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علي الحوات 2007 pdf

On the other hand, translator has to keep in mind the whole text and the publisher intentions. Though, there were many languages used around the world, people looked for a way to fill the communication gap between them, a manner that help exchanging their cultures and knowledge. The only means to facilitate this was Translation Definition of Translation Many scholars and theorists have defined translation from different points.

It is also a process of substituting a text in one language for a text in another Catford, , P. Unlike others, they consider translation as product that consists reproducing in the receptor language the closest natural equivalence of the source language message, first in terms of meaning and secondly in terms of style. Likewise, Bayoud. We call it an art, when more than one adequate equivalence exists and the art lies in the appropriate selection to one of these equivalences that have an equally similar quality p.

In addition to that, he defines free translation as: A method concerned more with the message that the fine details of meaning and its componential constituent words in context. These p ;are features of style and tone before anything else. In other words, the translator is allowed to change the style but not allowed to change the message. Problems in literary translation largely depend on who is translating and what he knows. Newmark argued that a literary translator generally respects good writing by taking into account the language, structures, and content, whatever the nature of the text.

The literary translator participates in the author's creative activity and then recreates structures and signs by adapting the TLT to the SLT as closely as possible. Thus, according to Newmark translator has to assess the literary text from both sides: its quality and acceptability to the target reader.

Consequently, a deep knowledge of the two languages should be present in the translator s mind. According to Jonson ,cited in Kolawole, S. Translating literary texts differs from those of scientific one, the latter implies direct meaning denotative meaning which is easy to understand and to translate.

However, literary texts implies an implicit or connotative meaning and hence the writer use special techniques to create his own style of writing. Though, Schulte et al, point out that most of writers and theorists have defined literary translation through the literary translation tasks and characteristics, what is translated i.

Ghazala says Newmark and Landers, defines literary translation in terms of problems and main characteristics of literary language. Newmark singles out five main features of literary language that have to be rendered by the translator: 1 figurativeness and allegory; 2 onomatopoeic nature that sound is as important as meaning ; 3 rhythm; 4 each word counts; and 5 full of polysemous words and collocations. It s the key to the very content, it s the sign that characterizes the book or the text that names it and distinguishes it from others.

That s why it is said in the Arab context: The book is known from its title. What proves this is that when we are in a library or a bookshop we are first attracted to the book title we want to buy ; it s like the publicity that attracts our attention. Verily, they are the book summarized or the text pictured Title dictionary definition the term title is defined in Lissan Alarab dictionary according to Ibn Sayidah: Al3inwan and Al3onwan title is the feature of the book, when we say in Arabic: 3anwanaho give it a title we mean : to characterize it.

He also say Al3onyan Title is the. We say there is a 3inwan a spot on his forefront because of the much prostration Ibn Mandor, , P. Title is defined in Oxford dictionary as: A name given to something such as a book, song, or movie to identify or describe it. A published book A word or name that describes a person s job in a company or organization Some scholars definitions: There exists several definition of title ; it s a linguistic syllable less than a sentence that represents a text or any artistic oeuvre, it can be seen from two angles: within the text and without the text.

The contextual title is a whole with the oeuvre in the semantic level whose function is the interpretation Alouch, , p. However, we may have longer than a sentence titles. This justifies Genette s perplexity when he tried to define what the title is The definition of a title is in itself the most debatable part of the text and requires a lot of analysis for the title system as we know is in most cases a quasi complex group rather than a real element and a complex entity " Mohammad Fikri,, p.

Whereas, Mohammed Alhadi said that title is "a linguistic message that represents the text and attracts the reader and limits its content" p.

Its semiotic feature comes out from the very fact that it represents the most possible linguistic economy that goes in parallel with the most possible effective.

He was the first linguists who formed the term paratext which denotes both of the peritext and the epitext. The former implies every element that commonly founded in a text like the cover, table of contents, titles and subtitles. Gerard ibid says that the paratext is for us the means by which a text makes a book of itself and proposes itself as such to its reader, and more generally to the public p. Leo Hoek who says: title is " the group of the linguistic signs words, expression, sentences, text that may be put on to introduce the text and urge the public to.

Title is given more and more attention by the modernists, The title is considered to be a complete sign with full signified and signifier" hafid, , p. This includes: Generic titles: They refer to the very text, as do the pages or the writings. The title appears under many forms: The main title: the original one, seen as an identity card that identifies the text The subtitle: come after the main one; it completes the meaning.

Some titles refer to the within, they re called intra titles, they inform us about the content of the main title and categorize the intra titles. There is also what is called the false title that is put between the book s cover and the second page Gerard,, pp. Regardless of titles various types, it is always embedded with semiotic signifier signs that give us "a clear picture about the text and a tool that keeps the cohesion of the text".

It plays also a primordial role in revealing the secret of the text since it is considered a very important element, it is the starting point while the text is target and hence it is prior to all the text elements.

Let s try imagining a literary production with no title, put away from its producer, this surely will make confusion and it may be belonged to someone else who is not the real producer. The title is the address that leads us to the producer the same as the address leads us to the house holder.

The relation between the title and the text is an integral relation. None can stand alone without the support of the other Tahir,, p. To clarify the role of the title in the literary novels Genette in his book les seuils presented the functions of the title according to the efficacy of the narrative title: Titling function : The necessary function through which the identity of the text is precised, it is the face of the book and its expressive meaning ; it imposes the book through the cover.

Choaib, opt. Whoever, it describe the text indirectly and implicitly The attractive function: It attracts the attention with all the twinkling attractions implied in the title especially the complicated ones that urge us to deeply think about them Abd Alhak,, pp , my translation.

There exist other functions: The Communicative function: Titles are the most reliable means of connection in the creative texts. Furthermore, the results show that nondetachability from the content and the context of the novel is also needed when the title requires transformation and when a subtitle is necessary. This notion of detachability contrasts with Said Alouch when he argues that titles can be seen from two angles either within the text, or without it.

On the one hand, they look for the most popular writers whose works has awarded an international prize or nominated to be the most readable one. In this regard, Levy sees that publishers used to interfere in the wording of title, even when they were not concerned with the artistic quality of the translation p.

He adds private publishers are opposed particularly in the case of anthologies, to generic titles such as essays, short stories, poems etc, so translators looked for more attractive titles ibid, p.

Sometimes, publishers do oblige translators to change titles or they themselves do change the titles for some given reasons mainly commercial. These factors do contribute mainly in a biased title adaptation. However, is it not simple to translated the title because the minimal stretch of language that has to be translated together as one unite is the whole text ibid.

Thus, we cannot translate the title in isolation from the whole text. Newmark asserts that if the SL text title is adequately describes the content, and it is brief, then leave it ibid, p. However, if the title begins with inappropriate word, the translator has to modify the title by adding a subtitle and making it more attractive. Furthermore, Newmark suggested that all titles are either descriptive which describe the topic of the text or allusive which have some referential or figurative relationship to the topic ibid, p.

The latter serves the imaginative literature, and it is preferable to be changed. However, for serious imaginative literature, a descriptive title should be literary kept and an allusive title literary or where necessary, imaginatively preserved. The difficulty that encounters the translator is either to translate the title as part of the novel, or regardless of it, and hence the intentions would be determined from both publishers and translators.

The first 50 titles, which are originally Arabic, are translated into English. As a result, the translator adopted the Transliteration technique to serve that type of title. If we look at the translated opposite Throwing Sparks, we will find that the translator did adopt the literal translation. The title in Arabic awakes in us the religious background and hence it can be easily put into one context that is Revenge.

They like their titles to be always crowned with pearls from Holy Scriptures or some poetic and literary works from the notable authors. However, this is not reflected in the translated title. We also observed that most translated titles, notably from Arabic into English undergo word-for-word translation.

Foenix in the Arabic culture is one of the four creatures we ever think of but we never seen them. Whereas, the foenix does make no prediction in the reader s mind of the target culture. The second chapter was devoted to describe a set of translated novels titles from English into Arabic and vice versa basing on Newmark s model of title translation. The outcome of the first chapter reveals that the translator cannot translate the title separately from the whole text.

Besides, the commercial seek of the publisher may oblige the translator to work on that purpose. Family Therapy, 19, Puddy, R. The development of parenting skills in foster parent training. Children and Youth Services Review, 25, — Reedtz, C. Promoting positive parenting practices in primary pare Outcomes and mechanisms of change in a randomized controlled risk reduction trial.

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Wilson, K. Foster placements: Why they succeed and why they fail. Jessica Kingsley Publishers, London and Philadelphia. Sung, M. Erkanli, A. Angold, A. Effects of age at first substance use and psychiatric comorbidity on the development of substance use disorders.

Drug Alcohol Depend, 6, 3 , Timmer, S. Urquiza, S. Verrier, N. The primal wound: Understanding the adopted child.

Global architectural fashions and popular tastes are among the driving forces shaping the urban fabric of the city. As a result, the newly created built and natural environments are being filled with imported illusions. Environments, which are often composed of artificially constructed urban forms and imagery detached from local physical as well as cultural contexts.

In Critical Regionalism, an important reexamination of critical regionalism, two prominent architectural critics argue for a truce between the seemingly antithetical philosophies of critical regionalism and globalization. The authors trace the genesis of critical regionalism. King extends the argument by showing how different phases of globalization are transforming the built environment.

He introduced three main contemporary concepts: global culture, post-colonialism and modernity. Alraouf environment at the center and calls for innovative concepts to address new contemporary conditions. A recent declaration by Pakistan presidential candidate; Asif Zardari explained how he wants to bring development on the lines of Dubai to the capital Karachi. In this section, I will explain the second important paradigm which took place in contemporary Gulf Urbanity.

The shift is marked by the global change from industrial economy to knowledge economy. In this paper, I will shed some light on a new paradigm where Arab cities and especially Gulf cities are moving towards. It is basically a shift from doing more real-estate icons to getting prominent world architects to insert culture within the deep fabric of those cities.

This shift is also coupled with a substantial trend towards knowledge economy as a more logical relevant in the coming post oil world. More importantly, how Gulf cities are reallocating its resources and revisiting its planning visions to accommodate the requirements of Knowledge cities will be extensively analyzed.

Some interesting regional case studies will be used to substantiate the analysis. From a sociological point of view, Sassen has argued that cities in the information age should be re-perceived as nodes of an immense network of cultural, commercial and political transactions. Giving these points of view, it is obvious that the classical planning process and design guidelines of contemporary cities need a substantial revision. In a world which is best described as a global village with less and less boundaries, Knowledge and its physical representation in the built environment creates a major challenge and invite us to vision and predict the main aspects of the cities of a new millennium.

They show how these globalizing zones are not only replicating many features of the top tier of global cities, but are also generating new socio- economic patterns as well.

In global cities, urban and regional planning has displayed a recent interest in designing policies to attract international investment and encourage economic growth in Knowledge Cities KCs.

These policies also focused on creating social amenities and communities to attract knowledge workers Martin ; Chen and Choi The key factors in attracting knowledge workers to KCs are mainly social relationships and quality of life of these cities Mathur ; Leamer and Storper ; Robinson ; Santagata In other words, these are cities in which both the private and the public sectors value knowledge, nurture knowledge, spend money on supporting knowledge dissemination and discovery i.

Currently there are 65 urban development programs worldwide formally designated as knowledge cities Carrillo, ; Pol, Knowledge-based cities fall under a new area of academic research entitled Knowledge-Based Development, which brings together research in urban development and urban studies and planning with knowledge management and intellectual capital.

The aim of developing a knowledge based economy is to create value-driven relationships and value-added products and services. And one of the ways to do this is encourage innovations and entrepreneurship. The key to innovation lies in creative thinking and the generation of value creating opportunities. The people, who have the know-how and foresight to interpret, analyze and share information-to turn it into knowledge-are those who really make the difference.

Alraouf The creation of a knowledge economy of which entrepreneurship is a key component, is hugely important to the economic growth of the Middle East. While Dubai, the most important Gulf city, has some of the core ingredients required for a knowledge economy- strong government support and a well developed physical infrastructure, the emirate has yet to put in place the legal infrastructure to protect intellectual property.

There are also issues related to social structure and cultural values. For the knowledge economy to flourish, especially small-to-medium sized enterprises and micro enterprises, you need a middle class. The importance of this class for flourishing local economy is not always appreciated and encouraged in the Arab world. Creating opportunities for local level business to interact with international corporations is hugely needed.

If innovation is to flourish, and the knowledge economy thrives, people and organizations must also be prepared to take more risk. Risk Taking is not encouraged in the Middle East and this needs to be addressed.

KCs are seen as fundamental to the economic growth and development of the 21st century cities. KC is a new perspective of development which is based on knowledge, innovation and creativity. KC is not just a regular city. It is a growing space of exchange and optimism in which each and everyone can devote himself to personal and collective projects and aspirations in a climate of dynamism, harmony, and creativity.

What is unique about this definition is the focus on KC as a holistic environment for comprehensive development. Hence, it calls for different process of articulating the city structure and subsequently raises issues and concepts like transparency, democracy and sustainability.

It is also suggesting new paradigm in city planning. Based on knowledge-based development, Carillo shows how knowledge can be and is placed at the center of city planning and economic development to enable knowledge flows and innovation to provide a sustainable environment for high value-added products and services.

Hence, what are the qualities of future cities becomes a crucial question. An acceptable definition of knowledge city might be it is not just a regular city. Accordingly, Knowledge Cities are constructing a new paradigm in how we vision, perceive and plan cities in the 21st century. Formation Principles of a Knowledge City. Knowledge city is a new perspective of development which is based on knowledge, innovation and creativity.

Knowledge city is not just a city. What is unique about this definition is the focus on Knowledge city as a holistic environment for comprehensive development. Knowledge economy was perceived by both leaders and intellectuals as a valid vehicle for bridging into the new paradigm. Gulf cities countries within the middle East are working seriously in this direction. Huge investments which used in the last five years to finance iconic real estate developments are now shifted towards planning and financing knowledge based economic centres.

Additionally, an unprecedented concerns regarding the production and dissemination of information and knowledge are rising within all of those cities. Using primarily the case of Gulf Cities and Cairo, I will illustrate a major shift in development strategies which presumably will secure those cities a place on the global stage and will introduce it to Knowledge economy paradigm. I will also examine the status of the projects which were promoted, and initiated within the context of selected cities to establish its new identity as Knowledge cities locally, regionally, and internationally.

The Middle Eastern cities are not only exceptions, but would require major social transformations. ISSN Lens Aquatic Mammals. Archived from the original on 25 April Volume Issue 2, pp. ISSN Online ISSN Print Wild Tuscany: a guide for animal passionates. Riproduzione riservata.

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This will be followed by a acre main square. Foster finished the initial phase of master planning this spring. Designers estimate that it will take 10 years to build out the entire city, with structures ultimately occupying nearly half of the site. When complete, Masdar will be home to 45, people and attract an additional 60, daily commuters, who will arrive in part via a new rail line.

Its students will be encouraged to participate in the development of the city while working on graduate degrees in sustainability. Fig 12 Masdar city main spaces. They have provided us with a challenging de- sign brief that promises to question conventional urban wisdom at a funda- mental level.

Masdar promises to set new benchmarks for the sustainable city of the future. As Andrew C. Attempts at such green communities have had mixed results. Arcosanti, the ecotopian town in the Arizona desert, was started three decades ago. Revkin also supported his suspicion using the example of China. With help from American partners, China has embarked on building instant rural communities and cities designed to limit environmental impacts, but recent reports have disclosed many problems.

He goes on to say that in a delicious irony, Abu Dhabi is pouring oil billions into a zero-emissions metropolis in the desert. At an international energy conference in that city last month, Jean-Paul Jeanrenaud, director of the One Planet Living initiative of the environmental group WWF International known in North America as the World Wildlife Fund , said independent monitoring would help ensure that the project lived up to its billing.

Author of Green Skyscrapers. It is the ultimate sustainability challenge. Masdar city project and similar cases with different scale in the Gulf cities are suggesting a rosy picture and great future. Sustainability in the making of cities and architecture is a very comprehensive and holistic concept. Alraouf foster the cultural diversity. It is also a process by which we can create car-free cities but more importantly children friendly cities and women friendly cities.

Therefore, the emerging knowledge cities in the Middle East should be seen within a regional and global knowledge network. The ultimate goal is to increase the innovation and creative capacity of cities based on a new set of knowledge patterns. Examples of KC best practices can be guidance for cities that are willing to pursue knowledge-based development.

However, it should not be forgotten that each city is unique and characterised by different cultural, economic and political conditions.

Therefore, KC strategies need to be customised to the unique urban circumstances, competencies, opportunities and challenges. The physical configuration of the city would educate the people and even by just living in the city they would absorb the manifestations of culture. Facades, landscapes, city elements, and etc. Moreover, well-equipped cultural centres evenly distributed throughout the city would be available to all without exception. The process of creating Middle Eastern knowledge cities should be shifted from focusing on creating isolated and separated knowledge centers to a process by which a knowledge network is established and shared by different sectors of the community.

Research is also a prerequisite of a Knowledge City. It requires infrastructure of research, an issue which has not been developed in the Middle East. Hence, an inclusive initiative to prepare the grounds for a major transformation must be translated into strategy. Gulf cities need substantial change to move its communities from shopping malls which are becoming more and more the internal boulevards, squares and gardens of contemporary Gulf Cities.

Paradoxically, museums and cultural centers will create a new arena to experience a different level of spatial experiences and public life engagements. We need to teach our selves and the next generation to build better but less, and with less; recycle; better yet, reuse; design for the long now, remembering that sustainability and environmental justice are intergenerational as well as international.

References and Selected Bibliography Abel, C. Architecture and identity. Responses to cultural and technological change. Oxford Boston: Architectural Press. Al Hathloul S. Alraouf, Ali. Medina, Saudi Arabia. Alraouf Cities Transformed. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. Barcelona City Government Carrillo, Francisco Javier. Castells, Manuel and Hall, Peter, Castells, M, Castells, M.

Chen, D. Cooke, P. Routledge, London. Elsheshtawy, Yasser Ed. London: Routledge. The Evolving Arab Cities. Florida, Richard. New York: Basic Books,. Friedman, Thomas. Cities and consumption. Place Identity, Participation, And Planning. Hall, P. Creative cities and economic development. Urban Studies, 37 4 , Blackwell Publishing. Hamden, Sam. Howkins, John. Penguin Global King, A. Knight, R. Knowledge-based development: Policy and planning implications for cities.

Urban Studies, 32 2 , Komninos, N. Kotkin, Joel and Ross Devol. The Renewed City in the DigitalAge. Santa Monica, California: Milken Institute. Laguerre, M. Landry, Charles. Earthscan Publications Ltd. The Art of City Making. Morse, S. A possible resident group was in waters off the Cape Verde Islands in and Satellite tracking revealed that those found in Pelagos Sanctuary migrate southward to off Tunisia , Malta , [86] [87] [88] Pantelleria , [89] and Sicily , [90] and also possibly winter off coastal southern Italy, Sardinia , [91] within the Strait of Messina , Aeolian Islands , and off Catalonia , [92] [93] Cabrera Archipelago , [94] [95] Libya , Kerkennah Islands , Tuscan Archipelago , [96] [97] Ischia and adjacent gulfs e.

Naples and Pozzuoli [98] , winter feeding ground of Lampedusa , [99] [] [] and whales may recolonize out of the Ligurian Sea to other areas such as in Ionian and in Adriatic Sea. Biology of the species along southern and southeastern parts of the basin such as off Libya , Algeria , and northern Egypt , is unclear due to lacks of scientific approaches although whales have been confirmed off the furthermost of the basin such as along in shore waters of Levantine Sea including Israel , [] Lebanon , [] and Cyprus.

It has been shown that populations of Fin whales within the mediterranean have preferred feeding locations that partially overlap with high concentrations of plastic pollution and microplastic debris. High concentrations of microplastics most likely overlap with Fin whales preferred feeding grounds because both microplastic and the whale's food sources are in close proximity to high trophic upwelling areas.

The total historical North Pacific population was estimated at 42, to 45, before the start of whaling. Of this, the population in the eastern portion of the North Pacific was estimated to be 25, to 27, Pacific Marine Mammal Stock Assessments: , is about 2, Size of the local population migrating to Hawaiian Archipelago is unknown.

There was a sighting of 3 animals nearby Borneo and Palawan in For Asian stocks, resident groups may exist in the Yellow Sea and East China Sea , and the Sea of Japan though these populations are critically endangered and the population off China, Korea, and Japan are either near extinction or in very small numbers.

Very small increases in sightings have been confirmed off Shiretoko Peninsula , Abashiri , and Kushiro [] in Hokkaido , Tsushima , Sado Island , [] off Maiduru [] in the Sea of Japan since in late s as whales in Sea of Okhotsk might have started recolonizing into former habitats for coastal Sakhalin , as well. Whales possibly used to migrated into Seto Inland Sea. The only modern record among Ryukyu Islands was of a rotten carcass beached on Ishigaki Island in Modern sightings around the Commander Islands have been annual but not in great numbers, and whales likely to migrate through the areas rather than summering, and possible mixing of western and eastern populations are expected to occur in this waters.

Very little information has been revealed about the ecology of current migration from Antarctic waters are unknown, but small increases in sighting rates are confirmed off New Zealand, such as off Kaikoura , and wintering grounds may exist in further north such as in Papua New Guinea , Fiji , [] and off East Timor. Confirmations in Rarotonga have been increased recently [] where interactions with humpback whales occur on occasions. Their recovery is confirmed vicinity to various subantarctic islands such as South Georgia and Falkland , but unknown in other historical habitats including Campbell Island , Kermadec to Chatham Islands , Tristan da Cunha , and Gough Island.

Relatively little is known about the historical and current population levels of the southern fin whale. The IWC officially estimates that the Southern Hemisphere pre-whaling population was , whales and that the population in at the cessation of Antarctic large scale whaling was 85, The only known predator of the fin whale is the killer whale , with at least 20 eyewitness and second-hand accounts of attack or harassment.

They usually flee and offer little resistance to attack. Only a few confirmed fatalities have occurred. In October , 16 killer whales attacked and killed a fin whale in the Canal de Ballenas , Gulf of California , after chasing it for about an hour. They fed on its sinking carcass for about 15 minutes before leaving the area.

In June , a pod of killer whales was seen in La Paz Bay, in the Gulf of California, chasing a fin whale for over an hour before finally killing it and feeding on its carcass.

The whale bore numerous tooth rakes over its back and dorsal fin; several killer whales flanked it on either side, with one individual visible under water biting at its right lower jaw. In January , seven were seen from the air circling, holding the flippers, and ramming a fin whale in the Gulf of California, but the observation ended at nightfall. The fin whale is a filter-feeder , feeding on small schooling fish, squid and crustaceans including copepods and krill.

In the North Pacific, they feed on krill in the genera Euphausia , Thysanoessa , and Nyctiphanes , large copepods in the genus Neocalanus , small schooling fish e. Based on stomach content analysis of over 19, fin whales caught by the Japanese whaling fleet in the North Pacific from to , Arctic krill Thysanoessa raschii was the only species of euphausiid found in the stomachs of fin whales in the northern Bering Sea.

Off Kamchatka, they appeared to primarily feed on herring. They also took large quantities of the copepod Neocalanus cristatus around the Aleutian Islands and in Olyutorsky Bay off northeast Kamchatka, areas where the species was abundant. Five species of euphausiid Euphausia pacifica , Thysanoessa spinifera , T. Prey varied by region in the Kuril Islands area, with euphausiids T. Pacific saury , Cololabis saira ; and Japanese anchovy , Engraulis japonicus dominating the diet in the southern area.

Of the fin whale stomachs sampled off British Columbia between and , euphausiids dominated the diet for four of the five years Miscellaneous fish, squid, and octopus played only a very minor part of the diet in two of the five years 3. In the North Atlantic, they prey on euphausiids in the genera Meganyctiphanes , Thysanoessa and Nyctiphanes and small schooling fish e.

Off eastern Newfoundland , they chiefly feed on capelin, but also take small quantities of euphausiids mostly T. In the Southern Hemisphere, they feed almost exclusively on euphausiids mainly the genera Euphausia and Thysanoessa , as well as taking small amounts of amphipods e. Themisto gaudichaudii and various species of fish. Of the more than 16, fin whales caught by the Japanese whaling fleet in the Southern Hemisphere between and that contained food in their stomachs, It then closes its jaws and pushes the water back out of its mouth through its baleen , which allows the water to leave while trapping the prey.

An adult has between and baleen plates on each side of the mouth. Each plate is made of keratin that frays out into fine hairs on the ends inside the mouth near the tongue. Each plate can measure up to 76 cm 30 in in length and 30 cm 12 in in width. The whale routinely dives to depths of more than m ft where it executes an average of four "lunges", to accumulate krill.

Each gulp provides the whale with approximately 10 kg 22 lb of food. If prey patches are not sufficiently dense, or are located too deep in the water, the whale has to spend a larger portion of its day searching for food. Fin whales suffer from a number of pathological conditions. The parasitic copepod Pennella balaenopterae —usually found on the flank of fin whales—burrows into their blubber to feed on their blood, [] while the pseudo-stalked barnacle Xenobalanus globicipitis is generally found more often on the dorsal fin, pectoral fins, and flukes.

Other barnacles found on fin whales include the acorn barnacle Coronula reginae and the stalked barnacle Conchoderma auritum , which attaches to Coronula or the baleen. The harpacticid copepod Balaenophilus unisetus heavy infestations of which have been found in fin whales caught off northwestern Spain and the ciliate Haematophagus also infest the baleen, the former feeding on the baleen itself and the latter on red blood cells.

The remora Remora australis and occasionally the amphipod Cyamus balaenopterae can also be found on fin whales, both feeding on the skin. Infestations of the giant nematode Crassicauda boopis can cause inflammation of the renal arteries and potential kidney failure, while the smaller C. Major inflammatory lesions in the mesenteric arteries suggested that the worm larvae were ingested and migrated to the kidney.

These observations suggest that infection from C. Therefore, the implication can be made that the feeding migration of fin whales every year in circumpolar waters can be associated with pathologic risk. An emaciated 13 m 43 ft female fin whale, which stranded along the Belgian coast in , was found to be infected with lesions of Morbillivirus. In the 19th century, the fin whale was occasionally hunted by open-boat whalers , but it was relatively safe, because it could easily outrun ships of the time and often sank when killed, making the pursuit a waste of time for whalers.

However, the later introduction of steam-powered boats and harpoons that exploded on impact made it possible to kill and secure them along with blue and sei whales on an industrial scale. As other whale species became overhunted, the whaling industry turned to the still-abundant fin whale as a substitute. Around , fin whales were caught in Antarctic whaling operations alone between and The introduction of factory ships with stern slipways in substantially increased the number of whales taken per year.

In —38 alone, over 29, fin whales were taken. From —54 to —62, the catch averaged over 30, per year. By —63, sei whale catches began to increase as fin whales became scarce.

By —76, fewer than 1, fin whales were being caught each year. In the North Pacific, over 74, fin whales were caught between and In the North Pacific, they reported taking over 10, fin whales between and , while the true catch was less than 9, In the Southern Hemisphere, they reported taking nearly 53, between and , when the true total was a little over 41, The IWC has set a quota of 19 fin whales per year for Greenland. Meat and other products from whales killed in these hunts are widely marketed within Greenland, but export is illegal.

Iceland and Norway are not bound by the IWC's moratorium on commercial whaling because both countries filed objections to it. In October , Iceland's fisheries ministry authorized the hunting of 9 fin whales through August Since , Hvalur has caught more than fin whales and exported more than tonnes of whale meat to Japan. In the Southern Hemisphere, Japan permits annual takes of 10 fin whales under its Antarctic Special Permit whaling program for the — and — seasons.

A single fin whale was caught in both the —09 and —10 seasons, two were taken in the —11 season, and one was taken in the —12 season. Fin whales have been targets of illegal captures using harpoons for dolphin hunts or intentionally drive whales into nets. Collisions with ships are a major cause of mortality.

In some areas, they cause a substantial portion of large whale strandings. Most serious injuries are caused by large, fast-moving ships over or near continental shelves.

A foot-long fin whale was found stuck on the bow of a container ship in New York harbour on 12 April Two dead fin whales, one 65 feet and one 25 feet, were discovered stuck to an Australian destroyer in May when the ship arrived in Naval Base San Diego.

Ship collisions frequently occur in Tsushima Strait and result in damaging all of whales, passengers, and vessels, hence the Japanese Coast Guard has started visual recordings of large cetaceans in Tsushima Strait to inform operating vessels in the areas. Several fin whale skeletons are exhibited in North America. A steel armature supports the skeleton, which is accompanied by sculpted flukes.

Several fin whale skeletons are also exhibited in Europe. The Natural History Museum of Slovenia in Ljubljana , Slovenia, houses a 13 m 43 ft female fin whale skeleton—the specimen had been found floating in the Gulf of Piran in the spring of Fin whales are regularly encountered on whale-watching excursions worldwide.

In the Southern California Bight , fin whales are encountered year-round, with the best sightings between November and March. They can even be seen from land for example, from Point Vicente , Palos Verdes, where they can be seen lunge feeding at the surface only a half mile to a few miles offshore.

They are regularly sighted in the summer and fall in the Gulf of St. In southern Ireland , they are seen inshore from June to February, with peak sightings in November and December.

It is listed on Appendix I [] as this species has been categorized as in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant proportion of its range and CMS Parties strive towards strictly protecting these animals, conserving or restoring the places where they live, mitigating obstacles to migration and controlling other factors that might endanger them.

It is listed on Appendix II [] as it has an unfavourable conservation status or would benefit significantly from international co-operation organised by tailored agreements. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Baleen whale, and second-largest mammal species. Conservation status. Vulnerable IUCN 3.

Linnaeus , See also: Evolution of cetaceans. See also: Whale sound and List of whale vocalizations. Note that the whale calls have been sped up 10x from their original speed. A fin whale song. See also: Alfaguara project. See also: Whaling and History of whaling. Cetaceans portal Mammals portal Marine life portal.

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