Smart Learning Conference Proceedings - PDF Free Download

21643

Som, H. Human language is transferred generation after generation through a sound learning process. Retrieved 27 May Retrieved 6 May

Prezi Presentation Templates | Business Presentations | Prezi

seoauditing.ru › watch. is on Facebook. To connect with Ziad Khalid's Unity Training, log in or create an account. مشروع لعبة جاهز للتصدير و قابل للتعديل multiplayer. (Online). seoauditing.ru › article. seoauditing.ru › android-games › Who-Are-The-Players › related_videos. This new strategy game has been built using the Unity engine and has beautifully rendered Method 2: Download Game of Thrones from a Torrent Site.

تحميل مشروع جاخز للتعديل unity. Carney defined language as group of few particular vocal symbols that help people to contact each other's.

Free House 3D models for download, files in 3ds, max, c4d, maya, blend, obj, fbx with low poly, animated, rigged, game, and VR options. seoauditing.ru › › Architectural Styles › Constructivism Architecture. seoauditing.ru › sitemap. seoauditing.ru › PresentationRevue. seoauditing.ru › viewdoc › download.

[محرر الوحدة] حالة: تحميل تعديل البيانات الجاهزة - المبرمج العربي

seoauditing.ru › presentation-template. Use this virtual lab report template to present your project's findings in an impactful, colorful Make your videos primetime-ready with the newscast template for Prezi Video. This football-inspired sales plan presentation template conveys a sense of team unity and thoughtful Prezi makes it easy to edit your projects.تحميل مشروع جاخز للتعديل unity UCL Qatar's projects have expanded our understanding of the region's culture and Authority, the university was ready to begin operations. seoauditing.ru › ewmag › docs › ewme_q3__lr. seoauditing.ru › C_seoauditing.ru+related. seoauditing.ru › /06 › allintext-knowing-doing-gap-wang-yang. seoauditing.ru › Smart-learning-conference-proceedings.

تحميل مشروع جاخز للتعديل unity.

Top-Rated Images Docker as a Solution for Virtual Containers of OER Recently, many projects have emerged 13 using a Jupyter-ready virtual container or legacy methods. The use of those devices to shoot video, record interviews, edit those videos using editing on any action; which should not be injurious to others but promotes unity. seoauditing.ru › sites › default › files › inline-files › metadata.

seoauditing.ru › files › bkio › bkio seoauditing.ru › about › media › Files › Six-Construct-Activit.   تحميل مشروع جاخز للتعديل unity seoauditing.ru › chan › all_p Ты научишься писать простые алгоритмы. Разберёшься в ООП, синтаксисе и циклах С#. [18+]. Yishak banjaw love songs vol 2 Browse a Talent Pool of Unity Software Developers to Find Experts in Minutes, Not Weeks.

تحميل مشروع جاخز للتعديل unity

  تحميل مشروع جاخز للتعديل unity

رجب طيب أردوغان

  تحميل مشروع جاخز للتعديل unity  

تحميل مشروع جاخز للتعديل unity. تصاميم اليوم الوطني Psd

  تحميل مشروع جاخز للتعديل unity  Canon ng6730 ソフトウェア

تحميل مشروع جاخز للتعديل unity

Sale ends in days hours minutes seconds. Free House 3D Models. Victorian Community School. Archexteriors vol. A-Frame house low poly. Photorealistic European Buildings City Set 4. Low Poly Middle East Building. Four Houses Collection. Low Poly Afghanistan House. Casa GP exterior scene. Arab Village House. Low Polygon House Collection. Cartoon Asian Building. House 3. Palace Injeongjeon. House 2. Modern House. Lowpoly Cartoon wood house. Low Poly House 3D Model.

Old House. Shale Contemporary House With Interior. Low Poly City Buildings Pack. Farm House Low-poly Free. Cliff House Free 3D Model.

Chinatown Market Building. Medieval Blacksmith Low-poly Free. Modern Three-Storey Cottage. Japanese Yellow House. Lowpoly Cottage. Nagaya House. Cartoon House. Blue House. Modern House I. Country Cottage. Twin Houses. House Exterior. Keywords: Flipped classroom, technology integration in secondary education, student achievement, student motivation, United Arab Emirates.

Accordingly, leaders in states and districts set forth procedures to improve the thoroughness of math curricula both in the middle and high schools Finkelstein et al. Despite these efforts, many students are still failing Algebra. An innovative approach that builds on blended learning a combination of e-learning and face-to-face instruction , known as the flipped classroom, is spreading in schools. Many This poor achievement had been revealed in when, for the first time, Dubai participated in the international Trends in International Mathematics and Science Studies TIMSS , a worldwide assessment evaluating students performance in mathematics and science.

The results of the TIMSS indicated that fourth graders and eighth graders students in Dubai did not meet the international average in science or mathematics.

Consequently, identifying a continuous need for improvement, the UAE leaders are instigating and monitoring high quality education standards by starting new policies, programs, and initiatives. Purpose of the Study The purpose of this study was to explore the influence of the flipped classroom as a learning model on high school student achievement and motivation for learning Algebra II at the secondary level in a proprietary school based in Dubai in the United Arab Emirates.

At this school, students in the Algebra II class have been struggling with the curriculum and many were not able to succeed the course with a sufficient grade for admission to American universities. Research Questions Q1. Is there a significant difference in student achievement between eleventh grade students learning Algebra II in a flipped classroom and eleventh grade students learning Algebra II in a traditional classroom?

Is there a significant difference in the motivation for learning Algebra II score between eleventh grade students learning Algebra II in a flipped classroom and eleventh grade students learning Algebra II in a traditional classroom? Significance of the Study Many schools are expressing interest in the flipped classroom but few studies demonstrated a possible influence of this innovative method on student achievement and motivation for learning in high schools.

The aim of the study was to understand whether or not the flipped classroom, as an instructional innovation using technology in mathematics learning, can raise student achievement and increase student The study added empirical evidence to the literature on the teaching and learning of mathematics, specifically Algebra. Literature Review Students Low Achievement in Mathematics The problem of low mathematics achievement is perceived in the United Arab Emirates where this study is based.

In some tertiary institutions, United Arab Emirates students are required to attend a one-year foundation program that includes mathematics to have access to higher education at a variety of government and private institutions. The annual report released from the Knowledge Human Development Authority KHDA , the equivalent of the ministry of education in Dubai, revealed that students investigative skills in mathematics are insufficiently developed KHDA, To address this problem, teachers in most countries are changing their instructional strategies and changing their classroom from teacher-centered to learnercentered.

Kates and her colleagues used a learning strategy that integrates technology, Power of 3 Discussion Starter Technique, in three graduate classes. Hence students are no longer passive but instead take the role of the teacher.

The findings of the survey conducted among the participants showed that students were strongly motivated to learn through this digital technique. One can conclude that suitable technology applications or the appropriate technologyenhanced instructional approach as the flipped classroom can have a possible impact on students achievements in all subjects and more precisely on students low achievement in mathematics.

Effects of Technology on Student Outcomes in Mathematics Technology implementation has deeply changed the pedagogical practices of the classroom. Today s learners often described as digital natives or the Net Generation, grew up with technology. The majority of these students spend most of their time using computers, smart phones, and other digital media.

Consequently, to motivate students for learning, leaders in education have stressed the importance of technology integration from kindergarten to grade 12 classrooms Kates et al. The Flipped Classroom The flipped classroom also known as the inverted classroom and reverse instruction Fundamentally, it means exchanging what is traditionally done in class and at home: Lessons that would have been covered by lecture in class are covered by videos at home and problems that would have been given as homework are done in class with the teacher there to support and guide Hung, ; Strayer, ; Touchstone, Many schools, private and public, are expressing interest in blended learning and the methodology of flipping the classroom is spreading.

It is clear that motivation to improve, to achieve better, and to succeed will stimulate students to work hard. Indeed, the results of many studies have indicated that motivation is the only factor that is directly related to academic performance Griffin et al. Research Method The study employed a pre-test and post-test comparison group design and was conducted during the first trimester of the academic year.

The pre-test scores were used to establish that the groups were equivalent and the post-test scores were analyzed to identify significant differences. The participants in the study were 39 male students, 16 or 17 years old, from two different sections of the Algebra II course and 35 female students, 16 or 17 years old, from two different sections of the Algebra II course.

The dependent variables were student achievement and the motivation for learning Algebra II scores. Both male and female groups were measured on the dependent variables mutually before and after the treatment of the independent variable, the reverse instruction intervention that models the flipped classroom. The impact of the flipped classroom on student achievement and motivation for learning was identified by comparing the post-test scores and the post-questionnaire scores across the groups of students who learned in the flipped classroom and students who learned the traditional way.

Research Methods and Design A quasi-experimental non-equivalent pretest and post-test comparison-group design was used in this study to determine quantitatively the influence of the flipped classroom approach on high school student achievement and motivation for learning Algebra II at the secondary level.

The independent variable was the reverse instruction intervention, characteristic of the flipped classroom, and the dependent variables were: the student achievement and students motivation for learning Algebra II.

Four groups of students two male groups and two female groups took the Algebra II pre-test and the post-test, but only two groups one male group and one female group received the intervention of the reverse instruction characteristic to the flipped classroom. The same teacher taught Algebra II to the four groups of students.

The first research question was answered by administering the Algebra II post-test instrument developed by Dalton and her The analysis of ANOVA was used to determine levels of motivation across the eleventh grade students who learned Algebra II in a flipped classroom and the eleventh grade students who learned Algebra II in the traditional classroom.

Sample The sample in this study consisted of 74 eleventh grade students. The selected school segregates gender. There were 39 male students, 16 or 17 years old and 35 female students, 16 or 17 years old, enrolled in two sections of the Algebra II course in the girls secondary division of the school.

Two groups of male and female students received the treatment, the reverse instruction to model the flipped classroom, and the other groups of male and female students served as the comparison group as they were studying in a traditional classroom. All four groups were measured on the dependent variables using: pre-treatment scores, posttreatment scores, and their motivation for learning Algebra II scores before and after the implementation of the flipped classroom strategy. Normality of data distribution on the pre-test and post-test scores was tested using the Shapiro-Wilk test and findings indicated that the assumption of a normality of data distribution was met table 1.

The significant values on the Shapiro-Wilk test of the pre-mslq and post-mslq scores for the comparison and the treatment groups were greater than. The mean scores of the pre-mslq between the groups were tested for equivalency using one way ANOVA across the four groups.

Studies focusing on the flipped classroom at the secondary level are few. Hence, the results of this study seem to confirm that the These results add to the little quantitative, empirical results of the effect of the flipped classroom on students' achievement in mathematics at the secondary level in the United Arab Emirates.

Student motivation for learning Algebra II: The results of the study were not consistent with current studies that focused on the influence of the flipped classroom on student motivation. Such studies showed that students who were exposed to the flipped teaching were engaged in deep learning and were more motivated than students in the traditional classroom Davies et al.

The results of this study, nonetheless, agreed with the findings of other current studies in the literature Lane-Kelso, ; Strayer, The study of Strayer conducted at Midwestern Christian Liberal Arts University showed that students enrolled in Introduction to Statistics course in a flipped classroom approach were not much motivated with the way the format of the classroom guided their learning in the course. These results add to the few quantitative, empirical results of the effect of the flipped classroom on students' motivation for learning mathematics at the secondary level in the United Arab Emirates.

Implications, Recommendations, and Conclusions This study explored the innovative practice of the flipped classroom in order to acquire more understanding into its efficacy in improving student achievement and student motivation for learning. Implications This study was an examination of the influence of the flipped classroom as a learning model on high school student achievement and motivation for learning Algebra II at the secondary level in an urban proprietary school based in Dubai.

The findings gathered from this study may be useful to address one of the targets of the National Agenda launched by the ruler of Dubai: Students in Dubai should be classified among the best in the world in reading, science, and mathematics examinations United Arab Emirates The Cabinet, In this section, the implications of the results from this study are presented.

This study demonstrated that there was a significant increase in academic performance score for those students who learned in a flipped Algebra II classroom. These findings have significant implications in educational practices and mathematics achievement as they address one of the UAE National Agenda educational targets: Students in Dubai should have high mathematics achievement in TIMSS and hence the importance of identifying innovative instructional approach that can improve students' performances.

The results of this study implicate that the flipped classroom is an educational practice that can address mathematics learning gaps at the secondary level. This suggests that the flipped classroom approach may be effective in improving student achievement in Algebra II especially in schools where students have low mathematics achievement and hence are not able to succeed with a sufficient grade for admission to universities.

The findings of this study also suggest that teachers may find better student outcomes when using class time for active and cooperative inquiry-based learning when implementing the flipped classroom. This implication may require schools leaders to create conditions that promote and enhance learning for students, teachers, as well as administrators and transform schools into learning organizations.

The implication of such findings means that the impact of the flipped classroom at the secondary level may influence positively student motivation for learning if the model was implemented for a longer period than one trimester or twelve weeks. The findings of the study may also imply that new pedagogical approaches for teaching mathematics that engage and motivate students are needed, since both groups treatment and comparison had moderate scores in motivation out of and out of Recommendations The study results and the implication of the findings support the recommendations for pedagogical practices, professional development, and future research.

These are presented in the following sections. Recommendations for pedagogical practices: With significant evidence from the research findings of what has been demonstrated to be effective, it is strongly recommended that the school leadership encourages the use of the flipped classroom in the mathematics classes, while collecting evidence of effect, and then expanding the flipped approach to other subject areas throughout the secondary level.

A third recommendation is for teachers to involve students in structuring and planning the flipped classroom approach to enhance student motivation. Teachers may ask students what they enjoy doing, what reinforces their learning, and what do they remember the most after class.

Recommendations for professional development: It is recommended that the school leadership team provides and organizes professional development training for teachers to prepare them for implementing the flipped classroom effectively.

These training sessions may consist of: effective ways to conduct learner-centered constructivist classrooms, finding or recording videos for students to watch at home, planning successfully the flipped classroom setting, giving immediate feedback to students, enhancing the interaction between the teacher and students, providing structure and explaining clearly to students the tasks and activities to be solved and analyzed, and checking that learning is happening.

Additionally, it is recommended that principals create an environment, for teachers as well as for students, that encourages taking risks without the dread of failing or making mistakes to build a learning organization. Principals are recommended to create a teacher exchange program across schools, regions, and countries where innovative practices are successfully used; create study groups within the school to encourage professional dialogue on new teaching approaches and issues; encourage collegial learning; and help teachers locate local or online resources that would support the flipped classroom approach.

It is recommended also that teachers read professional material, attend classes, enroll in online courses, attend specialized conferences on innovating learning or flipped classroom, team teaching with a seasoned flipped classroom teacher, and reflect on objectives they need to understand to change their role from the sage to the guide. Recommendations for future research: It is essential to recognize that the impact of the flipped classroom approach might not be effective at all levels of education elementary, secondary, graduate, and postgraduate and with all subjects English, mathematics, physics, sciences, as studies in the literature show contradictory findings on the influence of the flipped classroom on student achievement and student motivation for learning.

Additionally, some teachers might not succeed with the flipped classroom model and some students may resist the model as they may prefer direct traditional instructional approaches. Hence, it is recommended to conduct quantitative as well as qualitative research in different populations, different geographic locations, and across curriculum in order to determine where the flipped classroom model is most effective in promoting student achievement and student motivation for learning.

The qualitative data from students may present a diversity of students perceptions and feedback towards the flipped classroom and would benefit the knowledge base in educational practices to enhance students motivation for learning as students may be a good source of information regarding the best ways to use in structuring and implementing the flipped classroom.

Such research would add value to the literature because of a build-up of findings from different contexts as the construction and implementation of the flipped classroom may vary across populations, curriculum, and grade levels. The effect of simulation-games environment on students achievement in and attitudes to mathematics in secondary schools. Enhancing student learning and achievement via a direct instruction-based ICT integrated in a Kuwaiti 12th-grade secondary school math curriculum.

International Journal of Learning, 18 9 , Brunsell, E. Flipping your classroom in one "take. Cambria, J. Motivating and engaging students in reading. Measuring learning in algebra 2 classrooms. Flipping the classroom and instructional technology integration in a college-level information systems spreadsheet course. How math course sequences matter. ERIC No. Performance and perception in the flipped learning model: An initial approach to evaluate the effectiveness of a new teaching methodology in a general science classroom.

Do learning and study skills affect academic performance? An empirical investigation. Contemporary Issues in Education Research, 5 2 , Griffin R. A study of aspects of learning skills and motivation: Correlates to superior academic performance. Using dynamic geometry software to improve eight grade students' understanding of transformation geometry. Case studies and the flipped classroom. Flipping the classroom for English language learners to foster active learning.

DSIB annual report Retrieved from tions. Inspecting for school improvement: key findings. A collaborative journey. Retrieved from The pedagogy of flipped instruction in Oman. Techtalk: The community of inquiry model for an flipped developmental math classroom.

Journal of Developmental Education, 34 2 , Milner, A. Elementary science students' motivation and learning strategy use: Constructivist classroom contextual factors in a life science laboratory and a traditional classroom.

Vodcasts and active-learning exercises in a "flipped classroom" model of a renal pharmacotherapy module. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 76 10 , Pintrich, P.

Schmidt, K. Introducing a computer algebra system in mathematics education -- Empirical evidence from Germany. Activelearning versus teacher-centered instruction for learning acids and bases. How learning in an flipped classroom influences cooperation, innovation and task orientation. Mathematics achievement. Flipping the classroom and student performance in advanced statistics: Evidence from a quasiexperiment.

Teacher and child variables as predictors of academic engagement among low-income African American children. National Agenda. Change is in our inner biological environment, in the physical environment, in political and socioeconomic settings, and in society and all its organizations.

Significant change occurs within organizations and schools. Schools might change their overall strategy for improvement, add or remove a major division or practice, or want to change the very nature of their operation. To lead schools and organizations effectively leaders should have a deep understanding of organizations and reframe them in order to adapt them better to current business realities.

The attention is typically directed towards leaders within the organization for successful improvement. As schools continue to move into different phases of educational reform, one factor that is consistent is the need for effective education leadership.

Educational reform requires leaders to not only update their skills and knowledge but also to totally transform their roles as educators. To lead change effectively leaders should have a deep understanding of schools and restructure them in order to better adapt them to current pedagogical approaches.

Moreover, effective leaders of today s schools are strongly encouraged to be visionaries, articulate a set of core values that guide their own behavior, possess exceptional cognitive skills, empower the workforce, believe in people, and mostly build learning organizations.

Leading education reform and building learning organization, however, is not without challenges. Leaders need to adopt ways to involve all staff in the reform process and reduce resistance to change. This paper highlights the importance of transformational leadership to manage and lead education reform as well as ways to enhance leadership skills by applying the four-frame model of Bolman and Deal and the five practices of exemplary leadership developed by Kouzes and Posner Keywords: Transformational leadership, reframing organizations, organization learning, education reform, practices of exemplary leadership.

Change Overview Change is not entirely predictable. In his book Leading in a Culture of Change, Fullan advised that understanding the change process is less about innovation and more about innovativeness.

It is less about strategy and more about strategizing. And it is rocket science, not least because we are inundated with complex, unclear, and often contradictory advice p. Given the complexity of change management, it is no wonder that addressing change processes may become a concern or an issue for leaders in organizational development. There is no one solution to lead change; however understanding certain strategies to address change may make change more effective.

Fullan noted that change cannot be managed. It can be understood and perhaps led but it cannot be controlled. Change can be led, and leadership does make a difference pp.

Leading organizational change and education reform involves reframing organizations and leadership and practicing effective leadership. These images result from their synthesis about integrating the major traditions in organizational theory into four distinct areas: 1 theories about structuring organizations, 2 human resource-related issues, 3 political dynamics, and 4 symbolic concerns.

Each of the four areas the authors call them frames has its own view, its own points of focus, fundamental assumptions, and logic of the organizational setting. Analyzing the four different organizational frames -- structural, human resources, political, and symbolic -- can help leaders identify, understand, and solve potential problems when leading change in their organization or education reform in schools.

The structural frame, with its image of organization as machine, views organizations as rational systems. It reinforces the importance of designing structural forms that align with an organization s goals, mission, technology, and environment. Differentiation of work roles and tasks provides for clarity of purpose, but leads to the need for appropriate coordination. The human resource frame, with its image of organization as family, captures the symbiotic relationship between individuals and organizations: Individuals need opportunities to express their talents and skills, organizations need human energy and contribution to fuel their efforts.

When the fit is right, both benefit and productivity is high because people will feel motivated to bring the best to their work. The political frame sees an organization as a jungle, an arena of enduring differences, scarce resources, and the unavoidability of power and conflict.

Diversity in values, beliefs, interests, behaviors, skills, and world views are enduring and inevitable organizational realities. They are often toxic, but can also be a source of creativity and innovation when recognized and effectively managed. Finally, the theatre image of the symbolic frame captures organizational life as an ongoing drama: Individuals coming together to create context, culture, and meaning as they play their assigned roles and bring artistry and self-expression into their work.

Organizations that attend to the symbolic issues surrounding their own theatre of work infuse everyday efforts with creativity, energy, and soul. A recommendation for wise leadership is an understanding of these organization s frames and their limits and a committed team able to reframe leadership and lead effectively in all four frames structural, human resource, political, and symbolic.

These leaders align the internal processes of the organization to the external environment while dealing with organizational dilemmas. They are successful when they have the right answer for their organization and can get their answer accepted and implemented.

They focus on structure, strategy, environment, implementation, experimentation, evaluation, and adaptation. Human resource leadership An effective human resource leader is a catalyst and facilitator who motivates and empowers employees. The impact of human resource leaders is based on talent, sensitivity, and service and not on position or force. Effective human resource leaders use skill and artistry in helping people to accomplish extraordinary results.

They build organizations that obtain their success Such leaders believe in people and communicate their belief. They are visible and accessible, and empower others by encouraging participation, providing support, sharing information, and moving decision making as far down the organization as possible. Political leadership Successful political leaders are advocates who understand that influence needs to begin with an understanding of others concerns and interests.

They build power bases through networking and negotiating compromises. Good political leaders clarify what they want and what they can get, assess the distribution of power and interests, build partnership with other stakeholders, and persuade first, negotiate second, and use pressure only if necessary. Symbolic leadership Symbolic leaders are prophets, artists, and poets whose primary task is to interpret experience and create a meaningful workplace.

They are often transformational leaders, i. Transformational leaders are agents of change in their organizations. They act upon the increasingly complex and chaotic changes in the external environment as new standards for learning and performance, accountability, and the rapid pace of social and technological change.

Transformational Leaders Fullan studied the characteristics of successful business and school leaders and found five qualities or action-and-mind sets that distinguish transformational leaders in leading organization development: 1 a strong sense of moral purpose, 2 an understanding of the dynamics of change, 3 an emotional intelligence as they build relationships, 4 a commitment to developing and sharing new knowledge, and 5 a capacity for coherence making.

Transformational leaders often have the ability of moving into a future direction with a broad perspective in mind and ensuring some long-term changes. Some of the behaviors of transformational leaders, applicable in both educational and business settings, include: 1 identifying and articulating an organizational vision, 2 fostering acceptance of targets, 3 having high performance expectations, 4 providing intellectual stimulation, and 5 developing a strong school or organizational culture.

However, there are several reasons why change efforts often fail: 1 the purpose is not made clear, 2 the participants are not involved in the planning, 3 the appeal is based on personal reasons, 4 the habit patterns of the work group are ignored, 5 there is poor communication regarding a change, 6 there is fear of failure, 7 excessive work pressure is involved, 8 the cost is too high, 9 the reward for making the change is seen as insufficient, 10 the present situation seems satisfactory, or 11 there is a lack of respect and trust in the leader or change initiator.

Hence, it is strongly recommended for transformational leaders to create a permanent capacity to change by building learning organizations. Organizational Learning and Transformational Leadership The basic principle for learning organizations is that in situations of rapid change only those that are flexible, adaptive and productive will excel. Senge identified five component technologies that are vital to learning organizations: 1 Systems thinking -- a body of knowledge and tools to identify the underlying patterns of systems; 2 personal mastery -- the process of clarifying a personal vision and making a commitment to accomplish priorities; 3 mental models -- using analysis to discover and examine the assumptions that influence our actions; 4 building a shared vision; and 5 team learning -- group communication to transform thinking and take action through dialogue and discussion.

These five component technologies offer a They can help organizations to look inside their systems to discover opportunities that support organizational change, and barriers that may hinder improvement. Afterward, Watkins and Marsick introduced their model of the learning organization that outlines three levels of interrelated learning: individual learning, team learning, and organization learning.

The authors constructed their model around seven strategies that are needed to implement learning organizations: Create continuous learning opportunities, promote inquiry and dialogue, encourage collaboration and team learning, create systems to share learning, empower people toward collective vision, connect the organization to its environment, and provide strategic leadership for learning.

The first two of these actions are vital for individual learning to occur. Continuous learning opportunities, as well as inquiry and dialogue must be promoted.

As employees assume responsibility for their own learning, they want to share this knowledge with colleagues. The need for dialogue introduces the third imperative of encouraging collaboration and team learning. The team level of learning sets the tone for the organizational level of the learning organization. A powerful learning organization begins if a single employee becomes an independent learner.

Thus individual learning if situated within the context of organizational learning can lead to organizational development and improvement. However, the transition to a learning organization involves change in a complex system.

These scholars suggested that creating a collective vision of the future, empowering and preparing employees to manage challenges, modeling learning behavior, and creating a learning environment, are crucial skills for transformational leaders to create and build learning organization.

Rijal highlighted the important role transformational leaders play in transforming an organization into a learning one.

According to Rijal the transformation of traditional organizations that relied on rules and regulations to organizations that encourage employees to think creatively requires a visionary transformational leadership, which brings out the best in each individual. The authors examined Spanish organizations.

In other words, findings indicated that transformational leadership, organizational performance and innovation, and organizational learning were all interrelated. Soliman highlighted the role of transformational leadership in moving an organization from being knowledge based, to learning organization, to becoming an innovative organization.

In his quantitative study, Soliman used factor analysis showing that the three most critical transformation leadership attributes are found to be: acceptance of risks, willingness to act proactively, and ability of selfcriticism.

Other important features of the transformational leader were found to be: courage to terminate projects, rewarding performing staff, identifying appropriate timing to release products to the market, These results concur with the findings of a qualitative study conducted by Md. Som and his colleagues to investigate how the learning organization elements -- clarity of organizational mission and vision, leadership commitment and empowerment, experimentation and rewards, effective transfer of knowledge, and team problemsolving-- influence organizations.

The authors used surveys and in-depth interviews to evaluate the organizational performances of 60 non-profit organizations in Singapore. Findings suggested that elements such as clarity of mission and vision, experimentation and intrinsic motivation, leadership commitment and empowerment, and organizational learning practices, all characteristics of transformational leadership were considered to be vital for non-profit organizations to be transformed into learning organizations.

Practices of Effective Leadership Kouzes and Posner recommended five practices of exemplary leadership: challenging the process, inspiring a shared vision, enabling others to act, modeling the way, and encouraging the heart. These practices serve as guidance for leaders to accomplish their achievements or to get extraordinary things done and appear to be essential components of the concept of transformational leadership.

Inspiring a shared vision In inspiring a shared vision, leaders passionately believe that they can make a difference. They visualize the future, creating an ideal and unique image of what the organization can become.

Through their charisma and influence, leaders enlist others in their dreams. They breathe life into their visions, express them in concrete terms, and get people to see exciting possibilities for the future. No matter how much involvement other people will have in shaping the vision, the leader should be able to articulate it clearly and keep the vision focused for organizational effectiveness. Challenging the process In challenging the process, leaders search for opportunities to change the status quo.

They look for innovative ways to improve the organization. They experiment, take risks, and accept disappointments as learning opportunities. They continually search for new opportunities to do what has never been done before. They mobilize others in the face of strong inertia or resistance to make a significant difference and they see opportunity everywhere -- especially in their own people -- and they assign their people wisely to opportunities.

Moreover, in challenging the process, leaders create and manage a multigenerational workforce by mining the wisdom and experience of older employees with the stamina and energy of younger workers, by developing mentoring program, and by enhancing communication and collaboration.

They also encourage their people in continual learning as reading a book or an article, taking a course, attending a seminar, or subscribing to a journal, and hence creating a learning organization Garcia-Morales et al. Modeling the way In modeling the way, leaders establish principles concerning the way organizations should be managed, goals should be pursued, and people should be treated.

Leaders create standards of excellence and then set an example for others to follow. Leaders set the example by behaving in They accomplish this by clarifying their own personal values, by building a professional community of shared values that will enhance the organization s vitality and effectiveness, and by seizing opportunities to teach important lessons to reinforce the organization s values.

They set provisional goals so that people can achieve small wins as they work toward larger objectives. Treasurer reflected on modeling the way and courage as the starting point to a great transformational leadership. The author pointed out that the leadership practice to inform and strengthens all others is modeling the way through courage.

The author believed that courage is the most important human virtue, and is also the most important business virtue as leadership dies in the absence of courage and modeling the way. In other words, courage is important because it makes people feel like they have some measure of control over their surroundings and empowers people to take action and think positively.

Enabling others to act Kouzes and Posner believe that change, turbulence, and ambiguity in the workplace today require more collaboration than ever before.

Indeed, central to leading change is an equally strong emphasis on the importance of building productive work teams and relationships as core leadership activities. In enabling others to act, leaders promote collaboration and build committed teams. They actively involve others and foster mutual respect.

They strengthen others, making each person feel capable and powerful, encouraging the workforce to take ownership of and responsibility for the organization s success. The key to unleashing an organization s potential is to put the power in the hands of the people who perform the work. Thus leaders must trust and respect their constituents, and they must know their people well enough to empower them appropriately.

Additionally to enhance organizational effectiveness, effective leaders provide their workforce with greater decision-making authority and responsibility. They remove or reduce unnecessary approval steps, eliminate as many rules as possible, increase people s flexibility regarding processes, support the exercise of independent judgment, encourage creative solutions to problems, provide the resources necessary for success, and enhance organizational communication.

Many leaders and managers know that there are many benefits and advantages to be gained from empowering individuals and enabling others to act and giving knowledge, information, time, rewards, praise, and power to people as motivating factors. Empowerment is a practice by which leaders and executives share power and help others use it in constructive ways; it entails shared decision making, delegation of authority, stretching the ability of others, creating a climate for risk-taking, providing appropriate resources, assuring clear and open communication, and building committed teams Weiss, Transformational leadership skills can help in empowering team members.

Leaders of school transformation are able to inspire, motivate, support, and empower teams. Engaged and high-performing teams can thrive in a learning organization, where colleagues support each other in learning, risk-taking, innovation, and change Senge, Archived from the original on 9 December Retrieved 12 September Archived from the original on 18 February Retrieved 17 February Retrieved 17 November The Telegraph.

Retrieved 24 November Contemporary Review of the Middle East. Bloomsbury Publishing. Retrieved 14 May Council on Foreign Relations. Archived from the original on 30 May Retrieved 29 July Retrieved 10 January Recep Tayyip Erdogan".

Turkish Embassy. Archived from the original on 5 October The Journal of Turkish Weekly. Archived from the original on 4 October Retrieved 1 July Retrieved 25 August Retrieved 3 June America and the Armenian Genocide of Retrieved 13 March European Voice.

Retrieved 26 January Reporters without Borders. Archived from the original on 15 February Retrieved 15 June Journal of Turkish Weekly. Hristiyan Gazete. Archived from the original on 10 May Retrieved 27 May Canadians for Justice and Peace in the Middle East. March Archived from the original on 24 March Dani Rodrik's weblog Unconventional thoughts on economic development and globalization. Retrieved 2 July Bloomberg L.

Retrieved 10 March Retrieved 5 January Retrieved 5 December Today's Zaman. Archived from the original on 24 December Retrieved 31 July Retrieved 10 December Retrieved 24 June Bugun in Turkish.

Archived from the original on 19 July Archived from the original on 3 December Retrieved 8 March Archived from the original on 8 December ABC News. Retrieved 26 May New England Journal of Medicine. PMID Retrieved 24 October Retrieved 2 December Archived from the original on 22 April Retrieved 4 December Tauris : 32— Archived from the original on 5 November Middle East Voices.

Retrieved 3 November Retrieved 16 April Brisbane Times. Retrieved 3 September Retrieved 23 February Retrieved 8 September The Times of Israel. The Lebanon Daily Star. Agence Presse France.

Die Presse in German. Archived from the original on 21 October The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 18 July Retrieved 15 November FARS News. Archived from the original on 29 March New Europe. Retrieved 14 June Asia Times. Archived from the original on 2 June Retrieved 15 September Retrieved 30 September Yahoo News.

Republic of Turkey Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 28 October Saturday Nation. Archived from the original on 27 October Retrieved 13 August Journal of Global Faultlines. Retrieved 18 September Retrieved 4 June Retrieved 18 June Archived from the original on 12 February Retrieved 26 March Supreme Electoral Council of Turkey. Archived from the original PDF on 4 March Retrieved 23 October Retrieved 6 May Retrieved 19 April Retrieved 6 August The National. Deutsche Welle. SBS News.

Cumhuriyet in Turkish. Archived from the original on 25 November Archived from the original on 1 December Retrieved 6 June Retrieved 23 June The dramatically changing nature of Turkish democracy". The Turkish Sun. Archived from the original on 19 June Retrieved 13 November Retrieved 29 April The Japan Times. Downloaded 19 April Retrieved 19 July Archived from the original on 16 July Retrieved 16 July By Roy Gutman. By Ryan Richardson. By Dexter Filkins. The Nation.

By John Nichols. By Patrick Kingsley. Downloaded 30 April Archived from the original on 22 January Retrieved 22 January University World News Science Magazine. Retrieved 19 January The Independent. Retrieved 20 July Retrieved 13 January Retrieved 17 March The Economist. Retrieved 2 September Neos Kosmos. Retrieved 11 February Retrieved 31 March

  Presentation templates for Prezi

Retrieved 10 March Retrieved 5 January Retrieved 5 December Today's Zaman. Archived from the original on 24 December Retrieved 31 July Retrieved 10 December Retrieved 24 June Bugun in Turkish. Archived from the original on 19 July Archived from the original on 3 December Retrieved 8 March Archived from the original on 8 December ABC News. Retrieved 26 May New England Journal of Medicine.

PMID Retrieved 24 October Retrieved 2 December Archived from the original on 22 April Retrieved 4 December Tauris : 32— Archived from the original on 5 November Middle East Voices. Retrieved 3 November Retrieved 16 April Brisbane Times. Retrieved 3 September Retrieved 23 February Retrieved 8 September The Times of Israel.

The Lebanon Daily Star. Agence Presse France. Die Presse in German. Archived from the original on 21 October The Jerusalem Post.

Retrieved 18 July Retrieved 15 November FARS News. Archived from the original on 29 March New Europe. Retrieved 14 June Asia Times. Archived from the original on 2 June Retrieved 15 September Retrieved 30 September Yahoo News.

Republic of Turkey Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 28 October Saturday Nation. Archived from the original on 27 October Retrieved 13 August Journal of Global Faultlines. Retrieved 18 September Retrieved 4 June Retrieved 18 June Archived from the original on 12 February Retrieved 26 March Supreme Electoral Council of Turkey. Archived from the original PDF on 4 March Retrieved 23 October Retrieved 6 May Retrieved 19 April Retrieved 6 August The National.

Deutsche Welle. SBS News. Cumhuriyet in Turkish. Archived from the original on 25 November Archived from the original on 1 December Retrieved 6 June Retrieved 23 June The dramatically changing nature of Turkish democracy". The Turkish Sun. Archived from the original on 19 June Retrieved 13 November Retrieved 29 April The Japan Times.

Downloaded 19 April Retrieved 19 July Archived from the original on 16 July Retrieved 16 July By Roy Gutman. By Ryan Richardson. By Dexter Filkins. The Nation.

By John Nichols. By Patrick Kingsley. Downloaded 30 April Archived from the original on 22 January Retrieved 22 January University World News Science Magazine. Retrieved 19 January The Independent. Retrieved 20 July Retrieved 13 January Retrieved 17 March The Economist.

Retrieved 2 September Neos Kosmos. Retrieved 11 February Retrieved 31 March Retrieved 30 March Retrieved 28 November Retrieved 29 November Retrieved 25 December Retrieved 27 December Retrieved 30 August Presidency of the Republic of Turkey. Archived from the original on 3 November The Washington Times. Security Council Seat in Huge Upset".

Retrieved 29 December Archived from the original on 6 January The Press Project. Archived from the original on 24 October Yahoo Finance. Los Angeles Times. Al-Ahram Weekly. Hurriyet Daily News. Archived from the original on 7 December VOA News. Washington Post. Retrieved 17 May Defense News. War on the Rocks. The Times of India. Retrieved 20 March Retrieved 2 April Saylorsburg, Pennsylvania. NBC News.

Israel National News. Retrieved 28 October — via www. Retrieved 15 July Foreign Policy. Daily Sabah. Retrieved 22 November Arab News. Anadolu Agency. Financial Times. Taraf Gazetesi. Archived from the original on 8 February Retrieved 2 February Retrieved 24 July Archived from the original on 21 August The Art Newspaper. Retrieved 9 December Huffington Post. Retrieved 22 June The New York Review of Books.

Retrieved 28 January Archived from the original on 2 April Archived from the original on 13 November Anadolu Ajansi in Turkish. Senators urge Kerry to speak against Turkey media crackdown". Al Arabiya. Retrieved 19 March BBC Turkey. Archived from the original on 4 April Retrieved 4 April Retrieved 31 May Merve Buyuksarac, 27, was found guilty of insulting a public official for postings she made on social media. She denied insulting Mr Erdogan France Archived from the original on 1 June The Istanbul court sentenced model Merve Buyuksarac, 27, to one year and two months in prison Bloomberg News.

Retrieved 5 March Retrieved 21 May Archived from the original on 25 June Retrieved 29 June Archived from the original on 21 June Retrieved 19 May The Jamestown Foundation.

Archived from the original on 25 April Retrieved 17 April World Jewish Congress. Resurgent antisemitism global perspectives. Bloomington [u. World Affairs Journal. Jewish Quarterly Review Retrieved 12 August Retrieved 19 June Retrieved 1 June Associated Press of Pakistan.

Archived from the original on 4 March Retrieved 26 October World Bulletin. Correo del Orinoco in Spanish. Retrieved 15 October Washington Report on Middle East Affairs. Academy of Achievement. Archived from the original on 5 December Archived from the original on 27 November Retrieved 5 August Retrieved 15 April Archived from the original on 23 December Retrieved 11 July Retrieved 11 May Retrieved 9 June Retrieved 25 June Archived from the original on 14 March Archived from the original on 15 January Archived from the original on 22 February Archived from the original on 3 May World Health Organization.

World Family Organization. President of the Republic of Kosovo. Retrieved 4 November Archived from the original on 26 November Retrieved 25 November Agence France-Presse. Bolte, M. Bruce, J Desktop virtualization in K- 12 schools. Technical report, Center for Digital Education.

Che, J. Clark, B. N Xen and the art of repeated research. Bioinformatics and Biology Insights. Deshane, T. Fragni, C. Universidade Federal Rio de Janeiro. Goodman, A. Addison-Wesley Longman Publishing Co. Hagstrom, A. US Patent 7,, ACM Commun. Hatzipanagos, S. Joy, A. M Performance comparison between Linux containers and virtual machines. Kind, T. Journal of Cheminformatics. In Proceedings of the Linux symposium. Kolyshkin, K Virtualization in Linux. White paper, OpenVZ. Liu, D. Muller, A.

Nauczycielski, W Desktop virtualization as a modern solution in education. Nerantzi, C A case of problem-based learning for cross-institutional collaboration.

Technical report, Open Grid Forum. Pearce, N. Education, Ragan-Kelley, M. Resnick, M. Linux Journal. Seo, K. Advanced Science and Technology Letters. Soares Boaventura, R. Shen, Helen Interactive notebooks: sharing the code.

Nature : Tuomas, V Advantages of Docker. Le document au XXI-ieme siecle, 39, Technical report, VMware. Zancanaro, A.

In higher education, mobile devices, as represented by smart phones and tabs, are increasingly proving to be quite powerful in learning storytelling techniques across media platforms. This article draws on a pilot project involving a survey of broadcast journalism and mass communication students at the American University of Sharjah, United Arab Emirates in which ipads and smart phones were used to generate video stories as course assignments.

Third-generation mobile devices deliver HD resolution videos; provide extreme mobility in information gathering, enabling image, sound and video editing and making possible sharing of content possible among users. Twenty one video assignments range from news reports and features to documentaries and drama works were produced by students taking courses in both MCMC Broadcast Journalism and MCM Principles of Media Production and Performance.

A survey of students involved in the project reveals they were highly passionate about doing their video storytelling assignment on ipads and smart phones as compared with traditional audio-visual capturing tools. The authors see a huge potential for mobile devices as credible media gathering tools in the emerging real-world journalistic practices: they are less intrusive and carry greater multimedia and networking capacities when compared to traditional cameras.

On the other hand, the project analysis shows numerous challenges facing new mobile digital storytellers like public uncertainties of mobile devices as compelling information gathering tools and lacking appropriate accessories that could enable competitive performance.

Keywords: Mobile Devices, Journalism, Digital Storytelling, Video News Gathering, ipads, Digital Platforms, Multimedia Journalism Digital Storytelling: A New Frontier in Journalism The term digital storytelling has come to describe both telling stories on digital platforms and more recently with the latest advances in mobile technologiesusing technologies like mobile phones and tablets to tell stories and report the news.

Journalists are increasingly turning to mobile devices that give them greater freedom to shoot anytime, anywhere and publish right from the field, thus ensuring freshness in news outputs and efficiency in journalistic performance.

In effect, mobile journalism denotes more than just harnessing technologies to tell news stories on digital platforms; it actually heralds a new era in how news is collected, formulated, distributed and subsequently consumed. This new era requires new business models, new competencies for journalism and new formulas to create an implicit audience contract drawing on maximized digital platform potential to sustain news consumption.

The BBC has been playing a leading role in experimenting with the use of mobile phones for journalist by initiating a digital storytelling project that relied heavily on the latest technologies to tell stories and distribute digital content Meadows and Kidd ; Matheson This experimentation has drawn more on the publishing end rather than on other facets of the digital production process.

Kelly notes this this is slowly changing broadcast practices as the BBC and other news broadcasters take a leading role in the use of mobiles content. Citizen journalists not associated with formal media institutions, have even taken bolder steps by creating key marquee shows entirely using mobile phones albeit only as an experiment where they shoot a full episode of the technology show Click using an iphone Kelly In social historical terms, the term digital storytelling has its origins in grass-root movements that used digital platforms to let their message heard where traditional media were not available Salazar The term was further polished and adapted by Dana Atchley and Joe Lambert Lambert , , , as a form of telling micro stories on digital platforms.

Those initial origins of digital storytelling in grass roots movements and its subsequent adaptation by citizen journalists had conjured up images of digital journalism as supplementary forms of traditional news distribution networks, thus creating a divide between what constitutes digital journalism and what has been termed as legacy news outlets.

Major news publishers were initially resistant to using digital platforms as a distribution method because they associated it with activism and citizen journalism, seeing it as a disruption to their business model. This attitude quickly changed when it became clear that this new model of digital distribution was going to have a big impact on the way we consume the news, so that traditional media had either to adapt or perish. At the same time, multimedia journalism was a new term that began to circulate in literature and often referenced as the future of journalism Paul By the second half of the decade, all major news organizations reluctantly and somewhat hastily started launching their digital platforms without a clear understanding of their functions and more importantly without having the skills to create professional content for emerging consumers with different expectations.

Nowadays, the landscape has changed dramatically with the advancement of mobile phones and tablets. Digital storytelling has become a more integrated component of journalist daily assignments as mobile journalism embrace not only citizen journalists, but also professional communicators as well Mills et al As a result of these rapid technological developments in mobile multimedia communications, digital storytelling has turned into powerful tools in the hands of well-trained journalists.

However, it should be noted that mobile journalism also brings with it a new set of challenges for individual and institutional communicators.

Immediacy, as a key feature of new mobile journalism, raises critical issues pertaining to accuracy of content being delivered to audiences on a live basis. Lack of ability to verify news accuracy would have a diminishing effect on news credibility among consumers. To better address this issue, it is imperative that journalists are trained to thoroughly research and plan stories well as they work on their content for distribution George-Palilonis , Francis The rising popularity of digital storytelling by professional journalist makes it The key idea here is that by applying the technology to tell a good story, communicators need also to understand the implications of this new method on the form and structure of news content as defined by story composition and distribution technologies Mclellan ; Dreher ; Hull Early deployment of mobile devices in media training programs goes to back to , as students were assigned to use mobile phones to report news.

But those experiments were seen as not fully effective with students using less powerful devices like Nokia N mobile phones whose outputs were far lower than those common in the professional industry Mills et al With the rise of new generations of mobile devices equipped with high definition video capabilities, powerful processors and innovative video editing and sharing applications like those manufactured by Apple, Samsung and HCT, the prospects of bringing media training into greater alignment with industry standards seem greater than ever before.

The future of mobile journalism, to a large extent, seems to heavily depend on the design of professional media education programs that enable students only to master the technical features of mobile devices, but also to tell compelling stories to a visually oriented diverse audience.

Study Methodology A questionnaire incorporating quantitative and qualitative items was distributed to 30 students enrolled in two media courses at the Department of Mass Communication; American University of Sharjah was distributed to explore their perceptions of the use of mobile devices as video news gathering and production tools.

The quantitative part of the questionnaire requested respondents to select their evaluation of statements on a five-point index highly agree, agree, neutral, disagree and highly disagree.

Choices were allocated points as follows: highly agree 5 ; agree 4 ; neutral 3 ; disagree 2 and highly disagree 1. An accumulative index score has been generated for each item in addition to a grand total for all answers. The objective here is to test students perceptions of the use of mobile devices as video newsgathering, editing and sharing tools as ranging from favorable to unfavorable perceptions. In operational terms, scores above 3 are viewed as favorable while those below 3 are seen as unfavorable.

On the other hand, open questions aim at generating students qualitative feedback to the project that could be used to supplement quantitative findings. Students were provided with IPadcompatible microphones and tripods to carry out their video assignments in addition to having access to social media apps like Facebook, Twitter, YouTube and WhatsApp. In some cases where more advanced editing was required, computerbased post-production was carried out to add some touches to the mobile-device produced projects.

The final projects were exported and published on the e-life channel owned and operated by the UAE telecommunications company, Etisalat. Those videos are accessible to over , cable subscribers to that channel.

Table 2 shows students responses were generally favorable of the use of mobile devices for video news production and sharing. The index score for the statement on whether the mobile journalism course made students thinks highly of mobile devices as viable video gathering tools was 4.

Students perceptions of mobile devices as less intrusive than conventional video capturing systems generated a score of 4. The mobility feature of smart phones and tabs received the highest score on the perceptions index 4.

A similar score 4. Students seemed less certain about the quality of video captured by mobile devices when compared to professional video cameras, generating a score of 3. This, of course, is true when new 4k and 8k standards are considered. However, it is established that new mobile devices do produce HD-quality videos and the most recent ones are coming to meet the new 4k standards. Students cited features like fast and accurate reporting, greater sense of reality, device mobility and ease of use, lack of intrusiveness, convergence of media, connectivity, "flexibility, mobility, fast editing, efficiency in collecting material.

Some students noted very good quality, especially in new phones such as IPhone 6 and ease of sharing with different platforms - no need to transfer to a computer first like with traditional cameras". Others thought it is more convenient, requiring no big tripod and camera.

When you record with a mobile phone, no one knows you're recording for a purpose people won't gather around you too , one student noted. From a professional point of view, the main challenges associated with deploying mobile devices in professional journalism work included the need for different accessories, slow internet that hampers fast sharing of images and videos, lack of awareness of the IPad s professional potential on the part of users, and underdeveloped apps.

Also, editing is more difficult and tedious in the phone. Another said, The best quality produced from a camera is incomparable to the best quality on a mobile phone.

Sometimes, recordings are not professional on a mobile phone. If I want to record my voice, I need to make sure the surrounding is perfect for a good quality. But if I use a microphone, good quality is somewhat guaranteed. Maybe there's too much in quantity but not good quality. Another student remarks, Everyone has a mobile phone, and is producing too much.

It s always changing. Apps on mobile phones keep changing, and sometimes it could be inconvenient. It may seem a little unreliable. Because everyone can use mobile phones to share stories, it may seem unprofessional for professional journalists to use a consumer device such as the mobile.

One student noted, I think it should be used because it's definitely more convenient and can be useful. I think students should be taught both, the traditional way and the mobile phone way, while another said, It should because it s easier and can make the work more efficient.

One student said mobile devices should be used because they are a great alternative when a proper camera is not available. They shouldn't be used because any journalism student should be properly acquainted with video cameras and the basic aspects of traditional journalism.

It makes it easier for the journalist to take out the device in a matter of seconds, without the need to prepare, and start filming. One student noted, "Why it should? Why it shouldn't? It may seem unprofessional or even more intrusive than traditional journalism tools, because everyone has a mobile phone and it may seem more untrustworthy for the professional journalist to have commonly used tool for the job.

They shouldn't be used because in a way this gives the green light to anyone to become a journalist or professional storyteller. Another remarked, I think it should be used because it's definitely more convenient and can be useful. I think students should be taught both, the traditional way and the mobile phone way. Discussion The findings show that students were clearly engaging with mobile devices as newsgathering, editing and distribution tools.

They seem rather happy with the convenience those devices provide for them in capturing, editing and sharing videos. They also see mobile journalism as defining the future of journalism around the world with media industries going through digital transitions into multiplatform models of news production and distribution. The use of those devices to shoot video, record interviews, edit those videos using editing apps and then publishing and sharing them on social media platforms suggests the potential power of those devices to generate compelling storytelling outputs.

Though mobile devices were not equipped with professional lens systems, they proved quite effective in capturing high-quality video and audio using special external microphones and the device s internal camera.

During the screenings of the projects, students seemed rather happy about the mobility features of the devices, which they thought, made their assignment easier than using traditional cameras. There were some issues with initial assignments in audio, but they were later fixed with guidance from the course instructors and technical assistants. The quality of all items submitted as Broadcast Journalism assignments were generally good and complied with the broadcast standards of the Etisalat e-life channel.

The editing software also had some problems at the beginning of the project as students had the choice of using imovie, Splice or Pinnacle Studio Apps on Ipads. Though those apps were quite basic in some of their functions, they provided acceptable visual story sequences with impressive effects. Students who wanted to add more advanced effects on their videos were given the choice of running them on more advanced editing software packages such as Corel Video Studio, Adobe Premier or Adobe Aftereffects.

Since all videos were exported in MPEG4 formats, there were no issues with compatibility across different editing packages. This case study shows high students passion for using mobile devices as storytelling tools. The study noted students views of mobile devices as carrying good promise for professional journalism in the video area. They seem to highly think of IPads features like high-definition videos, multimedia capacities, mobility and ability for immediate online publishing. They also seem to think highly of mobile devices as less intrusive than traditional video cameras when they are deployed in professional work contexts.

They also see a good promise in mobile devices ability to tell video stories in more compelling ways due to the convenience of usage and the mobility in deployment. A majority of students believe mobile devices should be introduced to the classroom for teaching storytelling courses in order to prepare students for potential careers as mobile journalists.

Many of the students thought mobile devices are user friendly when it comes to their use as newsgathering, production and sharing devices. A majority of them also sees the future of journalism online and as such, mobile devices would be perfect tools for supplying content and sharing it online with audiences around the world. They also seem enthusiastic about seeing professional media organizations like television channels harness mobile devices in their electronic field gathering activities.

On the other hand, students seemed cognizant of the shortcomings of using They referred to underdeveloped culture in the community about using a device originally designed for personal use in a professional assignment. Many of the respondents thought also that the mobile device industries do not seem to be keeping professional practices in mind with more attention focused on consumer usages of those products. The lack of applications relevant to professional digital storytelling seems to have been a major issue in mobile journalism with some students calling for mobile device manufacturers to produce professional as versus consumer editions of their devices.

A more professional version of the mobile device would have better lens systems and more powerful editing apps in addition to other enabling accessories like tripods, microphones and lights.

Conclusion The case study shows mobile devices holding good promises for professional journalism work in the future. Students were able to gather good audio-video using mobile devices to tell compelling stories about education, art, culture and heritage. The multimedia nature of the devices coupled with mobility, editing and sharing features have all combined to make those devices quite attractive for students to tell visual stories of different kinds.

However, the pilot project has also revealed some challenges to be addressed. The first challenge relates to the dominant culture in the journalism profession and the community at large that sees mobile devices as consumer oriented that should not be deployed in professional contexts.

In the age of citizen journalism and online media, this claim seems to be quite untenable given the convenience of using those devices in digital space. New mobile video devices compared with traditional video gathering devices, are able to make the transition into digital online communications the most plausible. Another challenge relates to the technical capabilities of those devices, it has been noted that mobile devices, while being able to deliver HD quality video and highresolution images, need further enhancements in their stability, lens systems, audio recording and video editing features.

Since those devices draw on applications to do some of those functions, it is also the responsibility of developers to consider this issue in their work. One possible area of development relates to the manufacturing of more professional devices as different from the consumer editions to embrace larger storage capacities, faster processing, and better networked sharing of files, more advanced editing apps and more efficient audio and video recording systems.

The recent introduction of iographer case that could enable more stable video shooting and better audio-video capturing is a step in this direction. Digital storytelling and authoring identity. Cynthia Carter Ching and Brian Foley, eds. A partial promise of voice: Digital storytelling and the limit of listening. Francis, D. What's the Plan? Teaching Digital Storytelling as a Project Process. Garnham, N. Constrains on Multimedia Convergence, in: William H.

Dutton Ed. The multimedia journalist: Storytelling for today s media landscape. Hall, J. Online Journalism: a critical primer, London: Pluto Press. Heinonen, A. Huang, E.

Davison, S. Shreve, T. Davis, E. Bettendorf, and A. Shreve, D. Twila, A. Nair, E. Bettendorf, K. Davison and A. Hull, G. At last: Youth culture and digital media: New literacies for new times. Research in the Teaching of English, Jankowski, N. Selm, Martine Digital storytelling: Capturing lives, creating community. Lambert, J. Digital storytelling: Capturing lives, creating community 4th ed. New York: Routledge. Digital Storytelling. Mark, D. What is Multimedia Journalism?

Digital Journalism, 2 4 , Mclellan, Hilary. Digital Storytelling in Higher Education. Digital storytelling: Research-based practice in new media. Visual Communication, 2: Mills, J. Egglestone, O. Rashid, and H. Continuum Downloaded on October 1, at: A quasiexperimental non-equivalent comparisongroup design was used in this study to determine quantitatively whether, or not, the flipped classroom strategy influenced high school student achievement and motivation for learning Algebra II at the secondary level in a proprietary school offering a US curriculum, established in Dubai in the United Arab Emirates.

The sample in this study consisted of four groups as the school segregates gender of about 74 eleventh graders. Two groups of male and female students received the treatment to model the flipped classroom. The other groups of male and female students served as the comparison group and studied in a traditional classroom.

Students in all four groups were taught by the same teacher and were given the same lessons, worksheets, exercises, and assessment. What differed was the flipped classroom learning approach with the treatment group. The findings revealed a statistically significant difference in student achievement but no significant difference in the motivation for learning between students who learned in a flipped classroom and students who learned in a traditional classroom.

Keywords: Flipped classroom, technology integration in secondary education, student achievement, student motivation, United Arab Emirates. Accordingly, leaders in states and districts set forth procedures to improve the thoroughness of math curricula both in the middle and high schools Finkelstein et al.

Despite these efforts, many students are still failing Algebra. An innovative approach that builds on blended learning a combination of e-learning and face-to-face instruction , known as the flipped classroom, is spreading in schools. Many This poor achievement had been revealed in when, for the first time, Dubai participated in the international Trends in International Mathematics and Science Studies TIMSS , a worldwide assessment evaluating students performance in mathematics and science.

The results of the TIMSS indicated that fourth graders and eighth graders students in Dubai did not meet the international average in science or mathematics. Consequently, identifying a continuous need for improvement, the UAE leaders are instigating and monitoring high quality education standards by starting new policies, programs, and initiatives. Purpose of the Study The purpose of this study was to explore the influence of the flipped classroom as a learning model on high school student achievement and motivation for learning Algebra II at the secondary level in a proprietary school based in Dubai in the United Arab Emirates.

At this school, students in the Algebra II class have been struggling with the curriculum and many were not able to succeed the course with a sufficient grade for admission to American universities. Research Questions Q1. Is there a significant difference in student achievement between eleventh grade students learning Algebra II in a flipped classroom and eleventh grade students learning Algebra II in a traditional classroom?

Is there a significant difference in the motivation for learning Algebra II score between eleventh grade students learning Algebra II in a flipped classroom and eleventh grade students learning Algebra II in a traditional classroom? Significance of the Study Many schools are expressing interest in the flipped classroom but few studies demonstrated a possible influence of this innovative method on student achievement and motivation for learning in high schools.

The aim of the study was to understand whether or not the flipped classroom, as an instructional innovation using technology in mathematics learning, can raise student achievement and increase student The study added empirical evidence to the literature on the teaching and learning of mathematics, specifically Algebra. Literature Review Students Low Achievement in Mathematics The problem of low mathematics achievement is perceived in the United Arab Emirates where this study is based.

In some tertiary institutions, United Arab Emirates students are required to attend a one-year foundation program that includes mathematics to have access to higher education at a variety of government and private institutions. The annual report released from the Knowledge Human Development Authority KHDA , the equivalent of the ministry of education in Dubai, revealed that students investigative skills in mathematics are insufficiently developed KHDA, To address this problem, teachers in most countries are changing their instructional strategies and changing their classroom from teacher-centered to learnercentered.

Kates and her colleagues used a learning strategy that integrates technology, Power of 3 Discussion Starter Technique, in three graduate classes. Hence students are no longer passive but instead take the role of the teacher.

The findings of the survey conducted among the participants showed that students were strongly motivated to learn through this digital technique. One can conclude that suitable technology applications or the appropriate technologyenhanced instructional approach as the flipped classroom can have a possible impact on students achievements in all subjects and more precisely on students low achievement in mathematics. Effects of Technology on Student Outcomes in Mathematics Technology implementation has deeply changed the pedagogical practices of the classroom.

Today s learners often described as digital natives or the Net Generation, grew up with technology. The majority of these students spend most of their time using computers, smart phones, and other digital media. Consequently, to motivate students for learning, leaders in education have stressed the importance of technology integration from kindergarten to grade 12 classrooms Kates et al. The Flipped Classroom The flipped classroom also known as the inverted classroom and reverse instruction Fundamentally, it means exchanging what is traditionally done in class and at home: Lessons that would have been covered by lecture in class are covered by videos at home and problems that would have been given as homework are done in class with the teacher there to support and guide Hung, ; Strayer, ; Touchstone, Many schools, private and public, are expressing interest in blended learning and the methodology of flipping the classroom is spreading.

It is clear that motivation to improve, to achieve better, and to succeed will stimulate students to work hard. Indeed, the results of many studies have indicated that motivation is the only factor that is directly related to academic performance Griffin et al. Research Method The study employed a pre-test and post-test comparison group design and was conducted during the first trimester of the academic year. The pre-test scores were used to establish that the groups were equivalent and the post-test scores were analyzed to identify significant differences.

The participants in the study were 39 male students, 16 or 17 years old, from two different sections of the Algebra II course and 35 female students, 16 or 17 years old, from two different sections of the Algebra II course. The dependent variables were student achievement and the motivation for learning Algebra II scores.

Both male and female groups were measured on the dependent variables mutually before and after the treatment of the independent variable, the reverse instruction intervention that models the flipped classroom.

The impact of the flipped classroom on student achievement and motivation for learning was identified by comparing the post-test scores and the post-questionnaire scores across the groups of students who learned in the flipped classroom and students who learned the traditional way.

Research Methods and Design A quasi-experimental non-equivalent pretest and post-test comparison-group design was used in this study to determine quantitatively the influence of the flipped classroom approach on high school student achievement and motivation for learning Algebra II at the secondary level.

The independent variable was the reverse instruction intervention, characteristic of the flipped classroom, and the dependent variables were: the student achievement and students motivation for learning Algebra II.

Four groups of students two male groups and two female groups took the Algebra II pre-test and the post-test, but only two groups one male group and one female group received the intervention of the reverse instruction characteristic to the flipped classroom. The same teacher taught Algebra II to the four groups of students. The first research question was answered by administering the Algebra II post-test instrument developed by Dalton and her The analysis of ANOVA was used to determine levels of motivation across the eleventh grade students who learned Algebra II in a flipped classroom and the eleventh grade students who learned Algebra II in the traditional classroom.

Sample The sample in this study consisted of 74 eleventh grade students. The selected school segregates gender. There were 39 male students, 16 or 17 years old and 35 female students, 16 or 17 years old, enrolled in two sections of the Algebra II course in the girls secondary division of the school.

Two groups of male and female students received the treatment, the reverse instruction to model the flipped classroom, and the other groups of male and female students served as the comparison group as they were studying in a traditional classroom.

All four groups were measured on the dependent variables using: pre-treatment scores, posttreatment scores, and their motivation for learning Algebra II scores before and after the implementation of the flipped classroom strategy.

Normality of data distribution on the pre-test and post-test scores was tested using the Shapiro-Wilk test and findings indicated that the assumption of a normality of data distribution was met table 1. The significant values on the Shapiro-Wilk test of the pre-mslq and post-mslq scores for the comparison and the treatment groups were greater than.

The mean scores of the pre-mslq between the groups were tested for equivalency using one way ANOVA across the four groups. Studies focusing on the flipped classroom at the secondary level are few.

Hence, the results of this study seem to confirm that the These results add to the little quantitative, empirical results of the effect of the flipped classroom on students' achievement in mathematics at the secondary level in the United Arab Emirates. Student motivation for learning Algebra II: The results of the study were not consistent with current studies that focused on the influence of the flipped classroom on student motivation.

Such studies showed that students who were exposed to the flipped teaching were engaged in deep learning and were more motivated than students in the traditional classroom Davies et al.

The results of this study, nonetheless, agreed with the findings of other current studies in the literature Lane-Kelso, ; Strayer, The study of Strayer conducted at Midwestern Christian Liberal Arts University showed that students enrolled in Introduction to Statistics course in a flipped classroom approach were not much motivated with the way the format of the classroom guided their learning in the course.

These results add to the few quantitative, empirical results of the effect of the flipped classroom on students' motivation for learning mathematics at the secondary level in the United Arab Emirates. Implications, Recommendations, and Conclusions This study explored the innovative practice of the flipped classroom in order to acquire more understanding into its efficacy in improving student achievement and student motivation for learning. Implications This study was an examination of the influence of the flipped classroom as a learning model on high school student achievement and motivation for learning Algebra II at the secondary level in an urban proprietary school based in Dubai.

The findings gathered from this study may be useful to address one of the targets of the National Agenda launched by the ruler of Dubai: Students in Dubai should be classified among the best in the world in reading, science, and mathematics examinations United Arab Emirates The Cabinet, In this section, the implications of the results from this study are presented.

This study demonstrated that there was a significant increase in academic performance score for those students who learned in a flipped Algebra II classroom. These findings have significant implications in educational practices and mathematics achievement as they address one of the UAE National Agenda educational targets: Students in Dubai should have high mathematics achievement in TIMSS and hence the importance of identifying innovative instructional approach that can improve students' performances.

The results of this study implicate that the flipped classroom is an educational practice that can address mathematics learning gaps at the secondary level. This suggests that the flipped classroom approach may be effective in improving student achievement in Algebra II especially in schools where students have low mathematics achievement and hence are not able to succeed with a sufficient grade for admission to universities.

The findings of this study also suggest that teachers may find better student outcomes when using class time for active and cooperative inquiry-based learning when implementing the flipped classroom.

This implication may require schools leaders to create conditions that promote and enhance learning for students, teachers, as well as administrators and transform schools into learning organizations. The implication of such findings means that the impact of the flipped classroom at the secondary level may influence positively student motivation for learning if the model was implemented for a longer period than one trimester or twelve weeks.

The findings of the study may also imply that new pedagogical approaches for teaching mathematics that engage and motivate students are needed, since both groups treatment and comparison had moderate scores in motivation out of and out of Recommendations The study results and the implication of the findings support the recommendations for pedagogical practices, professional development, and future research.

These are presented in the following sections. Recommendations for pedagogical practices: With significant evidence from the research findings of what has been demonstrated to be effective, it is strongly recommended that the school leadership encourages the use of the flipped classroom in the mathematics classes, while collecting evidence of effect, and then expanding the flipped approach to other subject areas throughout the secondary level.

A third recommendation is for teachers to involve students in structuring and planning the flipped classroom approach to enhance student motivation. Teachers may ask students what they enjoy doing, what reinforces their learning, and what do they remember the most after class. Recommendations for professional development: It is recommended that the school leadership team provides and organizes professional development training for teachers to prepare them for implementing the flipped classroom effectively.

These training sessions may consist of: effective ways to conduct learner-centered constructivist classrooms, finding or recording videos for students to watch at home, planning successfully the flipped classroom setting, giving immediate feedback to students, enhancing the interaction between the teacher and students, providing structure and explaining clearly to students the tasks and activities to be solved and analyzed, and checking that learning is happening.

Additionally, it is recommended that principals create an environment, for teachers as well as for students, that encourages taking risks without the dread of failing or making mistakes to build a learning organization.

Principals are recommended to create a teacher exchange program across schools, regions, and countries where innovative practices are successfully used; create study groups within the school to encourage professional dialogue on new teaching approaches and issues; encourage collegial learning; and help teachers locate local or online resources that would support the flipped classroom approach.

It is recommended also that teachers read professional material, attend classes, enroll in online courses, attend specialized conferences on innovating learning or flipped classroom, team teaching with a seasoned flipped classroom teacher, and reflect on objectives they need to understand to change their role from the sage to the guide. Recommendations for future research: It is essential to recognize that the impact of the flipped classroom approach might not be effective at all levels of education elementary, secondary, graduate, and postgraduate and with all subjects English, mathematics, physics, sciences, as studies in the literature show contradictory findings on the influence of the flipped classroom on student achievement and student motivation for learning.

Additionally, some teachers might not succeed with the flipped classroom model and some students may resist the model as they may prefer direct traditional instructional approaches. Hence, it is recommended to conduct quantitative as well as qualitative research in different populations, different geographic locations, and across curriculum in order to determine where the flipped classroom model is most effective in promoting student achievement and student motivation for learning.

The qualitative data from students may present a diversity of students perceptions and feedback towards the flipped classroom and would benefit the knowledge base in educational practices to enhance students motivation for learning as students may be a good source of information regarding the best ways to use in structuring and implementing the flipped classroom.

Such research would add value to the literature because of a build-up of findings from different contexts as the construction and implementation of the flipped classroom may vary across populations, curriculum, and grade levels.

The effect of simulation-games environment on students achievement in and attitudes to mathematics in secondary schools. Enhancing student learning and achievement via a direct instruction-based ICT integrated in a Kuwaiti 12th-grade secondary school math curriculum.

International Journal of Learning, 18 9 , Brunsell, E. Flipping your classroom in one "take. Cambria, J. Motivating and engaging students in reading. Measuring learning in algebra 2 classrooms. Flipping the classroom and instructional technology integration in a college-level information systems spreadsheet course. How math course sequences matter. ERIC No. Performance and perception in the flipped learning model: An initial approach to evaluate the effectiveness of a new teaching methodology in a general science classroom.

Do learning and study skills affect academic performance? An empirical investigation. Contemporary Issues in Education Research, 5 2 , Griffin R.

A study of aspects of learning skills and motivation: Correlates to superior academic performance. Using dynamic geometry software to improve eight grade students' understanding of transformation geometry.

Case studies and the flipped classroom. Flipping the classroom for English language learners to foster active learning. DSIB annual report Retrieved from tions.

Inspecting for school improvement: key findings. A collaborative journey. Retrieved from The pedagogy of flipped instruction in Oman. Techtalk: The community of inquiry model for an flipped developmental math classroom.

Journal of Developmental Education, 34 2 , Milner, A. Elementary science students' motivation and learning strategy use: Constructivist classroom contextual factors in a life science laboratory and a traditional classroom. Vodcasts and active-learning exercises in a "flipped classroom" model of a renal pharmacotherapy module.

American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 76 10 , Pintrich, P. Schmidt, K. Introducing a computer algebra system in mathematics education -- Empirical evidence from Germany. Activelearning versus teacher-centered instruction for learning acids and bases. How learning in an flipped classroom influences cooperation, innovation and task orientation. Mathematics achievement. Flipping the classroom and student performance in advanced statistics: Evidence from a quasiexperiment. Teacher and child variables as predictors of academic engagement among low-income African American children.

National Agenda. Change is in our inner biological environment, in the physical environment, in political and socioeconomic settings, and in society and all its organizations. Significant change occurs within organizations and schools. Schools might change their overall strategy for improvement, add or remove a major division or practice, or want to change the very nature of their operation.

To lead schools and organizations effectively leaders should have a deep understanding of organizations and reframe them in order to adapt them better to current business realities. The attention is typically directed towards leaders within the organization for successful improvement.

As schools continue to move into different phases of educational reform, one factor that is consistent is the need for effective education leadership. Educational reform requires leaders to not only update their skills and knowledge but also to totally transform their roles as educators. To lead change effectively leaders should have a deep understanding of schools and restructure them in order to better adapt them to current pedagogical approaches.

Moreover, effective leaders of today s schools are strongly encouraged to be visionaries, articulate a set of core values that guide their own behavior, possess exceptional cognitive skills, empower the workforce, believe in people, and mostly build learning organizations. Leading education reform and building learning organization, however, is not without challenges. Leaders need to adopt ways to involve all staff in the reform process and reduce resistance to change.

This paper highlights the importance of transformational leadership to manage and lead education reform as well as ways to enhance leadership skills by applying the four-frame model of Bolman and Deal and the five practices of exemplary leadership developed by Kouzes and Posner Keywords: Transformational leadership, reframing organizations, organization learning, education reform, practices of exemplary leadership.

Change Overview Change is not entirely predictable. In his book Leading in a Culture of Change, Fullan advised that understanding the change process is less about innovation and more about innovativeness.

It is less about strategy and more about strategizing. And it is rocket science, not least because we are inundated with complex, unclear, and often contradictory advice p.

Given the complexity of change management, it is no wonder that addressing change processes may become a concern or an issue for leaders in organizational development. There is no one solution to lead change; however understanding certain strategies to address change may make change more effective. Fullan noted that change cannot be managed. It can be understood and perhaps led but it cannot be controlled. Change can be led, and leadership does make a difference pp. Leading organizational change and education reform involves reframing organizations and leadership and practicing effective leadership.

These images result from their synthesis about integrating the major traditions in organizational theory into four distinct areas: 1 theories about structuring organizations, 2 human resource-related issues, 3 political dynamics, and 4 symbolic concerns. Each of the four areas the authors call them frames has its own view, its own points of focus, fundamental assumptions, and logic of the organizational setting.

Analyzing the four different organizational frames -- structural, human resources, political, and symbolic -- can help leaders identify, understand, and solve potential problems when leading change in their organization or education reform in schools. The structural frame, with its image of organization as machine, views organizations as rational systems. It reinforces the importance of designing structural forms that align with an organization s goals, mission, technology, and environment.

Differentiation of work roles and tasks provides for clarity of purpose, but leads to the need for appropriate coordination. The human resource frame, with its image of organization as family, captures the symbiotic relationship between individuals and organizations: Individuals need opportunities to express their talents and skills, organizations need human energy and contribution to fuel their efforts.

When the fit is right, both benefit and productivity is high because people will feel motivated to bring the best to their work. The political frame sees an organization as a jungle, an arena of enduring differences, scarce resources, and the unavoidability of power and conflict. Diversity in values, beliefs, interests, behaviors, skills, and world views are enduring and inevitable organizational realities.

They are often toxic, but can also be a source of creativity and innovation when recognized and effectively managed. Finally, the theatre image of the symbolic frame captures organizational life as an ongoing drama: Individuals coming together to create context, culture, and meaning as they play their assigned roles and bring artistry and self-expression into their work. Organizations that attend to the symbolic issues surrounding their own theatre of work infuse everyday efforts with creativity, energy, and soul.