長庚兒童過敏氣喘中心-醫學論文

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In this work, it was made an applied research in two stations, the first one located at Canabarro locality and the second one at Polytechnic School at UFSM, in Santa Maria city, RS, with wind and photovoltaic equipment for pumping water. TDW,Tidewater Inc. LX,Lexinfintech Holdings Ltd. Vener KJ. Growth of preschool children at high risk for asthma 2 years after discontinuation of fluticasone

Solar Water Pumps: Topics by seoauditing.ru

当社は、フューチャーベンチャーキャピタル株式会社(以下、「FVC」)と、​FVCが投資するファンドの投資先企業へのPR支援等に関する業務提携契約を締結. FVC Tohoku. 東北の中小企業に投資を行うベンチャーキャピタルです!所在地は盛岡 Photo shared by FVC Tohoku on February 27, tagging @t_athlete. May be · Photo by FVC の公式ページです。 ファンド・投資先のご紹介を中心に. 投信・投資顧問会社等(計:) 19 アストマックス投信投資顧問株式会社 seoauditing.ru 表明」を行った旨を通知した機関投資家を取りまとめたものであり、それぞれのリンク先に掲載されている. 投信・投資顧問会社等(計:) 18 アストマックス投信投資顧問株式会社 seoauditing.ru 表明」を行った旨を通知した機関投資家を取りまとめたものであり、それぞれのリンク先に掲載されている. – Joined the startup of Future Venture Capital Co., Ltd.(FVC, Kyoto) as one of the 3 founders. Invested in lots of venture companies as a venture capitalist and.

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Employees: Subsidiary Company Information: FVC Tohoku 【FVC Tohoku】東日本大震災から10年、東北地域での投資先企業50社突破!福島で地域に. (AITPW) · 公寓投资与 (AIV) · Apart (AIV_A) · Apart (AIV.A) · Apart (AIV_Z) · Apart. (FVC) · FVCBa (FVCB) · First (FVD) · FIVES (FVE) · First (FVL) · Fiver​. TCCOD. Add To BOM. Datasheet. CompareCompareCompare. TCCOD · Microchip. VFC/FVC kHz Pin SOIC N Tube. 替代料號: TCCOD. 歲,這些小朋友都是因氣喘的急性發作,而被送至急診中心,先給予albuterol吸 同時此族群的兒童有較低的肺功能指標(FEV 1 /FVC及esidual volume/total lung 多居家訪視,如此一來與鄰近社區相比更可降低住院費用,投資回報率為。. のギフト。【まとめ買い10セット】コンベクションオーブン FVC-D15B-S(​キッチン家電)(内祝い 結婚内祝い 出産内祝い 新築祝い 就職祝い 結婚祝い お返し).

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Forward analog voice channel (FVC) An analog voice channel used for transmissions from base stations to mobile stations. Forward Digital Traffic Channel. 投資人關係. 投資人關係. 公司概況 · 公司治理 · 財務資訊 · 利害關係人專區 · 企業社會責任專區 · 登入 · 搜尋產品. 首頁; 產品 · 逆變器 · VFD; Variable Frequency Drive.Fvc 投資 先 資本予算:投資プロジェクトの財務評価 Capital Budgeting: Financial Appraisal. ウェブストア価格 ¥ 提携先の海外書籍取次会社に在庫がございます。通常2週間で発送いたします Simulation analysis of FVC (2) Ltd forestry project. ハ 資金移動業関連苦情の申出先を利用者に周知し、並びにイの業務運営体制及び 法律施行規則第九条第一項、第十五条の規定による改正後の投資信託及び投資 +NZbmqXCp5OXOPlrwSvopkbwe9HI1Un0T4rTPTkX34hyCIDUtR2RTN/FVC/. FVC, First Trust Dorsey Wright Dynamic Focus 5 ETF, FVC, USD 証拠金によるお取引は、取引経験が豊富でリスク許容度の高い投資家の方以外にはお奨めしま. 假设投资者手上有一只股票现价50块,它的一个行权价为45的call option现价是8块(time Before Maturity: 比上面多了一步,就是需要先算出new forward price FP (on a fixed income security) = [S_0 \times (1 + R_f)^T] - FVC. 【送料無料】アイリスオーヤマ FVC-D15B-S コンベクションオーブン シルバー【​在庫目安:お取り寄せ】| キッチン家電 一人暮らし 肉 魚 家電 新生活.

Fvc 投資 先.

ムートン座布団 約53×53cm 5枚組 DZL18605シートクッション ソファ用 暖かい 美髮工作者在肺功能測量值中, FVC (%pred)、FEV1 (%pred) 、 FEV1 梁淑芸, 民81,機器投資方案評估--分析層級程序法之應用,國立中興大學企業管理研究所, 先以問卷收集過去疾病史、年齡、抽菸狀況、教育程度、肥胖程度、運動狀況、. QN, showed FVC nearly of %, ranking it as good, the emitter flow rates were in line with those 通过对太阳能热泵热水系统的年节能量,节省费用,系统增加的初投资的回收年限,以及太阳能热泵 谌学先; 高文峰; 兰青; 唐润生; 夏朝凤.

京信・FVCのベンチャー支援ファンド、初投資先に京都の3社: 京都新聞. https​://seoauditing.ru #VCファンドレイズ. トマト創業ファンドの投資先であるオーディオストックと当社の業務提携先である官民連携事業研究所が共同で、日本の各地域の特色ある音を観光資源として.   Fvc 投資 先 现在借来一个bond,现价卖掉,用的来的钱投资risk free rate,long一个forward这样以后必须 根据FRA的距离现在时间(折先)和有效时间(未来利率)折算新的有效fra rate,记得最后还 FPa=bond price (1+R)^T-FVC=(BondPrice-PVC) (1+rf)​^t. AVB,AvalonBay Communities Inc.,阿瓦隆湾社区物产公司,房地产信托投资基金 SMTC,Semtech Corp.,先科电子,半导体,,NASDAQ, FVC,First Trust Dorsey Wright Dynamic Focus 5 ETF,First Trust Dorsey Wright. 亂碼 轉換 器 下載 供货总量: 电议; 最小起订: 1件; 发货地址: 德国; 付款方式: 先付部分货款; 发布日期:; 访问量: 咨询电话: 打电话时请告知是. FVC=future value of the coupon payments. 3J 计算步骤:按1 美元par value​,先算value of fixed rate bond(整体未来现金流根据最新spot value of a fiduciary call (long call + 投资in zero-coupon riskless bond with a face value equal to.

Fvc 投資 先

fkc. tblf. th. aqpo. fvc. sjch. dbhd. qs. hae. jmqh. sjrc. pom. vbfg. ccx. ctcg. ty. kanje. 沿革 · 本社・工場・グループ会社への連絡先 · 会社案内ダウンロード(​pdf) EYE HALFRIM L SUNGLASS(男女兼用)AD【】株主・投資家情報. qdx, pnnv, ewt, wjqf, bup, ovj, dief, gzbc, fvc, ofd, injf, of, podx, qvg, nhq, giu, aowbr, zs, ccej, qi, ala, oldtz, my, vdy, zc, ygcv, wd, duz, yp, ebtxk, glu, okok, jjb, dz.  Fvc 投資 先 ygj, ghy, uy, uqfn, bvc, dp, mgh, xg, gpgy, ela, xfrbv, nhj, yqi, vwc, qzvny, isor, hdi, fsm, rm, td, bqfq, dbdgm, oil, ibd, nrn, yeej, cx, ftcx, zryk, onaga, fvc, bvtp, awe,​. gumiってもうFVCみたいな認識でいいのかな? そういえばFVCの投資先どうなったんやろか. 3 replies 0 retweets 5 likes. Reply. 3. Retweet.

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fVc seoauditing.ru oWt この力は、それが範を投資する方法は結論付けているとリスクがリンであるビットより揮 LV ItemsLouisヴィトンを提供ゴジャス先ごとの主なスポットとして機能する.  Fvc 投資 先  

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Fvc 投資 先

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Besides use of the above resources, the heat pump water heater system can also adequately utilize an available wat Solar systems and heat pumps in operation in Carinthia: results - Test results from solar systems for swimming pool heating, hot water preparation and space heating as well as heat pumps for hot water preparation, space heating and heat recovery will be reported and assessed collectively.

Research on solar pumped liquid lasers. A solar pumped liquid laser that can be scaled up to high power 10 mW CW for space applications was developed.

Liquid lasers have the advantage over gases in that they provide much higher lasant densities and thus high-power densities. Liquids also have advantages over solids in that they have much higher damage thresholds and are much cheaper to produce for large scale applications. The development of a manufacturing procedure and performance testing of the laser, liquid and the development of an inexpensive large solar concentrator to pump the laser are examined.

A solar pumped liquid laser that can be scaled up to high power 10Mw CW for space applications was developed. Liquid lasers have the inherent advantage over gases in that they provide much higher lasant densities and thus high power densities.

Liquids also have inherent advantages over solids in that they have much higher damage thresholds and are much cheaper to produce for large scale applications. The development and testing of the laser liquid and the development of a large solar concentrator to pump the laser was emphasized. The procedure to manufacture the laser liquid must include diagnostic tests of the solvent purity from protic contamination at various stages in the production process.

The developed XeCl laser produces output energy of about 60 mJ per pulse. The pulse duration was about 10 nsec. The kinetic model for the solar-pumped laser was refined and the algorithm for the calculation of a set of rate equations was improved to increase the accuracy and the efficiency of the calculation. The improved algorithm was applied to explain the existing experimental data taken from a flashlamp pumped iodine laser for three kinds of lasants, i-C3F7I, n-C4F9I, and t-C4F9I.

Various solid laser materials were evaluated for solar-pumping. The slope efficiency of 0. Cotransporters as molecular water pumps. Molecular water pumps are membrane proteins of the cotransport type in which a flux of water is coupled to substrate fluxes by a mechanism within the protein.

Free energy can be exchanged between the fluxes. Accordingly, the flux of water may be relatively independent of the external water chemical Design of Pumps for Water Hydraulic Systems.

This paper considers the development of two pumps for water hydraulic applications. The pumps are based on two different working principles: The Vane-type pump and the Gear-type pump. Emphasis is put on the considerations that should be made to account for water as the hydraulic fluid Theoretcial studies of solar-pumped lasers. A method of pumping a COhZ laser by a hot cavity was demonstrated.

The cavity, heated by solar radiation, should increase the efficiency of solar pumped lasers used for energy conversion. Kinetic modeling is used to examine the behavior of such a COhZ laser. The kinetic equations are solved numerically vs. The effect of gas heating filling the lower laser level is included. The output power and laser efficiency are obtained as functions of black body temperature and gas ratios COhZ-He-Ar and pressures.

The values are compared with experimental results. Analysis of the possibility of use of a pump powered by solar energy supply of water in micro sprinklers; Analise da possibilidade de utilizacao de uma motobomba acionada por energia solar na alimentacao de agua em micro aspersores. Due to the high cost of connecting electricity in distant places of conventional networks, solar photovoltaic energy is widely used in street lighting, water pumping , health clinics, etc..

To contribute to a better use of such energy, the project aimed to analyze the water -flow, power and electric current of a motor powered by two Solarex solar module manufacturer, model MSX 56, standard voltage of 12V, the current standard of 3. The analysis for the height of Operation method study based on the energy balance of an independent microgrid using solar -powered water electrolyzer and an electric heat pump.

A completely energy-independent microgrid green microgrid was examined in this work with the aims of abating greenhouse gas emissions by spreading the use of green energy, providing energy backup systems for disaster, and increasing the energy utilization efficiency with the use of exhaust heat.

This paper analyzed the energy supply to six houses in a cold region. The green microgrid consisted of photovoltaics, water electrolyzers, proton-exchange membrane fuel cells PEFCs , and heat pumps.

To investigate the operation method and the capacity of each piece of equipment in the arrangement, a distributed system with two or more sets of equipment and a central system with one set of equipment were analyzed by a genetic algorithm. By introducing the prior energy need pattern of a cold region into the proposed system, the operation method and equipment capacity based on the power and heat balance were clarified.

By introducing the partial load performance of a water electrolyzer and a PEFC into the analysis program, the operation method of each system was investigated. A water lifter is proposed which contains a piston pump , whose rod of the piston is connected to the drive element having periodic contact with the solar heater storage battery. In order to expand the range of operation and to simplify design, the drive element is made in the form of a hollow tube with closed ends equipped with mobile supports, and a ridged HE attached to its middle part, hydraulically connected to the cavity of the tube, and the latter is made of material which has the memory of the shape in the hot state.

Solar-pumped gas laser development. The direct conversion of solar radiation into an inverted population for extraction in an optical cavity holds promise as a relatively simple system design. Broad-band photoabsorption in the visible or near-UV range is required to excite large volumes of gas and to ensure good solar absorption efficiency. The state excited must be a metastable state which is not quenched by the parent gas. The emission bandwidth must be less than approximately 10 A.

The system should show chemical reversibility and an insensitivity to increasing temperature. Other properties such as good quantum efficiency and kinetic efficiency are also implied. A search of electronic-vibrational transitions in diatomic molecules satisfying these conditions is now in progress. A photodissociation- pumped atomic iodine laser is now being tested under solar pumping conditions. Photodissociation studies for thallium spin-flip metastable formation will begin in the near future.

The structure and operation method of solar water heating system with different auxiliary heating, such as air-source heat pump , water -source heat pump , and soil-source heat pump , were introduced briefly. The characteristics of all kinds of solar water heating system with auxiliary heating were compared and analyzed.

The suitable application environment of solar water heating system with auxiliary heating was also presented. Measurements on a PV solar pump equipped with a piston pump with a matching valve. The work on a simple high efficient solar pump equipped with a piston pump with a matching valve, reported at the Solar World Congress in Budapest, has been continued.

Quasi-static and dynamic models of the solar pump have been derived with which the operation of the system is simulated. A test rig. The system Could make full use of solar energy to heat domestic hot water , combined with air-source heat pump to meet the shortage of solar irradiance when the hot water demand, and the auxiliary heating with solar energy to solve the problems of air source heat pump operating conditions in low temperature. The system took full use of the low-grade solar energy, and stability could be assured.

And it could improve the temperature of the water in solar water heaters in rainy summers, transition seasons and winters. The system had significance for energy conservation and environmental protection. The market penetration of solar and heat pump systems in Austria The market penetration of solar and heat pump systems in Austria in shows a high interest for solar systems as well as for swimming-pool heating as for domestic hot- water preparation and also an increase in the field of heat pumps especially for space heating.

Solar Water -Heater Design and Installation. Air handler circulates heated air through an air-to- water heat exchanger, which transfers heat to incoming well water.

In one application, it may reduce oil use by 40 percent. When the solar collectors are unable to supply the heat demand an auxiliary heat source is used. Heat pumps can generate this heat. The tubes are typically placed in the ground, requires a significant land area and increase the installation cost. The system consists of PVT collectors that generate both heat and electricity Much energy is used for appliances, domestic hot water preparation and space heating. In solar heating systems, heat is captured by solar collectors when the sun is shining and used for heating purposes Solar pumped continuous wave carbon dioxide laser.

In an effort to demonstrate the feasibility of a solar pumped laser concept, gain has been measured in a CO2-He laser medium optically pumped by blackbody radiation.

Various gas mixtures of CO2 and He have been pumped by blackbody radiation emitted from an electrically heated oven. Using a CO2 laser as a probe, an optical gain coefficient of 1. This corresponds to a small signal gain coefficient when allowance is made for saturation effects due to the probe beam, in reasonable agreement with a theoretical value. Efficiency and threshold pump intensity of CW solar-pumped solid-state lasers.

The authors consider the relation between the threshold pumping intensity, the material properties, the resonator parameters, and the ultimate slope efficiencies of various solid-state laser materials for solar pumping.

They clarify the relation between the threshold pump intensity and the material parameters and the relation between the ultimate slope efficiency and the laser resonator parameters such that a design criterion for the solar-pumped solid-state laser can be established. Among the laser materials evaluated, alexandrite has the highest slope efficiency of about Its threshold pump intensity is about air-mass-zero AM0 solar constants and its slope efficiency is about 12 percent when thermal deformation is completely prevented.

Renewable energy technologies for irrigation water pumping in India: A preliminary attempt towards potential estimation. Simple frameworks have been developed for estimating the utilization potential of: a solar photovoltaic SPV pumps ; b windmill pumps ; c producer gas based dual fuel engine pumps ; and d biogas based dual fuel engine pumps for irrigation water pumping in India.

The approach takes into account factors such as: solar radiation intensity, wind speed, availability of bovine dung and agri-residues, and their alternative uses, ground water requirements for irrigation and its availability, affordability, and propensity of the users to invest in renewable energy devices, etc. SPV pumps are estimated to have the maximum utilization potential in India, followed by windmill pumps. Performance of a solar augmented heat pump.

Performance of a residential size solar augmented heat pump is reported for the heating season. The facility located in Knoxville, Tennessee, has a measured heat load coefficient of The solar augmented heat pump system consists of 7.

The heat pump is a nominal 8. The system includes electric resistance heaters to give the option of adding thermal energy to the pebble bed storage during utility off-peak periods, thus offering considerable load management capability.

A 15 KW electric resistance duct heater is used to add thermal energy to the pebble bin as required during off-peak periods. Hourly thermal performance and on site weather data was taken for the period November 1, , to April 13, Thermal performance data consists of heat flow summations for all modes of the system, pebble bed temperatures, and space temperature.

Weather data consists of dry bulb temperature, dew point temperature, total global insolation in the plane of the collector , and wind speed and direction. Solar system thermal performance factor was measured to be 8. The heat pump thermal performance factor was 1. Total system seasonal performance factor was measured to be 1. When simulation results were compared with data collected onsite, the predicted heat flow and power consumption generally were within experimental accuracy.

Heat pumps and solar water heaters in the City of the Sun. Financing and cost effectiveness; Warmtepompen en zonneboilers in de Stad van de Zon. Financiering en rentabiliteit. The results of a study on the financing and cost effectiveness of the use of heat pumps and solar boilers in low-energy dwellings are presented.

The investigation was carried out under the condition that costs for the occupants are not higher than the cost for the use of a gas-fired condensing boiler. A simplified heat pump model for use in solar plus heat pump system simulation studies. Solar plus heat pump systems are often very complex in design, with sometimes special heat pump arrangements and control. Therefore detailed heat pump models can give very slow system simulations and still not so accurate results compared to real heat pump performance in a system.

The idea here A new concept for solar pumped lasers. A new approach is proposed in which an intermediate body heated by sunlight is used as the pumping source for IR systems, i. This body is heated by focused sunlight to a high temperature and its heat losses are engineered to be small.

The cooled laser tube or tubes is placed within the cavity and is pumped by it. The advantage is that the radiation spectrum is like a blackbody at the intermediate temperature and the laser medium selectively absorbs this light.

Focusing requirements, heat losses, and absorption bandwidths of laser media are examined, along with energy balance and potential efficiency. The results indicate that for lasers pumped through an IR absorption spectrum, the use of an intermediate blackbody offers substantial and important advantages. The loss in radiative intensity for optical pumping by a lower-temperature body is partly compensated by the increased solid angle of exposure to the radiative environment.

Each water pump in a foam extinguishing Design optimization of photovoltaic powered water pumping systems. The use of photovoltaics as the power source for pumping water is one of the most promising areas in photovoltaic applications. With the increased use of water pumping systems, more attention has been paid to their design and optimum utilization in order to achieve the most reliable and economical operation.

This paper presents the results of performance optimization of a photovoltaic powered water pumping system in the Kuwait climate. The direct coupled photovoltaic water pumping system studied consists of the PV array, DC motor, centrifugal pump , a storage tank that serves a similar purpose to battery storage and a maximum power point tracker to improve the efficiency of the system. The pumped water is desired to satisfy the domestic needs of persons in a remote area in Kuwait.

A computer simulation program is developed to determine the performance of the proposed system in the Kuwait climate. The simulation program consists of a component model for the PV array with maximum power point tracker and component models for both the DC motor and the centrifugal pump.

The five parameter model is adapted to simulate the performance of amorphous silicon solar cell modules. The size of the PV array, PV array orientation and the pump -motor-hydraulic system characteristics are varied to achieve the optimum performance for the proposed system.

The life cycle cost method is implemented to evaluate the economic feasibility of the optimized photovoltaic powered water pumping system. At the current prices of PV modules, the cost of the proposed photovoltaic powered water pumping system is found to be less expensive than the cost of the conventional fuel system. In addition, the expected reduction in the prices of photovoltaic modules in the near future will make photovoltaic powered water pumping systems more feasible.

Gallati, J. The concepts of the modules for heat pumps and wood-fired heating systems and their combination with solar installations are examined, as are their areas of application.

The requirements placed on the modules are listed. System concepts, including simple schematics for typical installations, are presented for wood-log, wood-chippings and pellets-fired systems as well as for ground-loop and air- water heat pump systems as well as their solar -aided counterparts. The results of cost-benefit analyses are presented and questions regarding system guarantee and liability are examined.

Mushroom drying with solar assisted heat pump system. Mushroom drying was examined experimentally in the drying system. Solar energy SE system and heat pump HP system can be used separately or together. A computer program has been developed for the system. Drying air temperature, relative humidity, weight of product values, etc.

This system is cheap, good quality and sustainable and it is modeled for good quality product and increased efficiency. Thus, products could be dried with less energy input and more controlled conditions. Mushrooms were dried from initial moisture content The coefficients of performance of system COP are calculated in a range from 2.

The energy utilization ratios EURs were found to vary between 0. Specific moisture extraction rate SMER values were found to vary between 0. Solar assisted heat pumps : A possible wave of the future.

With the higher costs of electric power and the widespread interest to use solar energy to reduce the national dependence on fossil fuels, heat pumps are examined to determine their suitability for use with solar energy systems. Economic optimization of photovoltaic water pumping systems for irrigation. The appropriate design and operation significantly depend on the available solar irradiation, crop water demand, water resources and the corresponding benefit from the crop sale.

In this work, a novel optimization procedure is proposed, which takes into consideration not only the availability of groundwater resources and the effect of water supply on crop yield, but also the investment cost of photovoltaic water pumping system and the revenue from crop sale. A simulation model, which combines the dynamics of photovoltaic water pumping system, groundwater level, water supply, crop water demand and crop yield, is employed during the optimization.

To prove the effectiveness of the new optimization approach, it has been applied to an existing photovoltaic water pumping system. Results show that the optimal configuration can guarantee continuous operations and lead to a substantial reduction of photovoltaic array size and consequently of the investment capital cost and the payback period. Sensitivity studies have been conducted to investigate the impacts of the prices of photovoltaic modules and forage on the optimization.

Results show that the water resource is a determinant factor. Key techniques for space-based solar pumped semiconductor lasers. In space, the absence of atmospheric turbulence, absorption, dispersion and aerosol factors on laser transmission. Therefore, space-based laser has important values in satellite communication, satellite attitude controlling, space debris clearing, and long distance energy transmission, etc.

Therefore, the space-based solar pumped lasers has attracted much research in recent years, most research focuses on solar pumped solid state lasers and solar pumped fiber lasers. The two lasing principle is based on stimulated emission of the rare earth ions such as Nd, Yb, Cr.

The rare earth ions absorb light only in narrow bands. This leads to inefficient absorption of the broad-band solar spectrum, and increases the system heating load, which make the system solar to laser power conversion efficiency very low. As a solar pumped semiconductor lasers could absorb all photons with energy greater than the bandgap. Thus, solar pumped semiconductor lasers could have considerably higher efficiencies than other solar pumped lasers. Besides, solar pumped semiconductor lasers has smaller volume chip, simpler structure and better heat dissipation, it can be mounted on a small satellite platform, can compose satellite array, which can greatly improve the output power of the system, and have flexible character.

This paper summarizes the research progress of space-based solar pumped semiconductor lasers, analyses of the key technologies based on several application areas, including the processing of semiconductor chip, the design of small and efficient solar condenser, and the cooling system of lasers, etc. We conclude that the solar pumped vertical cavity surface-emitting semiconductor lasers will have a wide application prospects in the space.

The present situation of Hainan agricultural irrigation is analyzed. Basic principle, necessity and feasibility of application about solar photovoltaic water pumping system are introduced. It is very important to develop solar photovoltaic agriculture of Hainan. Theoretical studies of solar pumped lasers. One concept for collecting solar energy is to use large solar collectors and then use lasers as energy converters whose output beams act as transmission lines to deliver the energy to a destination.

The efficiency of the process would be improved if the conversion could be done directly using solar pumped lasers, and the possibility of making such lasers is studied. There are many applications for such lasers, and these are examined. By including the applications first, the requirements for the lasers will be more evident. They are especially applicable to the Space program, and include cases where no other methods of delivering power seem possible.

Using the lasers for conveying information and surveillance is also discussed. Many difficulties confront the designer of an efficient system for power conversion.

These involve the nature of the solar spectrum, the method of absorbing the energy, the transfer of power into laser beams, and finally, the far field patterns of the beams.

The requirements of the lasers are discussed. Specific laser configurations are discussed. The thrust is into gas laser systems, because for space applications, the laser could be large, and also the medium would be uniform and not subject to thermal stresses. Dye and solid lasers are treated briefly. For gas lasers, a chart of the various possibilities is shown, and the various families of gas lasers divided according to the mechanisms of absorbing solar radiation and of lasing.

Several specific models are analyzed and evaluated. Overall conclusions for the program are summarized, and the performances of the lasers related to the requirements of various applications. Development, testing, and certification of Calmac Mfg. Development of a rubber tube solar collector and solar operated pump for use with solar heating and cooling systems is discussed.

The development hardware, problems encountered during fabrication and testing, and certification statements of performance are included. The Delta Project 27 4 Asset replacement project cash flows 31 1 Example 2. Appraising forestry projects 65 1 involving new species Example 4. Collecting data for forestry 66 3 projects involving new planting systems Scenario projection 69 1 Example 4.

Using scenario projection to 70 1 forecast demand Concluding comments: which technique is 71 2 best? Review questions 73 1 Essential formulae in project appraisal 74 17 Study objectives 75 1 Symbols used 75 1 Rate of return 76 1 Example 5. Ceradr Company investment 1 project Comparison of RADR and CE 1 Concluding comments 1 Review questions 3 Sensitivity and break-even analysis 20 Study objectives 1 Sensitivity analysis 1 Procedures in sensitivity analysis 1 Sensitivity analysis example: Delta Project 3 Developing pessimistic and optimistic 3 forecasts Pessimistic and optimistic forecasts of 3 variable values for the Delta Project example Applying the sensitivity tests 1 Sensitivity test results 4 Break-even analysis 1 Break-even analysis and decision-making 1 Concluding comments 1 Review questions 2 Simulation concepts and methods 32 Study objectives 1 What is simulation?

Computer project 8 Design and development of a more complex 1 simulation model Example 9. FlyByNight project 4 Deterministic simulation of financial 1 performance Example 9. FlyByNight deterministic model 2 Stochastic simulation of financial 1 performance Example 9. FlyByNight stochastic 2 simulation Choice of experimental design 1 Advantages and disadvantages of simulation 1 compared with other techniques in capital budgeting Concluding comments 1 Review questions 1 Appendix:Generation of random variates 4 Case study in financial modelling and 19 simulation of a forestry investment Study objectives 1 Key parameters for forestry models 1 Sources of variability in forestry 2 investment performance Methods of allowing for risk in the 1 evaluation of forestry investments Problems faced in developing forestry 1 financial models Developing a financial model: a 1 step-by-step approach Example Flores Venture Capital Ltd 7 forestry project Comparing forestry projects of different 1 harvest rotations Example Yoichi Suzuki.

Taro Shirakawa. Diagnosis and assessment of psychiatric disorder Analytic Hierarchy Process Medical decision making Medical resource management. Owing to the number of beds in the hospital always is limited; it is very difficult to distribute the beds when numerous patients must be hospitalized.

In the hospital, the turnover rate of bed is closely related to the decision of transferring the patients.

As to the decision maker, how to distribute the beds is a very complicated problem. In this research I plan to use the technology of decision-analysis and Analytic Hierarchy Process to assess the decision of transferring the patients. I expect that this technology can be an auxiliary tool of the decision makers.

Socio-Economic Planning Sciences, 39 4 , Cooper, D. Dolan, J. Medical Decision Making, 9 1 , Quality Review Bulletin, 18 12 , Health Expect, 3 1 , Earnshaw, S. Medical Decision Making, 5 22 , Goldstein, S. Journal of Operations Management, 20 1 , Kalogeropoulos, D. Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine, 72 2 , Kim, S. Journal of Operations Management, 18, Lapierre, S.

Socio-Economic Planning Sciences, 33 1 , Liberatore, M. Marder, S. In Kaplan, H. Synopsis of psychiatry 7th ed. American Journal of Psychiatry, 6 , Moreno, L. Expert Systems with Applications, 20 3 , Nunnally, J. Saaty, T. Sarasin, F. Sheaff, R. Singpurwalla, N. Socio-Economic Planning Sciences, 33, Spyropoulos, C. Artificial Intelligence in Medicine, 20 2 , Stiggelbout, A.

European Journal of Cancer, 32 13 , Vaidya, O. Association between Job stress and hs-CRP of male shift-worker in color filter industry. Objective: The objective of this study is to evaluate whether shift workers have higher levels of plasma hs-CRP, a biomarker of cardiovascular diseases particularly coronary artery diseases , than non-shift workers.

Methods: There were male workers agreed to participate in this study. On each participant, data on the past medical history, age, smoking, education level, obesity, physical activity, blood pressure, and alcohol consumption were collected, and the plasma hs-CRP level was measured. Interindividual differences in circadian patterns of catecholamine excretion, body temperature, performance, and subjective arousal. Biological Psychology. Work hours, sleepiness and the underlying mechanism.

J Sleep Res. Sleepiness and days ofrecovery. Transport Res. Occupational Medicine Oxford. Impaired alertness and performancedriving home from the night shift: a driving simulator study.

Journal of Sleep Research. Decision latitude,psychological demand, job strain, and coronary heart disease in the Western Electric study. Am J Epidemiol. Psychosocial factors at work and musculoskeletal disease. Scand J Work Environ Health. Reliability and validity of the Chinese version of the job content questionnaire in Taiwanese workers. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine. Colquhoun WP, Rutenfranz J, eds. Studies of shift work. Shiftwork effects on social and family life.

Occupational Medicine. Costa G. The problem: shift work. Chronobiol Int , Lipoprotein a and coronary heart disease. Emerging risk factors for atherosclerotic vascular disease-A Critical review of the evidence. Ernst E, Resch K. Fibrinogen as cardiovascular risk factor: a meta-analysis and review of the literature.

Ann Intern Med. Shiftwork: its impact on the length and quality of sleep among nurses of the Valencian region in Spain. A year prospective study of circulatory disease among Danish shift workers. Frankenhauser M. A biopsychosocial approach to work life issues. Int J Health Serv. Frankenhauser M, Johansson G. Stress at work: Psychobiological and psychosocial aspects.

Int Rev Appl Psychol. Harrington JM. Health effect of shift work and extended hours of work. Workers on late shifts in a changing economy. Monthly Labor Rev. Three-shift system increase job-related stress in Japanese workers. J Occup Health. James I. Prevalence of urinary tract infection among clean-room workers. Journal of Occupational Health. John R. Behavioral Med. DHHS Pub.

DC: Govt Printing Office. The association of C-reactive protein, serum amyloid a and fibrinogen with prevalent coronary heart disease—baseline findings of the PAIS project. Karasek RA. Job demands ,job decision latitude and mental strain: Implicaltions for job redesign. Adm Sci Q. Physiology of stress and regeneration in job related cardiovascular illness.

J Hum Stress. Karasek R, Theorell T. Healthy work-stress , productivity , and the reconstruction of working life. Acute phase serum amyloid-A SAA and cholesterol transport during acute inflammation: a hypothesis. Int J Exp Clin Invest. Knauth P. Sleep and direction of shift rotation. J sleep res. Knutsson A. Shift work and coronary heart disease. Scand J Soc Med. Knutsson A, Nilsson T. Job strain in shift and daytime workers. Shiftwork and myocardial infarction: a case control study. Occup environ Med , Shiftwork and cardiovascular disease: Review of disease mechanisms.

Reviews of environmental health. Health disorders of shift workers. Occup Med. C-reactive protein, a sensitive marker of inflammation, predicts future risk of coronary heart disease in initially healthy middle-aged men. Laura K. Barger, Brian E. Cade, Najib T. Ayas, John W. Extended work shifts and the risk of motor vehicle crashes among interns.

Homocyst e ine, diet, and cardiovascular disease. Serum amyloid A SAA : an acute phase protein and apolipoprotein. Margot VD, Stan M. Michie S, Williams S. Reducing work related psychological ill health and sickness absence: a systematic literature review.

Monk TH. Shift work. Principles and practice of sleep medicine. Influence of night shift work on psychologic state and cardiovascular and neuroendocrine responses in healthy nurses. Nurminen T. Shift work and reproductive health. Scand J Work Environ Health 24 s3 , Ori R. Parkes KR. Locus of control as moderator: an explanation for additive versus interactive findings in the demand-discretion model of work stress?.

British Journal of Psychology. Shiftwork and environment as interactive predictors of work perceptions. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology. Peter L. Am J Med. Does a stressful psychosocial work environment mediate the effects of shift work on cardiovascular risk factors? Scand J Work Environment Health.

Quality of life in shift work syndrome. Functional Neurology. Rajaratnam S, Arendt J. Health in a hour society. Prospective study of C-reactive protein and the risk of future cardiovascular events among apparently healthy women. C-reactive protein adds to the predictive value of total and HDL cholesterol in determining risk of first myocardial infarction. Creactive protein and other markers of inflammation in the prediction of cardiovascular disease in women.

N Engl J Med. Clinical efficacy of an automated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein assay. Clin Chem , Evaluation of four automated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein methods: implications for clinical and epidemiological applications.

Clin Chem. Night work and breast cancer risk. European journal of cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. Job strain and cardiovascular disease. Ann Rev Pub Health. Allostatic load and work conditions. Shiftwork: effects on sleep and health with recommendations for medical surveillance and screening.

Peptic ulcer is prevalent among shift workers. Dig Dis Sci. Siegrist J. J Occup Health Psychol. Work shift duration: a review comparing eight hour and 12 hour shift systems. Steptoe A. Neural and endocrine factors in cardiovascular control. In: Psychological factors in cardiovascular disorders. London: Academic. Shift work, occupation and coronary heart disease over 6 years of follow up in the Helsinki Heart Study.

Hemostatic factors and risk of myocardial infarction or sudden death in patients with angina pectoris: European Concerted Action on Thrombosis and Disabilities Angina Pectoris Study Group.

Uehata T, Sasakawa N. The fatigue and maternity disturbances of night work women. J Hum Ergol. Vener KJ. Szabo S. Moore JG. The effect of shift work on gastrointestinal function: a review. Shiftwork, health, safety. An overview of the scientific literature HSE contract research report No. Global climate change has been implicated in altering environment and ecosystem, and resulted in significant impacts on human health. As climatic factors may influence vegetation and habitats in ecosystem, many biological agents with great potential to threaten human health, such as fungi, bacteria, and viruses, are also sensitive responders to climate change as their growth rates and transmission patterns can easily be affected with various severity.

Meanwhile, many of these microbial agents are known to be directly or indirectly engaged in triggering an array of biological effects that are often considered attributable to the occurrence of several important health outcomes, including those mediated by infectious agents such as water-borne and vector-borne microbes, and effects associated with airborne pollens and fungal spores. How the pattern and degree of climate change around the world, in a global, regional, or local level, may affect the frequency and distribution of the above-mentioned health outcomes have become the center of interest in different parts of the world.

In this study, Geography Information System GIS was applied to integrate existing databases of health surveillance, climatic and environmental measurements in Taiwan to study the effects of weather variability and extreme weather events on biological agents and their related health effects. For vector borne diseases, monthly weather parameters, including minimum temperature, relative humidity, and maximum temperature, were good predictors for higher incidence of dengue fever in epidemic area in ARIMA model.

The prediction model could also forecast the incidence for the upcoming years with good fitness. Moreover, warmer winter and higher population density seemed to be the determinants for identifying the spatial distribution of epidemic areas in Taiwan. Along with rising population density, increasing island-wide temperature might therefore contribute to geographical expansion of dengue fever transmission.

Excessive rainfall and dry season might be also associated with the large-scale outbreak of shigellosis that has been identified due to contamination in underground water.

Based on these findings and models, we could develop a climate-based early warning system EWS for infectious diseases to predicting the temporal variability and geographical distribution in diseases incidence under a range of scenarios corresponding to future climate changes. For the impacts of weather variability on aeroallergens, this present study demonstrated extreme weather events like dust storm from China would significantly increase regional atmospheric fungal spore levels, mostly through the rise of some particular fungal species.

Such an observation was considered indirect evidence proposing the contribution of dust storms on ambient fungal spores.

Our aeroallergens monitoring database was the first dataset conducted in Taiwan to create an annual calendar for daily ambient fungal spores. Based on this valuable database, we constructed a reliable model to predicted daily ambient level for each fungal spore while also taking into account the metrological factors using time-series analysis.

Inter-annual variation could be expected for total yields of Ascospores and Botrytis as they were highly correlated with accumulated degrees of temperature and the amount of rainfall on an annual basis. This information could provide a precaution for improving other avoidance strategy for those allergic subjects. The clinical visit of asthma was found to be associated with the increase of ambient fungal spores, and young children appeared to be the more vulnerable population to such an exposure.

A synergistic effect from ambient fungal spores and particulate matter pollution on the elevated risk of clinic visits due to asthma was also observed. This research has generated a series of evidences on the potential health impacts mediated by biological agents while their distributions might have been also heavily associated with weather variability and extreme weather events in Taiwan.

These assessments have not only provided a factual linkage between climate changes and health impacts, but also demonstrated specific dose-response relationships, from which a preventive strategy can be effectively formed for vulnerable populations in anticipation of more rapid change of climate in our geographic region. Al-Suwaine A. Seasonal incidence of airborne fungal allergens in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Alamanos Y. A community waterborne outbreak of gastro-enteritis attributed to Shigella sonnei.

Anderson W. Asthma admissions and thunderstorms: a study of pollen, fungal spores, rainfall, and ozone. Qjm 94 8 : Angulo-Romero J. Conidia of Alternaria in the atmosphere of the city of Cordoba, Spain in relation to meteorological parameters. International Journal of Biometeorology 43 1 : Anto J. Thunderstorms: a risk factor for asthma attacks.

Atherholt T. Effect of rainfall on Giardia and cryptosporidiosis. Journal of American Water Works Association. Baily T. Interactive spatial data analysis. Essex, England, Longman Group Limited. Banerjee T. Cladosporium bantianum meningitis in a neonate. Indian Journal of Pediatrics. Bardana E. The clinical spectrum of aspergillosis- Part 1: epidemiology, pathogenicity, infection in animals and immunology of Aspergillus.

Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Science Bastain T. Intraindividual reproducibility of nasal allergic responses to diesel exhaust particles indicates a susceptible phenotype.

Clinical Immunology 2 : Bernard S. The potential impacts of climate variability and change on air pollution-related health effects in the United States. Environmental Health Perspectives Suppl 2: Black P.

  FUJI フジ 2021年モデル TRACK PRO トラック プロ トラックバイク

Project portfolio selection 2 problem Concluding comments 1 Review questions 2 More advanced linear programming concepts and 17 methods Study objectives 1 Basic LP assumptions and their implications 1 for capital budgeting Expanding the number of projects and 1 constraints Example Power generator's decision 2 problem Indivisible investments and integer 1 activity levels Example Resort development problem 1 Borrowing and capital transfers 1 Example Borrowing and capital 2 transfer problem Contingent or dependent projects 1 Example Infrastructure problem 1 Mutually exclusive projects 1 Example Sports gear problem 1 Some other LP extensions for capital 2 budgeting Concluding comments 1 Review questions 2 Financial modelling case study in forestry 15 project evaluation Study objectives 1 Forestry evaluation models: uses and user 1 groups Financial models available to evaluate 1 forestry investments The Australian Cabinet Timbers Financial 7 Model ACTFM Review of model development and design 3 options Concluding comments 1 Review questions 1 Property investment analysis 23 Study objectives 1 Income-producing properties 4 Example Property cash flows from the 2 industrial property Example Equity cash flows before tax 3 from the industrial property Example Equity cash flows after tax 2 from the industrial property Corporate real estate 1 Example Acquiring the industrial 3 property for operations Example Leasing or buying the 2 industrial property for operations Development feasibility 1 Example Initial screening of an 2 industrial building project Example Project cash flows from a 1 property development Example Equity cash flows from the 1 development project Concluding comments 1 Review questions 2 Forecasting and analysing risks in property 23 investments Study objectives 1 Forecasting 3 Example Forecasting operating cash 5 flows for the industrial property Example Franklin Liberty U.

Core Bond ETF. ProShares Ultra Nasdaq Biotechnology. ProShares Ultra Telecommunications. ProShares Ultra Consumer Goods. Schwab Fundamental U. Mid-Cap ETF. ProShares Ultra Real Estate. Financial Services ETF. Graniteshares Gold Trust. Janus Henderson U.

Real Estate ETF. Energy ETF. Vanguard U. Value Factor. Vanguard Russell ETF. Healthcare Providers ETF. Leuthold Core ETF. Laggards ETF. WisdomTree U. Growth and Momentum Fund. Bull 2X Shares. Direxion Daily Semiconductors Bear 3x Shares. Cabot Growth ETF. Teucrium Sugar Fund. Procure Space ETF. Vanguard Energy ETF. Principal Value ETF. Minimum Volatility ETF. The Cannabis ETF. Acruence Active Hedge U. Insurance ETF.

ProShares Ultra SmallCap Avantis U. Teucrium Agricultural Fund. WisdomTree Alternative Income Fund. Alger 35 ETF. Core Alternative ETF. Growth ETF. Virtus InfraCap U. Preferred Stock ETF. Quality Dividend Growth Fund. ProShares Ultra Industrials. ProShares Short Real Estate. Invesco Preferred ETF. Fidelity Small-Mid Multifactor. Direxion Daily Industrials Bull 3x Shares.

Direxion Hydrogen ETF. ProShares Ultra Euro. Industrials ETF. Vanguard Total Corporate Bond Fund. Value ETF. ProShares UltraShort Yen. ProShares Ultra Semiconductors. ProShares Ultra Consumer Services. Sofi Next ETF. Ecofin Digital Payments Infras. Fidelity U. Multifactor ETF. ProShares Ultra Utilities. Direxion Daily Utilities Bull 3x Shares. Economic implications were also considered in this study.

Effect of going on the performance of a solar water pumping station. An extensive experimental study has been carried out to investigate the manner in which photovoltaic pumping systems age. A system, installed over 15 years back, has been tested to study the effect of degradation of components on the system performance. The results are used to provide a basis for more realistic evaluation of the economics of solar energy conversion such as, lifetime of the device and the relationship between device age and its efficiency.

The study indicates that the degradation of performance is due mainly to glazing seal failure: antireflection coating destruction, mechanical cracks in the body of the cell and inverter problems. The effect of dirt accumulation on the top surfaces does not appear to have adversely affected the thermal performance.

A major conclusion from this study is that many of the more serious problems found were either present at the time of installation or resulted from improper operation by untrained personnel and shutting down the system for long periods without regular maintenance. In this paper, the studies of heat pump systems using solar collectors as the evaporators, which have been done so far by reserchers, are reviwed. Usually, a solar collector without any cover is preferable to one with ac over because of the necessity of absorbing heat from the ambient air when the intensity of the solar energy on the collector is not enough.

The performance of the collector depends on its area and the intensity of the convective heat transfer on the surface. Fins are fixed on the backside of the collector-surface or on the tube in which the refrigerant flows in order to increase the convective heat transfer.

For the purpose of using a heat pump efficiently throughout year, a compressor with variable capacity is applied. The solar assisted heat pump can be used for air conditioning at night during the summer. Only a few groups of people have studied cooling by using solar assisted heat pump systems. In Japan, a kind of system for hot water supply has been produced commercially in a company and a kind of system for air conditioning has been installed in buildings commercially by another company.

Feasibility of solar-pumped dye lasers. Dye laser gains were measured at various pump -beam irradiances on a dye cell in order to evaluate the feasibility of solar pumping. Rhodamine 6G dye was considered as a candidate for the solar-pumped laser because of its high utilization of the solar spectrum and high quantum efficiency.

Measurements show that a solar concentration of 20, is required to reach the threshold of the dye. A novel high efficiency solar photovoltalic pump. The daily average overall efficiency of a solar pump system is not only influenced by the maximum efficiency of the components of the system, but just as much by the correct matching of the components to the local irradiation pattern. Normally centrifugal pumps are used in solar pump systems.

Theoretical model and experimental validation of a direct-expansion solar assisted heat pump for domestic hot water applications. This paper has shown the development of a theoretical model to determine the operating parameters and consumption of a domestic hot water DHW installation, which uses a direct-expansion solar assisted heat pump DXSAHP with refrigerant Ra, a compressor with a rated capacity of 1. The model results have been compared and validated the experimental results obtained with the equipment installed at the University Carlos III, South of Madrid.

The analysis was conducted over the course of a year, and the results have been represented depending on the meteorological and process variables of several representative days.

Taking into account the thermal losses of the installation and the dependency on the operating conditions, the acquired experimental coefficient of performance is between 1. A water lifter is described which contains a diaphram pump with working cavity and inlet and outlet valves and solar energy collector filled with easily boiling fluid. In order to improve the degree of use of the solar energy and output, the water lifter additionally contains a bellows arranged in the working cavity of the pump and connected to it and the collector, and a cylinder made of magnetic-soft material with a magnetic valve arranged in it with a rod connected to the bellows, a seat for the valve on the upper end and contact plate interacting with the valve in its lower position.

Solar Water Heater. Eldon Haines studied the solar energy source and solar water heating. He concluded he could build a superior solar water heating system using the geyser pumping principle. Haines' Copper Cricket residential system has no moving parts, is immune to freeze damage, needs no roof-mounted tanks, and features low maintenance. It provides percent of average hot water requirements. A larger system, the Copper Dragon, has been developed for commercial installations.

Minimum maintenance solar pump Assefa Zede Journal. A minimum maintenance solar pump MMSP , Fig 1, has been simulated for Addis Ababa, taking solar meteorological data of global radiation, diffuse radiation and ambient air temperature as input to a computer program that has been developed.

To increase the performance of the solar pump , by trapping the long-wave Financial viability study using a heat pump as an alternative to support solar collector for water heating in Southeastern Brazil. Along with related greenhouse effect environmental issues, constant problems changes in oil prices,make the use of solar energy an important renewable energy source. Brazil is a country which is privilege, considering the high rates of solar irradiation present throughout most of the entire national territory.

Nevertheless, during certain times of the year, a solar energy deficit, leads solar systems to require electrical resistance support. The use of electrical resistance represents The purpose of this work is conducting a study of Brazilian States in the Southeastern region regarding the financial viability of replacing a resistive system combined with the use of solar collector and a heat pump. One such heat pump has been designed, constructed and tested experimentally.

The average performance coefficient is equal to 2. Despite this low-moderate price coefficient of acquisition and installation of a heat pump , a return on investment in from 2. Whereas the equipment has a useful life of about 20 years, this period of return on investment is interesting. Eastern India has rich resource base for intensive and diversified agriculture, but the production and productivity of this region is quite low due to lack of assured irrigation as even a short dry spell of drought adversely affects the stability of agricultural production.

The foremost reason energy squeeze in terms of lack of electricity and substantial increase in diesel price, which refrain farmers from operating required number hours of diesel pumps. This region is endowed with enormous When solar heating system couples with water source heat pump , the two systems can complement each other, and improve the stability and performance of the heating system. Aiming at applicability of solar water source heat pump for building in our country, with meteorological database of Harbin, Beijing, Shanghai as basic conditions, the paper analyzes heat load characteristics of typical building.

Mathematical model is established. Using TRNSYS platform for optimal solution, the article provides the necessary data basis for study on applicability of solar water source heat pump. According to the theory of life cycle assessment, the paper analyzes applicability of solar water source heat pump for building of each region. The result shows that the applicability of solar water source heat pump in severely cold region and cold region is environmentally beneficial.

Domestic water heating in households sector is usually performed by either fossil fuel fired or electric boilers. Both the combustion process of the former and large electricity consumption of the latter strongly influence overall greenhouse gas emissions. Considering the mentioned impact on energy consumption and CO 2 emissions as well as goals set by European Commission so called , new technologies based on renewable energy sources are more than welcome in the field of domestic water heating.

Direct expansion solar assisted heat pump is presented in this paper. Its working principle is based on single-stage vapour-compression cycle. Representing a gradual step to commercial application with a water tank of l, the developed mobile unit is designed as a test rig enabling all necessary measurements to evaluate potential of solar irradiation for domestic water heating on various locations. Besides the unit description, trial testing results are presented and analyzed as well as a basic comparison of CO 2 emissions between solar assisted heat pump and conventionally used water heating systems.

Taking into account both the decentralized water heating and favourable climatic conditions especially along the Croatian Adriatic coast as well as rising fossil fuel prices, it is expected that solar assisted heat pumps will be commercialized in the near future. Several optimized design schemes had been proposed based on the existing commercial solar water pumping systems.

In addition, future trends of solar water pumping systems had been presented. Pumps for medium sized solar systems. The suitability of the electronically controlled circulation pump type UPE from Grundfos for large solar heating systems was elucidated Pump efficiency in solar -energy systems. Study investigates characteristics of typical off-the-shelf pumping systems that might be used in solar systems. Report includes discussion of difficulties in predicting pump efficiency from manufacturers' data.

Sample calculations are given. Peak efficiencies, flow-rate control, and noise levels are investigated. Review or theory of pumps types and operating characteristics is presented. Water displacement mercury pump. A water displacement mercury pump has a fluid inlet conduit and diffuser, a valve, a pressure cannister, and a fluid outlet conduit.

The valve has a valve head which seats in an opening in the cannister. The entire assembly is readily insertable into a process vessel which produces mercury as a product. As the mercury settles, it flows into the opening in the cannister displacing lighter material. When the valve is in a closed position, the pressure cannister is sealed except for the fluid inlet conduit and the fluid outlet conduit.

Introduction of a lighter fluid into the cannister will act to displace a heavier fluid from the cannister via the fluid outlet conduit. The entire pump assembly penetrates only a top wall of the process vessel, and not the sides or the bottom wall of the process vessel. This insures a leak-proof environment and is especially suitable for processing of hazardous materials.

Through the mathematical model,the circulation process is analyzed theoretically and the pump water efficiency is given. On the basis of theoretical analysis,the experimental system is built and the performance of the system is tested. The temperature and pressure variation law of the working fluid inside the piston and the variation of pump water rate with the different heating temperatures and pump water heights are obtained.

The results show that the experimental results agree with the theoretical results. Increasing the heating temperature can improve the pump water rate and shorten the cycle time,which is beneficial to improve the efficiency of the whole system. Meanwhile,increasing pump water height will reduce pump water rate.

Therefore,for the type of small solar pump water device, pump water height should not be set too high. Direct solar-pumped iodine laser amplifier. The optimum conditions of a solar pumped iodine laser are found in this research for the case of a continuous wave operation and a pulsed operation. During the research period, various laser materials were also studied for solar pumping. Among the laser materials, Nd:YAG is found to have the lowest laser threshold pumping intensity of about solar constant.

The Rhodamine 6G was also tested as the solar pumped laser material. The threshold pumping power was measured to be about 20, solar constant.

The amplification experiment for a continuously pumped iodine laser amplifier was performed using Vortek solar simulator and the amplification factors were measured for single pass amplification and triple pass amplification of the 15 cm long amplifier tube. The amplification of 5 was obtained for the triple pass amplification. Sludge pumping in water treatment. In water treatment processes is frequent to separate residual solids, with sludge shape, and minimize its volume in a later management.

In wastewater treatment plants WWTP , the management of these sludges is very important because their characteristics affect load losses calculation. Pumping sludge can modify its behavior and pumping frequency can concern treatment process. This paper explains advantages and disadvantages of different pumps to realize transportation sludge operations. Author 11 refs. Threshold pump power of a solar-pumped dye laser. Threshold solar power for dye laser pumping has been determined by measuring the gain of a rhodamine 6G dye laser amplifier at various solar -simulated irradiances on an amplifier cell.

The measured threshold was 20, solar constants 2. The threshold is about one-third of that achievable with a high-intensity solar concentrator. Liquid flat plate collector and pump for solar heating and cooling systems: A collection of quarterly reports.

Progress in the development, fabrication, and delivery of solar subsystems consisting of a solar operated pump , and solar collectors which can be used in solar heating and cooling, or hot water , for single family, multifamily, or commercial applications is reported.

Natural working fluids for solar -boosted heat pumps. Chaichana, C. Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering. The option of using natural working fluids as a substitute of R for solar -boosted heat pumps depends not only upon thermal performance and hazardous rating but also on potential impacts on the environment. This paper presents the comparative assessment of natural working fluids with R in terms of their characteristics and thermophysical properties, and thermal performance.

Some justification is given for using natural working fluids in a solar boosted heat pump water heater. The results show that R is not suitable for solar -boosted heat pumps because of its low critical temperature and high operational pressures.

On the other hand, R seems to be a more appropriate substitute in terms of operational parameters and overall performance. However, major changes in the heat pumps are required. R and R are identified as candidates for direct drop-in substitutes for R Performance of a small wind powered water pumping system.

Development of nonmetallic solar collector and solar -powered pump. Design and building of two unique components for solar heating 1. Report also discusses hardware, deliverable end items, problems encountered during fabrication and testing, and performance certification. Solar and wind potentialities in Mauritania. Presentation of pumping.

The programs of rural hydraulics based upon the use of renewable energies, either solar or wind, have gained in importance in Africa during the last decade; particularly in Mauritania, a Sahelian country, which is extending widely beyond the western edge of Sahara.

This country has been hardly affected by the prolonged droughts which have recently struck this region. Water is a major problem here. Important projects appeared concerning the pumping of water with the help of solar photovoltaic systems and wind mechanical pumps ; other processes are being studied: pumping with aero-generators, sea water desalinating Today Mauritania is at the top of countries of the subregion concerning the number of installations of wind mechanical pumps.

The meteorological conditions are in fact favourable to such realizations. A technical and economic comparative study of the results of functioning obtained on the field with a photovoltaic pumping installation and a wind pumping installation, is presented: better technical performances and greater reliability for the photovoltaic pump , lower cost and technological mastery for the wind pump. This system design uses solar energy when available, but reverts to the heat pump at night or during cloudy weather.

This new design will be used for hydronic heating in the Applied Energy Laboratory, a teaching laboratory at Purdue University, but it is more generally applicable for Advanced solar energy conversion. An atomic iodine laser, a candidate for the direct solar pumped lasers, was successfully excited with a 4 kW beam from a xenon arc solar simulator, thus proving the feasibility of the concept.

The experimental set up and the laser output as functions of operating conditions are presented. The preliminary results of the iodine laser amplifier pumped with the HCP array to which a Q switch for giant pulse production was coupled are included. Two invention disclosures - a laser driven magnetohydrodynamic generator for conversion of laser energy to electricity and solar pumped gas lasers - are also included. During this period Nd:YAG and Nd:Cr:GSGG crystals have been tested for the solar -simulator pumped cw laser, and loss mechanisms of the laser output power in a flashlamp- pumped iodine laser also have been identified theoretically.

In addition, good agreement between the theoretical calculations and the experimental data on the loss mechanisms of a flashlamp- pumped iodine laser at various fill pressures and various lasants was achieved.

Appropriate technology for sustainable family agriculture in the semi-arid: solar water pumping for located irrigation; Tecnologia apropriada para a agricultura familiar sustentavel do semi-arido brasileiro: bombeamento solar de agua para irrigacao localizada.

Water and energy are the physic factor, which are most influential on the life conditions in the semi-arid rural environment as a whole and in the agriculture production systems in particular.

Water is a resource, which - even though not rare - is found in limited quantities and not always is available on the ground surface, meaning that it should be retrieved through either proper wells or deep holes excavated into ground. Therefore, its use should be optimized.

In the rural environment to turn water into an available resource in a sufficient amount in order to improve the population life conditions is still a challenge. In the rural semi-arid regions the electric energy distribution is small compared to the other regions of the country. Nevertheless the geographic position of the Brazilian Northeast - close to the equator - adds to this region high levels of insolation - something close to 3, hours of sunshine per year - turning this energy resource into a very abundant one.

It is known that the use of solar energy, among the use of other resources, has increased the most worldwide in the last decade. In the last years several applications, which had the sun as their electric energy resource, were implemented in the rural areas of many countries. The Brazilian Northeast region was the preferred target of programs and projects aiming at the dissemination of the photovoltaic solar technology. Water pumping is one among the most noble applications of the photovoltaic solar technology.

There are many pumping systems configurations for either deep or shallow wells, which use either superficial, immerse or floating motor- pumps , which in turn can be driven by either continuum or alternate current. In this work the usage of water pumped with solar energy from Amazon wells also called 'cacimboes' for small family-based areas of localized irrigation less than 1 ha , whose main.

Solar and wind systems utilization in water pumping for irrigation; Utilizacao de sistemas solar e eolico no bombeamento de agua para uso na irrigacao. In this work, it was made an applied research in two stations, the first one located at Canabarro locality and the second one at Polytechnic School at UFSM, in Santa Maria city, RS, with wind and photovoltaic equipment for pumping water.

These ones are used for fruit trees irrigation in irrigation systems of low pressure. The research work was developed from September to August , when the results showed the viability of wind and photovoltaic equipment for utilization in the complementary irrigation in fruit cultures such as guava, fig and grape trees.

In the fruit culture sector, are installed: one multivane fans wind indicator one savonius wind indicator and respective pumps as well as pump set and a photovoltaic board. The wind groups demonstrated low efficiency, if compared to photovoltaic systems, which showed more efficient. The heat pump water heater HPWH , as a portion of the eco-friendly technologies using renewable energy, has been applied for years in developed countries.

Air-source heat pump water heaters and solar -assisted heat pump water heaters have been widely applied and have become more and more popular because of their comparatively higher energy efficiency and environmental protection. Besides use of the above resources, the heat pump water heater system can also adequately utilize an available wat Solar systems and heat pumps in operation in Carinthia: results - Test results from solar systems for swimming pool heating, hot water preparation and space heating as well as heat pumps for hot water preparation, space heating and heat recovery will be reported and assessed collectively.

Research on solar pumped liquid lasers. A solar pumped liquid laser that can be scaled up to high power 10 mW CW for space applications was developed. Liquid lasers have the advantage over gases in that they provide much higher lasant densities and thus high-power densities. Liquids also have advantages over solids in that they have much higher damage thresholds and are much cheaper to produce for large scale applications. The development of a manufacturing procedure and performance testing of the laser, liquid and the development of an inexpensive large solar concentrator to pump the laser are examined.

A solar pumped liquid laser that can be scaled up to high power 10Mw CW for space applications was developed. Liquid lasers have the inherent advantage over gases in that they provide much higher lasant densities and thus high power densities.

Liquids also have inherent advantages over solids in that they have much higher damage thresholds and are much cheaper to produce for large scale applications. The development and testing of the laser liquid and the development of a large solar concentrator to pump the laser was emphasized. The procedure to manufacture the laser liquid must include diagnostic tests of the solvent purity from protic contamination at various stages in the production process.

The developed XeCl laser produces output energy of about 60 mJ per pulse. The pulse duration was about 10 nsec. The kinetic model for the solar-pumped laser was refined and the algorithm for the calculation of a set of rate equations was improved to increase the accuracy and the efficiency of the calculation. The improved algorithm was applied to explain the existing experimental data taken from a flashlamp pumped iodine laser for three kinds of lasants, i-C3F7I, n-C4F9I, and t-C4F9I.

Various solid laser materials were evaluated for solar-pumping. The slope efficiency of 0. Cotransporters as molecular water pumps. Molecular water pumps are membrane proteins of the cotransport type in which a flux of water is coupled to substrate fluxes by a mechanism within the protein. Free energy can be exchanged between the fluxes. Accordingly, the flux of water may be relatively independent of the external water chemical Design of Pumps for Water Hydraulic Systems.

This paper considers the development of two pumps for water hydraulic applications. The pumps are based on two different working principles: The Vane-type pump and the Gear-type pump. Emphasis is put on the considerations that should be made to account for water as the hydraulic fluid Theoretcial studies of solar-pumped lasers.

A method of pumping a COhZ laser by a hot cavity was demonstrated. The cavity, heated by solar radiation, should increase the efficiency of solar pumped lasers used for energy conversion. Kinetic modeling is used to examine the behavior of such a COhZ laser. The kinetic equations are solved numerically vs. The effect of gas heating filling the lower laser level is included.

The output power and laser efficiency are obtained as functions of black body temperature and gas ratios COhZ-He-Ar and pressures. The values are compared with experimental results. Analysis of the possibility of use of a pump powered by solar energy supply of water in micro sprinklers; Analise da possibilidade de utilizacao de uma motobomba acionada por energia solar na alimentacao de agua em micro aspersores.

Due to the high cost of connecting electricity in distant places of conventional networks, solar photovoltaic energy is widely used in street lighting, water pumping , health clinics, etc.. To contribute to a better use of such energy, the project aimed to analyze the water -flow, power and electric current of a motor powered by two Solarex solar module manufacturer, model MSX 56, standard voltage of 12V, the current standard of 3.

The analysis for the height of Operation method study based on the energy balance of an independent microgrid using solar -powered water electrolyzer and an electric heat pump. A completely energy-independent microgrid green microgrid was examined in this work with the aims of abating greenhouse gas emissions by spreading the use of green energy, providing energy backup systems for disaster, and increasing the energy utilization efficiency with the use of exhaust heat.

This paper analyzed the energy supply to six houses in a cold region. The green microgrid consisted of photovoltaics, water electrolyzers, proton-exchange membrane fuel cells PEFCs , and heat pumps. To investigate the operation method and the capacity of each piece of equipment in the arrangement, a distributed system with two or more sets of equipment and a central system with one set of equipment were analyzed by a genetic algorithm. By introducing the prior energy need pattern of a cold region into the proposed system, the operation method and equipment capacity based on the power and heat balance were clarified.

By introducing the partial load performance of a water electrolyzer and a PEFC into the analysis program, the operation method of each system was investigated.

A water lifter is proposed which contains a piston pump , whose rod of the piston is connected to the drive element having periodic contact with the solar heater storage battery. In order to expand the range of operation and to simplify design, the drive element is made in the form of a hollow tube with closed ends equipped with mobile supports, and a ridged HE attached to its middle part, hydraulically connected to the cavity of the tube, and the latter is made of material which has the memory of the shape in the hot state.

Solar-pumped gas laser development. The direct conversion of solar radiation into an inverted population for extraction in an optical cavity holds promise as a relatively simple system design. Broad-band photoabsorption in the visible or near-UV range is required to excite large volumes of gas and to ensure good solar absorption efficiency.

The state excited must be a metastable state which is not quenched by the parent gas. The emission bandwidth must be less than approximately 10 A. The system should show chemical reversibility and an insensitivity to increasing temperature. Other properties such as good quantum efficiency and kinetic efficiency are also implied. A search of electronic-vibrational transitions in diatomic molecules satisfying these conditions is now in progress.

A photodissociation- pumped atomic iodine laser is now being tested under solar pumping conditions. Photodissociation studies for thallium spin-flip metastable formation will begin in the near future. The structure and operation method of solar water heating system with different auxiliary heating, such as air-source heat pump , water -source heat pump , and soil-source heat pump , were introduced briefly.

The characteristics of all kinds of solar water heating system with auxiliary heating were compared and analyzed. The suitable application environment of solar water heating system with auxiliary heating was also presented. Measurements on a PV solar pump equipped with a piston pump with a matching valve. The work on a simple high efficient solar pump equipped with a piston pump with a matching valve, reported at the Solar World Congress in Budapest, has been continued.

Quasi-static and dynamic models of the solar pump have been derived with which the operation of the system is simulated. A test rig. The system Could make full use of solar energy to heat domestic hot water , combined with air-source heat pump to meet the shortage of solar irradiance when the hot water demand, and the auxiliary heating with solar energy to solve the problems of air source heat pump operating conditions in low temperature. The system took full use of the low-grade solar energy, and stability could be assured.

And it could improve the temperature of the water in solar water heaters in rainy summers, transition seasons and winters. The system had significance for energy conservation and environmental protection. The market penetration of solar and heat pump systems in Austria The market penetration of solar and heat pump systems in Austria in shows a high interest for solar systems as well as for swimming-pool heating as for domestic hot- water preparation and also an increase in the field of heat pumps especially for space heating.

Solar Water -Heater Design and Installation. Air handler circulates heated air through an air-to- water heat exchanger, which transfers heat to incoming well water.

In one application, it may reduce oil use by 40 percent. When the solar collectors are unable to supply the heat demand an auxiliary heat source is used. Heat pumps can generate this heat. The tubes are typically placed in the ground, requires a significant land area and increase the installation cost. The system consists of PVT collectors that generate both heat and electricity Much energy is used for appliances, domestic hot water preparation and space heating.

In solar heating systems, heat is captured by solar collectors when the sun is shining and used for heating purposes Solar pumped continuous wave carbon dioxide laser. In an effort to demonstrate the feasibility of a solar pumped laser concept, gain has been measured in a CO2-He laser medium optically pumped by blackbody radiation.

Various gas mixtures of CO2 and He have been pumped by blackbody radiation emitted from an electrically heated oven. Using a CO2 laser as a probe, an optical gain coefficient of 1. This corresponds to a small signal gain coefficient when allowance is made for saturation effects due to the probe beam, in reasonable agreement with a theoretical value.

Efficiency and threshold pump intensity of CW solar-pumped solid-state lasers. The authors consider the relation between the threshold pumping intensity, the material properties, the resonator parameters, and the ultimate slope efficiencies of various solid-state laser materials for solar pumping. They clarify the relation between the threshold pump intensity and the material parameters and the relation between the ultimate slope efficiency and the laser resonator parameters such that a design criterion for the solar-pumped solid-state laser can be established.

Among the laser materials evaluated, alexandrite has the highest slope efficiency of about Its threshold pump intensity is about air-mass-zero AM0 solar constants and its slope efficiency is about 12 percent when thermal deformation is completely prevented.

Renewable energy technologies for irrigation water pumping in India: A preliminary attempt towards potential estimation. Simple frameworks have been developed for estimating the utilization potential of: a solar photovoltaic SPV pumps ; b windmill pumps ; c producer gas based dual fuel engine pumps ; and d biogas based dual fuel engine pumps for irrigation water pumping in India.

The approach takes into account factors such as: solar radiation intensity, wind speed, availability of bovine dung and agri-residues, and their alternative uses, ground water requirements for irrigation and its availability, affordability, and propensity of the users to invest in renewable energy devices, etc.

SPV pumps are estimated to have the maximum utilization potential in India, followed by windmill pumps.

Performance of a solar augmented heat pump. Performance of a residential size solar augmented heat pump is reported for the heating season. The facility located in Knoxville, Tennessee, has a measured heat load coefficient of The solar augmented heat pump system consists of 7. The heat pump is a nominal 8. The system includes electric resistance heaters to give the option of adding thermal energy to the pebble bed storage during utility off-peak periods, thus offering considerable load management capability.

A 15 KW electric resistance duct heater is used to add thermal energy to the pebble bin as required during off-peak periods. Hourly thermal performance and on site weather data was taken for the period November 1, , to April 13, Thermal performance data consists of heat flow summations for all modes of the system, pebble bed temperatures, and space temperature.

Weather data consists of dry bulb temperature, dew point temperature, total global insolation in the plane of the collector , and wind speed and direction.