment.

Chitlada L. Acute poison exposure in the emergency department: a 2-year study in a university hospital. Quaternary pyridinium salts: A review. Investigation of toxicity of detergents. Growth response of catfish Clarias gariepinus exposed to water soluble fraction of detergent and diesel oil. Biodegradation of synthetic detergents in wastewater. Biochemical and hematological profile in Nigeria cement factory workers.

Chronic effects of surfactant detergent linear alkylbenzene sulfonate LAS on the growth and survival rate of sea bass Lates Calcalifer Bloch larvae. Deskripsi Histopatologi dari beberapa Penyakit Ikan. Pusat Karantina Pertanian, Departemen Pertanian. Lieberthat W. Graded ATP depletion can cause necrosis or apoptosis of cultured mouse proximal tubular cells.

Histological, histochemical and ultrastructural studies on the kidney of rats after administration of monosodium glutamate. Satoshi F. A case and review of death associated with ingestion of detergent. Forensic Med. Bio- concentration of metals in the body muscle and gut of clarias gariepinus exposed to sub- lethal concentrations of soap and detergent effluent.

Cell Anim. Effects of heavy metals. Pathologic lesion in the gills of clarias gariepinus exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of soap and detergent. Toxicological impacts of detergent effluent on juvenile of African Catfish Claris gariepinus B. Allergens and toxins in laundry detergents: synthetic ingredients that are harmful to people and the environment. Akram S. Shabanipour M. Histopathological change induced in the liver of the Caspian kutum fry after acute exposure to the anionic surfactant.

Athab 1 , Ali M. Al- Timimi 1 , Ali S. Al- Duleimy 2 and Nabeel K. Cardiovascular disease is a common cause of death in patients with ESRD and advanced renal insufficiency.

Anemia is common in chronic renal failure and can lead to left ventricular hypertrophy. Pericarditis also is common and may occur in two patterns. Pattern I is a hemorrhagic pericarditis that is treated with hemodialysis, while pattern II can occur in patients who are adequately dialyzed; it may be associated with hemorrhage and tamponade.

The study was conducted from 28 th September to 15 th March The sample was composed of 70 patients, 39 were male and 31 were female. The aim of the study was to evaluate the ECG changes in patients with chronic renal failure in Baquba Teaching Hospital.

Results showed that there were abnormalities in ECG of patients with chronic renal failure. The study concluded that many ECG changes in CRF could occur, mainly hyper acute T wave and sinus tachycardia, and that those abnormalities could increase the incidence of morbidity and mortality from cardiac arrhythmia in patients with CRF.

The incremental risk of cardiovascular diseases in those with chronic kidney diseases CKD compared to the age- and sex-matched general population ranges from to folds, depending on the stage of CKD. Cardiovascular disease is a common cause of death in patients with ESRD End-stage renal disease and advanced renal insufficiency.

Anemia can lead to left ventricular hypertrophy. Pericarditis may occur in two patterns. Pattern I is a hemorrhagic pericarditis that is treated with hemodialysis. Pattern II can occur in patients who are adequately dialyzed; it may be associated with hemorrhage and tamponade 3.

End-stage renal disease ESRD and cardiovascular disease have been inextricably linked since the earliest days of chronic dialysis. The first patient on long-term dialysis, died of myocardial infarction MI in , at the age of 50 years, 11 years after starting hemodialysis 2.

The burden of cardiac diseases in all phases of renal failure is high, and thier clinical impacts are grave. IHD may be atherosclerotic or nonatherosclerotic in origin. The manifestations of uremic cardiomyopathy include concentric and eccentric LVH and systolic dysfunction.

Risk factors for cardiac disease in uremia include age, diabetes, hypertension, anemia, volume overload, hyperparathyroidism, dyslipidemia, and perhaps uremia itself 4.

Four reasons may explain why patients with renal dysfunction have poor cardiovascular outcomes in a variety of settings: 1 excess comorbidities associated with CKD and ESRD, in particular DM and heart failure; 2 therapeutic nihilism; 3 toxicity of therapies; and 4 special biological and pathophysiological factors in renal dysfunction that cause worsened outcomes 5. Heart failure is common and is due to sodium and water retention, acid-base changes, hypocalcaemia and hyperparathyroidism, hypertension, anemia, coronary artery disease, and diastolic dysfunction secondary to increased myocardial fibrosis with oxalate and urate deposition and myocardial calcification.

Uremia itself may also impair myocyte function. Smoking contributes not only to cardiovascular risk, but also to an accelerated rate of fall of glomerular filtration rate GFR 6.

Chronic renal failure is defined as progressive and irreversible loss of renal function. The common causes of chronic renal failure can be summarized as follows: 1. Diabetic nephropathy. Hypertensive nephrosclerosis. Renovascular disease ischemic nephropathy. Polycystic kidney disease. Reflux nephropathy and other congenital renal diseases. Interstitial nephritis, including analgesic nephropathy.

HIV-associated nephropathy. Transplant allograft failure chronic rejection 8. ESRD is identified on biochemical and clinical grounds as that point when despite conservative measures, the patient will die without the institution of renal replacement by dialysis or transplantation 9.

For every patient with CRF, full history was recorded regarding the history of chronic diseases and medications. ECG was done for each patient, then analyzed for any changes occurred. Echocardiography was done for certain cases to detect left ventricular hypertrophy, systolic function and pericardial effusion with tomponade.

The abnormalities in ECG of patients were recorded as follows: 1. P- pulmonale 5. ST segment depression 2. T-wave inversion LVH 4. These results were found also by 11 , where the chronic renal failure are more common among old patients and patient with diabetes mellitus,hypertension, glomerular nephritis, polycystic kidney disease, begnin prostate hyperplasia.

Results obtained from the present study were in agreement of that obtained by 12 , which reflected the prevalence of atrial fibrillation was 4. These results also were in agreement with those revealed by 13 , where the prevalences of atrial fibrillation was 4.

Thus, the prevalence of atrial fibrillation in patients with ESRD seems to be 10 to 20 folds higher than in general population. Fluctuating levels of electrolytes during hemodialysis, sympathetic activation and modulation of the renin-angiotensin system represente additional predisposing factors for atrial fibrillation in chronic kidney disease The study of patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators had revealed that patients with CKD were more likely to use their devices for ventricular arrhythmias, but in spite of this, they still have high associated mortality.

Minimizing risk of sudden cardiac death can be achieved by good control of basic parameters such as fluid balance, electrolytes and blood pressure National Kidney Foundation P Zalunardo N. Cardiovascular disease in chronic kidney disease. Harrison principle of internal medicine.

Chapter McGraw Hill. William AM. Chronic renal failure. Myoclinic textbook of medicine, 1 st ed. Cardiac disease in chronic renal disease, disease of kidney and urinary tract. Volume III. Chapter McCullough PA. Interface between renal disease and cardiovascular illness. Braunwald's heart disease: a Textbook of cardiovascular medicine. Saunder, Elsiver Inc. P Luke RG. Cecil Textbook of Medicine e-dition.

P Andreoli T. P Kasper DI. Harrison's manual of medicine. Chronic kidney disease and uremia. McGraw-Hill Inc. P Baliga RR. Crash course. Genitourinary system. Internal medicine. Mosby Inc. P Madias JE. Comprehensive electrocardiogram. Chapter Miscellaneous Electrocardiographic Topics. Springer Ltd. P Bignotto LH. Electrocardiographic findings in chronic hemodialysis patients.

Atrial fibrillation, atrioventricular blocks and bundle branch blocks in hemodialysis patients. Prevalence and predisposing factors for bundle branch block in patients starting dialysis. Prevalence of chronic kidney disease in a Nigerian family practice population.

Family Prac. Prevalence of ventricular arrhythmia and its associated factors in nondialyzed chronic kidney disease patients. PLOS One. Epidemiology of atrial fibrillation.

Arrhythmia in chronic kidney diease. Health and Medicine. Published by University of Alexandria. Obaid Dept. Mental retardation is a particular state of functioning in childhood characterized by decreased intelligence and adaptive skills. The aim of this work was to analyze and determine the electroencephalographic alterations in patients with psychiatrics disorder and clinically subnormal to assess their significance.

This study consisted in a cohort analytical study, between November and March in Diyala province of Iraq, to detect electroencephalographic abnormalities in the population of children diagnosed to be mentally subnormal with psychiatrics disorders visited the Psychiatrics and neurophysiology clinics in Baquba teaching hospital.

An electroencephalogram EEG was later performed and a database was set up to record information about age, sex, perinatal asphyxia, family history of seizures, the location of the EEG phenomenon was stated.

A total of 57 patients were included, with an average of 8. Children with severe mental health problems have an increased probability of having neurological problems which might have an impact on the ability to assess and treat the mental health problem. The most frequent location of the abnormalities observed in the EEG of a patient with psychiatric disorders is in the temporal lobe. Diagnosis is highly dependent on comprehensive personal and family medical histories, a complete physical examination and a careful developmental assessment of the child, which guide appropriate evaluations for the child 2.

Some definitions rely on Intelligence Quotient IQ scores alone to classify individuals with MR, some only use adaptive behaviors for classification, and others include both IQ scores and measures of adaptive skills 3. A number of environmental, genetic or multiple factors can cause mental retardation.

It is also believed that behavioral or social factors such as poverty, malnutrition, maternal drug and alcohol use, as well as severe stimulus deprivation can contribute to MR 5.

Genetic condition is caused as a number of single-gene disorders resulted in mental retardation, many of these are associated with atypical or dysmorphic physical characteristics 7. Prenatal causes include congenital infections such as cytomegalovirus, toxoplasmosis, herpes, syphilis, rubella and human immunodeficiency virus; prolonged maternal fever in the first trimester; exposure to anticonvulsants or alcohol; and untreated maternal phenylketonuria PKU 8.

Complications of prematurity, especially in extremely low-birth-weight infants, or postnatal exposure to lead can also cause mental retardation 9. Molecular medicine has made it possible to diagnose a number of conditions referred to as mitochondrial cell diseases Diseases like whooping cough, measles, or meningitis can cause mental disability if medical care is delayed or inadequate, exposure to poisons like lead or mercury may also affect mental ability 12, Malnutrition is a common cause of reduced intelligence in parts of the world affected by famine, such as Ethiopia The first and most important step in the diagnosis of mental retardation is to obtain a comprehensive patient and family histories.

Previous gynecologic and obstetric history may reveal infertility or fetal loss Assessment of maternal health status during pregnancy with the involved child should include questions regarding use of tobacco, alcohol and drugs prescribed and illicit ; lifestyle or other risks for sexually transmitted diseases; weight gain or loss; signs of infection; serious illness or injury and surgery or hospitalization 16,17 , type of delivery and any complications The systems review of the child should be complete, with special attention to growth problems, history of seizures, lethargy and episodic vomiting, a developmental screen should be used at all well-child visits to obtain information about the timing of the child's developmental milestones, any concerns by parents or caregivers and comparison of the child's developmental rate and pattern with those of siblings Delays in speech development are common and may become more obvious when contrasted with the speech development of a sibling, inquiry should be made regarding concerns about hearing and vision Family history of fetal loss, mental retardation, severe learning problems, congenital abnormalities and unexplained childhood deaths, as well as other serious illnesses in first- and second-degree family members should be elicited.

A complete physical examination can begin with a review of growth curves since birth, if these are available, the child should be examined closely for dysmorphic features or minor abnormalities, such as unusual eyebrow pattern, eyes that are widely or closely spaced, low-set ears or abnormal palmar crease patterns, minor abnormalities are defined as defects that have unusual morphologic features without serious medical implications or untoward cosmetic appearance.

Most minor abnormalities involve the face, ears, hands or feet, and are readily recognized even on cursory examination The initial hope that it would either lead to specific knowledge of cerebral pathophysiology or support differential diagnosis in idiopathic major mental illnesses has long been abandoned, nevertheless, it continues to have value in the diagnosis of epilepsy, brain damage, delirium, and dementia and in differentiating brain disease from primary psychiatric disorders Among the psychiatric patients, children have shown more EEG abnormalities as compared to the adult cases 22, Psychotic mood disorders and atypical psychoses are reported to have a higher frequency of epileptiform variants, including the phantom spike and wave, positive spikes, and small sharp spikes, as compared with nonpsychotic mood disorders and schizophrenia Additionally, the insult may retard or arrest cerebral development maturational retardation hypothesis , which may be expressed by the persistence of immature EEG characteristics.

Walter suggested that many of the lesser dysrhythmias of childhood may simply reflect delayed cerebral maturation Walter hypothesized that certainly, deprivation or distortion of sensory input at a certain critical stage of ontogenetic development may engender dramatic electrographic changes An electroencephalogram EEG was later performed and a database was set up to record information about age, sex,, and prenatal history was taken regarding maternal.

Information about delivery type, fetal distress, fit,mile stone,neurological deficit, school performance,number of hospitalization and information about treatment,financial state of family were recorded. Regarding examination, it was noticed if there is any dysmorphic features or short stature and if CT scan or MRI was done or not. Later EEG was set for all children using International system of electrodes replacement.

EEG made when patient open his eye and then closed it and in a state of hyperventilation when age and co- operation of patients were permitted. Also EEG was recorded during flash stimulation twice times Thirty 30 cases required hospitalization Eight A direct relationship was found between the presence of seizures and EEG abnormalities.

These results are shown in tables 1, 2. This proportion was higher for the very low IQ subjects 27 , and in particular for the mentally retarded showing signs of clinical epilepsy Furthermore, maternal infection, pregnancy hypertension, including hypertension with and without proteinuria preeclampsia and maternal exposure to drugs may place children at risk of mental problems This correlate with present study in which the common maternal data Table 2 showed that the maternal fever presented in Environmental factors associated with poverty may also contribute to the association between poverty and mental subnormalities, and this agree with the.

In present study, it was found that the neurological deficits presented in The systems review of the child should be complete, with special attention to growth problems, history of seizures, lethargy and episodic vomiting. Children with severe mental health problems have an increased probability of having neurological problems, which might have an impact on the ability to assess and treat the mental health problem Children with severe mental health problems have increase probability of having neurological problems, which might have an impact on the ability to assess and treat the mental health problem.

Daily DK. Identification and evaluation of mental retardation. Family Physic. First diagnosis of severe mental and physical disability: a study of doctor parent communication. Child Psychol. Epidemiology and prevalence of psychopathology in people with mental retardation.

The detection of sub telomeric chromosomal rearrangements in idiopathic mental retardation. Nature Genet. Review of recent epidemiological studies in mental retardation: prevalence, associated disorders, and etiology. Mental Retard.

Evaluation of mental retardation: recommendations of a consensus conference. Fragile X mental retardation in an Indonesian family. Aetiology in severe and mild mental retardation: a population-based study of Norwegian children. Child Neurol. Outcome of extremely low birth weight infants to grams over a year period. Prenatal and perinatal risk factors for autism: a review and integration of findings.

Mitochondrial encephalomyopathies. The etiology of developmental delay. Seminars in Pediatr. Prenatal and postnatal risk factors for mental retardation amongnchildren in Bangladesh. Theories of dual diagnosis in mental retardation. Handbook of challenging behavior: mental health aspects of mental retardation. Szymanski L. Mental retardation and mental health: Concepts, aetiology and incidence.

 

On multiple occasions, Trump sought to fire Mueller and shut down the investigation, but backed down after his staff objected or after changing his mind. A federal court, as well as Mueller himself, said Barr had mischaracterized the investigation's conclusions, confusing the public. A redacted version of the report was publicly released on April 18, The first volume found that Russia interfered in to favor Trump's candidacy and hinder Clinton's.

The Mueller report's second volume set forth ten "episodes" of potential obstruction of justice by Trump, but opted not to make any "traditional prosecutorial judgment" on whether Trump broke the law, suggesting that Congress should make such a determination.

In August , former Trump campaign chairman Paul Manafort was convicted on eight felony counts of false tax filing and bank fraud. According to Rudy Giuliani , Trump's personal attorney, Trump had sought advice about pardoning Manafort but was counseled against it.

Cohen said he had made the false statements on behalf of Trump, who was identified as "Individual-1" in the court documents. Five Trump associates pleaded guilty or were convicted in connection with Mueller's investigation and related cases: Manafort, Cohen, deputy campaign manager Rick Gates , foreign policy advisor George Papadopoulos , Michael Flynn.

In February , Trump campaign adviser Roger Stone was sentenced to 40 months in prison for lying to Congress and witness tampering regarding his attempts to learn more about hacked Democratic emails during the election. The sentencing judge said Stone "was prosecuted for covering up for the president. In August , a whistleblower filed a complaint with the Inspector General of the Intelligence Community about a July 25 phone call between Trump and President of Ukraine Volodymyr Zelensky , during which Trump had pressured Zelensky to investigate CrowdStrike and Democratic presidential candidate Joe Biden and his son Hunter , adding that the White House had attempted to cover-up the incident.

House Speaker Nancy Pelosi initiated a formal impeachment inquiry on September 24, Taylor Jr. According to Taylor and others, the goal was to coerce Zelensky into making a public commitment to investigate the company that employed Hunter Biden, as well as rumors about Ukrainian involvement in the U.

On December 13, , the House Judiciary Committee voted along party lines to pass two articles of impeachment: one for abuse of power and one for obstruction of Congress. The Senate impeachment trial began on January 16, For three days, January 22—24, the House impeachment managers presented their case to the Senate.

They cited evidence to support charges of abuse of power and obstruction of Congress, and asserted that Trump's actions were exactly what the founding fathers had in mind when they created the Constitution's impeachment process. Responding over the next three days, Trump's lawyers did not deny the facts as presented in the charges but said Trump had not broken any laws or obstructed Congress. Trump was acquitted of both charges by the Republican Senate majority, 52—48 on abuse of power, 53—47 on obstruction of Congress.

Senator Mitt Romney was the only Republican who voted to convict Trump on one of the charges, the abuse of power. Following his acquittal, Trump fired impeachment witnesses and other political appointees and career officials he deemed insufficiently loyal. Breaking with precedent, Trump filed to run for a second term with the FEC within a few hours of assuming the presidency.

Starting in spring , Trump began to sow doubts about the election, repeatedly claiming without evidence that the election would be "rigged" [] and that the expected widespread use of mail balloting would produce "massive election fraud.

Postal Service for the expected surge in mail voting, Trump blocked funding, saying he wanted to prevent any increase in voting by mail. Trump campaign advertisements focused on crime, claiming that cities would descend into lawlessness if his opponent, Biden, won the presidency. Biden won the election on November 3, receiving Supreme Court declined to hear a case from the Texas attorney general which asked the court to overturn the election results in four states won by Biden.

Trump withdrew from public activities in the weeks following the election. The Electoral College formalized Biden's victory on December Trump did not attend Biden's inauguration, leaving Washington for Florida hours before. On January 6, , while congressional certification of the presidential election results was occurring in the Capitol, Trump held a rally nearby where he called for the election result to be overturned and called on his supporters to "take back our country" by marching to the Capitol to "show strength" and "fight like hell.

On January 11, , an article of impeachment charging Trump with incitement of insurrection against the U. In Gallup's annual poll asking Americans to name the man they admire the most, Trump placed second to Obama in and , tied with Obama for most admired man in , and was named most admired in Globally, a Gallup poll on countries comparing the approval ratings of U.

Overall ratings were similar to those in the last two years of the George W. Bush presidency. Trump's presence on social media attracted attention worldwide since he joined Twitter in He frequently tweeted during the election campaign and as president, until his ban in the final days of his term. Trump's tweets frequently contained falsehoods. In the days after Trump incited his supporters at a rally on January 6, , and they subsequently stormed the Capitol , he was banned from Facebook, Instagram, and Twitter, [] [] [] as well as other platforms.

As a candidate and as president, Trump frequently made false statements in public speeches and remarks [] [] to an extent unprecedented in American politics. Trump's false and misleading statements were documented by fact-checkers , including at the Washington Post , which tallied a total of 30, false or misleading statements made by Trump over his four-year term. Some of Trump's falsehoods were inconsequential, such as his claims of a large crowd size during his inauguration.

Despite the frequency of Trump's falsehoods, the media rarely referred to them as lies. Some view the nature and frequency of Trump's falsehoods as having profound and corrosive consequences on democracy.

By calling facts into question, people will be unable to properly evaluate their government, with beliefs or policy irrationally settled by "political power"; this erodes liberal democracy , wrote Pfiffner. Before and throughout his presidency, Trump has promoted numerous conspiracy theories, including " birtherism ," the Clinton Body Count theory, QAnon and alleged Ukrainian interference in U.

During and since the United States presidential election , Trump has promoted various conspiracy theories for his defeat including the "dead voter" conspiracy theory, [] and without providing any evidence he has created other conspiracy theories such as that "some states allowed voters to turn in ballots after Election Day; that vote-counting machines were rigged to favor Mr Biden; and even that the FBI, the Justice Department and the federal court system were complicit in an attempt to cover up election fraud.

Throughout his career, Trump has sought media attention, with a "love—hate" relationship with the press.

In the campaign, Trump benefited from a record amount of free media coverage, elevating his standing in the Republican primaries. Their ages ranged between years old, and all were attended to Al- Ramadi General Hospital from different geographic locations.

The blood samples were allowed to stand at room temperature until clotting, then serums were seperated by centrifuge. Determination of total protein Serum total protein was determined by the method of Bradford 13 , where bovine serum albumin BSA was used as standard protein. Isolation and purification of ADA a. Ammonium sulfate precipitation: Protein was precipitaed by solid ammonium sulfate The supernet was seperated by cooling centerifugation at 10, rpm for 30 minutes.

The supernatant was ignored and the precipitates were dissolved in small amount buffer for detecting the ideal saturation proportion of enzyme concentration. After stirring for 30 minutes and centrifuging as above, the enzyme activity and protein concentration was estimated. Ion- exchange chromatography: The DEAEcellulose column was used, where 3ml from the sample was applied to a column with dimensions cm.

Using Tris-HCl buffer ph 7. The absorbance of each fraction was measured at nm. Moreover, the specific activity of purified ADA enzyme had increased compared with the crude enzyme from 0.

Results also were in agreement for those concluded by 18 , when ADA levels of patients with thalassemia had reached to Elevation of serum ADA activity might be a physiologic attempt of the cancer cells to provide more substrate needed by cancer cells to accelerate the salvage pathway activity, also the purine metabolism and salvage pathway activity of purine nucleotides are accelerated in the serious human colorectal tissue In addition, these findings may be a compensatory mechanism against toxic accumulation of ADA substrate, which means that adenosine and deoxyadenosine are produced from accelerated purine metabolism in the cancer cells The outcomes of protein precipitation by salting out technique using inorganic salts such as ammonium sulphate [NH4 SO4 2] were the purification by ammonium sulfate.

The specific activity had slightly increased after dialysis. This might be due to the exclusion of the small molecules and increase of the purification of enzyme. Results of ion- exchange chromatography showed that the ADA was purified until being homogenized. These results are in accordance with those obtained by 22, 23 , which showed that there were losing in ADA activity after ion exchange chromatography.

The use of DEAE-cellulose column after the step of ammonium sulphate concentration was effective in purification step of enzymes 24 , due to the hydrophilic nature of cellulose, and these exchangers had little tendency to denature proteins, which used as the first ion exchangers designed for biological substances such as protein, carbohydrates and nucleic acid The molecular weight was determined from the standard curve, which found that the apparent molecular weight of ADA was 41 KD calculated after gel filtration These results are similar to those obtained by 26 , which used gel filtration as purification step for increasing enzyme purity.

Gaspar HB. How I treat ADA deficiency. A pre-transition state mimic of an enzyme: Atomic structure of adenosine deaminase complexed with a transition-state analog: understanding catalysis and immunodeficiency mutations. Blood serum enzyme activity profiles as indicators of prognosis and chemotherapy response in breast cancer. Avaiable at: 4. Blackburn MR. Deficiency of adenosine deaminase: metabolic basis of immune deficiency and pulmonary inflammation.

Ribavirin,viramidine and adenosine deaminase catalyzed drug activation: implication for nucleoside prodrug design. Adenosine deaminase enzyme activity in serum for native Rheumatoid Arthritis and hemolysis with normal se rums in Salahaldein. Tikrit J. Pure Sci. Adenosine deaminase in cerebrospinal Fluid: an evaluation of its role as a diagnostic marker for meningitis in children.

Master thesis. University of Tikrit, Iraq. Varricchio CG. A cancer source book for nurses. Boston, Jones and Bartlett Publishers. P Mealiffe ME. Assessment of clinical validity of a breast cancer risk model combining genetic and clinical information. Cancer Inst. Nucleotide metabolism and cell interactions. Methods Mol. Serum biochemical markers in carcinoma breast. Indian J. Serum guanase activity in viral hepatitis and some other hepatic and extrahepatic diseases. A rapid and sensitive method of microgram quantities of proteins utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding.

Biochemical techniques, theory and practice. Wadsworth, Inc. Gnerlich JL. Elevated breast cancer mortality in women younger than age 40 years compared with older women is attributed to poorer survival in early-stage disease. An enzymatic and harmonic study of the blood and tissues of benign and malignant breast tumors in the city of Mosul and some of the northern region. College of Sciences, University of Mosul, Iraq. McPherson K. ABC of the breast disease, breast cancer epidemiology, risk factor, and genetics.

Activities of adenosine deaminase and 5'-NT in cancerous and non-cancerous human colorectal tissues. Elevalution of serum adenosine deaminase and retinol in patients with laryngeal cancer.

HPE 10 in a concomitant production medium. Asian J. Plant Sci. Purification and characterization of intestinal adenosine deaminase from mice. Adenosine deaminase from human thyroid :purification and some properties. Probing the function role of two conserved said aspartat in mouse adenosine deaminase.

Natural peptide inhibitors of proteases from white rot basidiomycete trametes versicolor. Marine Curie-Sklodowska. Principles of instrumental analysis. Thompson Brooks. Cole: Belmont, CA, Chapter Hassan 1 , Jasim M. Salman 2 and Maysam A. Baiee 2 1 Dept. The effects of these treatments on Chlorella vulgaris were investiged on its growth and its carbohydrate contents. Results showed that the growth curve of the studied alga was different among the treatments. The growth rate K increased from 0.

Many scholars around the world had but stilllooked for eliminating the effect of greenhouse due to unsafe use of fuel, and the raising in cost rates Thus, research efforts were directed to stimulate the production of biofuels from microorganisms and plants to improve environmental sustainability 5. Biodiesel and bioethanol are known as biofuel resources 6.

Biodiesel is produced by algae , while bioethanol can be produced from different crops Harun et al. A number of bio feed stocks were tested to stimulate bio-fuels from different organisms. Algae was used for this purpose and considered as a promising resource 13, There are advantages, features of using microalgae in terms of short life cycle, easy to cultivate in the laboratory and its ability of fixing dioxide carbon through photosynthesis These microalgae can be selected as bioethanol producers due to their ability to produce carbohydrates in high quantity compared with lipid contents However, other microalgae can be used if they have higher starch contents In Iraq, the studies of biofuel were started recently 7,8, These studies were conducted on biodiesel production from local isolated algae from Iraq.

No studies were recorded on bioethanol in Iraq. The present study aimed to isolate and purify C. The alga were cultured in modified Chu Table 1. Two techniques were used to isolate and purify the algae, serial dilution and streaking on plate agar methods. The cultivation period was 14 days after inoculated 10 ml of isolated alga to ml of culture media and then transported to a glass container five liters.

Table 1 : The components and concentrations of modified Chu medium This light intensity is considered as control. Light intensity was measured by Lux meter Hydrolysis process: In a stationary phase, ml of C. Once hydrolyzed, hydrolysates were filtered using filter paper to be taken as supernatant. Supernatant was then centrifuged at rpm for 15 min. Centrifugated supernatant was sterilized, and used for the substrate of fermentation. If still experiencing increased levels of ethanol, the fermentation was continued.

The fermentation process was stopped as ethanol levels had been reduced Ethanol standards used in the experiment were analytical grade and were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich. The samples were filtered by millipore filter 0. Figure 1. Monitoring the alga entry to the stationary phase was done at different days according to experimental light intensity.

The K values were followed in 0. The results recorded different doubling times G for C. The G for control was two days, while 3. Effects of light intensities on the carbohydrate content and amount of ethanol production Carbohydrates could be used for bioethanol fermentation 27 and when the carbohydrate content increases the bioethanol production increases too, and that was observed in this study.

The present study results showed an increase in carbohydrate contents of the C. Statistically, there were significant differences among treatments. This increase in carbohydrate contents was a response to photosynthesis processes 28, Figure 1 : Experimental design of ethanol production from C.

LSD, least significant differences of means. LSD, least significant differences of means When algae was exposed to suitable light intensity with respect for light period the chemical organic composition, including carbohydrate will increase In light-dark cycle, light favors the accumulation of carbohydrate and in the absence of light, cells obtain their energy by metabolizing carbohydrate, and this energy is used to synthesis protein The same results of increasing in carbohydrate in response to increase light intensity was noticed by 7.

Higher carbohydrate content was reported It was noticed by 33 that an increase of light intensity had an affect on the hydrolysis process of photosynthesis. Bioethanol production of C. While It was Other previous studies noticed the same results. A study conducted by 23 showed an increased production of ethanol from S. Another study also reported that the ethanol produced from algae Spirogyra in anaerobic conditions was Results of a study conducted by 35 reflected the success of producing 85 ml of ethanol from extracted carbohydrate by S.

The different light intensities influenced the carbohydrate content, and increased the bioethanol production of C. Acknowledgments The authors present their high appreciation and thanks for the support of the Department of Biology, College of Sciences, University of Babylon. Uriarte FA. Biofuels from plant oils. Tatli ZH. Computer based education: Online learning and teaching facilities. Energy Edu. Part B. The structure of European financial system and financial integration.

Bioethanol production from marine algae biomass: prospect and troubles. Third generation biofuels via direct cellulose fermentation. Biofuels from algae for sustainable development. Development of biofuels for the UK automotive market. The use of graphical pinch analysis for visualizing water footprint constraints in biofuel production.

Agricultural crop-based biofuels resource efficiency and environmental performance including direct land use changes. Cleaner Prod. Microalgal biomass as a fermentation feedstock for bioethanol production.

Biodiesel from Microalgae. Second generation biofuels: high-efficiency microalgae for biodiesel production. Bioenergy Res. Handbook of bioethanol: production and utilization. Eshaq FS. Production of bioethanol from next generation feedstock alga Spirogyra species.

CO2 fixation and ethanol production with microalgal photosynthesis and intracellular anaerobic fermentation. Bioethanol production from green alga Chlorella Vulgaris under different concentrations of nitrogen. Production of somphyto-and zooplankton and their use as live food for fish larva. Algae culture and phytoplankton ecology.

University of Wisconsin Press, Wisconsin, U. P Jiminez C. Relationship between physiochemical variables and productivity in open ponds for the production of Spirulina: a predictive model of algal yield. Fermentation potentials of Zymomonasmobilis and its application in ethanol production from low-cost raw sweet potato. Ethanol production from algae spirogyra with fermentation by Zymomonasmobilis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

Basic Appl. A novel solid state fermentation coupled with gas stripping enhancing the sweet sorghum stalk conversion performance for bioethanol. Biofuels Bellinger EG. Freshwater algae identification and use bioindicators. John Wiley and Sons Ltd. P Prescott GW. Algae of the Western Great Lakes areas. Willam, C. Iowa, 16 th ed. John RP. Micro and macroalgal biomass: A renewable source for bioethanol.

Effect of light supply and carbon source on cell growth and cellular composition of a newly isolated microalga Chlorella vulgaris ESP Life Sci. Microalgae Chlorella sp. Light and temperature effects on the growth rate of three fresh water algae isolated from a autotrophic lake.

Enhanced growth and lipid production of microalgae under mixotrophic culture condition: Effect of light intensity, glucose concentration and fed-batch cultivation. Growth performance and biochemical analysis of Spirulinaplatensisunder different culture conditions.

Biomass Utln. Photoinhibition: a historical perspective. Aerobic and anaerobic processes of Spirogyra extract using different doses of Zymomonasmobilis. Ethanol production from marine algae using yeast fermentation. Ebraheem Dept. The present study aimed to investigate the general health risks of this detergent with emphasis on anatomical, histopathological, weight and general behavior effects by ingesting 30 mice weighting about g with detergent solutions.

The mice were randomly divided in to five groups with 6 mice in each group. The relative growth rate RGR in percentage of the control mice was 6. The anatomical alterations were observed in the internal organs heart, lung, liver and kidney structures of the experimental mice including marked black spots, hemorrhage and swollen, and the prominent features were shown in lung.

The most important histopathological changes observed in the internal organs heart, lung, liver and kidney of the experimental mice included hemorrhage, congestion, infiltration of inflammatory cells and vacuolar degeneration in compared with the control mice. Results demonstrated that abnormal behaviors such as sluggishness, stress and increased mortality rates increased as the increase of the concentration of detergent solutions.

The results indicated that the exposure to the toilet bowl detergent is highly health hazard even at small amount, and must be taken into consideration. Keywords: flash, anatomical alterations, mortality rates, mice, relative growth rate RGR. Until the s, soap was the only important detergent in the market, but today, soap is one of the numerous detergent products 1. However, modern technology has led to the creation of synthetic detergents that have gradually replaced soap in the laundry.

Today, detergent market is highly competitive, where different brands are competing to get more consumers 2. Detergents are widely used in both industrial and domestic premises to cloths, equipments, installation, heavy-duty machines and vehicles 3,4. The increasing domestic health hazards and environmental pollution arising from detergent exposure are reducing the popularity of its usefulness 5. There is no doubt that detergent exposure poses health risks to man and other animals, but the most important issue relies on what they actually act and cause and how dangerous they really are 6.

Toilet cleaning agents were also popular because they were available in almost every house. They involve in both intentional and unintentional exposure. Exposure to toilet cleaner could cause severe gastrointestinal injury and permanent morbidity 7.

A study from Turkey reported that corrosive ingestions led to high fatality 8. Public education regarding the danger of toilet cleaner should be implemented 7. Toxic effects of surfactants are usually presented after a direct contact with eyes and skin, mainly characterized by irritation, redness, itching, scaling in eyes, and erythema, contact dermatitis skin , or harmful effects if swallowed e.

Inhalation of aerosols causes respiratory tract irritation, and have carcinogenic, teratogenic and mutagenic effects after chronic exposition, but there is usually a lack of experimental data material safety data sheets.

Surfactants act as deleterious agents mainly in microorganisms and water organisms, thus are chiefly used as disinfections or inhibitors of the fungal or algae growth 9. The aim of this study was to examine the histpathological and anatomical alterations in the organs of mice heart,lung, liver and kidney that induced by exposure to different concentrations of the toilet detergent trading brand Flash.

Animal husbandry Thirty mice of both sexes weighting about g were obtained from animal house at the College of Education, University of Basra. The animals were left in the laboratory for one week to acclimatize before the experimental work and the mice were fed with a mixture of ground wheat, yellow corn and protein Experimental design Mice were randomly divided into five groups with 6 mice in each group after taken their initial weights.

The control group was administrated by ordinary water. Then The internal organs heart, lung, liver and kidney were processed in a routine paraffin embedding procedure. Stained sections were examined by a light microscope. Statistical analysis Data analysis was created with Microsoft Office Excel Comparison of data among experimental and control groups were calculated using students t-test.

The mean weight change of the control mice was 3. Also, the relative growth rate of the control mice in percentage was 6.

The most prominent features were shown in lung. The results of anatomical examination of internal organs were shown in Figures 1, , , and Figure 1 : anatomical examination of internal organs. Figure : Control mice showed the normal anatomical structures of internal organs, a: heart b: lung c: live. Figure : Experimental mice showed hemorrhage marked hemorrhage in a: lung, b: congested and swelling in liver and c: heart.

Figure : Experimental mice showed hemorrhage and black spots in a: kidney. The results of histopathology examination of the internal organs of the experimental mice showed marked pathological changes.

Finally, the experimental mice showed marked reduce in body weight, sluggishness and high mortality rate compared to the control group. The changes recorded in body weights and relative growth of experimental mice in this study may resulted from detoxification 12 , poor physiological conditions of the exposed mice which led to loss of appetite, sluggishness and high metabolic demand Toilet cleaner which contained hydrochloric acid caused more sever gastrointestinal injury after ingestion 7 , this may cause nausea, sever digestive tract burns and weigh loss in experimental mice.

The present study indicated that toilet flash detergent solution induced marked anatomical macroscopic alterations in the internal organs heart,lung, kidney and liver , of experimental mice such as black spots,hemorrhage and swollen. Similar results, have been reported by others 14, Congestion is a blood circulation disturbance due to the increase volume of the blood in the blood capillary. Macroscopically, the congestion of the fish liver showed dark red colorization, and microscopically, the blood capillary was widened and full of erythrocyte Vacuolar degeneration is known as an acute swelling of the organ The vacuolar degeneration cannot be seen macroscopically, and it is usually shown by the swollen of the organ with pale colorization The mechanism of swelling starts as a decrease in O2 levels which causes a drop in aerobic respiration.

To maintain ATP levels, the cells must rely more on glycolysis. Glycolysis leads to lactic acid builds up, which causes the intracellular ph to drop.

A study from Japan also recorded autopsy finding for the woman was ingested liquid detergent that the heart weighed g, and contained large amounts of dark-red liquid blood. The left and right lungs weighed and Moreover, histological examination with Hematoxylin and Eosin stain revealed that the lungs were congested and edematous The major histopathological investigation of the internal organs heart, lung liver, and kidney of the experimental mice revealed that the detergent solutions are pathogenic to mice.

The histopathological changes were as a result of cytotoxic agents in the detergent solutions which caused multi-organ injuries 10, This result supports the findings of 10, who reported that the ingestion of detergent solutions can cause multi-organ damage 10 leading to nervous system disorders,respiratory illness, birth defects, cancer and even death except the cancer probably due to short duration of the study 10, In the present study,dilated of hepatic and cortical renal tubules of the experimental mice may be due to the toxic effects of the detergent solutions; this result support by 17 , who reported, this is justifiable since the renal tubules are particularly sensitive to toxic influences, in part because they have high oxygen consumption and vulnerable enzyme systems, and in part because they have complicated transport mechanisms that may be used for transport of toxins and may be damaged by such toxin.

Also in the present investigation, the experimental mice showed abnormal behavior such as sluggishness, stress and high mortality rate with increase the concentration of detergent solutions in contrast the control mice.

The sluggishness, low fecundity and high mortality rate observed in the exposed mice were direct consequences of impaired health and poor physiological conditions of the mice 9. Moreover it was reported that the pesticide and toilet cleaning agents caused severe morbidity and mortality 7. Probably, due to sudden death of the experimental mice in about days after exposure to this concentration. In conclusion, this study demonstrated a direct correlation between detergent exposure and histopathological changes observed in the internal organs heart, lung,liver and kidney , also the histopathological alterations and mortality rate depend on the concentration and period of exposure to the detergent.

Finally, it is hoped that the results of this study will be useful for educating people on health risks that induced by detergents exposure and planning of health care. Also, more researches should be done on the genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of the toilet cleaning agents that available in most houses.

Ronni W. Detergent chemistry foundations and application: encyclopedia. Khurana R. Detergents: counting the cost of cleanliness. Toxic Link Fact Sheet, Lightowlers P. Still dirty: A review of action against toxic products in Europe. Chun WC. Nonionic surfactant Brij35 effects on toluene biodegradation in a composite bead bio-filter. Evaluation of acute toxicity of cadmium and lead to amphibian tadpole Toad: Bufo maculates and frog: Ptychadena bibroni and frog.

Effects of laundry detergent on the environment. Chitlada L. Acute poison exposure in the emergency department: a 2-year study in a university hospital. Quaternary pyridinium salts: A review.

Investigation of toxicity of detergents. Growth response of catfish Clarias gariepinus exposed to water soluble fraction of detergent and diesel oil. Biodegradation of synthetic detergents in wastewater.

Biochemical and hematological profile in Nigeria cement factory workers. Chronic effects of surfactant detergent linear alkylbenzene sulfonate LAS on the growth and survival rate of sea bass Lates Calcalifer Bloch larvae. Deskripsi Histopatologi dari beberapa Penyakit Ikan. Pusat Karantina Pertanian, Departemen Pertanian. Lieberthat W. Graded ATP depletion can cause necrosis or apoptosis of cultured mouse proximal tubular cells. Histological, histochemical and ultrastructural studies on the kidney of rats after administration of monosodium glutamate.

Satoshi F. A case and review of death associated with ingestion of detergent. Forensic Med. Bio- concentration of metals in the body muscle and gut of clarias gariepinus exposed to sub- lethal concentrations of soap and detergent effluent. Cell Anim. Effects of heavy metals. Pathologic lesion in the gills of clarias gariepinus exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of soap and detergent. Toxicological impacts of detergent effluent on juvenile of African Catfish Claris gariepinus B.

Allergens and toxins in laundry detergents: synthetic ingredients that are harmful to people and the environment. Akram S. Shabanipour M. Histopathological change induced in the liver of the Caspian kutum fry after acute exposure to the anionic surfactant. Athab 1 , Ali M. Al- Timimi 1 , Ali S. Al- Duleimy 2 and Nabeel K. Cardiovascular disease is a common cause of death in patients with ESRD and advanced renal insufficiency.

Anemia is common in chronic renal failure and can lead to left ventricular hypertrophy. Pericarditis also is common and may occur in two patterns. Pattern I is a hemorrhagic pericarditis that is treated with hemodialysis, while pattern II can occur in patients who are adequately dialyzed; it may be associated with hemorrhage and tamponade.

The study was conducted from 28 th September to 15 th March The sample was composed of 70 patients, 39 were male and 31 were female. The aim of the study was to evaluate the ECG changes in patients with chronic renal failure in Baquba Teaching Hospital. Results showed that there were abnormalities in ECG of patients with chronic renal failure.

The study concluded that many ECG changes in CRF could occur, mainly hyper acute T wave and sinus tachycardia, and that those abnormalities could increase the incidence of morbidity and mortality from cardiac arrhythmia in patients with CRF.

The incremental risk of cardiovascular diseases in those with chronic kidney diseases CKD compared to the age- and sex-matched general population ranges from to folds, depending on the stage of CKD. Cardiovascular disease is a common cause of death in patients with ESRD End-stage renal disease and advanced renal insufficiency. Anemia can lead to left ventricular hypertrophy. Pericarditis may occur in two patterns. Pattern I is a hemorrhagic pericarditis that is treated with hemodialysis.

Pattern II can occur in patients who are adequately dialyzed; it may be associated with hemorrhage and tamponade 3. End-stage renal disease ESRD and cardiovascular disease have been inextricably linked since the earliest days of chronic dialysis. The first patient on long-term dialysis, died of myocardial infarction MI in , at the age of 50 years, 11 years after starting hemodialysis 2.

The burden of cardiac diseases in all phases of renal failure is high, and thier clinical impacts are grave. IHD may be atherosclerotic or nonatherosclerotic in origin. The manifestations of uremic cardiomyopathy include concentric and eccentric LVH and systolic dysfunction. Risk factors for cardiac disease in uremia include age, diabetes, hypertension, anemia, volume overload, hyperparathyroidism, dyslipidemia, and perhaps uremia itself 4.

Four reasons may explain why patients with renal dysfunction have poor cardiovascular outcomes in a variety of settings: 1 excess comorbidities associated with CKD and ESRD, in particular DM and heart failure; 2 therapeutic nihilism; 3 toxicity of therapies; and 4 special biological and pathophysiological factors in renal dysfunction that cause worsened outcomes 5.

Heart failure is common and is due to sodium and water retention, acid-base changes, hypocalcaemia and hyperparathyroidism, hypertension, anemia, coronary artery disease, and diastolic dysfunction secondary to increased myocardial fibrosis with oxalate and urate deposition and myocardial calcification.

Uremia itself may also impair myocyte function. Smoking contributes not only to cardiovascular risk, but also to an accelerated rate of fall of glomerular filtration rate GFR 6. Chronic renal failure is defined as progressive and irreversible loss of renal function. The common causes of chronic renal failure can be summarized as follows: 1.

Diabetic nephropathy. Hypertensive nephrosclerosis. Renovascular disease ischemic nephropathy. Polycystic kidney disease. Reflux nephropathy and other congenital renal diseases. Interstitial nephritis, including analgesic nephropathy. HIV-associated nephropathy. Transplant allograft failure chronic rejection 8. ESRD is identified on biochemical and clinical grounds as that point when despite conservative measures, the patient will die without the institution of renal replacement by dialysis or transplantation 9.

For every patient with CRF, full history was recorded regarding the history of chronic diseases and medications. ECG was done for each patient, then analyzed for any changes occurred. Echocardiography was done for certain cases to detect left ventricular hypertrophy, systolic function and pericardial effusion with tomponade. The abnormalities in ECG of patients were recorded as follows: 1. P- pulmonale 5.

ST segment depression 2. T-wave inversion LVH 4. These results were found also by 11 , where the chronic renal failure are more common among old patients and patient with diabetes mellitus,hypertension, glomerular nephritis, polycystic kidney disease, begnin prostate hyperplasia.

Results obtained from the present study were in agreement of that obtained by 12 , which reflected the prevalence of atrial fibrillation was 4. These results also were in agreement with those revealed by 13 , where the prevalences of atrial fibrillation was 4. Thus, the prevalence of atrial fibrillation in patients with ESRD seems to be 10 to 20 folds higher than in general population.

Fluctuating levels of electrolytes during hemodialysis, sympathetic activation and modulation of the renin-angiotensin system represente additional predisposing factors for atrial fibrillation in chronic kidney disease The study of patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators had revealed that patients with CKD were more likely to use their devices for ventricular arrhythmias, but in spite of this, they still have high associated mortality.

Minimizing risk of sudden cardiac death can be achieved by good control of basic parameters such as fluid balance, electrolytes and blood pressure National Kidney Foundation P Zalunardo N. Cardiovascular disease in chronic kidney disease. Harrison principle of internal medicine. Chapter McGraw Hill.

William AM. Chronic renal failure. Myoclinic textbook of medicine, 1 st ed. Cardiac disease in chronic renal disease, disease of kidney and urinary tract. Volume III. Chapter McCullough PA. Interface between renal disease and cardiovascular illness. Braunwald's heart disease: a Textbook of cardiovascular medicine. Saunder, Elsiver Inc. P Luke RG. Cecil Textbook of Medicine e-dition. P Andreoli T. P Kasper DI. Harrison's manual of medicine. Chronic kidney disease and uremia. McGraw-Hill Inc.

P Baliga RR. Crash course. Genitourinary system. Internal medicine. Mosby Inc. P Madias JE. Comprehensive electrocardiogram. Chapter Miscellaneous Electrocardiographic Topics. Springer Ltd. P Bignotto LH. Electrocardiographic findings in chronic hemodialysis patients.

Atrial fibrillation, atrioventricular blocks and bundle branch blocks in hemodialysis patients. Prevalence and predisposing factors for bundle branch block in patients starting dialysis. Prevalence of chronic kidney disease in a Nigerian family practice population. Family Prac. Prevalence of ventricular arrhythmia and its associated factors in nondialyzed chronic kidney disease patients.

PLOS One. Epidemiology of atrial fibrillation. Arrhythmia in chronic kidney diease. Health and Medicine.

Published by University of Alexandria. Obaid Dept. Mental retardation is a particular state of functioning in childhood characterized by decreased intelligence and adaptive skills.

The aim of this work was to analyze and determine the electroencephalographic alterations in patients with psychiatrics disorder and clinically subnormal to assess their significance. This study consisted in a cohort analytical study, between November and March in Diyala province of Iraq, to detect electroencephalographic abnormalities in the population of children diagnosed to be mentally subnormal with psychiatrics disorders visited the Psychiatrics and neurophysiology clinics in Baquba teaching hospital.

An electroencephalogram EEG was later performed and a database was set up to record information about age, sex, perinatal asphyxia, family history of seizures, the location of the EEG phenomenon was stated. A total of 57 patients were included, with an average of 8.

Children with severe mental health problems have an increased probability of having neurological problems which might have an impact on the ability to assess and treat the mental health problem. The most frequent location of the abnormalities observed in the EEG of a patient with psychiatric disorders is in the temporal lobe.

Diagnosis is highly dependent on comprehensive personal and family medical histories, a complete physical examination and a careful developmental assessment of the child, which guide appropriate evaluations for the child 2. Some definitions rely on Intelligence Quotient IQ scores alone to classify individuals with MR, some only use adaptive behaviors for classification, and others include both IQ scores and measures of adaptive skills 3.

A number of environmental, genetic or multiple factors can cause mental retardation. It is also believed that behavioral or social factors such as poverty, malnutrition, maternal drug and alcohol use, as well as severe stimulus deprivation can contribute to MR 5.

Genetic condition is caused as a number of single-gene disorders resulted in mental retardation, many of these are associated with atypical or dysmorphic physical characteristics 7. Prenatal causes include congenital infections such as cytomegalovirus, toxoplasmosis, herpes, syphilis, rubella and human immunodeficiency virus; prolonged maternal fever in the first trimester; exposure to anticonvulsants or alcohol; and untreated maternal phenylketonuria PKU 8. Complications of prematurity, especially in extremely low-birth-weight infants, or postnatal exposure to lead can also cause mental retardation 9.

Molecular medicine has made it possible to diagnose a number of conditions referred to as mitochondrial cell diseases Diseases like whooping cough, measles, or meningitis can cause mental disability if medical care is delayed or inadequate, exposure to poisons like lead or mercury may also affect mental ability 12, Malnutrition is a common cause of reduced intelligence in parts of the world affected by famine, such as Ethiopia The first and most important step in the diagnosis of mental retardation is to obtain a comprehensive patient and family histories.

Previous gynecologic and obstetric history may reveal infertility or fetal loss Assessment of maternal health status during pregnancy with the involved child should include questions regarding use of tobacco, alcohol and drugs prescribed and illicit ; lifestyle or other risks for sexually transmitted diseases; weight gain or loss; signs of infection; serious illness or injury and surgery or hospitalization 16,17 , type of delivery and any complications The systems review of the child should be complete, with special attention to growth problems, history of seizures, lethargy and episodic vomiting, a developmental screen should be used at all well-child visits to obtain information about the timing of the child's developmental milestones, any concerns by parents or caregivers and comparison of the child's developmental rate and pattern with those of siblings Delays in speech development are common and may become more obvious when contrasted with the speech development of a sibling, inquiry should be made regarding concerns about hearing and vision Family history of fetal loss, mental retardation, severe learning problems, congenital abnormalities and unexplained childhood deaths, as well as other serious illnesses in first- and second-degree family members should be elicited.

A complete physical examination can begin with a review of growth curves since birth, if these are available, the child should be examined closely for dysmorphic features or minor abnormalities, such as unusual eyebrow pattern, eyes that are widely or closely spaced, low-set ears or abnormal palmar crease patterns, minor abnormalities are defined as defects that have unusual morphologic features without serious medical implications or untoward cosmetic appearance.

Most minor abnormalities involve the face, ears, hands or feet, and are readily recognized even on cursory examination The initial hope that it would either lead to specific knowledge of cerebral pathophysiology or support differential diagnosis in idiopathic major mental illnesses has long been abandoned, nevertheless, it continues to have value in the diagnosis of epilepsy, brain damage, delirium, and dementia and in differentiating brain disease from primary psychiatric disorders Among the psychiatric patients, children have shown more EEG abnormalities as compared to the adult cases 22, Psychotic mood disorders and atypical psychoses are reported to have a higher frequency of epileptiform variants, including the phantom spike and wave, positive spikes, and small sharp spikes, as compared with nonpsychotic mood disorders and schizophrenia Additionally, the insult may retard or arrest cerebral development maturational retardation hypothesis , which may be expressed by the persistence of immature EEG characteristics.

Walter suggested that many of the lesser dysrhythmias of childhood may simply reflect delayed cerebral maturation Walter hypothesized that certainly, deprivation or distortion of sensory input at a certain critical stage of ontogenetic development may engender dramatic electrographic changes An electroencephalogram EEG was later performed and a database was set up to record information about age, sex,, and prenatal history was taken regarding maternal.

Information about delivery type, fetal distress, fit,mile stone,neurological deficit, school performance,number of hospitalization and information about treatment,financial state of family were recorded. Regarding examination, it was noticed if there is any dysmorphic features or short stature and if CT scan or MRI was done or not. Later EEG was set for all children using International system of electrodes replacement. EEG made when patient open his eye and then closed it and in a state of hyperventilation when age and co- operation of patients were permitted.

Also EEG was recorded during flash stimulation twice times Thirty 30 cases required hospitalization Eight A direct relationship was found between the presence of seizures and EEG abnormalities. These results are shown in tables 1, 2. This proportion was higher for the very low IQ subjects 27 , and in particular for the mentally retarded showing signs of clinical epilepsy Furthermore, maternal infection, pregnancy hypertension, including hypertension with and without proteinuria preeclampsia and maternal exposure to drugs may place children at risk of mental problems This correlate with present study in which the common maternal data Table 2 showed that the maternal fever presented in Environmental factors associated with poverty may also contribute to the association between poverty and mental subnormalities, and this agree with the.

In present study, it was found that the neurological deficits presented in The systems review of the child should be complete, with special attention to growth problems, history of seizures, lethargy and episodic vomiting. Children with severe mental health problems have an increased probability of having neurological problems, which might have an impact on the ability to assess and treat the mental health problem Children with severe mental health problems have increase probability of having neurological problems, which might have an impact on the ability to assess and treat the mental health problem.

Daily DK. Identification and evaluation of mental retardation. Family Physic. First diagnosis of severe mental and physical disability: a study of doctor parent communication.

Child Psychol. Epidemiology and prevalence of psychopathology in people with mental retardation. The detection of sub telomeric chromosomal rearrangements in idiopathic mental retardation.

Nature Genet. Review of recent epidemiological studies in mental retardation: prevalence, associated disorders, and etiology. Mental Retard. Evaluation of mental retardation: recommendations of a consensus conference.

Fragile X mental retardation in an Indonesian family. Aetiology in severe and mild mental retardation: a population-based study of Norwegian children. Child Neurol. Outcome of extremely low birth weight infants to grams over a year period. Prenatal and perinatal risk factors for autism: a review and integration of findings. Mitochondrial encephalomyopathies.

The etiology of developmental delay. Seminars in Pediatr. Prenatal and postnatal risk factors for mental retardation amongnchildren in Bangladesh. Theories of dual diagnosis in mental retardation. Handbook of challenging behavior: mental health aspects of mental retardation.

Szymanski L. Mental retardation and mental health: Concepts, aetiology and incidence. In Bouras N Ed. Mental Health in Mental Retardation.

Great Britain: Cambridge University Press. Palmer FB. Mental retardation. Prevalence and characteristics of children with serious hearing impairment in Metropolitan Atlanta: Pediatr.

The KIDS chart. A simple, reliable infant development screening tool. EEG and behavior: association or disassociation in man? Behavior disorders with predominance of aggressiveness, irritability, impulsiveness, and instability: clinical electroencephalographic study of cases.

Arquivos de Neuro- Psiquiatria; 32 : Inui K. Electroencephalographic findings in patients with DSM-IV mood disorder, schizophrenia, and other psychotic disorders. Normal rhythm-their development, distribution and significance. The electroencephalogram in mental deficiency. The electroencephalogram and various aspects of mental deficiency.

An electroencephalographic survey with activation techniques of ' undifferentiated' mental deficiency. X 60 : Baheti R. Indian Acad. Arquivos de Neuro- Psiquiatria. The changing panorama of cerebral palsy in Sweden: VI. Pregnancy disorders that lead to delivery before the 28 th week of gestation: an epidemiologic approach to classification.

Trends in the prevalence of developmental disabilities in U. Mohammed Dept. Twelve 12 isolates of E. Antibiotic sensitivity test was done. The results revealed that the isolates resisted 9 out of 16 types of antibiotics that were used in this study. Crude and partial purified InLA were examined for the cytotoxic effect on cancer and normal cells.

Obviously, the cytotoxicity of the both extracts crude and partial has slight effect on normal cell line, and Rat Embryo fibroblast Ref.

The study concluded that InLA can enhance reduction in tumor cells, but not in normal cells and showed cytotoxic effect of cancer cell lines Glioblastoma and AMN-3 with different concentrations and exposure time. This is the main reason why searching for better cancer therapies is so difficult 2. Surgery may be sufficient to cure the patient by removing all cancerous cells. It becomes ineffective when the tumor metastasizes from the primary site 3.

Radiotherapy side-effect that radiation is not specific to cancerous cells and may damage healthy cells as well. Chemotherapy has serious side effects and its toxicity not limited to cancer cells but it extended to normal cells as well, also tumor cells may develop resistance to it 4.

So, the researchers went to alternative treatments such as plant extracts that will destroy the cancer cells without causing damage to normal cells 5. Biological therapy is form of cancer therapy in which antitumor effects are produced primarily through the action of natural host defense mechanisms by the administration of immunologically active substances. This term includes the use of living microorganisms that directed toward tumor cells, as well as biological therapy using natural products such as verotoxin produce by E.

Component structures of the bacterial cell wall have an important role in the inhibition of cancer cells 6. Enterococcus faecalis are secondary infection acquired while in the hospitals and opportunistic pathogens, E. In bovine species cause mastitis, this related to poor hygiene, as well as in poultry infection occur primarily in the first week 8. The protein InLA mediates bacterial adhesion and invasion of epithelial cells in intestine through specific interaction with its host cell receptor E- cadherin The present study aimed to isolate and identify E.

Faecalis from different samples, extraction of InLA from E. Faecalis, purification the extract of InLA by chromatography and study the effect of purified extract InLA on cancer cells and compared them with normal cells in vitro. Kenner Faecal Agar was used to differentiate between Enterococcus and Streptococcus. Moreover Streptococcal Faecal Agar was used to differentiate between Enterococcus species. For primary identification, cultures reading were performed as well as Microscopical Examination using Gram stain.

The second step of identification was performed using API strep system Antibiotic sensitivity test This test was done by disc diffusion method according to Kirby - Bauer method by inoculating an agar plate with bacterial culture using sterile cotton swab and streaking evenly across the surface of a Mueller-Hinton agar plate.

After that within 10 minutes of inoculation, the antibiotic disks were applied to the agar with a sterile forceps pressed firmly to ensure contact with the agar and then plate inverted and incubated at 37 C for 18 hrs. After incubation, the diameter of each inhibition zone was measured in millimeter mm using a metric ruler