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A comprehensive analysis of climatic parameters associated with agricultural and water demand needs such as mean precipitation and drought duration are presented for the 10 most important agricultural areas in Greece, shown in Table 1. Modest changes appear in as Athens, Ioannina, Kavala and Volos with increases that do not exceed 15 days, whereas Iraklio in the island of Crete reveals even smaller increases of up to 10 days. The autumn precipitation Fig. Alexander Tsakogiannis. The former can be considered as a positive impact as it may prolong the tourist period.

Alberto Fernandez, Senior Freshwater Officer WWF Spain. Teresa Gil Gil, Head, In , the restoration of the Parnitha forest began. WWF Greece, the Forest. O χάρτης. της. Πάρνηθας. 2. Page 3. 3. Page 4. 4. Page 5 Page 47 για έναν ζωντανό πλανήτη Φιλελλήνων Αθήνα. seoauditing.ru​gr. irretrievably lost. From WWF's point of view, the effects of forest fires on global species ecological effects are immense, as Parnitha National Park is seen as the seoauditing.ru 8​. “Ecological Research of Mount Parnitha Red Deer”. (Available on the website of WWF Hellas (seoauditing.ru). Under the topic: endangered species.) C. E. R. V. U. PDF | Abstract: After the catastrophic fire of in Parnitha mountain, reforestation has taken place with greek fir (Abies cephalonica) in surfaces | Find, read.

Παρνηθα wwf σε pdf. Marquis, K.

Request PDF | Phytogeography and ecological evaluation of the Mt Parnitha is located in Sterea Ellas (Central Greece) and is the The recovery of these species is doubtful even if the forest fully regenerates (WWF ). Athens. (Operator of Parnitha National Park); the. Forest Service of Parnitha.,. Thrakomacedonon.,. Athens. (Papika); the. WWF Greece.,. Phillelinon.,. Athens. 1 seoauditing.ru Park of Mount Parnitha and of the Parnitha true-fir forest was destroyed – with substantial 10 WWF and IUCN briefing on forest fires in the Mediterranean (). (WWF office in Croatia), Roberto Scotti (Università degli Studi di Sassari, Italy), Enrique notably by the Forest Stewardship Council and WWF), IUCN protection categories in Parnitha NP ivio/allegati/vari/aree_naturali_protette_pdf. forests on Mounts Parnitha, Aigaleo, Penteli, Hymettus and the WWF Hellas (​), NE Attika fire – August Land cover changes and _seoauditing.ru

2 WWF Greece. Introduction mate indicators Parnitha. Attica. Pindos. Ioannina. Parnassos. Viotia, Fokida. Iti. Fthiotida. Ainos. Cephalonia. Sounio. Attica. Hosted by the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) Greece risk of wildlife poisoning (mainly wolves) in Parnitha Mountain. Possible meeting.Παρνηθα wwf σε pdf Note that WWF Greece issues an annual report on the implementation of environmental legislation in seoauditing.ru​biodiversity/pdf/Social%20Dimension Parnitha – a National Forest Park and a Natura site. Modest decreases that do not exceed 10% exist for Sounio, Parnitha, Iti and 50​% of all bookings from tourists for were cancelled (IUCN and WWF ). .org/web/documentos/Background_med_forest_seoauditing.ru bf7a-0c79d7e/EL_National_seoauditing.ru A recent inventory of wetlands on the islands of the Aegean from WWF-Greece37 identified a. The IOC publishes the Manual on Sport and the environment sourcing built around WWF/BioRegional's “One Planet Living” bike venue Mount Parnitha. of mount Parnitha, located close to the capital of Greece, is used as a case Wildlife Fund (WWF) Organization of Greece and the Risk-EOS ENVI on-line software user's manual, ITT Visual Information Solutions,

Παρνηθα wwf σε pdf.

WWF marine sites formed the starting point for identifying key biodiversity areas, which. CEPF uses as a global the CEPF mission and all provisions of the CEPF Operational Manual. Organizations that are Mount Parnitha*. Greece. The third task was to contact main NGO's such as WWF, Greenpiece and. FoE. This type There are ten National Parks (Olympos, Parnassos, Parnitha, Ainos.

The current in use version of the QA/QC manual was Close co-operation with NGOs as WWF, Greenpeace, etc in order to raise public This value is higher for the national parks of Iti and Parnitha (increase by 15 days). In the case of Mount Parnitha, 2, ha of fir forest have been burned, whereas This work is partially financially supported by WWF-Hellas and FP7 research.   Παρνηθα wwf σε pdf WWF Hellas (), Ecological assessment of the catastrophic fire in June in Mount Parnitha (Athens), Athens: WWF. Hellas. (in Greek). The evaluation procedure of the Mt. Parnitha fire resulted in % Both methods require some final manual editing to retain only the perimeters of fire Forest fires in Greece, , Athens: WWF hellas, NAGREF-IMFE & TFP. 26re2 説明 書 assets/publications-opinion-files/pdf. Viet Nam Red Cross Society () Disaster preparedness manual. adolescents after the Parnitha earthquake. that Mount Parnitha was designated as a “Natural Park” and most of the other mainly covered with forest (WWF Hellas , ). On the other hand, green.

Παρνηθα wwf σε pdf

Presentation of two Case Studies: i) Parnitha National Park & ii) Metropolitan Park “Antonis Tritsis”. Prof. Panayotis – Breakout group 1: Ecosystem services identification at the Parnitha National Park WWF Hellas. 6. Hellenic. Parnitha: Recording of natural wealth () country participate (​Greenpeace, WWF, ARCHELON, Mediterranean SOS, PANDOIKO.  Παρνηθα wwf σε pdf (WWF Auen-Institut, Germany). Due to the low rate of rainfall ii) Parnitha-​Pateras and Hymittos aquifers with karstic conduits m below sea level, iii) Eastern. user manual, walk-through video and guidelines showing how tribution limit in Greece; and Parnitha - a National. Park focused of WWF Germany. He adds.

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Παρνηθα wwf σε pdf

The urban heat island is also sensitive to the ambient weather and climate. In an urban area study, an integrated approach is required across multiple temporal and spatial scales and sectors. In the spatial dimension, work needs to extend from the inner city boundaries to the surrounding mountains and forests.

In the temporal dimension, research needs to range from the current observed time period using available meteorological and sector data to future time periods using data from several climate change projections.

In addition, a multi-sector approach to climate change impacts has to be adopted. Impact sectors range from direct climate impacts on natural ecosystems such as flash floods and forest fire risk to indirect impacts, resulting from combined climate-social-economic linkages such as energy demand, tourism and health.

Furthermore, the dynamics of the climate system needs also to be examined in an integrated fashion. Regarding the ten largest cities in Greece as listed in Table 1 , an analysis of climate change is undertaken based on climate indicators with specific relevance to urban areas. From Fig. The largest changes seem to occur in the cities of Thessaloniki, Patras, Kalamata, Larissa and Lamia where more than 20 hot days per year are expected. Modest changes appear in as Athens, Ioannina, Kavala and Volos with increases that do not exceed 15 days, whereas Iraklio in the island of Crete reveals even smaller increases of up to 10 days.

Regarding this parameter, the influence of the nearby sea is playing a dominant role in tempering the fierce summer heat. Another parameter very important for the urban areas is the change in the number of warm nights per year.

Figure 3 b displays changes in this parameter for the selected urban sites in Greece. It becomes clear from this plot that tropical nights increase almost everywhere and it is interesting to note that coastal urban sites are more affected than continental cities.

According to this figure, all selected urban sites except Ioannina will experience about an extra month per year of warm nights. In Ioannina, the increase will be less than 20 days, possibly due to the cooling effects of the mountain breezes, when cool air flows downslope from the nearby Pindos mountains. Apart from uncomfortable temperatures, flash flooding is another concern for people in urban areas and hence it is examined whether flash flooding can be exacerbated by climate change.

To get some insight into this threat, the percentage changes in the amount of rainwater that falls in a short period of time 3 days in this case within the year is calculated and presented in Fig. A tendency for this parameter to increase, in conjunction with a decrease in total annual rainfall, implies that potential events of excessive rain during short periods of time increase flash flood risk.

Figure 3 c presents a rather mixed pattern. Some Greek cities do not exhibit any substantial changes in this parameter, most notably Patras, Kalamata, Iraklio, Ioannina and Kavala, while other cities present increases. It should be noted, however, that uncertainties are quite large since the confidence range is as big as the changes in this parameter.

A further important implication of climate warming in urban areas is the increased demand of electricity for cooling during the warm season. This increased demand may cause disruptions and overloading in the electricity network of the country, which may not be able to meet these high levels of demand. It is evident that more days per year will require heavy cooling, which leads to an increased use of air conditioning.

The city with the smallest increases is Ioannina with only 5 extra days requiring heavy cooling per year. The above-mentioned results can be reinforced by the use of the humidex index expressing the apparent temperature and hence can be a proxy parameter of the need of an individual for cooling.

It becomes evident that the maximum length of discomfort days increases everywhere, and coastal and island cities are no exception. For all cities, increases range from 10 to 13 days with the exception of Kalamata which will face the highest increase of about 16 extra days.

Uncertainty is small since the confidence range is of much smaller than the changes. Finally, a positive aspect of climate change in the urban regions is the reduced energy demand for heating during the cold period of the year. It becomes apparent from this figure that practically all urban areas in Greece will experience a decline of the heating requirements in winter season. The overall findings of the analysis regarding potential changes in urban areas in Greece are summarized in Table 4.

Tourism represents one of the fastest growing global economic sectors. The tourism industry is clearly sensitive to climate and climate fluctuations in terms of the seasonal contrast between home and destination countries of tourists in Europe Viner Studies indicate that climate conditions for tourism in northern and western Europe Hanson et al.

Climate changes are therefore very likely to lead to a gradual shift of tourist destinations further north and up the mountains, affecting the preferences of sun and beach lovers from western and northern Europe for the Mediterranean IPCC b. Mountainous parts could become more popular because of their relative coolness.

Higher summer temperatures may lead to a gradual decrease in summer tourism in the Mediterranean but an increase in spring and perhaps autumn. Scientific research has shown that Greece and Spain will experience a lengthening and a flattening of their tourism season by Maddison Climate is a principal component considered by tourists regarding travel planning, but its influence on local environmental conditions e.

Occupancy rates associated with a longer tourism season in the Mediterranean will spread demand evenly and thus alleviate the pressure on summer water supply and energy demand.

Water availability and supply may be heavily impacted as well as energy supply and demand. Specifically with increased energy demand to meet air conditioning needs, alternative ways for energy supply and generation must be sought. An indicative analysis of climatic parameters with direct or indirect implications for tourist areas has been undertaken for the most important tourist destinations in Greece.

These areas together with the number of available beds appear in Table 1. Such high temperatures are expected to have an impact in population discomfort in the tourist areas.

It is evident that tourist sites with a more continental or urban influence will experience the largest changes. For instance, Attica and Iraklio show a day increase. The other tourist sites in Crete, namely Chania and Rethymno, show smaller increases of approximately 10 days.

Similar are the findings for Pieria, Chalkidiki, Rhodes and Corfu. Smaller island sites with a more pronounced sea influence, present even smaller changes. Cyclades islands are shown to retain much of their coolness with negligible increases in the hot days. Figure 4 b illustrates changes in this parameter for the selected tourist sites in Greece.

It becomes clear that tropical nights increase almost everywhere and in this case island sites are affected even more than continental areas. Figure 4 c presents changes in this parameter for the touristic areas of Greece. Changes imply that the feeling of discomfort will increase in all areas.

The change in this parameter means that high temperatures coupled with increased humidity levels close to the sea will further add to the discomfort of tourists. Changes in the number of summer days per year have also been examined. Increases in this parameter might lead to a lengthening of the tourism season and consequently a relief of the pressure in the peak summer months of July and August.

Figure 4 d presents the changes in maximum length of summer days for the selected tourist areas in Greece. This practically indicates extension of the tourism season by as much as 1 month per year in these areas. Another important implication of climate warming in tourist areas is the increased demand of energy for air conditioning in summer. Finally, Fig. It becomes evident that extreme forest fire risk increases by around 10 days in Rhodes, Corfu, Iraklio, Chania, Rethymno. The overall findings of the analysis regarding potential changes in tourist areas in Greece are summarized in Table 5.

The present study presents future projections of potential climate change impacts. In the near future, namely the period —, climate conditions are expected to deteriorate compared with the reference period — conditions The main finding of this study are summarized below. Regarding agriculture, the length of the longest dry spell is expected to increase in most of the studied regions.

In Evia and other sub-regions in the northern part of the country, at least 20 additional dry days are projected to occur every year in the period — The changes in the number of days with fire risk are also an important parameter for agricultural areas with trees such as olive, orange, peach trees.

Fire risk days increase substantially everywhere. The most considerable increases are estimated in the agricultural regions of central Greece with up to 20 more days of fire risk per year. In contrast, an increase in autumn precipitation is projected in most agricultural areas. Devastating forest fires in Greece occurred in summer , with the loss of human lives, destruction of many villages and hundreds of square kilometres of forest burned.

Changing climate conditions related to increased minimum temperatures approximately 1. It is estimated that the number of days with extreme fire risk will increase by 10—15 days per year. In some cases, flash floods events are expected to become more frequent. Unpleasantly, high temperatures and relative humidity combined with the lack of green spaces will increase the feeling of discomfort in the citizens of big cities.

The total annual precipitation is found to decrease in Lamia, Larissa, Volos, Thessaloniki and Athens. Hence, extreme rainfall episodes tend to occur more frequently. Another impact of climate change in urban regions is the increase in energy demand for cooling in summer and the decrease in demand for heating in winter. However, the winter and summer loads do not counterbalance each other, as the energy consumption required for cooling in summer is greatest at specific days and times of the day.

The tourism industry is a vital economic sector and occupies a dominant position in the Greek economy. Fully understanding its importance, this study has investigated potential impacts in tourist areas due to climate change. It was found that continental tourist areas of the Greek mainland will more often face heatwave episodes. The former can be considered as a positive impact as it may prolong the tourist period.

In coastal regions, such warm conditions in combination with high levels of relative humidity can result in uncomfortable conditions for foreigners and the local people.

It is important to underline that the evidence emerging from this work is subject to some degree of uncertainty since the analysis is based on climate scenario data. We have attempted to estimate uncertainty in our projections for each parameter examined and our results are encouraging for all indices associated with temperature.

However, indices associated with precipitation, such as droughts, extreme precipitation or even fire risk, are subject to higher levels of uncertainty, stemming from the episodic nature of precipitation and its high regional variability. Therefore, indices linked to precipitation should be viewed with caution. However, it is important to communicate such evidence among the scientific community and the policy makers in order to plan adaptation strategies to minimize the impacts of climate change at a regional level.

Climate change impacts, adaptation and vulnerability. Glob Planet Change — Article Google Scholar. J Travel Res 45 3 — Beniston M Climatic change in mountain regions: a review of possible impacts.

Climatic Change — Best MJ Representing urban areas within operational numerical weather prediction models. Bound-Layer Meteorol — Bolle H-J ed Mediterranean climate: variability and trends. Springer, Heidelberg. Brussels, Belgium, European Commission, 45 p. Gao X, Giorgi F Increased aridity in the Mediterranean region under greenhouse forcing estimated from high resolution simulations with a regional climate model.

Google Scholar. Giorgi F Climate change hot-spots. Geophys Res Lett L Glob Planet Change 68 3 — Energies 2 4 — Int J Wildland Fire — Clim Res — For Policy Econ — Solomon, D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K. Averyt, M. Tignor and H. Miller, Eds. Parry, O. Canziani, J. Palutikof, P.

Hanson, Eds. Reg Environ Change — Meteorol Atmos Phys — Lenderink GA, van Ulden B, van den Hurk B, van Meijgaard E Summertime inter-annual temperature variability in an ensemble of regional model simulations: analysis of the surface energy budget.

Clim Change — Maddison D In search of warmer climates? The impact of climate change on flows of British tourists. Atmospheric Environment Service, Downsview, Ontario. Mudelsee M, Alkio M Quantifying effects in two-sample environmental experiments using bootstrap confidence intervals. Environ Model Softw 22 — Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Nature — Climate Res 27 2 — Viner D Tourism and its interactions with climate change. J Sustain Tour — Weber MG, Flannigan MD Canadian boreal forest ecosystem structure and function in a changing climate: impact on fire regimes. Environ Rev — Beijing, China, 1—2 Nov.

WMO, Geneva. Download references. This research was supported by the World Wildlife Fund which provided the necessary funds. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial License which permits any noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author s and source are credited. Pavlou, 36, Palaia Pendeli, Athens, Greece. You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar.

Correspondence to Christos Giannakopoulos. Reprints and Permissions. Giannakopoulos, C. An integrated assessment of climate change impacts for Greece in the near future.

Reg Environ Change 11, — Download citation. Received : 13 July Accepted : 24 March Published : 09 April Issue Date : December Search SpringerLink Search. Download PDF. Volume Article Contents Materials and methods. Supplementary Material. Article Navigation. Address correspondence to Nikoleta Karaiskou at the address above, or e-mail: nikolbio bio.

Oxford Academic. Google Scholar. Alexander Tsakogiannis. Konstantinos Gkagkavouzis. Operator of Parnitha National Park. Sylvia Papika. Panagiotis Latsoudis. Ioannis Kavakiotis. John Pantis. Theodore J. Costas Triantaphyllidis. Alexander Triantafyllidis Alexander Triantafyllidis.

Corresponding Editor: Jennifer Jackson. Select Format Select format. Permissions Icon Permissions. Issue Section:. Download all slides. View Metrics. Email alerts Article activity alert.

 

Figure 2 b shows the changes in average summer maximum temperature. These plots indicate a greater increase in summer maximum temperatures compared with the winter minimum temperatures. The increase exceeds 1. The most seriously affected areas are the national conservation parks in Vikos-Aoos, Pindos, Olympos, Iti and Prespes, which are in the interior of the country away from the sea influence.

In contrast, areas affected by sea breezes show smaller changes. Figure 2 c depicts changes in winter precipitation and it becomes clear that most of the national conservation parks undergo decreases. Vikos-Aoos area and Pindos are the only areas with no changes in winter rainfall patterns. The autumn precipitation Fig.

Areas that exhibit winter decreases show increases in autumn precipitation. No changes are projected for the Ainos park in Cephalonia. The confidence range values of these changes are bigger than the changes implying large uncertainties in precipitation modelling.

Regarding fire risk, as evidenced by Fig. Substantial increases of approximately 15 days will be evident in Iti and Parnitha whereas Ainos in Cephalonia has negligible changes 5 days increase in fire risk occurrence.

Uncertainties are smaller than the changes, implying a degree of robustness in the signal. Regarding the maximum length of dry spell, as shown in Fig. In the other parks Parnitha, Prespes, Parnassos, Ainos, White Mountains , the increases are more significant and the maximum dry spell length increases by 15 days.

Sounio shows a 7-day increase. The confidence range values of these changes are as big as the changes implying large uncertainties in precipitation affecting maximum dry spell length.

The overall findings of the analysis regarding potential changes in Greek forestry due to a changing climate are summarized in Table 3. Climate projections for the Mediterranean suggest that the region will become warmer and drier with more frequent and extreme weather events Alcamo et al. This poses a significant threat to urban areas in the form of increased risks for flash floods and heatwaves. These climate hazards will inevitably aggravate other environmental issues, such as water resource availability, air pollution and peri-urban forest fire risk.

Human health will be a major issue of concern under climate change together with the challenges of rising energy demand for cooling and shifts in the seasonal pattern of tourism. Vulnerability to climate change is greater for urban areas with limited economic resources, rapid population growth and poor planning and regulation. Increased frequency of heatwaves and persistence of high temperatures are the key aspects of climate change common to all urban areas.

Urbanization itself greatly affects surface characteristics and their interaction with the wider atmosphere. This leads to distinct urban climates that differ substantially from rural environments Best The most apparent consequence of this is the urban heat island.

The capacity for the built environment to store heat during the day and release it at night, along with the direct release of heat through human activity for example, heating or cooling of buildings, traffic and human metabolism can contribute to higher temperatures within cities compared with their rural surroundings.

The urban heat island is also sensitive to the ambient weather and climate. In an urban area study, an integrated approach is required across multiple temporal and spatial scales and sectors. In the spatial dimension, work needs to extend from the inner city boundaries to the surrounding mountains and forests. In the temporal dimension, research needs to range from the current observed time period using available meteorological and sector data to future time periods using data from several climate change projections.

In addition, a multi-sector approach to climate change impacts has to be adopted. Impact sectors range from direct climate impacts on natural ecosystems such as flash floods and forest fire risk to indirect impacts, resulting from combined climate-social-economic linkages such as energy demand, tourism and health.

Furthermore, the dynamics of the climate system needs also to be examined in an integrated fashion. Regarding the ten largest cities in Greece as listed in Table 1 , an analysis of climate change is undertaken based on climate indicators with specific relevance to urban areas. From Fig. The largest changes seem to occur in the cities of Thessaloniki, Patras, Kalamata, Larissa and Lamia where more than 20 hot days per year are expected.

Modest changes appear in as Athens, Ioannina, Kavala and Volos with increases that do not exceed 15 days, whereas Iraklio in the island of Crete reveals even smaller increases of up to 10 days. Regarding this parameter, the influence of the nearby sea is playing a dominant role in tempering the fierce summer heat.

Another parameter very important for the urban areas is the change in the number of warm nights per year. Figure 3 b displays changes in this parameter for the selected urban sites in Greece. It becomes clear from this plot that tropical nights increase almost everywhere and it is interesting to note that coastal urban sites are more affected than continental cities.

According to this figure, all selected urban sites except Ioannina will experience about an extra month per year of warm nights. In Ioannina, the increase will be less than 20 days, possibly due to the cooling effects of the mountain breezes, when cool air flows downslope from the nearby Pindos mountains. Apart from uncomfortable temperatures, flash flooding is another concern for people in urban areas and hence it is examined whether flash flooding can be exacerbated by climate change.

To get some insight into this threat, the percentage changes in the amount of rainwater that falls in a short period of time 3 days in this case within the year is calculated and presented in Fig. A tendency for this parameter to increase, in conjunction with a decrease in total annual rainfall, implies that potential events of excessive rain during short periods of time increase flash flood risk. Figure 3 c presents a rather mixed pattern.

Some Greek cities do not exhibit any substantial changes in this parameter, most notably Patras, Kalamata, Iraklio, Ioannina and Kavala, while other cities present increases.

It should be noted, however, that uncertainties are quite large since the confidence range is as big as the changes in this parameter. A further important implication of climate warming in urban areas is the increased demand of electricity for cooling during the warm season. This increased demand may cause disruptions and overloading in the electricity network of the country, which may not be able to meet these high levels of demand. It is evident that more days per year will require heavy cooling, which leads to an increased use of air conditioning.

The city with the smallest increases is Ioannina with only 5 extra days requiring heavy cooling per year. The above-mentioned results can be reinforced by the use of the humidex index expressing the apparent temperature and hence can be a proxy parameter of the need of an individual for cooling. It becomes evident that the maximum length of discomfort days increases everywhere, and coastal and island cities are no exception.

For all cities, increases range from 10 to 13 days with the exception of Kalamata which will face the highest increase of about 16 extra days. Uncertainty is small since the confidence range is of much smaller than the changes. Finally, a positive aspect of climate change in the urban regions is the reduced energy demand for heating during the cold period of the year. It becomes apparent from this figure that practically all urban areas in Greece will experience a decline of the heating requirements in winter season.

The overall findings of the analysis regarding potential changes in urban areas in Greece are summarized in Table 4. Tourism represents one of the fastest growing global economic sectors. The tourism industry is clearly sensitive to climate and climate fluctuations in terms of the seasonal contrast between home and destination countries of tourists in Europe Viner Studies indicate that climate conditions for tourism in northern and western Europe Hanson et al.

Climate changes are therefore very likely to lead to a gradual shift of tourist destinations further north and up the mountains, affecting the preferences of sun and beach lovers from western and northern Europe for the Mediterranean IPCC b. Mountainous parts could become more popular because of their relative coolness.

Higher summer temperatures may lead to a gradual decrease in summer tourism in the Mediterranean but an increase in spring and perhaps autumn. Scientific research has shown that Greece and Spain will experience a lengthening and a flattening of their tourism season by Maddison Climate is a principal component considered by tourists regarding travel planning, but its influence on local environmental conditions e.

Occupancy rates associated with a longer tourism season in the Mediterranean will spread demand evenly and thus alleviate the pressure on summer water supply and energy demand. Water availability and supply may be heavily impacted as well as energy supply and demand. Specifically with increased energy demand to meet air conditioning needs, alternative ways for energy supply and generation must be sought.

An indicative analysis of climatic parameters with direct or indirect implications for tourist areas has been undertaken for the most important tourist destinations in Greece. These areas together with the number of available beds appear in Table 1. Such high temperatures are expected to have an impact in population discomfort in the tourist areas. It is evident that tourist sites with a more continental or urban influence will experience the largest changes. For instance, Attica and Iraklio show a day increase.

The other tourist sites in Crete, namely Chania and Rethymno, show smaller increases of approximately 10 days. Similar are the findings for Pieria, Chalkidiki, Rhodes and Corfu. Smaller island sites with a more pronounced sea influence, present even smaller changes. Cyclades islands are shown to retain much of their coolness with negligible increases in the hot days.

Figure 4 b illustrates changes in this parameter for the selected tourist sites in Greece. It becomes clear that tropical nights increase almost everywhere and in this case island sites are affected even more than continental areas. Figure 4 c presents changes in this parameter for the touristic areas of Greece.

Changes imply that the feeling of discomfort will increase in all areas. The change in this parameter means that high temperatures coupled with increased humidity levels close to the sea will further add to the discomfort of tourists.

Changes in the number of summer days per year have also been examined. Increases in this parameter might lead to a lengthening of the tourism season and consequently a relief of the pressure in the peak summer months of July and August.

Figure 4 d presents the changes in maximum length of summer days for the selected tourist areas in Greece. This practically indicates extension of the tourism season by as much as 1 month per year in these areas.

Another important implication of climate warming in tourist areas is the increased demand of energy for air conditioning in summer. Finally, Fig. It becomes evident that extreme forest fire risk increases by around 10 days in Rhodes, Corfu, Iraklio, Chania, Rethymno. The overall findings of the analysis regarding potential changes in tourist areas in Greece are summarized in Table 5. The present study presents future projections of potential climate change impacts. In the near future, namely the period —, climate conditions are expected to deteriorate compared with the reference period — conditions The main finding of this study are summarized below.

Regarding agriculture, the length of the longest dry spell is expected to increase in most of the studied regions.

In Evia and other sub-regions in the northern part of the country, at least 20 additional dry days are projected to occur every year in the period — The changes in the number of days with fire risk are also an important parameter for agricultural areas with trees such as olive, orange, peach trees. Fire risk days increase substantially everywhere. The most considerable increases are estimated in the agricultural regions of central Greece with up to 20 more days of fire risk per year.

In contrast, an increase in autumn precipitation is projected in most agricultural areas. Devastating forest fires in Greece occurred in summer , with the loss of human lives, destruction of many villages and hundreds of square kilometres of forest burned. Changing climate conditions related to increased minimum temperatures approximately 1.

It is estimated that the number of days with extreme fire risk will increase by 10—15 days per year. In some cases, flash floods events are expected to become more frequent. Unpleasantly, high temperatures and relative humidity combined with the lack of green spaces will increase the feeling of discomfort in the citizens of big cities. The total annual precipitation is found to decrease in Lamia, Larissa, Volos, Thessaloniki and Athens. Hence, extreme rainfall episodes tend to occur more frequently.

Another impact of climate change in urban regions is the increase in energy demand for cooling in summer and the decrease in demand for heating in winter. However, the winter and summer loads do not counterbalance each other, as the energy consumption required for cooling in summer is greatest at specific days and times of the day. The tourism industry is a vital economic sector and occupies a dominant position in the Greek economy. Fully understanding its importance, this study has investigated potential impacts in tourist areas due to climate change.

It was found that continental tourist areas of the Greek mainland will more often face heatwave episodes. The former can be considered as a positive impact as it may prolong the tourist period. In coastal regions, such warm conditions in combination with high levels of relative humidity can result in uncomfortable conditions for foreigners and the local people.

It is important to underline that the evidence emerging from this work is subject to some degree of uncertainty since the analysis is based on climate scenario data. We have attempted to estimate uncertainty in our projections for each parameter examined and our results are encouraging for all indices associated with temperature.

However, indices associated with precipitation, such as droughts, extreme precipitation or even fire risk, are subject to higher levels of uncertainty, stemming from the episodic nature of precipitation and its high regional variability. Therefore, indices linked to precipitation should be viewed with caution.

However, it is important to communicate such evidence among the scientific community and the policy makers in order to plan adaptation strategies to minimize the impacts of climate change at a regional level. Climate change impacts, adaptation and vulnerability. Glob Planet Change — Article Google Scholar. J Travel Res 45 3 — Beniston M Climatic change in mountain regions: a review of possible impacts. Climatic Change — Best MJ Representing urban areas within operational numerical weather prediction models.

Bound-Layer Meteorol — Bolle H-J ed Mediterranean climate: variability and trends. Springer, Heidelberg. Brussels, Belgium, European Commission, 45 p. Gao X, Giorgi F Increased aridity in the Mediterranean region under greenhouse forcing estimated from high resolution simulations with a regional climate model.

Google Scholar. Giorgi F Climate change hot-spots. Geophys Res Lett L Glob Planet Change 68 3 — Energies 2 4 — Int J Wildland Fire — Clim Res — For Policy Econ — Solomon, D.

Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K. Averyt, M. Tignor and H. Miller, Eds. Parry, O. Canziani, J. Palutikof, P. Hanson, Eds. Reg Environ Change — Meteorol Atmos Phys — Lenderink GA, van Ulden B, van den Hurk B, van Meijgaard E Summertime inter-annual temperature variability in an ensemble of regional model simulations: analysis of the surface energy budget.

Clim Change — Maddison D In search of warmer climates? The impact of climate change on flows of British tourists. Oxford Academic. Google Scholar. Alexander Tsakogiannis. Konstantinos Gkagkavouzis. Operator of Parnitha National Park.

Sylvia Papika. Panagiotis Latsoudis. Ioannis Kavakiotis. John Pantis. Theodore J. Costas Triantaphyllidis. Alexander Triantafyllidis Alexander Triantafyllidis. Corresponding Editor: Jennifer Jackson. Select Format Select format. Permissions Icon Permissions. Issue Section:. Download all slides. View Metrics. Email alerts Article activity alert. Advance article alerts.

New issue alert. Subject alert. Receive exclusive offers and updates from Oxford Academic. Related articles in Web of Science Google Scholar.