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BMR was calculated from values measured in similar samples of Huli-speaking population, according to gender and body weight. Saitation, health and children and youth civic participation in peri-urban Lusaka, Zambia: Assessing social values and quality of life. The head section of the page is where we place the page title, the definition of the HTML version used, the language of in which the page is written. The associations with urbanization included a gain in body weight by 6.

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Methods Two regions with an objectively assessed high and low residential density, land use mix-diversity, and street connectivity, respectively, were identified in one city.

The subjects were selected using a stratified random sampling method by sex and age in each region. The daily total number of walking steps was measured with an accelerometer, and walking and cycling time were assessed by a questionnaire. For the male subjects, the score for walking time for leisure was longer for those who perceived aesthetics and an accessibility to parks, and the score for total walking steps was significantly higher for those who perceived an accessibility to bookstores or rental video stores in their neighborhood.

Conclusions The results to this study demonstrate that daily PA was high among female subjects living in a NE with land use mix-diversity, and who had an awareness of places to walk to and the accessibility to facilities for daily necessities in their neighborhood. For male subjects, daily PA was high among those who perceived the aesthetics of and accessibility to facilities for pleasure in their neighborhood.

Further research is needed to determine the association between PA and NE on the basis of sex differences. We have performed an investigative study about health, physical strength and living environment of children in East Asia. We investigated various measurement items, for example, local cold tolerance, measurement of physical fitness and questionnaire about a lifestyle in five cities of East Asia. The database was made based on these findings.

By using the present database, we can investigate the actual situation of a lifestyle and developmental state of children living in urban area of East Asia.

In this report, we describe and discuss the result that compared Japan with other cities in East Asia. Training local health assistants for a community health survey in a developing country: longitudinal monitoring of the growth and nutrition of children in Zambia. FTO polymorphisms in oceanic populations. It has been suggested that Neel's "thrifty genotype" model may account for high body weights in some Oceanic populations, which presumably arose in modern times.

In European populations, common variants rsC, rsG, and rsA in the fat mass and obesity FTO associated were recently found to be associated with body mass index BMI or obesity. In this study, we investigated the population frequencies of these variants in six Oceanic populations Melanesians, Micronesians, and Polynesians and tested for an association with BMI.

These variants were in strong linkage disequilibrium. The population frequencies ranged between 4. Our study of the FTO polymorphisms has generated no evidence to support the thrifty genotype hypothesis for Oceanic populations.

Growth and nutritional status of adolescents in the Solomon Islands: effects of genetic and socioeconomic factors. Quality of life, nutritional status, physical activity, and their interrelationships of elderly living on an underpopulated island in Japan. Comparison of normalized maximum aerobic capacity and body composition of sumo wrestlers to athletes in combat and other sports.

Growth rates and life histories in twenty-two small-scale societies. Oliver, Claudia Valeggia, Taro Yamauchi. This study investigates variation in body growth cross-sectional height and weight velocity among a sample of 22 small-scale societies.

Considerable variation in growth exists among hunter-gatherers that overlaps heavily with growth trajectories present in groups focusing more on horticulture. Intergroup variation tends to track environmental conditions, with societies under more favorable conditions displaying faster growth and earlier puberty.

For example, African "Pygmies," Philippine "Negritos," and the Hiwi of Venezuela are characterized by relatively fast child-juvenile growth for their adult body size used as a proxy for energetic availability. In these societies, subadult survival is low, and puberty, menarche, and first reproduction are relatively early given their adult body size , suggesting selective pressure for accelerated development in the face of higher mortality.

In sum, the origin and maintenance of different human ontogenies may quire explanations invoking both environmental constraints and selective pressures. No difference in serum leptin concentrations between urban-dwelling Austronesians and Non-Austronesians in Papua New Guinea. Pacific Islands populations can be broadly divided into Austronesians AN and Non-Austronesians NAN ; obesity and type 2 diabetes are prevalent in the former, although leptin levels in both groups have seldom been investigated.

Thirty-seven 20 male and 17 female adult pairs, matched by age and percent body fat, from AN-speaking Balopa and NAN-speaking Huli, all of whom migrated to settle in Port Moresby, the capital of Papua New Guinea, were selected for comparison of their serum leptin concentrations. The Balopa did not differ significantly from the HuIi in age In both ethnic groups, females had markedly higher leptin concentrations than males, but there was no significant inter-group difference in males 3.

Rural-urban migration and changing physical activity among Papua New Guinea Highlanders from the perspective of energy expenditure and time use. Anthropometry of year-old Tongan children with special interest in the high prevalence of obesity among adolescent girls.

Background: Despite much concern about adult obesity among Pacific Islanders, childhood obesity has seldom been investigated. Aim: Based on the anthropometry of Tongan children aged years, this study aims to elucidate age and sex differences in obesity prevalence calculated from BMI and its relation to body fat estimated by skinfold thicknesses. Subjects and methods: students, aged years, in the most modernized island and a remote island, were measured for stature, body weight, circumferences at waist, hip and mid-upper arm, and skinfold thicknesses at biceps, triceps and subscapular.

Among adolescents, the girls' BMI was positively correlated with fat mass whereas in boys it was not. The sex difference in adolescents was parallel to that in adults, being attributable to gender differences in daily behavioural patterns.

Conclusions: Among Tongan adolescents, obesity prevalence in girls was much higher than in boys, in association with fat accumulation in the former. Body composition and resting metabolic rate of Japanese college Sumo wrestlers and non-athlete students: are Sumo wrestlers obese?

Community health assessment by urine dipstick screening in relation to the variety of lifestyles in Solomon Islands. Nutritional adaptation of women in contrasting agricultural environments, Tari, Papua New Guinea. Time allocation to subsistence activities among the Huli in rural and urban Papua New Guinea. Time spent on subsistence activities was compared between rural sedentes and urban migrants of the Huli population in Papua New Guinea.

Person-day observation data were collected for rural sedentes in the Tari basin and for urban migrants in Port Moresby The time spent on subsistence activities by males was longer in the urban area than in rural areas, while that by females was similar in both areas. Conspicuous gender inequality with respect to labour hours in rural areas seems to diminish when people move to urban areas, reflecting the different subsistence regime between rural and urban environments.

Influence of urbanisation on physical activity and dietary changes in Huli-speaking population: A comparative study of village dwellers and migrants in urban settlements. The influence of urbanisation on physical activity and dietary changes was examined in a Papua New Guinea Highland population.

Adult male and female subjects n 56 were selected, including twenty-seven rural villagers and twenty-nine urban migrants. BMR was calculated from values measured in similar samples of Huli-speaking population, according to gender and body weight. Energy, protein and fat intakes were measured by weighing food on a single day. Reduced PAL and increased fat intake by urban dwellers may increase the risks of obesity and chronic degenerative diseases.

Several studies on human energetics have been conducted in developed and developing countries, but very few simultaneously measured time use and energy expenditure. Only a few quantitatively compared subsistence patterns between rural and urban dwellers of an identical population. A large sex inequality in the division of labor was noted between rural males and females, but not among urban dwellers. Rural-urban comparison indicated sex differences in urbanization.

The associations with urbanization included a gain in body weight by 6. Further research is needed to elucidate the effects of urbanization on time use, energy expenditure, and PAL, by comparing rural residents with urban migrants in the same population. Nutritional status, activity patterns, and dietary intakes among the Baka hunter-gatherers in the village camps in Cameroon. Basal metabolic rate and energy costs at rest and during exercise in rural- and urban-dwelling Papua New Guinea highlanders.

Objective: 1 To evaluate inter-individual variations, regional and sex differences in the basal metabolic rate BMR and related variables 2 to compare measured BMR with estimated BMR using predictive equations and 3 to examine the net mechanical efficiency NME in step tests.

Design: BMR and energy costs at rest and during step tests were measured by the Douglas bag technique of indirect calorimetry. Setting: Rural villages under subsistence agriculture and urban settlements under cash economy. Interventions: Step exercise test. Results: There were significant regional differences in BMR per body weight in both sexes.

NME was higher in urban subjects with larger body size than in rural subjects for both sexes, albeit insignificantly. NME tended to be higher with increased stepping level in both sexes.

Energy expenditure, physical exertion and time allocation among Huli-speaking people in the Papua New Guinea Highlands. Objectives: The study aimed to 1 elucidate the energetic adaptations of Huli people by comparing the three sub-populations in relation to their diversified natural and socioeconomic environment, based on energy expenditure and time allocation data and 2 assess the applicability of a new index of physical exertion levels of activities physical exertion index: PEI. Continuous heart rate HR monitoring, in conjunction with minute-by-minute observation of activities, was undertaken.

Total energy expenditure was assessed by flex-HR method and physical activity level PAL was calculated as multiples of basal metabolic rate. Results: No significant difference was found in PAL among the three sub-populations: 1. The comparison of the two village groups revealed that hilly terrain did not affect substantially the physical intensity of agricultural activities. On the other hand, the town migrants were engaged in sedentary paid jobs and these were less energy consuming than agricultural work.

However, the different energy costs between paid jobs and agricultural work were offset by longer work time in the town group than in the two village groups vs 50 or 70 min in males vs or min in females , resulting in similar PAL in the three groups. Conclusions: Despite contrasting natural and social environments, no significant difference was found in daily physical activity level among the three sub-populations two villages and a town of Huli-speaking people in Papua New Guinea Highlands.

Impact of population pressure on food production: An analysis of land use change and subsistence pattern in the Tari basin in Papua New Guinea Highlands. The impact of increase in population on land use and subsistence pattern was examined in two environmentally contrasting Huli-speaking communities, Heli and Wenani, in the Tari basin in Papua New Guinea Highlands.

Despite the similar extent of population increase in both communities, the damage to land differed markedly. In Heli, a decrease in land productivity owing to excessive agricultural use has induced farmers to shorten the fallow duration, which in turn has led to further land degradation and difficulties in increasing food production. In contrast, Wenani villagers have coped with the population increase by enlarging areas for cultivation and possibly will be able to double their present production level, although increasingly frequent disputes over land rights have restricted peoples' access to fertile areas.

During a period of climatic perturbations in , land and labor productivities of crops were three times higher in Wenani than in Heli, which suffered a severe food shortage. This difference in ability to cope with climatic perturbations may have increased with population growth. The findings in the present study suggest that the effects of population pressure on food production may differ between communities, depending on the indigenous environment and subsistence pattern.

Diet among the Huli in Papua New Guinea highlands when they were influenced by the extended rainy period. Estimation of the period of childhood and child growth characteristics of Pygmy hunter-gatherers in southeast Cameroonn.

Understanding unimproved sanitation in the slum environment. Socio-demographic and sanitation factors associated with diarrhea prevalence in peri-urban Lusaka, Zambia. Physical and mental health of sanitation workers in an urban slum of Indonesia: Personal hygiene and the construction of self-esteem in waste-handling. Infant oral contact and cooperative breeding in a hunter-gatherer society in Cameroon. Knowledge, attitude, and practice of hygiene associated gross motor development delay among children in a suburban area of China.

Remote interview research to examine factors affecting MHM practices among females in an urban slum of Indonesia. Risk factors affecting gross motor development delay among children in a suburban area of China: Focus on water, sanitation and hygiene. Factors affecting MHM practices among females in an urban slum of Indonesia.

Project research during pandemic period: publication and online field research. Sanitation value chain: Designing sanitation systems as eco-community-value system. Designing sanitataion systems collaborating with local communities: Participatory action research, fecal contamination assessment, and parasitic infection screening.

Unsafe child heces disposal as a risk factor of child stunting in an urban slum of Indonesia. Children living in obese and low physial fitness era: intergeneration changes among Japanese children.

Outline of the Sanitation Value Chain project and the significance of field research in Cameroon. Central sensitization was associated with pain, disability and psychological factors in people with pre-surgical low back pain. What can Children Do? Local children's art-based research on peri-urban water, sanitation and hygiene in Lusaka, Zambia. Relationship between self-rated health, life satisfaction and exercise satisfaction and frailty.

Risk factors associated with elementary school children diarrhea among rural area of Northeast China. Factors improving the subjective health perceptions of female nursing students. Knowledge, attitude and practice of sanitation and hygiene among primary school students in the rural area of Northeast China. Developing the Sanitation Value Chain: Co-designing future sanitation systems through community-based participation research.

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Matsumura, R. Ohtsuka, N. Tsuchiya, J. Objective:Obesity is a growing health concern in the Oceanic populations. To investigate the genetic factors associated with adult obesity in the Oceanic populations, the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms SNPs of the beta-2 adrenergic receptor ADRB2 gene with obesity was examined in adults living in Tonga and Solomon Islands.

A copy of the obesity-risk allele, rsA, led to a 1. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay demonstrated that rs modulated the binding affinity with nuclear factors. Conclusion:The present results suggest that rsA, which would lead to lower expression of ADRB2, contributes to the onset of obesity in the Oceanic populations.

The role of uncoupling protein 2 and 3 genes polymorphism and energy expenditure in obese Indonesian children. Sjarif, Hertanto W. Subagio, Agustinus Soemantri, Takafumi Ishida. Aim: Uncoupling protein UCP genes, which may contribute to energy metabolism in mitochondria, may be involved in the pathogenesis of obesity.

Methods: The study included 76 schoolchildren 36 obese and 40 healthy mean age, Body composition was measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis resting energy expenditure REE by indirect calorimetry physical activity by uniaxial accelero meter and total energy expenditure TEE by the equations extrapolated from REE and physical activity. Hypertension-susceptibility gene prevalence in the Pacific Islands and associations with hypertension in Melanesia.

Adolescent growth spurt and growth pattern factors related to the short stature of Pygmy hunter-gatherers of Southeast Cameroon. Introduction: Many studies have been carried out to reveal the mechanism of the short stature of Pygmy hunter-gatherers in the African rainforest.

However, due to limitations concerning age-estimation, sample collecting and data analysis, their complete growth pattern has not yet been clarified. Aims: This study has three aims as below 1 to develop a smoothed growth curve, 2 to elucidate the presence of adolescent growth spurt and 3 to assess the correlation of growth pattern factors to their final short stature. Subjects and methods: Anthropometric measurements including height and weight were carried out for Baka children in southeast Cameroon.

LMS method and Preece-Baines function were adopted to develop a smoothed growth curve and to assess their growth pattern. Results: The height velocity curve and acceleration curve derived from the LMS method showed the presence of an adolescent growth spurt. Biological parameters indicated their spurt was extremely weak and started at nearly the same time as published populations. Height gains between take-off and final height were almost equal between Baka children and children in published populations.

Conclusion: The presence of a weak adolescent growth spurt is suggested in the growth pattern of Pygmy hunter-gatherers. Moreover, their short adult stature is possibly related to growth rate before onset of puberty. Validating predictive factors for resting energy expenditure of adolescents in Indonesia. Our objectives were to 1 compare the measured and predicted resting energy expenditure REE using 18 equations in normal-weight and obese adolescents, and 2 examine potential predictive factors for accurately estimating REE in obese adolescents.

The subjects chosen were 41 obese and 35 normal-weight adolescents living in an urban area in Indonesia. REE was measured using indirect calorimetry and compared with predicted REE determined via 18 equations. New predictive equations were developed via stepwise multiple regression analysis. Measured REE was overestimated by existing predictive equations, especially in obese subjects.

New predictive equations need to be developed that take age, climate and ethnicity into account, in addition to physical characteristics. Addressing the wild yam question: How Baka hunter-gatherers acted and lived during two controlled foraging trips in the tropical rainforest of southeastern Cameroon. We designed observational surveys of controlled foraging trips of Baka hunter-gatherers in Cameroon to verify the 'wild yam question'-i.

We observed two day trips during which no agricultural or commercial food except salt and pepper could be used. The first trip was conducted by six married couples in August, the short dry season, of the year , and the second one by eight married couples in October, the rainy season, The Baka cooperators obtained 22 species and 43 vernacular names of food in all during both survey periods.

No cooperators lost weight from any food shortage in both seasons. Energy intake per consumption-day was estimated at kilocalories in the dry season, and at kilocalories in the rainy season. From this survey we could find no evidence that it is impossible to live independently of agriculture in a tropical rainforest although it seemed that the cooperators paid a high energy cost to secure food, especially wild yam tubers.

This study implies that a Paleolithic foraging lifestyle in the African tropical rainforest was very likely, although not easy, and that Paleolithic foragers may have been the ancestors of the present 'pygmy' hunter-gatherers. The serum leptin level and body mass index in Melanesian and Micronesian Solomon Islanders: Focus on genetic factors and urbanization.

Objectives: This study examined the association between the serum leptin level and body mass index BMI and the effects of urbanization and polymorphisms of leptin LEP or leptin receptor LEPR genes on the leptin level in three Solomon Islands populations. Methods: A Melanesian population living in a remote area participants: males and females, ages: years , a Melanesian population in an urban area 89 and 94, years , and a Micronesian population who migrated to a peri-urban area in the s 84 and 69, years were studied.

Interestingly, the parameter coefficients of the leptin concentrations on the BMIs were nearly identical in the urban and rural Melanesians after adjusting for age and gender. Conclusions: These observations suggest that the increase in obesity in the Micronesians had a genetic component while that in Melanesians might have been related with the urbanization.

Neighborhood environment associated with daily physical activity measured both objectively and subjectively among residents in a community in Japan. Various Pacific Island populations have experienced a marked increase in the prevalence of obesity in past decades.

A total of Austronesian AN -speaking participants were analyzed after adjusting for age, gender, and population differences. The Q allele was widely found among the AN-speaking study subjects, thus suggesting that the LEPR QR polymorphism is one of the factors contributing to the high prevalence of obesity in the Pacific Island populations.

Association between daily physical activity and neighborhood environments. Objective Previous studies on the association between physical activity PA and neighborhood environments NE focused on either objectively measuring the NE or the residents? Here, we investigate which actual or perceived NE is associated with residents? PA in Japan. Methods Two regions with an objectively assessed high and low residential density, land use mix-diversity, and street connectivity, respectively, were identified in one city.

The subjects were selected using a stratified random sampling method by sex and age in each region. The daily total number of walking steps was measured with an accelerometer, and walking and cycling time were assessed by a questionnaire. For the male subjects, the score for walking time for leisure was longer for those who perceived aesthetics and an accessibility to parks, and the score for total walking steps was significantly higher for those who perceived an accessibility to bookstores or rental video stores in their neighborhood.

Conclusions The results to this study demonstrate that daily PA was high among female subjects living in a NE with land use mix-diversity, and who had an awareness of places to walk to and the accessibility to facilities for daily necessities in their neighborhood. For male subjects, daily PA was high among those who perceived the aesthetics of and accessibility to facilities for pleasure in their neighborhood.

Further research is needed to determine the association between PA and NE on the basis of sex differences. We have performed an investigative study about health, physical strength and living environment of children in East Asia. We investigated various measurement items, for example, local cold tolerance, measurement of physical fitness and questionnaire about a lifestyle in five cities of East Asia. The database was made based on these findings. By using the present database, we can investigate the actual situation of a lifestyle and developmental state of children living in urban area of East Asia.

In this report, we describe and discuss the result that compared Japan with other cities in East Asia. Training local health assistants for a community health survey in a developing country: longitudinal monitoring of the growth and nutrition of children in Zambia. FTO polymorphisms in oceanic populations. It has been suggested that Neel's "thrifty genotype" model may account for high body weights in some Oceanic populations, which presumably arose in modern times.

In European populations, common variants rsC, rsG, and rsA in the fat mass and obesity FTO associated were recently found to be associated with body mass index BMI or obesity. In this study, we investigated the population frequencies of these variants in six Oceanic populations Melanesians, Micronesians, and Polynesians and tested for an association with BMI. These variants were in strong linkage disequilibrium. The population frequencies ranged between 4.

Our study of the FTO polymorphisms has generated no evidence to support the thrifty genotype hypothesis for Oceanic populations. Growth and nutritional status of adolescents in the Solomon Islands: effects of genetic and socioeconomic factors. Quality of life, nutritional status, physical activity, and their interrelationships of elderly living on an underpopulated island in Japan. Comparison of normalized maximum aerobic capacity and body composition of sumo wrestlers to athletes in combat and other sports.

Growth rates and life histories in twenty-two small-scale societies. Oliver, Claudia Valeggia, Taro Yamauchi. This study investigates variation in body growth cross-sectional height and weight velocity among a sample of 22 small-scale societies. Considerable variation in growth exists among hunter-gatherers that overlaps heavily with growth trajectories present in groups focusing more on horticulture.

Intergroup variation tends to track environmental conditions, with societies under more favorable conditions displaying faster growth and earlier puberty. For example, African "Pygmies," Philippine "Negritos," and the Hiwi of Venezuela are characterized by relatively fast child-juvenile growth for their adult body size used as a proxy for energetic availability. In these societies, subadult survival is low, and puberty, menarche, and first reproduction are relatively early given their adult body size , suggesting selective pressure for accelerated development in the face of higher mortality.

In sum, the origin and maintenance of different human ontogenies may quire explanations invoking both environmental constraints and selective pressures. No difference in serum leptin concentrations between urban-dwelling Austronesians and Non-Austronesians in Papua New Guinea. Pacific Islands populations can be broadly divided into Austronesians AN and Non-Austronesians NAN ; obesity and type 2 diabetes are prevalent in the former, although leptin levels in both groups have seldom been investigated.

Thirty-seven 20 male and 17 female adult pairs, matched by age and percent body fat, from AN-speaking Balopa and NAN-speaking Huli, all of whom migrated to settle in Port Moresby, the capital of Papua New Guinea, were selected for comparison of their serum leptin concentrations. The Balopa did not differ significantly from the HuIi in age In both ethnic groups, females had markedly higher leptin concentrations than males, but there was no significant inter-group difference in males 3.

Rural-urban migration and changing physical activity among Papua New Guinea Highlanders from the perspective of energy expenditure and time use. Anthropometry of year-old Tongan children with special interest in the high prevalence of obesity among adolescent girls.

Background: Despite much concern about adult obesity among Pacific Islanders, childhood obesity has seldom been investigated. Aim: Based on the anthropometry of Tongan children aged years, this study aims to elucidate age and sex differences in obesity prevalence calculated from BMI and its relation to body fat estimated by skinfold thicknesses.

Subjects and methods: students, aged years, in the most modernized island and a remote island, were measured for stature, body weight, circumferences at waist, hip and mid-upper arm, and skinfold thicknesses at biceps, triceps and subscapular. Among adolescents, the girls' BMI was positively correlated with fat mass whereas in boys it was not. The sex difference in adolescents was parallel to that in adults, being attributable to gender differences in daily behavioural patterns.

Conclusions: Among Tongan adolescents, obesity prevalence in girls was much higher than in boys, in association with fat accumulation in the former. Body composition and resting metabolic rate of Japanese college Sumo wrestlers and non-athlete students: are Sumo wrestlers obese?

Community health assessment by urine dipstick screening in relation to the variety of lifestyles in Solomon Islands. Nutritional adaptation of women in contrasting agricultural environments, Tari, Papua New Guinea. Time allocation to subsistence activities among the Huli in rural and urban Papua New Guinea. Time spent on subsistence activities was compared between rural sedentes and urban migrants of the Huli population in Papua New Guinea.

Person-day observation data were collected for rural sedentes in the Tari basin and for urban migrants in Port Moresby The time spent on subsistence activities by males was longer in the urban area than in rural areas, while that by females was similar in both areas.

Conspicuous gender inequality with respect to labour hours in rural areas seems to diminish when people move to urban areas, reflecting the different subsistence regime between rural and urban environments. Influence of urbanisation on physical activity and dietary changes in Huli-speaking population: A comparative study of village dwellers and migrants in urban settlements.

The influence of urbanisation on physical activity and dietary changes was examined in a Papua New Guinea Highland population. Adult male and female subjects n 56 were selected, including twenty-seven rural villagers and twenty-nine urban migrants. BMR was calculated from values measured in similar samples of Huli-speaking population, according to gender and body weight.

Energy, protein and fat intakes were measured by weighing food on a single day. Reduced PAL and increased fat intake by urban dwellers may increase the risks of obesity and chronic degenerative diseases. Several studies on human energetics have been conducted in developed and developing countries, but very few simultaneously measured time use and energy expenditure.

Only a few quantitatively compared subsistence patterns between rural and urban dwellers of an identical population. A large sex inequality in the division of labor was noted between rural males and females, but not among urban dwellers. Rural-urban comparison indicated sex differences in urbanization.

The associations with urbanization included a gain in body weight by 6. Further research is needed to elucidate the effects of urbanization on time use, energy expenditure, and PAL, by comparing rural residents with urban migrants in the same population. Nutritional status, activity patterns, and dietary intakes among the Baka hunter-gatherers in the village camps in Cameroon.

Basal metabolic rate and energy costs at rest and during exercise in rural- and urban-dwelling Papua New Guinea highlanders. Objective: 1 To evaluate inter-individual variations, regional and sex differences in the basal metabolic rate BMR and related variables 2 to compare measured BMR with estimated BMR using predictive equations and 3 to examine the net mechanical efficiency NME in step tests.

Design: BMR and energy costs at rest and during step tests were measured by the Douglas bag technique of indirect calorimetry. Setting: Rural villages under subsistence agriculture and urban settlements under cash economy.

Interventions: Step exercise test. Results: There were significant regional differences in BMR per body weight in both sexes. NME was higher in urban subjects with larger body size than in rural subjects for both sexes, albeit insignificantly. NME tended to be higher with increased stepping level in both sexes. Energy expenditure, physical exertion and time allocation among Huli-speaking people in the Papua New Guinea Highlands.

Objectives: The study aimed to 1 elucidate the energetic adaptations of Huli people by comparing the three sub-populations in relation to their diversified natural and socioeconomic environment, based on energy expenditure and time allocation data and 2 assess the applicability of a new index of physical exertion levels of activities physical exertion index: PEI.

Continuous heart rate HR monitoring, in conjunction with minute-by-minute observation of activities, was undertaken. Total energy expenditure was assessed by flex-HR method and physical activity level PAL was calculated as multiples of basal metabolic rate.

Results: No significant difference was found in PAL among the three sub-populations: 1. The comparison of the two village groups revealed that hilly terrain did not affect substantially the physical intensity of agricultural activities.

On the other hand, the town migrants were engaged in sedentary paid jobs and these were less energy consuming than agricultural work. However, the different energy costs between paid jobs and agricultural work were offset by longer work time in the town group than in the two village groups vs 50 or 70 min in males vs or min in females , resulting in similar PAL in the three groups.

Conclusions: Despite contrasting natural and social environments, no significant difference was found in daily physical activity level among the three sub-populations two villages and a town of Huli-speaking people in Papua New Guinea Highlands.

Impact of population pressure on food production: An analysis of land use change and subsistence pattern in the Tari basin in Papua New Guinea Highlands. The impact of increase in population on land use and subsistence pattern was examined in two environmentally contrasting Huli-speaking communities, Heli and Wenani, in the Tari basin in Papua New Guinea Highlands. Despite the similar extent of population increase in both communities, the damage to land differed markedly.

In Heli, a decrease in land productivity owing to excessive agricultural use has induced farmers to shorten the fallow duration, which in turn has led to further land degradation and difficulties in increasing food production. In contrast, Wenani villagers have coped with the population increase by enlarging areas for cultivation and possibly will be able to double their present production level, although increasingly frequent disputes over land rights have restricted peoples' access to fertile areas.

During a period of climatic perturbations in , land and labor productivities of crops were three times higher in Wenani than in Heli, which suffered a severe food shortage. This difference in ability to cope with climatic perturbations may have increased with population growth. The findings in the present study suggest that the effects of population pressure on food production may differ between communities, depending on the indigenous environment and subsistence pattern. Diet among the Huli in Papua New Guinea highlands when they were influenced by the extended rainy period.

Estimation of the period of childhood and child growth characteristics of Pygmy hunter-gatherers in southeast Cameroonn. Understanding unimproved sanitation in the slum environment. Socio-demographic and sanitation factors associated with diarrhea prevalence in peri-urban Lusaka, Zambia. Physical and mental health of sanitation workers in an urban slum of Indonesia: Personal hygiene and the construction of self-esteem in waste-handling.

Infant oral contact and cooperative breeding in a hunter-gatherer society in Cameroon. Knowledge, attitude, and practice of hygiene associated gross motor development delay among children in a suburban area of China. Remote interview research to examine factors affecting MHM practices among females in an urban slum of Indonesia.

Risk factors affecting gross motor development delay among children in a suburban area of China: Focus on water, sanitation and hygiene. Factors affecting MHM practices among females in an urban slum of Indonesia. Project research during pandemic period: publication and online field research. Sanitation value chain: Designing sanitation systems as eco-community-value system.

Designing sanitataion systems collaborating with local communities: Participatory action research, fecal contamination assessment, and parasitic infection screening. Unsafe child heces disposal as a risk factor of child stunting in an urban slum of Indonesia. Children living in obese and low physial fitness era: intergeneration changes among Japanese children. Outline of the Sanitation Value Chain project and the significance of field research in Cameroon.

Central sensitization was associated with pain, disability and psychological factors in people with pre-surgical low back pain. What can Children Do? Local children's art-based research on peri-urban water, sanitation and hygiene in Lusaka, Zambia. Relationship between self-rated health, life satisfaction and exercise satisfaction and frailty. Risk factors associated with elementary school children diarrhea among rural area of Northeast China.

Factors improving the subjective health perceptions of female nursing students. Knowledge, attitude and practice of sanitation and hygiene among primary school students in the rural area of Northeast China. Developing the Sanitation Value Chain: Co-designing future sanitation systems through community-based participation research.

Community-based participatory research to develop and drive the 'Sanitation Value Chain' in local communities.