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JPB2 en. Bitcoin Price BTC. The application provider is located remotely from the IC card and desires to transmit and load an application to the IC card. Hereinafter, the individual keys of the key set will be described in more detail. The application copy number is unique for each copy of the application to be loaded on the IC card

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Building docker image. Pull the image. Explore the Bitcoin Testnet. Bitcoin test transactions are verified by Bitcoin test network nodes through cryptography and recorded in a public distributed ledger called a blockchain. Bitcoins from the test network can NOT be exchanged for other currencies, products, and. No per-block founder rewards. Significant changes for integration Bitcoin is a distributed, worldwide, decentralized digital money. Bitcoins are issued and managed without any central authority whatsoever: there is no government, company, or bank in charge of Bitcoin.

You might be interested in Bitcoin if you like cryptography, distributed peer-to-peer systems, or economics. From the output you can deduce the generating transactions Hash and from there you can simply use. The low testnet participation rates are mirrored by rhetoric from Eth 2. On the Testnet network, coins can be requested from Faucet websites such as Faucets require an address to which they send coins.

The parameters on the testnet may deviate from the actual data on the market, therefore you need to check the data to ensure accuracy when operating on the system. Step 1: Add the Testnet to Metamask. Bitcoin Testnet Faucet. You can get up to 0. Please enter bitcoin address. Please provide a valid volume. The same key is used for encryption and decryption, and the technology is symmetric.

One conventional example of a symmetric algorithm is DES. In the asymmetric encryption technique, information is encrypted and decrypted by using two different keys that form a pair. These two keys are usually called private or private keys and public keys.

When data is encrypted using one of the pair of keys, the other key is used to decrypt the data. When the data sender signs the data with the sender's private key, anyone with the public key can verify the message. Typically, since the public key is publicly known, it is not possible to protect the contents of the data signed with the private key, but determine whether the data is signed with a specific private key This can verify the origin of the data.

This authentication process is called digital signature. When person A wants to authenticate a message that person A is going to send to person B, person A signs the document using person A's private key. When person B receives the message, person B verifies the message using person A's public key. When the message is verified using the public key, person B knows that the document was signed using person A's private key. In this way, the origin of the message is authenticated.

It is also possible to protect the content of the message using an asymmetric key set. If person A wants to send an encrypted message to person B that no one else can read, person A encrypts the data or message with person B's public key and sends it to person B. Send to. Then, only the owner of the person B's private key can decrypt the data. If a combination of keys is used, a person can both authenticate and encrypt the message. Asymmetric key pairs have several powerful uses for card security.

However, asymmetric encryption has a relatively high processor cost compared to symmetric encryption the processor cost is related to the computation time. One hybrid symmetric encryption method that makes the encryption method stronger is to encrypt the data using two symmetric keys. This technique is called triple DES, which encodes data using key 1, decrypts the data using key 2 thus encoding the data further , and again key 1 The data is further encoded using.

After the data arrives at its destination, it uses key 1 to decrypt the data, key 2 to encode the data, and key 1 to decrypt the data. These extra encoding and decoding steps make this technique more powerful and make it more difficult to properly decode without both keys. The sending entity 1 may be a card issuer, bank, IC card, or other entity that wishes to deliver data to the IC card 3.

Preferably, the sending entity 1 initiates the data delivery process. Alternatively, if the card requests data from the sending entity 1, the IC card 3 may initiate the data delivery process.

The transmitting entity 1 is connected to an interface device 5 for example, a terminal that communicates with an IC card. The data path 7 can be a telephone line, an intranet, the Internet, a satellite link or any other type of communication link.

In the case of the present embodiment, the transmitting side entity 1 arranged at a position remote from the IC card 3 wants to send data to the IC card safely. It is also possible to use a certification authority 9 to authenticate that an IC card is proved to be valid as part of an IC card system.

In FIG. These keys may be generated at CA9 or any other location. This is because these keys are specific only to the IC card 3 and need not hold another copy. A third data item, a public key certificate 17 is also generated and stored on the IC card 3. The public key certificate 17 is generated by signing the public key 15 using the CA9 private key. As a result, it is possible for a person having the CA9 public key to verify that the CA has digitally signed the IC card public key in order to prove the individual key set of the IC card.

When the sending entity 1 starts data delivery, the IC card 3 is contacted through the interface device 5, and the IC card 3 sends its public key 15 and its public key certificate 17 to the sending entity 1. The sending entity then verifies this public key certificate with the CA13 public key the CA13 public key is publicly available from CA9 and can be stored in the sending entity 1 , thereby The CA 9 determines whether the public key is digitally signed and verifies that the IC card is a valid card.

Thereafter, the transmitting entity 1 encrypts data to be transmitted using the public key of the IC card. Thereafter, the transmission side entity 1 transmits the encrypted data 11 to the interface device 5 and the IC card 3. The IC card 3 decrypts the encrypted data using a corresponding private key also called a secret key Thereafter, this data can be processed by the IC card 3.

Only the IC card 3 has a copy of the private key, and only the intended IC card can access the encrypted data. This ensures that a third party cannot access the encrypted data, and thus that only the intended IC card can read and process the data.

The application provider starts an application loading process on the IC card The IC card is connected to a data conduit , and the data conduit is connected to an interface device for example, a terminal that communicates with the IC card. Data conduit may be a telephone line, an intranet, the Internet, a satellite link, or any other type of communication link.

The application provider is located remotely from the IC card and desires to transmit and load an application to the IC card. However, since the data link is an open link and exposed to a third party that interferes with or replaces the transmitted application, the security measures to authenticate the application itself, the application provider, and the IC card must be consistent with the system. Must be used to ensure gender. CA may also be used to assist in authenticating that some data being transmitted is part of the identified system.

The ALU includes the application itself and security data required for authentication, and protects application code and related data. The ALU preferably also includes application load certification ALC data sent from the certification mechanism CA to the application provider The certification mechanism manages the overall security of the system by providing an application load certificate for each application to be loaded on the IC card.

The authentication and security process is described below. The ALC is initialized with a conventional format used during data transmission. The AUs is application code and data AU digitally signed with the private key of the application provider. The application provider's public key is sent as part of the ALC and is used to authenticate the application provider as the creator of the application.

The ALC is composed of the card identification information and the public key of the application provider, and is signed by the secret key of the certification mechanism.

All these elements are described in more detail below. KTU includes information regarding encryption of AU application code and data that allows the IC card to decrypt the specified portion, so that applications and data can be accessed by the IC card.

Protect data during transmission between application provider and IC card. The KTU has encrypted the public key of the IC card for which the application is intended, thereby ensuring that only the intended IC card can decrypt the application code and data using the KTU information.

This element is described with reference to FIG. The AU contains both program code and associated data to be loaded onto the card user's IC card. The program code includes a plurality of program instructions executed by the microprocessor of the IC card. The program instructions can be written in any programming language that can be interpreted by the operating system stored on the IC card.

Most applications have associated data that must be loaded on the card. The application provider may provide an electronic cash represented by the data as a subsidy when installing the electronic parse application. It is desired that some or all of this data be kept secret from third parties. Eventually, the application code itself may be considered proprietary and some of it may be desired to be secret from others.

The use of a key conversion unit KTU allows an application provider to encrypt a selected part of the application as a secret and protect it from third parties. The application unit part indicates a program code to be transmitted from the application provider to the IC card. The application unit portion indicates related data to be transmitted as part of the application to be loaded on the IC card. In this example, three separate areas of the application unit are shown to be encrypted using either a single DES or a triple DES.

Any number of changes regarding the portion to be encrypted and the type of encryption may be implemented using the techniques described herein. In this example, encrypted location represents a first portion of application unit that has been encrypted using triple DES technology. The encryption process described above involves transforming the data using a symmetric key and a conventionally known DES-based algorithm.

The data can then be recovered by substituting the data into a conventionally known DES-based decoding algorithm. The encrypted location shows the second part of the application unit encrypted using triple DES. Encrypted location shows the third part encrypted using a single DES.

If the application unit is blocked by a third party during transmission from the application loader to the IC card, the encrypted part cannot be read out until the third party has the correct key and decryption algorithm. Information is therefore protected within the KTU. The KTU describes the application and associated data by describing which part of the application unit is encrypted, which encryption algorithm is used, and the key or keys used to decrypt the text.

The intended IC card makes it possible to decrypt the encrypted part of the application unit. This information is highly secret between the application provider and the intended IC card and is therefore protected in a very special way for the intended card.

The key set and its creation are described below. According to the present invention, one of the safety processes performed at the CA is to create a personalized key set for each IC card stored on the card.

The key is used for off-card verification ie verifying that the card is a true card and secure data delivery. The key creation process is schematically illustrated in FIG. The key set is composed of three different key data items. That is, a card public key certificate that is a card public key known only by the card, a card public key stored on the card, and a card public key signed by the CA private key. Hereinafter, the individual keys of the key set will be described in more detail.

Step stores the secret key delivered specifically for the individual IC card in the memory of the card. Once stored on the card, the CA erases any data related to the private key from its own memory.

Therefore, only the card itself knows its secret key. Step stores the card-specific distributed public key for each IC card in the card's memory. This public key is preferably created by the CA from the asymmetric encryption technique used to create the private key in step As with the private key, once the public key is stored on the card, the CA or other key provider deletes the public key data from the system, so a unique copy of the public key is stored on the card.

Step stores the card-specific delivered public key certificate for each IC card in the card memory. This process is performed at the CA. The public key certificate is stored by the CA so that the public key can be recreated as needed.

The terminal can read the public key certificate from the IC card, and the CA can sign and thereby verify that the individual IC card has been authorized. Additional identifiers may also be included. The authorization data is described in detail in the above referenced related application.

The public key of the IC card can be freely used by anyone and can be obtained directly from the card or CA. This means that only the intended IC card can determine the contents of the KTU plaintext, identify the encrypted portion of the application being loaded, and use the key to decrypt and restore the entire application and associated data. Other entities do not have the IC card private key, so that the security and integrity of the transmitted program code and data are ensured.

Field and key field. The identifier includes identification information of an application unit to which KTU is applied. In the example of FIG. Field contains the algorithm identifier for the encrypted first region.

Field indicates the start of the first encryption area. This indication may be an offset from the start of the AU. For example, the offset is obtained by This means that the first area starts from the th byte of the application unit. A field indicates the area length of the first encrypted part. This field allows the microprocessor on the IC card to know how big the area was encrypted and when it was combined with the start of the area, so that the IC card microprocessor can see the correct part of the application unit.

Can be encrypted. Field indicates the key length for a particular encrypted portion of the application unit. The key length varies with different encryption technologies.

From the key length field, the IC card can know the length of the key data. Field indicates key data for a specific encrypted part. The key data is used along with the algorithm identity and location of the encrypted portion to decode the encrypted portion. If more than one encrypted part is indicated, additional data referencing the algorithm, starting location, length, key length and key data are present in the KTU plaintext.

Although multiple fields have been described, not all fields are required for the present invention. However, the most important field is the key data itself. The ALC includes a header and an application provider public key Next, the header and the application provider public key are signed encrypted with the CA private key. The header includes information on an application provider intended for the application and the IC card.

The application provider public key is supplied to the CA together with identification data. Next, after verifying authenticity, the CA signs this information and returns the signed ALC to the application provider.

This ensures that the CA signs the application load certificate and authenticates it. After verifying the information, the header identification information is checked and the application provider public key is restored. This public key is used to verify that the application and code to be loaded on the IC card were created by the appropriate application provider. The AU signature is verified with the application provider public key and compared with the AU If the data block matches, the IC card has signed encrypted the application unit by the application provider and verified that the application is authentic.

This authentication is valid because only the application provider has a private key. Since the application provider public key is supplied as part of the application load certificate signed by the CA, the IC card can efficiently process this information.

Therefore, it is not necessary to restore the public key from the external location and authenticate the application. Before receiving the ALU, an identity check can be performed on the identity of the IC card, if desired. ALU process technology involves verifying that the application being loaded is 1 from the correct application provider, 2 loaded into the intended card, and 3 certified by the CA. Provides further verification of ALU process technology also enables delivery of a delivery decryption key that allows the IC card to decrypt the portion of the program code and associated data in a secure manner.

The ALU may be transmitted via a terminal connection, a contactless connection, a telephone, a computer, an intranet, the Internet, or any other communication means.

Alternatively, the IC card can determine the relative address location of these four units. Each IC card preferably stores a copy of the CA public key in its memory. This is because the CA public key is used for many transactions. Alternatively, the IC card can obtain a public key from a known storage location. Thus, the application loading process ends. Step then checks the identity of the IC card against the identification information sent in the application load certificate to ensure that the card is intended to receive the application.

This permission check is described in the related patent application identified above. If there is no identity data match, the application loading process ends. If the identification data matches, the process continues. Step verifies the AU signature using the application provider's public key restored from the verified ALC. When the ALU is created by the application provider, the application unit is signed with the application provider's private key and authenticates that the application was supplied by the correct application provider.

As a result, the IC card verifies the AU signature If the two data blocks match, the ALU is verified as created by the application provider. This special key interaction between the application provider, the CA, and the intended IC card ensures that no counterfeit or unauthorized application or data is loaded into the IC card that is part of the secure system. To do. Step then processes a KTU authentication check that further verifies that only the intended card receives the application.

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The certification authority may then provide the certificate to the application provider by encrypting the public key of the second public key pair with the private key of the third public key pair. The application provider may send a certificate to the integrated circuit card.

When the certificate is transmitted to the integrated circuit card, the integrated circuit card may obtain the public key of the second key pair by decrypting the certificate using the public key of the third public key pair. The integrated circuit card may then verify the signed application copy using the public key of the second public key pair.

If the signed application copy is not verified, the integrated circuit card may fail to load the application copy. According to another embodiment of the present invention, an integrated circuit card is provided that includes a microprocessor and a memory coupled to the microprocessor. The memory includes an application history list area that stores an application identifier and an application copy number. Each application identifier and each application copy number is associated with an application copy.

The application copy is one of a plurality of copies of the application. Each application identifier uniquely identifies the application from other applications, and each application copy number uniquely identifies the application copy from other application copies. The integrated circuit card of the present invention comprises means for determining whether an application identifier and an application copy number associated with an application copy to be loaded into the memory area are included in the application history list, the associated application identifier and And means for failing to load the application copy to be loaded when the related application copy number is included in the application history list area.

Brief Description of Drawings Embodiments according to the invention will now be described by way of example only with reference to the accompanying drawings.

The IC card 10 includes an integrated circuit 12 to which one or more electrical contacts 14 are connected. As shown in FIG. Keypad 24 and display 26 allow a user of IC card 10 to interact with the terminal. Keypad 24 allows a user to select a transaction, enter a personal identification number "PIN" , and enter transaction information. Display 26 allows a user to receive prompts for information messages and data entries.

The integrated circuit 12 includes at least a processing unit and a memory unit Timer provides a timing reference signal for processing unit and control logic The fusible link burns after the test is complete, limiting subsequent access to sensitive circuit areas. Coprocessor provides the ability to perform complex operations in real time as required by the cipher generation algorithm. The memory unit may include different types of memory, such as volatile and non-volatile memory and read-only and programmable memory.

For example, as shown in FIG. The secret cipher creation key can be any type of well-known cipher creation key, such as a private key of a public key pair. The memory unit further stores an IC card operating system. The operating system loads and executes the IC card application and provides file management and other basic card services for the IC card application.

Preferably, the operating system is stored in ROM. In addition to the basic services provided by the operating system, the memory unit may further include one or more IC card applications. The application loads an electronic value of a certain currency from a user account in a financial institution to an IC card.

TM It should support multiple applications such as operating systems. An IC card application may include both programs and associated data files. The application program may be written in the native programming code of the processing unit or may be written in a higher level language.

Higher level languages must be translated before being executed by the processing unit Conveniently, by using a higher level language such as MEL, application programs can run on multiple hardware platforms without the need for rewriting.

Since an IC card typically has a limited memory capacity due to size and price limitations due to the mounting of memory on the IC card, the IC card further has primitives stored in ROM. Can do. Primitives are subroutines that perform frequently used functions or procedures, such as mathematical functions. Primitives are usually written in the native language of the processing unit , so that they can be executed very quickly. Application provider may be a card issuer, bank, or other entity that provides application loading services.

The IC card communicates with the application provider via the interface device The interface device can be a bank terminal, ATM, or other device that communicates with an IC card.

Application provider and interface device communicate via data line Data line may be a telephone line, cable line, satellite link, internet connection, intranet connection, or any other type of communication link. When loading an IC card remotely, the application provider needs to address several safety issues.

First, the application provider must make sure that the application is sent only to cardholders who are intended to receive the application.

Second, the application provider must verify the confidentiality of confidential or trade secret information contained within the application to be loaded.

Third, the data provider is open-link and can be exposed to a third party that may block or replace the transmitting application, allowing the application provider to authenticate the application.

You must take safety measures to do. The key must be kept secret. The two keys are called key pairs, one of the key pairs must be kept secret, but the other of the key pairs can be publicly distributed. Each key in the key pair is used to encode data, but once the data is encoded using one key, it can only be decrypted using the other key.

In the system of FIG. The creation of the cryptographic key is performed in any manner known by those skilled in the art. The system further utilizes a certification authority CA CA also has a cryptographic key pair. The CA can be any entity that holds the private key of the public key pair private and is trusted to authenticate the identity of other entities, such as the identity of the application provider , for example.

In order to do this, the application provider must meet the identification requirements of CA If the application provider satisfies these identification requirements, the CA issues an application load certificate ALC CA is publicly distributed. Since CA is trusted to keep the private key private and authenticate the identity of application provider , any entity receiving ALC is guaranteed that the public key included in the certificate belongs to application provider The In order to load an application to the IC card , the application provider transmits an application load unit ALU to the interface device via the data line The AU includes application code and data to be stored in the IC card.

Some or all of the application code and data may be encrypted to protect the confidential or trade secret portion of the application code and data. AU S Reference numeral denotes application code and data signed by the AU with the private key of the application provider The IC card uses the public key of the application provider provided by the ALC to S is decrypted and compared to AU to confirm that AU has not been modified during transmission.

KTU includes information related to the encrypted portion of AU This information allows the IC card to decrypt these encrypted portions so that application code and data can be accessed by the IC card KTU is signed with the public key of IC card The IC card preferably stores a copy of the CA public key in the memory. This is because the CA public key can be used in many transactions. Alternatively, the IC card may obtain the public key from a trusted storage location such as interface device Once decrypted, the ALC provides the IC card with a trusted copy of the application provider 's public key.

In step , the IC card uses the application provider's public key to confirm that the AU has not been changed during transmission. The IC card uses the public key of the application provider and the AU signed with the private key of the application provider S is decrypted. If the two units match, AU is confirmed.

In step , the decrypted information in KTU is used to decrypt the encrypted portion of AU KTU may include, for example, either an algorithm or key used in decrypting AU In addition to the security and authentication means described above, other security means and authentication means may also be employed.

Both of these applications are hereby incorporated by reference as Annexes A and B and Annex C, respectively. According to the preferred embodiment of the present invention, the data portion of the AU includes an application identifier and an application copy number for the application to be loaded into the IC card The application copy number is unique for each copy of the application to be loaded on the IC card Means both random numbers.

Preferably, the data portion of AU including the application identifier and the application copy number is encoded and KTU contains the information necessary to decode this data portion. In the embodiment of FIG. The application history list includes an entry for each set of application identifiers and random seeds associated with applications loaded on the IC card If the application identifier and random seed associated with the application to be loaded are not found in the application history list, at step the random seed is checked to determine if the random seed is equal to zero and the application history list.

Are checked to determine whether the application history list is full. A random seed with a value of zero indicates that the application does not include the economic value contained in the data and can therefore be reloaded as many times as desired. In this case, the application history list is full, so the application cannot be loaded, and therefore the application identifier and random seed cannot be added to the application history list for future matching.

If an error condition is triggered in step or , in step , the directory file record associated with the application is added to the directory file on the IC card. That is, the application is loaded onto the IC card In step , it is verified whether the random seed is equal to zero. If the random seed is not equal to zero indicating that there is an economic value included in the application , the application identifier and random seed are for matching with the next application that is required to be loaded into the IC card.

To the application history list. If the random seed is equal to zero indicating that no economic value is included in the application , the application identifier and random seed are not added to the application history list. Conveniently, the file loading routine of FIG. If the cardholder blocks and copies the application to be loaded on the IC card, the cardholder cannot later reload the application.

This is because once the application is loaded, the application identifier and random seed are permanently stored on the IC card. Even if the card holder attempts to reload the application, the IC card operating system fails to reload the application. This is because the application identifier and random seed of the application match the entry in the application history list of the IC card.

On the other hand, it is not prevented that the cardholder legally reloads the application from the application provider. Because the application provider generates a new random seed for each copy of the application it provides, it is unlikely that the cardholder will receive a second copy of the application with the same random seed from the application provider.

Of course, the application provider must use a sufficiently long random seed to ensure that the cardholder is unlikely to receive the same random seed twice. Alternatively, the application provider may have a unique number associated with a copy of the application provided to each cardholder instead of using a random number. For example, the application provider may maintain a counter that records the number of copies of the provided application.

The application provider can use the value of the counter to provide a unique number each time it provides a copy of the application to the cardholder. However, the random seed embodiment is preferred. This is because it is easier to manage ie, there is no information that needs to be stored or managed.

Although the invention has been described with reference to certain preferred embodiments, various modifications, changes and substitutions may be made without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention as defined in the appended claims. Known or obvious to the vendor. The scope of this disclosure is expressed or implied in this specification, whether stated in the claims or whether it alleviates any or all of the problems sought to be solved by the present invention.

All new features or combinations of features disclosed in and generalizations thereof. This application announces that during the examination of this application and further applications derived from this application, new claims for such new features may be made. In particular, with reference to the appended claims, the features of the dependent claims can be combined with the features of the independent claims in any suitable manner, not only the specific combinations recited in the claims.

Annex C IC card delivery key set Integrated circuit "IC" cards are increasingly used today for many different purposes throughout the world. An IC card also called a smart card is typically the size of a conventional credit card and has a computer chip.

The IC card may have a single application in its memory, or may have a plurality of independent applications. Conventional single application IC cards, such as telephone cards and electronic cash cards, are given a single application at the time of manufacture before being given to the card user.

However, even if the card user or card issuer wants to modify the application, the application cannot be modified or changed after the card is issued. Have to carry. This is very cumbersome and inconvenient. If an application developer or card user wishes to interact or exchange data between two different applications, for example, the wallet function interacts with a frequent flyer loyalty application, the card user Instead of having multiple cards in and out of the terminal where the card is inserted, processing is difficult, time consuming and inconvenient.

Therefore, it is beneficial to store multiple applications on the same IC card. If there is sufficient memory and an operating system capable of supporting a plurality of applications is provided on the card, a plurality of applications can be assigned to one IC card. Multiple applications can be pre-selected and placed in the card's memory at the manufacturing stage, but if necessary, the card's applications can be loaded and deleted after manufacture Would also be beneficial.

The increased flexibility and performance of storing multiple applications on a single card is exchanged between individual cards and application providers, and is exchanged within the entire system when loading and removing applications. Creates new challenges to overcome regarding the integrity and safety of information including application code and associated data.

The ability to exchange data securely between cards, card issuers, system operators and application providers, and at any time remotely from a local terminal or over a telephone line, internet, intranet connection, or other data path But it would be beneficial to have the ability in an IC card system to safely load and delete applications.

Typically, these data transmission lines are not secure lines, so to ensure that applications sent on these transmission lines are loaded only on the intended card without tampering, multiple Security and entity authentication techniques must be established. In particular, in a situation where new applications that can be used by cardholders continue to increase, it is important to give the system the ability to add applications on an IC card after issuance, as described above.

This is necessary to protect the long life of the IC card. Otherwise, when the application is out of date, the card becomes useless. It would be beneficial to be able to add applications from a remote location and by direct connection from the application provider's terminal.

For example, it would be useful if a card user could insert the user's IC card into a home computer and download the application over the Internet. This type of application remote loading poses several security risks when transmitting application code and related data over uncommitted communication lines such as the Internet.

An entity that transmits an application or data to an IC card requires that only the intended IC card receive the transmitted data. A third party must not be able to intercept the data and view it. In addition, the sending entity requests verification that the IC card that requested the information is actually part of the entire IC card system, not merely pretending to be part of the system. These concerns arise both in remote application loads and application loads by local terminals.

Accordingly, one of the objectives of the present invention is to provide a secure delivery technology, specifically a secure IC that enables secure delivery of data including smart card applications that can be loaded onto the IC card. It is to provide a card system. Summary of the Invention These and other objects are achieved by the present invention. The present invention provides an IC card method and apparatus for securely delivering data including an application onto an IC card.

This includes storing a pair of secrets and a public key on an IC card, taking out the stored public key from the IC card, and encrypting and encrypting at least a part of data to be delivered using the public key. Data transmission to the IC card, and decryption of the encrypted data using the IC card secret key. In a preferred embodiment, the certification authority CA or entity managing the overall security of the IC card system encrypts or digitally signs a copy of the IC card's public key, and the signed copy is the IC It is also saved on the card.

The entity sending data to the IC card retrieves the IC card's signed public key and verifies that the CA has approved the card by verifying the signed public key with the CA's public key. Can be verified. If the verification is successful, the entity has verified that the CA has approved the IC card. Unless otherwise noted, throughout the drawings, the same reference numerals and letters are used to denote the same features, members, components and parts in the illustrated embodiments.

Further, the present invention will be described below with reference to the drawings, which is a description of exemplary embodiments.

It is intended that changes and modifications may be made to the described embodiments without departing from the true scope and spirit of the invention as defined by the appended claims. Detailed Description of the Invention It is beneficial to have the ability to load applications on an IC card that includes multiple application operating systems at any point in the life of the IC card.

This flexibility allows the card user to regularly add new applications to the IC card, and to update older applications with newer versions of applications as newer versions of applications are released. Is possible. Furthermore, the IC card needs to receive data relating to personal information such as a new credit card account number or updated information. The flexibility of loading applications and sending data at different points in the life cycle of an IC card creates security issues with respect to the process of loading applications on the card.

In a multi-application operating system environment, applications and data can be loaded both on terminals such as bank ATM machines and on telecommunications links such as telephone, cable, Internet, satellite or other means of communication. It is beneficial. When loading an application and data on an IC card, the application provider needs to provide security regarding the application to be loaded.

First, the application provider must ensure that the application is sent only to the correct card user who is intended to receive the application. Second, the application and associated data may include personal or trade secret information.

It is necessary to encrypt such personal or trade secret information so that an entity other than the IC card cannot see the contents of the encrypted application code and data. Some application code and data may be secret and other parts may not be secret. The present application addresses the problem of authenticating and protecting the contents of some or all of the application and associated data loaded on the card.

There are two basic types of encryption: symmetric encryption and asymmetric encryption. In symmetric encryption, a secret key is used as part of an equation for encrypting data by transforming the data using the equation and key. After encrypting the data, the same secret key can be used with a decryption algorithm to allow another party to decrypt the encrypted data.

The same key is used for encryption and decryption, and the technology is symmetric. One conventional example of a symmetric algorithm is DES. In the asymmetric encryption technique, information is encrypted and decrypted by using two different keys that form a pair. These two keys are usually called private or private keys and public keys.

When data is encrypted using one of the pair of keys, the other key is used to decrypt the data. When the data sender signs the data with the sender's private key, anyone with the public key can verify the message. Typically, since the public key is publicly known, it is not possible to protect the contents of the data signed with the private key, but determine whether the data is signed with a specific private key This can verify the origin of the data. This authentication process is called digital signature.

When person A wants to authenticate a message that person A is going to send to person B, person A signs the document using person A's private key. When person B receives the message, person B verifies the message using person A's public key. When the message is verified using the public key, person B knows that the document was signed using person A's private key. In this way, the origin of the message is authenticated. It is also possible to protect the content of the message using an asymmetric key set.

If person A wants to send an encrypted message to person B that no one else can read, person A encrypts the data or message with person B's public key and sends it to person B.

Send to. Then, only the owner of the person B's private key can decrypt the data. If a combination of keys is used, a person can both authenticate and encrypt the message. Asymmetric key pairs have several powerful uses for card security. However, asymmetric encryption has a relatively high processor cost compared to symmetric encryption the processor cost is related to the computation time.

One hybrid symmetric encryption method that makes the encryption method stronger is to encrypt the data using two symmetric keys. This technique is called triple DES, which encodes data using key 1, decrypts the data using key 2 thus encoding the data further , and again key 1 The data is further encoded using. After the data arrives at its destination, it uses key 1 to decrypt the data, key 2 to encode the data, and key 1 to decrypt the data. These extra encoding and decoding steps make this technique more powerful and make it more difficult to properly decode without both keys.

The sending entity 1 may be a card issuer, bank, IC card, or other entity that wishes to deliver data to the IC card 3. Preferably, the sending entity 1 initiates the data delivery process.

Alternatively, if the card requests data from the sending entity 1, the IC card 3 may initiate the data delivery process. The transmitting entity 1 is connected to an interface device 5 for example, a terminal that communicates with an IC card. The data path 7 can be a telephone line, an intranet, the Internet, a satellite link or any other type of communication link.

In the case of the present embodiment, the transmitting side entity 1 arranged at a position remote from the IC card 3 wants to send data to the IC card safely. It is also possible to use a certification authority 9 to authenticate that an IC card is proved to be valid as part of an IC card system. In FIG. These keys may be generated at CA9 or any other location. This is because these keys are specific only to the IC card 3 and need not hold another copy.

A third data item, a public key certificate 17 is also generated and stored on the IC card 3. The public key certificate 17 is generated by signing the public key 15 using the CA9 private key. As a result, it is possible for a person having the CA9 public key to verify that the CA has digitally signed the IC card public key in order to prove the individual key set of the IC card.

When the sending entity 1 starts data delivery, the IC card 3 is contacted through the interface device 5, and the IC card 3 sends its public key 15 and its public key certificate 17 to the sending entity 1. The sending entity then verifies this public key certificate with the CA13 public key the CA13 public key is publicly available from CA9 and can be stored in the sending entity 1 , thereby The CA 9 determines whether the public key is digitally signed and verifies that the IC card is a valid card.

Thereafter, the transmitting entity 1 encrypts data to be transmitted using the public key of the IC card. Thereafter, the transmission side entity 1 transmits the encrypted data 11 to the interface device 5 and the IC card 3. The IC card 3 decrypts the encrypted data using a corresponding private key also called a secret key Thereafter, this data can be processed by the IC card 3.

Only the IC card 3 has a copy of the private key, and only the intended IC card can access the encrypted data. This ensures that a third party cannot access the encrypted data, and thus that only the intended IC card can read and process the data.

The application provider starts an application loading process on the IC card The IC card is connected to a data conduit , and the data conduit is connected to an interface device for example, a terminal that communicates with the IC card. Data conduit may be a telephone line, an intranet, the Internet, a satellite link, or any other type of communication link.

The application provider is located remotely from the IC card and desires to transmit and load an application to the IC card. However, since the data link is an open link and exposed to a third party that interferes with or replaces the transmitted application, the security measures to authenticate the application itself, the application provider, and the IC card must be consistent with the system.

Must be used to ensure gender. CA may also be used to assist in authenticating that some data being transmitted is part of the identified system. The ALU includes the application itself and security data required for authentication, and protects application code and related data. The ALU preferably also includes application load certification ALC data sent from the certification mechanism CA to the application provider The certification mechanism manages the overall security of the system by providing an application load certificate for each application to be loaded on the IC card.

The authentication and security process is described below. The ALC is initialized with a conventional format used during data transmission. The AUs is application code and data AU digitally signed with the private key of the application provider.

The application provider's public key is sent as part of the ALC and is used to authenticate the application provider as the creator of the application. The ALC is composed of the card identification information and the public key of the application provider, and is signed by the secret key of the certification mechanism. All these elements are described in more detail below. KTU includes information regarding encryption of AU application code and data that allows the IC card to decrypt the specified portion, so that applications and data can be accessed by the IC card.

Protect data during transmission between application provider and IC card. The KTU has encrypted the public key of the IC card for which the application is intended, thereby ensuring that only the intended IC card can decrypt the application code and data using the KTU information. This element is described with reference to FIG. The AU contains both program code and associated data to be loaded onto the card user's IC card. The program code includes a plurality of program instructions executed by the microprocessor of the IC card.

The program instructions can be written in any programming language that can be interpreted by the operating system stored on the IC card. Most applications have associated data that must be loaded on the card. The application provider may provide an electronic cash represented by the data as a subsidy when installing the electronic parse application. It is desired that some or all of this data be kept secret from third parties. Eventually, the application code itself may be considered proprietary and some of it may be desired to be secret from others.

The use of a key conversion unit KTU allows an application provider to encrypt a selected part of the application as a secret and protect it from third parties. The application unit part indicates a program code to be transmitted from the application provider to the IC card. Based in Copenhagen. We produce lifestyle images used for advertising and editorials. Contact us for casting. Uber is a popular ride-finding service which hires locals to use their own car to transport you.

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