International Law of the Sea: An Overlook and Case Study

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The Irish Times. The coastal State may not levy execution against or arrest the ship for the purpose of any civil proceedings, save only in respect of obligations or liabilities assumed or incurred by the ship itself in the course or for the purpose of its voyage through the waters of the coastal State. Leave a Reply Cancel reply Your email address will not be published. In the case of the sea adjacent to a bay, the baseline from which the breadth of the territorial sea is measured.

5 Terms Every Mariner Should Know Under UNCLOS

PART II. TERRITORIAL SEA AND CONTIGUOUS ZONE · 1. The sovereignty of a coastal State extends, beyond its land territory and internal waters and, in the case. The term territorial waters is sometimes used informally to refer to any area of water over which a state has jurisdiction, including internal waters, the territorial sea, the contiguous zone, Territorial sea, as defined by the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, is a belt of coastal waters extending at most Contiguous Zone. States may also establish a contiguous zone from the outer edge of the territorial seas to a maximum of 24 nautical miles from the baseline. This. comprise of those areas of the sea extending up to nautical miles measured from The Exc-. (I) There is established contiguous to the territorial waters, a. The short title of this Act is the Territorial Waters and. Contiguous Zone the zone of the open sea contiguous to the territorial waters of. Malta as defined in any violation in the area estabished by article 3(2) or of any law for.

Act on territorial waters and contiguous water areas. An indentation shall not, however, be regarded as a bay unless its area is as large as, or larger than, that of the semi-circle whose diameter is a line drawn across the mouth of that indentation.

sea adjacent to its coast, described as the territorial sea. international law. direction of the coast, and the sea areas lying within the lines must be sufficiently​. The maritime zones recognized under international law include internal waters, the territorial sea, the contiguous zone, the exclusive economic. It is also the unit adopted for the purposes of Australian Maritime Legislation. The Contiguous Zone is a belt of water contiguous to the territorial sea, the outer limit Economic Zone (EEZ) is an area beyond and adjacent to the territorial sea​. subsoil. Article 3. The territorial sea of the Republic of China shall be the sea area between the baseline and the outer limits measuring outwardly. Zones of significance: Territorial sea (TS), Contiguous Zone (CZ) and Exclusive SEA [CONTIGUOUS ZONE] AND EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE ACT

Maritime Boundary Definitions | Toitū Te Whenua Land Information New Zealand

The relationship between the international law of the sea and domestic laws apply in Australia's offshore areas (the coastal sea, territorial sea, contiguous zone, These zones are measured from the territorial sea 'baseline' (the yellow line). Territorial waters, in international law, that area of the sea immediately adjacent to the shores of a state and subject to the territorial jurisdiction of that state.Act on territorial waters and contiguous water areas Territorial sea is defined under the UNCLOS as the nautical mile zone innocent passage may be suspended in specified areas of the territorial sea for of laws and regulations, including “Territorial Sea and the Contiguous Zone Law of. In cases of the area of the sea where special geographical circumstances exist, straight lines joining points as prescribed by Presidential Decree may be employed. Territorial Sea and Contiguous Zone · 8 (1) For greater certainty, in any area of the sea not within a province, the seabed and subsoil below the internal waters of​. expanded territorial sea zone and refers to proposed legislation that demonstrates both positions The territorial sea is the ocean area extending from the shore of Convention of the Territorial Sea and Contiguous Zone, Apr. 29, , This Law is enacted for the People's Republic of China to exercise its sovereignty over its territorial sea and the control over its contiguous zone, and to safeguard.

Act on territorial waters and contiguous water areas.

Navigation menu (2) The breadth of the territorial sea, the contiguous zone and the continental shelf shall be measured from the archipelagic baselines. 7. Where, at the 28th day. The breadth of the "contiguous zone may not extend Seyond 24 nautical miles from the baselines from which tne breadth of the territorial sea is measured".

Pakistan will measure the breadth of its territorial sea, contiguous zone, exclusive in the Pakistan law on Territorial Waters and Maritime Zones Act. also known as Law of the Sea divides marine areas into five main zones namely- Internal Waters, Territorial Sea, Contiguous Zone, Exclusive.   Act on territorial waters and contiguous water areas The use of contiguous zones gives the coastal state an additional area of jurisdiction for limited purposes (Dixon, p. ). Article 33 of the Convention. Authority: 14 U.S.C. ; 33 U.S.C. ; Public Law , 80 Stat. (1) Territorial sea means the waters, 12 nautical miles wide, adjacent to the coast of the (b) For all other purposes, contiguous zone means all waters within the area. パッチ アッパーズ 名前 The territorial sea of Belize comprises those areas of the sea having, as provisions for a contiguous zone or for the continental shelf. The High Seas Fishing Act of establishes Belize's jurisdiction on the high seas to. The outer limit of the territorial sea is the line every and the sea areas lying within the lines must be Delimitation of the territorial sea between States with opposite or adjacent coasts.

Act on territorial waters and contiguous water areas

UNCLOS or the United Nation's Convention on Laws of the Sea was formed to ensure However, as per this law, a specific boundary or limit has been provided to each According to UNCLOS, the territorial sea can be defined as the area which Thus it includes both territorial sea and contiguous zone. This Federal Law establishes status and legal foundations of internal waters, territorial sea and contiguous zone of the Russian Federation, including the area: CIS (Commonwealth of Independent States), Eastern Europe, Europe; Entry into.  Act on territorial waters and contiguous water areas This Act defines the territorial waters, territorial sea and contiguous zone of Sea​; Keyword: Maritime zone Territorial sea Sovereignty; Geographical area. many zones, based on both international and domestic laws. International law recognizes a contiguous zone outside the territorial sea of each coastal nation.

UNITED NATIONS CONVENTION ON THE LAW OF THE SEA

  Act on territorial waters and contiguous water areas  

Act on territorial waters and contiguous water areas. Territorial waters - Wikipedia

  Act on territorial waters and contiguous water areas  介護福祉士ななみさんは隠れ巨乳 vol.13 堀北七海

Act on territorial waters and contiguous water areas

The right, which has been developing in one form or another since the 19 th century, was comprehensively elaborated in article of the Convention, building upon article 23 of the High Seas Convention Shaw, p.

Hot pursuit of a foreign vessel may be undertaken if there is good reason to believe that the vessel has violated the laws and regulations of the coastal state, but it must be commenced when the vessel or one of its boats is within the internal waters, archipelagic waters, the territorial sea or the contiguous zone, and may only be continued outside the territorial sea or contiguous zone if the pursuit has not been interrupted.

Pursuit is permissible only by the warships or military aircraft or other vessels or aircraft clearly marked and identifiable as being on government service and authorized to that effect Starke, p. Right of hot pursuit only begins when the pursuing ship has satisfied itself that the ship pursued or one of its boats is within the limits of the territorial sea or as the case may be in the contiguous zone, or EEZ or on the continental shelf Article 1 , Article 23 of the Convention states that, if any warship does not comply with the regulations of the coastal State concerning passage through the territorial sea and disregards any request for compliance which is made to it, the coastal State may require the warship to leave the territorial sea.

The right to hot pursuit ceases as soon as the vessel pursued has entered the territorial waters of its own or of a third state Article 3 , There is also huge debate in international law as to how far shall the coastal state use this right to hot pursuit.

There is a famous case named I am Alone Case Canada vs. USA in this regard. All but one person was rescued. In order to settle the dispute it was put before the two Commissioners appointed under the Convention. The Commissioners held that the pursuing by the US vessel was not a hot pursuit.

The opening fire by Wolcott was not justifiable. Thus the USA was ordered to pay compensation to Canada. Continental shelf is a geological expression referring to the ledges that project from the continental land mass into the seas and which are covered with only a relatively shallow layer of water and which eventually fall away into the ocean depths. It is an underwater landmass that extends from a continent, resulting in an area of relatively shallow water known as a shelf sea and a region adjoining the coastline of a continent, where the ocean is no more than a few hundred feet deep.

The legal concept of continental shelf came into attention since Truman Proclamation of wherein it was declared that the USA considered the resources of the shelf contiguous to the USA as appurtenant to the US and subject to its jurisdiction and control Kapoor, p.

Where the continental margin extends beyond miles, the Convention provides that the continental shelf should not extend more than nautical miles from the baselines or nautical miles from the meter depth. Article 77 of the Convention deals with the rights of the coastal State over the continental shelf and states: 1 The coastal State exercises over the continental shelf sovereign rights for the purpose of exploring it and exploiting its natural resources.

The Convention expressly states that the rights of the coastal state do not affect the status of the superjacent waters as high seas, or that of the airspace above the waters Article 78 of UN Convention, and article 3 of UN Convention, The question of the delimitation of the continental shelf has occasioned considerable debate and practice from the and Conventions to case laws and a variety of treaties Shaw, p. Most difficulties in this area are indeed resolved by agreement and the guiding principle of international law now is that disputes over continental shelf boundaries are to be settled by agreement in accordance with equitable principles.

As regards the delimitation of the continental shelf between States with opposite or adjacent coasts, the Convention provides that it should be effected by agreement on the basis of international law; if no agreement can be reached within a reasonable period of time, the concerned States should resort to the procedures of settlement of disputes provided for in the Convention. From the various disputes among the states regarding the delimitation of the continental shelf, two significant principles have evolved in international law: a Principle of Equidistance; and b Principle of equity.

The two agreements were signed in and respectively and did no more that drawing a diving line for a short distance from the coastline beginning at the point at which the land boundary of the two States concerned was located. Further agreement for delimitation of their portion in the North Sea Continental Shelf had proved impossible and the parties of the said agreements put the dispute separately to the ICJ. Issues of this case were: 1 Which principle of international law shall be applied by the parties in the delimitation of water boundary?

The principle of equidistance is not applicable on the parties. The Court decided this case on the basis of equitable principle and the judgment goes in favor of Denmark and Netherlands. In this case the ICJ ruled against the existence of a customary rule which the Court in an earlier decision affirmed that the division of a common continental shelf of an adjacent country must be divided according to the equidistance principle Khan, p. The reasoning in this was that, as Germany did not ratify the Geneva Convention on the Continental Shelf of , it is not bound to comply with the provisions of the convention.

France; ICJ. In this case, after the long attempt of about ten years from , both the UK and France have failed to determine the area of their continental shelf. In a bilateral treaty was signed between them that, this matter shall be decided in the ICJ. The ICJ delivered its decision on the basis of the principle of equity.

The reasoning before the Court was that, it is not mandatory that the article 6 of the Geneva Convention on the Continental Shelf, the principle of equidistance must be applied in this case and for this reason a new principle, i. Again, in the Tunisia-Libya Continental Shelf Case ICJ , a dispute arose between Tunisia and Libya in respect of delimitation of the respective area of continental shelf appertaining to each on the basis of the geology, physiographic and bathymetry.

On 10 th June, both Tunisia and Libya entered into a treaty to go before the ICJ for the delimitation of the respective area of continental shelf. The ICJ was requested to deliver a judgment and it did so. Whether the Geneva Convention on the Continental Shelf, or the customary international law shall be applicable in deciding the case was the main issue in this case, as none of the States did ratify the Convention of The judgment of this case was delivered on the basis of the equitable principle.

By a majority of ten to four votes the Court held that the delimitation method to be applied according to the principle of equity taking into account of all the relevant circumstances. The Libya-Malta Continental Shelf Case is another significant case in this regard where a dispute arose between Libya and Malta in respect of delimitation of the areas of the continental shelf between Malta and Libya.

But Libya was not a party to the Convention though Malta was. The main issue before the court was, whether article 6 2 of the Convention or the customary international law shall be applicable in deciding the case? By a majority of 14 to 3 votes the court held that the delimitation is to be applied in accordance with the principles of equidistance. In this case the ICJ followed the principle of equidistance for delimitation. Both the principles of equity and equidistance are applicable but it depends upon the peculiar geographical situation of the coastal state in concern.

The Court said in this case an equitable result may be achievable by drawing a line of which every point is equidistant from the low water mark of the coast. It is apparent from the above scrutiny that the law of the sea is a burgeoning area of international law. The and Conventions on the Law of the Sea did much to create systematic and humdrum rules for the management and use of this common resource and many of the rules contained in these Conventions have now passed into customary international law.

The great achievement was the conclusion of the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea which deals with about all the vital issues of the law of the sea and it does so in a manner that has commanded a significant amount of support. Also many of its provisions either reveal the existing customary international law or will crystallize into new law in due course. Subjects of Public International Law. My International Law Studies.

France; ICJ, Norway; ICJ, The Geneva Convention on the Continental Shelf, UN Convention on the Law of the Sea, The International Law of the Sea vol. Oxford University Press. Law of the Sea. The Law of the Sea 3rd ed.

Textbook on International Law. International Law 3rd Indian Reprint. USA, U. International Law 8th ed. London: Stevens and Sons Ltd. United States India: Central Law Agency. Dhaka: CCB Foundation. International Law of the Sea: Bangladesh Perspective. The Daily Star. Denmark; Federal Republic of Germany v. Netherlands I. The International Law of the Sea Vol.

Oxford: Oxford University Press. International Law in a Changing World. Dhaka: PololProkashoni. In Bank. International Law. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Glimpses of International Law. Dhaka: Form International. AnIntroduction to International Law 10th ed. New Delhi: Aditya Books.

Greece, UN Office of the Legal Affairs. Home Journals Article. DOI: Abstract Sea is a large body of water that is surrounded by the land. Share and Cite:. Ahmed, A. Beijing Law Review , 8 , Introduction International law of the sea is that part of public international law that regulates the rights and obligations of States and other subjects of international law, regarding the use and utilization of the seas in peace time Brown, Research Methodology The paper is descriptive in nature which is actually based on a short research.

International Law of the Sea: Legal and Institutional Framework It should not be wise to presume that the law of the sea is to be found only in one place; rather the present law is a mixture of customary international law and treaty law, both bilateral and multilateral. The Base Line The coastal curve, from which the maritime area of a State is measured, is called baseline or low water line Rahman, p.

According to the Court the following reasons were considered to reach the decision: 1 In respect of delimitation of territorial waters with other States the ICJ observed that the act of delimitation is always an international aspect, it cannot be dependent merely upon the will of coastal State as expressed in the domestic law. The Inland Waters The internal waters which exist from the baseline to the landward side area of the coastal State are called the inland waters.

Civil and Criminal Jurisdiction of the Coastal State The coastal State has its sovereign control and authority over its inland waters. In this case, the main reasoning before the court was as follows: 1 Under the customary international law the coastal state has both the civil and criminal jurisdiction in its internal matters.

Legal Position of the Coastal State Ordinarily the states claimed only three miles of territorial sea till the s and there was no uniformity in the national jurisdictions of the territorial sea. Right of Innocent Passage: Explanation of the Idea Article 17 of the Convention deals with the right of innocent passage of states and provides that, subject to this Convention, ships of all States, whether coastal or land-locked, enjoy the right of innocent passage through the territorial sea.

Obligations of the Coastal State The coastal state has some obligations regarding the innocent passage under the Convention. Civil Jurisdiction of the of the Coastal State over the Vessels in Innocent Passage Article 28 of the Convention deals with the civil jurisdiction of the coastal state in relation to foreign ships which states as follows: 1 The coastal State should not stop or divert a foreign ship passing through the territorial sea for the purpose of exercising civil jurisdiction in relation to a person on board the ship.

Provisions Regarding War Ships and Other Non-Trading Ships Article 30 deals with the provisions regarding non-compliance by warships with the laws and regulations of the coastal State and reveals that, if any warship does not comply with the laws and regulations of the coastal State concerning passage through the territorial sea and disregards any request for compliance therewith which is made to it, the coastal State may require it to leave the territorial sea immediately.

The Contiguous Zone The concept of contiguous zone Lowe, p. Jurisdiction of the Coastal State in the Contiguous Zone If the coastal state notices that another state or person is violating its rights, or fleeing after committing any crime, or hampering the law and order situations in the contiguous zone area of the coastal state, then it has jurisdiction to prosecute and punish the perpetrator state.

The High Seas The main stream of Grotian theory was that the high sea is res communis as it is physically impossible to take possession of it.

Freedom of the Navigation in the High Sea: General Rules The freedom of navigation is a traditional and well established feature of the doctrine of the high seas, as is the freedom of fishing.

Right to Hot Pursuit: Explanation of the Idea An exception to the exclusive jurisdiction of the flag state over a vessel in the high seas is the right of hot pursuit Kapoor, p.

Rights of the Coastal State over the Continental Shelf Article 77 of the Convention deals with the rights of the coastal State over the continental shelf and states: 1 The coastal State exercises over the continental shelf sovereign rights for the purpose of exploring it and exploiting its natural resources.

Concluding Remarks It is apparent from the above scrutiny that the law of the sea is a burgeoning area of international law.

Conflicts of Interest The authors declare no conflicts of interest. References [ 1 ] Abdurrahim, W. If the distance between the low-water marks of the natural entrance points of a bay does not exceed 24 nautical miles, a closing line may be drawn between these two low-water marks, and the waters enclosed thereby shall be considered as internal waters.

Where the distance between the low-water marks of the natural entrance points of a bay exceeds 24 nautical miles, a straight baseline of 24 nautical miles shall be drawn within the bay in such a manner as to enclose the maximum area of water that is possible with a line of that length. The foregoing provisions do not apply to so-called "historic" bays, or in any case where the system of straight baselines provided for in article 7 is applied.

For the purpose of delimiting the territorial sea, the outermost permanent harbour works which form an integral part of the harbour system are regarded as forming part of the coast.

Off-shore installations and artificial islands shall not be considered as permanent harbour works. Roadsteads which are normally used for the loading, unloading and anchoring of ships, and which would otherwise be situated wholly or partly outside the outer limit of the territorial sea, are included in the territorial sea.

A low-tide elevation is a naturally formed area of land which is surrounded by and above water at low tide but submerged at high tide. Where a low-tide elevation is situated wholly or partly at a distance not exceeding the breadth of the territorial sea from the mainland or an island, the low-water line on that elevation may be used as the baseline for measuring the breadth of the territorial sea. Where a low-tide elevation is wholly situated at a distance exceeding the breadth of the territorial sea from the mainland or an island, it has no territorial sea of its own.

The coastal State may determine baselines in turn by any of the methods provided for in the foregoing articles to suit different conditions. Where the coasts of two States are opposite or adjacent to each other, neither of the two States is entitled, failing agreement between them to the contrary, to extend its territorial sea beyond the median line every point of which is equidistant from the nearest points on the baselines from which the breadth of the territorial seas of each of the two States is measured.

The above provision does not apply, however, where it is necessary by reason of historic title or other special circumstances to delimit the territorial seas of the two States in a way which is at variance therewith. The baselines for measuring the breadth of the territorial sea determined in accordance with articles 7, 9 and 10, or the limits derived therefrom, and the lines of delimitation drawn in accordance with articles 12 and 15 shall be shown on charts of a scale or scales adequate for ascertaining their position.

Alternatively, a list of geographical coordinates of points, specifying the geodetic datum, may be substituted. The coastal State shall give due publicity to such charts or lists of geographical coordinates and shall deposit a copy of each such chart or list with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.

Subject to this Convention, ships of all States, whether coastal or land-locked, enjoy the right of innocent passage through the territorial sea. Passage shall be continuous and expeditious. However, passage includes stopping and anchoring, but only in so far as the same are incidental to ordinary navigation or are rendered necessary by force majeure or distress or for the purpose of rendering assistance to persons, ships or aircraft in danger or distress.

Passage is innocent so long as it is not prejudicial to the peace, good order or security of the coastal State. Such passage shall take place in conformity with this Convention and with other rules of international law. Passage of a foreign ship shall be considered to be prejudicial to the peace, good order or security of the coastal State if in the territorial sea it engages in any of the following activities:.

In the territorial sea, submarines and other underwater vehicles are required to navigate on the surface and to show their flag. The coastal State may adopt laws and regulations, in conformity with the provisions of this Convention and other rules of international law, relating to innocent passage through the territorial sea, in respect of all or any of the following:.

Such laws and regulations shall not apply to the design, construction, manning or equipment of foreign ships unless they are giving effect to generally accepted international rules or standards. Foreign ships exercising the right of innocent passage through the territorial sea shall comply with all such laws and regulations and all generally accepted international regulations relating to the prevention of collisions at sea.

Transit passage is the right of a ship or aircraft to transit, pass or navigate through an international strait in a continuous and expeditious manner. LOSC arts. Ships in transit passage must comply with the duties set forth in LOSC article 39, which include proceeding without delay and refraining from any activities other than those incident to their normal modes of continuous and expeditious transit. Ships in transit passage may not carry out any research or survey activities without the prior authorization of the States bordering the strait.

LOSC art. States bordering international straits may designate sea lanes and prescribe traffic separation schemes for navigation where necessary to promote safe passage of ships. They may also adopt laws and regulations relating to transit passage in respect of certain activities, such as fishing. The transit passage regime does not otherwise affect the legal status of the waters forming an international strait, or the exercise of sovereignty or jurisdiction by the bordering States over the waters, air space, seabed and subsoil of the strait.

The only international strait for which the U. Although the Bering Strait is 44 nautical miles wide at the narrowest point between the U. Additional Reference Information:. The Area is comprised of the seabed and subsoil beyond the limits of national jurisdiction. It does not include superjacent waters i.

The Area and its resources are the common heritage of mankind, and no State may claim or exercise sovereignty or sovereign rights over any part of the Area or its resources. As a measure of comparison, the mass of the contiguous United States all states except Alaska and Hawaii is approximately 7. Internal Waters. Territorial Sea. Contiguous Zone.

Exclusive Economic Zone. Continental Shelf. High Seas. Waters Forming Straits. The Area.

  References - Legislation

Where neither paragraph a nor paragraph b of this section applies, shall be a straight line 24 nautical miles in length drawn from low-water mark to low-water mark within the bay in such a manner as to enclose the maximum area of water that is possible with a line of that length.

Where the coast is highly unstable because of the presence of a delta or other natural conditions:. In a case where a river flows directly into the sea, a point at each side of the river's mouth on the low-water line of the river's banks:. In a case where the coast is highly unstable because of the presence of a delta or other natural conditions, points along the furtherest seaward extent of the low-water line:.

Straight baselines shall not depart to any appreciable extent from the general direction of the coast:. Sea areas lying within straight baselines shall be sufficiently closely linked to the land of New Zealand to be internal waters of New Zealand:.

Straight baselines shall be drawn to and from low-tide elevations only where lighthouses or similar installations, which are permanently above sea level, have been built on the low-tide elevations or where the drawing of baselines to and from such elevations has received general international recognition. Economic interests peculiar to the region concerned, the reality and the importance of which are clearly evidenced by long usage, may be taken into account.

The territorial sea baseline may be of various types depending upon the shape of the coastline in any given locality:. The internal waters are all those areas of the sea that are on the inside of New Zealand including any areas of the sea that are on the landward side of the baseline of the territorial sea of New Zealand.

The internal waters of New Zealand include any areas of the sea that are on the landward side of the baseline of the territorial sea of New Zealand. The Territorial Sea is an area of water not exceeding 12 nautical miles in width which is measured seaward from the territorial sea baseline. The territorial sea of New Zealand comprises those areas of the sea having, as their inner limits, the baseline described in sections 5 and 6 [and 6A] of this Act and, as their outer limits, a line measured seaward from that baseline, every point of which line is distant 12 nautical miles from the nearest point of the baseline.

The Contiguous Zone is a belt of water adjacent to the territorial sea, the outer limits of which do not exceed 24 nautical miles from the territorial sea baseline. The Exclusive Economic Zone is an area of sea beyond and adjacent to the territorial sea. The outer limit of the exclusive economic zone cannot exceed nautical miles from the territorial sea baseline.

Where the New Zealand EEZ abuts the maritime zone of another nation, a median line between the nations is agreed. The sovereignty over the territorial sea is exercised subject to this Convention and to other rules of international law.

Every State has the right to establish the breadth of its territorial sea up to a limit not exceeding 12 nautical miles, measured from baselines determined in accordance with this Convention. The outer limit of the territorial sea is the line every point of which is at a distance from the nearest point of the baseline equal to the breadth of the territorial sea. Except where otherwise provided in this Convention, the normal baseline for measuring the breadth of the territorial sea is the low-water line along the coast as marked on large-scale charts officially recognized by the coastal State.

In the case of islands situated on atolls or of islands having fringing reefs, the baseline for measuring the breadth of the territorial sea is the seaward low-water line of the reef, as shown by the appropriate symbol on charts officially recognized by the coastal State.

In localities where the coastline is deeply indented and cut into, or if there is a fringe of islands along the coast in its immediate vicinity, the method of straight baselines joining appropriate points may be employed in drawing the baseline from which the breadth of the territorial sea is measured.

Where because of the presence of a delta and other natural conditions the coastline is highly unstable, the appropriate points may be selected along the furthest seaward extent of the low-water line and, notwithstanding subsequent regression of the low-water line, the straight baselines shall remain effective until changed by the coastal State in accordance with this Convention.

The drawing of straight baselines must not depart to any appreciable extent from the general direction of the coast, and the sea areas lying within the lines must be sufficiently closely linked to the land domain to be subject to the regime of internal waters. Straight baselines shall not be drawn to and from low-tide elevations, unless lighthouses or similar installations which are permanently above sea level have been built on them or except in instances where the drawing of baselines to and from such elevations has received general international recognition.

Where the method of straight baselines is applicable under paragraph 1, account may be taken, in determining particular baselines, of economic interests peculiar to the region concerned, the reality and the importance of which are clearly evidenced by long usage. The system of straight baselines may not be applied by a State in such a manner as to cut off the territorial sea of another State from the high seas or an exclusive economic zone. Except as provided in Part IV, waters on the landward side of the baseline of the territorial sea form part of the internal waters of the State.

Where the establishment of a straight baseline in accordance with the method set forth in article 7 has the effect of enclosing as internal waters areas which had not previously been considered as such, a right of innocent passage as provided in this Convention shall exist in those waters. If a river flows directly into the sea, the baseline shall be a straight line across the mouth of the river between points on the low-water line of its banks. This article relates only to bays the coasts of which belong to a single State.

For the purposes of this Convention, a bay is a well-marked indentation whose penetration is in such proportion to the width of its mouth as to contain land-locked waters and constitute more than a mere curvature of the coast. An indentation shall not, however, be regarded as a bay unless its area is as large as, or larger than, that of the semi-circle whose diameter is a line drawn across the mouth of that indentation.

For the purpose of measurement, the area of an indentation is that lying between the low-water mark around the shore of the indentation and a line joining the low-water mark of its natural entrance points. Where, because of the presence of islands, an indentation has more than one mouth, the semi-circle shall be drawn on a line as long as the sum total of the lengths of the lines across the different mouths.

Islands within an indentation shall be included as if they were part of the water area of the indentation. If the distance between the low-water marks of the natural entrance points of a bay does not exceed 24 nautical miles, a closing line may be drawn between these two low-water marks, and the waters enclosed thereby shall be considered as internal waters. Where the distance between the low-water marks of the natural entrance points of a bay exceeds 24 nautical miles, a straight baseline of 24 nautical miles shall be drawn within the bay in such a manner as to enclose the maximum area of water that is possible with a line of that length.

The foregoing provisions do not apply to so-called "historic" bays, or in any case where the system of straight baselines provided for in article 7 is applied. For the purpose of delimiting the territorial sea, the outermost permanent harbour works which form an integral part of the harbour system are regarded as forming part of the coast. Off-shore installations and artificial islands shall not be considered as permanent harbour works.

Roadsteads which are normally used for the loading, unloading and anchoring of ships, and which would otherwise be situated wholly or partly outside the outer limit of the territorial sea, are included in the territorial sea. A low-tide elevation is a naturally formed area of land which is surrounded by and above water at low tide but submerged at high tide. Where a low-tide elevation is situated wholly or partly at a distance not exceeding the breadth of the territorial sea from the mainland or an island, the low-water line on that elevation may be used as the baseline for measuring the breadth of the territorial sea.

Where a low-tide elevation is wholly situated at a distance exceeding the breadth of the territorial sea from the mainland or an island, it has no territorial sea of its own. The coastal State may determine baselines in turn by any of the methods provided for in the foregoing articles to suit different conditions.

Where the coasts of two States are opposite or adjacent to each other, neither of the two States is entitled, failing agreement between them to the contrary, to extend its territorial sea beyond the median line every point of which is equidistant from the nearest points on the baselines from which the breadth of the territorial seas of each of the two States is measured. The above provision does not apply, however, where it is necessary by reason of historic title or other special circumstances to delimit the territorial seas of the two States in a way which is at variance therewith.

The baselines for measuring the breadth of the territorial sea determined in accordance with articles 7, 9 and 10, or the limits derived therefrom, and the lines of delimitation drawn in accordance with articles 12 and 15 shall be shown on charts of a scale or scales adequate for ascertaining their position.

Alternatively, a list of geographical coordinates of points, specifying the geodetic datum, may be substituted. The coastal State shall give due publicity to such charts or lists of geographical coordinates and shall deposit a copy of each such chart or list with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.

Subject to this Convention, ships of all States, whether coastal or land-locked, enjoy the right of innocent passage through the territorial sea. Passage shall be continuous and expeditious.

However, passage includes stopping and anchoring, but only in so far as the same are incidental to ordinary navigation or are rendered necessary by force majeure or distress or for the purpose of rendering assistance to persons, ships or aircraft in danger or distress.