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يجب حرق البشائر السيئة (portentaque prodigiaque mala) ، باستخدام الأشجار الموجودة تحت وصاية The Greek equivalent is theos, which the Romans translated with deus. the year anniversary of being emperor on October 13, 64 AD. seoauditing.ru › likes. Not Now. 1, Total Likes. 1, Total Follows. English (US) · Español · Português The Romans took over the Levant in 64 BC. Where Aleppo was blessed with a long era of peace in which the Romans The Persian invasion form in A.D. A.D. has burned the city, but the castle that the people have resorted to has. seoauditing.ru › sites › seoauditing.ru › files › resources. seoauditing.ru › ACCESS.

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The green unique marbles of Salon Vert, make it a perfect venue for a classy chic wedding. For small occasions, Verdi is available for a unique and cozy experience to host up to 50 guests. For inquiries and reservations please call and ask to be connected with the Social Events team. Guests were welcomed by a suspended acrobat pouring champagne and led to a gold glittering set up. To the tunes of a live performance band and a DJ guests danced the night away until the early hours of the morning.

While the building stays true to its rich heritage, guests experience modern comfort and style everywhere, from the bar and restaurants to the corridors and rooms. As early as April the cool pool and white sand beach are the happening spot of Marassi, the residential property compound the hotel is part of.

With this iconic allure, prime beachside location and fascinating history, Al Alamein Hotel is one of the finest vacation spots along the Mediterranean.

Nothing beats that beach front living room in the prime located Alamein Suites. The hotel also boasts a magnificent collection of art works and sculptures by many local and global artists, including an iconic mosaic mural of late Egyptian legendary singer Om Kolthoum another one featuring colorful ancient boats and an impressive painting by El Seed based on the lyrics of a famous song by Om Kolthoum.

These include Vida Marassi Marina, featuring rooms and suites with a marina view as well as access to a range of amenities and scheduled for opening in Marassi Beach Resort, Address Marassi Golf Resort as well as an array of other hotels. MARAKEZ is one of the largest mixed-use developers in Egypt with a portfolio of projects with one of the highest recurring revenue profiles in the country.

After the successful launch of District Five Residences located within the acre mixed-use development of District 5, Marakez is now launching a new neighborhood: District Five Plateau. Double height ceilings and floor to ceiling windows are just some of the features that set the perfect base for modern and bright interiors.

For those who plan for an office close to home, amenities at District 5 not only include entertainment areas, a shopping center, sports and health facilities, but also office spaces conceived by leading international architects and urban planners.

In addition to the essential fashion items, find exclusive selections at the forefront of Fashion with top designer brands most in vogue, like Jacquemus or Off-White. Get in touch with our fashion and lifestyle experts who will make your shopping trip unforgettable. The concept, developed by Chef Julien Bonci, is based on creative and refined cuisine with a Latin twist, in an intimate and cosy atmosphere.

You will learn how to master this subtle and intricate French tradition, working in a small group supervised by our Head Pastry Chef. From fashion to toys, discover collections and brands selected just for them. The magic continues on the 4th floor. In a sophisticated setting, enjoy the famous Mont-Blanc dessert along with a gourmet hot chocolate. In the heart of the Capital, this peaceful haven is the ideal spot to enjoy a quiet moment far from the madding crowds of the Grands Boulevards.

Slim cut, cropped-leg suits are worn over white shirts that are prepped with leather trims or patches. T-shirts hoodies and bomber jackets meet bermudas. The Scritto, an 18th-century manuscript motif that normally appears on Berluti shoes is introduced in the ready-to-wear as prints on T-shirts and shirts and in the tone-on-tone jacquard of a tuxedo.

The classic signature footwear comes with thick soles while chunky sneakers add a younger edge. Launching in stores worldwide on 7 April , Berluti will unveil an exclusive pop-up exhibition mimicking a summer blue skyline at The Dubai Mall from 29 April to introduce the exquisite new capsule collection to the region. The car is powered by a TwinPower Turbo 6-cylinder engine with a capacity of cc, hp and N. The car also comes with 2-axle Air Suspension to achieve more comfort.

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Contemporary Luxury ICE, as it is better known, is the agency of the Italian government that supports the business development of Italian companies abroad and promotes the attraction of foreign investments in Italy, through an international network of offices in 70 countries.

Francesco T Pagnini, the director of the Cairo branch that opened in , to talk about business ties between Egypt and Italy. Egypt is also as a hub for network in Africa and the Gulf region. A: We have about 80 Italian companies established in Egypt. But for sure there are many more that do not have a representative office or a branch. The most important bilateral business between Egypt and Italy is the oil and gas industry.

Italy is also heavily represented in the infrastructure sector, such as contracting, energy. The textile manufacturing sector is strongly represented with leading Italian companies such as Filmar and Albini.

Ceramics is an important sector and of course the automotive industry with Fiat and Piaggio. If so in which sector in particular? A; It is not easy to say. In December www. The portfolio has changed, so it is not really the amount of Italian companies working with Egypt that has decreased, but as the overall demand has grown, new international suppliers have entered the market.

Yet there is a growing interest from Italian companies for the Egyptian market, especially in the field of infrastructure. Around 30 companies in the oil and gas industry were present at the last Oil and Gas Fair in Cairo in February Q: Is there a lot of interest for new Italian companies to set up business?

If so which sectors in particular? A: There is a growing interest for consumer goods, which was lost in caused by the devaluation of the Egyptian Pound and by the obligation, set by Egyptian authorities, to register foreign brands. In the Italian food industry is regaining its leading position, so are Italian home appliances, furniture brands and ceramics. Italy today has registered companies, which is by far the top number of brands of a country registered in Egypt.

A great success story is the leather tanning industry of Robbiki Leather City that, thanks to the modernization obtained with Italian machinery, increased its production capacity, allowing Egyptian leather producers to become important players in the international market.

A: Today there are many Italian brands well known all over the world that are represented in Egypt. The name of an Italian brand goes beyond the product itself: it means more, it tells a story about Italian style, about Italian way of life. Our perception is that Italian luxury products have grown in Egypt and that there is a big demand and interest. Other growing consumer goods include cosmetics and eyewear. A: We daily receive from Italian and Egyptian companies requests of business contacts, market information and support in trade negotiations.

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Our mission is to create. Bottom left: a dining room set by ,,,, Top: a pair of chairs by Opposite page: an office interior designed from walls to floor and furnished by Living In. What in your opinion is so special about them? What sets those brands apart is history, knowhow, design and unparalleled quality. Q: You are a regular at Salone Del Mobile.

A: I believe Salone Del Mobile is currently the best interior fair in the world. The atmosphere in Milan is fascinating not only in home design but in inspiration and innovation, as the city transforms into a creative hub that is unparalleled to any other. Q: Describe the customer who tends to go for Italian furniture, textiles or lighting? A: Modern, young in spirit and innovative. They are looking for the less traditional, prefer lighter interiors and cutting edge design. Q: What is your best performing Italian brand, and why?

They are manufacturers of the highest quality that is true value of money. Observatio was considered a kind of scientia , or "scientific" knowledge, in contrast to coniectura , a more speculative "art" or "method" ars as required by novel signs. An omen, plural omina , was a sign intimating the future, considered less important to the community than a prodigium but of great importance to the person who heard or saw it.

Omens could be good or bad. Unlike prodigies, bad omens were never expiated by public rites but could be reinterpreted, redirected or otherwise averted.

Some time around BC, a diplomatic insult formally "accepted as omen" was turned against Tarentum and helped justify its conquest. After a thunderclap cost Marcellus his very brief consulship BC he took care to avoid sight of possible bad omens that might affect his plans.

Before his campaign against Perseus of Macedon , the consul L Aemilius Paullus was said to have heard of the death of Perseus, his daughter's puppy. In BC the consul Gaius Flaminius "disregarded his horse's collapse, the chickens , and yet other omens, before his disaster at Lake Trasimene". He was killed on campaign. Cicero saw these events as merely coincidental; only the credulous could think them ominous. See also abominari and signum. One form of arcane literature was the ostentarium , a written collection describing and interpreting signs ostenta.

According to Varro , an ostentum is a sign so called because it shows ostendit something to a person. The theory of ostenta , portenta and monstra constituted one of the three branches of interpretation within the disciplina Etrusca , the other two being the more specific fulgura thunder and lightning and exta entrails. Ostenta and portenta are not the signs that augurs are trained to solicit and interpret, but rather "new signs", the meaning of which had to be figured out through ratio the application of analytical principles and coniectura more speculative reasoning, in contrast to augural observatio.

A religious hierarchy implied by the seating arrangements of priests sacerdotes at sacrificial banquets. As "the most powerful", the rex sacrorum was positioned next to the gods, followed by the Flamen Dialis , then the Flamen Martialis , then the Flamen Quirinalis and lastly, the Pontifex Maximus.

In the human world, the Pontifex Maximus was the most influential and powerful of all sacerdotes. Paludatus masculine singular, plural paludati is an adjective meaning "wearing the paludamentum ," [] the distinctive attire of the Roman military commander. Varro [] and Festus say that any military ornament could be called a paludamentum , but other sources indicate that the cloak was primarily meant.

According to Festus, paludati in the augural books meant "armed and adorned" armati, ornati. Festus notes elsewhere that the " Salian virgins ", whose relation to the Salian priests is unclear, performed their rituals paludatae , [] dressed in military garb. Pax , though usually translated into English as "peace," was a compact, bargain or agreement. Religious error vitium and impiety led to divine disharmony and ira deorum the anger of the gods.

A piaculum is an expiatory sacrifice, or the victim used in the sacrifice; also, an act requiring expiation. Because Roman religion was contractual do ut des , a piaculum might be offered as a sort of advance payment; the Arval Brethren, for instance, offered a piaculum before entering their sacred grove with an iron implement, which was forbidden, as well as after.

Decius Mus is "like" a piaculum when he makes his vow to sacrifice himself in battle see devotio. The pius person "strictly conforms his life to the ius divinum. Pietas , from which English "piety" derives, was the devotion that bound a person to the gods, to the Roman state, and to his family. It was the outstanding quality of the Roman hero Aeneas , to whom the epithet pius is applied regularly throughout the Aeneid. A verb of unknown etymology meaning "to consecrate.

The pontifex was a priest of the highest-ranking college. The chief among the pontifices was the Pontifex Maximus. The word has been considered as related to pons , bridge, either because of the religious meaning of the pons Sublicius and its ritual use [] which has a parallel in Thebae and in its gephiarioi or in the original IE meaning of way.

Another hypothesis [] considers the word as a loan from the Sabine language, in which it would mean a member of a college of five people, from Osco-Umbrian ponte , five. This explanation takes into account that the college was established by Sabine king Numa Pompilius and the institution is Italic: the expressions pontis and pomperias found in the Iguvine Tablets may denote a group or division of five or by five.

The pontifex would thus be a member of a sacrificial college known as pomperia Latin quinio. The popa was one of the lesser-rank officiants at a sacrifice. In depictions of sacrificial processions, he carries a mallet or axe with which to strike the animal victim.

Literary sources in late antiquity say that the popa was a public slave. The verb porricere had the specialized religious meaning "to offer as a sacrifice," especially to offer the sacrificial entrails exta to the gods. The Arval Brethren used the term exta reddere , "to return the entrails," that is, to render unto the deity what has already been given as due.

A portentum is a kind of sign interpreted by a haruspex , not an augur , and by means of coniectura rather than observatio. Portentum is a close but not always exact synonym of ostentum , prodigium , and monstrum. In the schema of A. Although the English word "portent" derives from portentum and may be used to translate it, other Latin terms such as ostentum and prodigium will also be found translated as "portent". The precatio was the formal addressing of the deity or deities in a ritual.

The word is related by etymology to prex , "prayer" plural preces , and usually translated as if synonymous. Pliny says that the slaughter of a sacrificial victim is ineffectual without precatio , the recitation of the prayer formula.

Two late examples of the precatio are the Precatio Terrae Matris "The Prayer of Mother Earth" and the Precatio omnium herbarum "Prayer of All the Herbs" , which are charms or carmina written metrically, [] the latter attached to the medical writings attributed to Antonius Musa.

In augural procedure, precatio is not a prayer proper, but a form of invocation invocatio recited at the beginning of a ceremony or after accepting an oblative sign. The precatio maxima was recited for the augurium salutis , the ritual conducted by the augurs to obtain divine permission to pray for Rome's security salus. In legal and rhetorical usage, precatio was a plea or request. Prex , "prayer", usually appears in the plural, preces.

Within the tripartite structure that was often characteristic of formal ancient prayer, preces would be the final expression of what is sought from the deity, following the invocation and a narrative middle. In general usage, preces could refer to any request or entreaty.

The verbal form is precor, precari , "pray, entreat. Prodigia plural were unnatural deviations from the predictable order of the cosmos.

A prodigium signaled divine displeasure at a religious offense and must be expiated to avert more destructive expressions of divine wrath. Compare ostentum and portentum , signs denoting an extraordinary inanimate phenomenon, and monstrum and miraculum , an unnatural feature in humans. Prodigies were a type of auspicia oblativa ; that is, they were "thrust upon" observers, not deliberately sought. A system of official referrals filtered out those that seemed patently insignificant or false before the rest were reported to the senate , who held further inquiry; this procedure was the procuratio prodigiorum.

Prodigies confirmed as genuine were referred to the pontiffs and augurs for ritual expiation. The number of confirmed prodigies rose in troubled times. In BC, during one of the worst crises of the Punic Wars , the senate dealt with an unprecedented number, the expiation of which would have involved "at least twenty days" of dedicated rites.

These were expiated by the sacrifice of "greater victims". The minor prodigies were less warlike but equally unnatural; sheep became goats; a hen become a cock , and vice versa.

The minor prodigies were duly expiated with "lesser victims". The discovery of a hermaphroditic four-year-old child was expiated by its drowning [] and a holy procession of 27 virgins to the temple of Juno Regina , singing a hymn to avert disaster; a lightning strike during the hymn rehearsals required further expiation.

The expiatory burial of living human victims in the Forum Boarium followed Rome's defeat at Cannae in the same wars. In Livy's account, Rome's victory follows its discharge of religious duties to the gods. In the later Republic and thereafter, the reporting of public prodigies was increasingly displaced by a "new interest in signs and omens associated with the charismatic individual.

Literally, "in front of the shrine", therefore not within a sacred precinct; not belonging to the gods but to humankind. An adjective of augural terminology meaning favourable. From pro- before and petere seek, but originally fly. It implies a kind of favourable pattern in the flight of birds, i.

Synonym secundus. The pulvinar plural pulvinaria was a special couch used for displaying images of the gods, that they might receive offerings at ceremonies such as the lectisternium or supplicatio.

At the Circus Maximus , the couches and images of the gods were placed on an elevated pulvinar to "watch" the games. The wife of the rex sacrorum , who served as a high priestess with her own specific religious duties. The word religio originally meant an obligation to the gods, something expected by them from human beings or a matter of particular care or concern as related to the gods.

Religio among the Romans was not based on " faith ", but on knowledge, including and especially correct practice. To the Romans, their success was self-evidently due to their practice of proper, respectful religio , which gave the gods what was owed them and which was rewarded with social harmony, peace and prosperity. Religious law maintained the proprieties of divine honours, sacrifice and ritual. Impure sacrifice and incorrect ritual were vitia faults, hence "vice," the English derivative ; excessive devotion, fearful grovelling to deities, and the improper use or seeking of divine knowledge were superstitio ; neglecting the religiones owed to the traditional gods was atheism , a charge leveled during the Empire at Jews, [] Christians, and Epicureans.

Religiosus was something pertaining to the gods or marked out by them as theirs, as distinct from sacer , which was something or someone given to them by humans. Hence, a graveyard was not primarily defined as sacer but a locus religiosus , because those who lay within its boundaries were considered belonging to the di Manes.

Res divinae were "divine affairs," that is, the matters that pertained to the gods and the sphere of the divine in contrast to res humanae , "human affairs. The equivalent Etruscan term is ais u na. The distinction between human and divine res was explored in the multivolume Antiquitates rerum humanarum et divinarum , one of the chief works of Varro 1st century BC. It survives only in fragments but was a major source of traditional Roman theology for the Church Fathers.

Varro devoted 25 books of the Antiquitates to res humanae and 16 to res divinae. His proportional emphasis is deliberate, as he treats cult and ritual as human constructs. The schema is Stoic in origin, though Varro has adapted it for his own purposes.

Res divinae is an example of ancient Roman religious terminology that was appropriated for Christian usage; for St. Augustine , res divina is a "divine reality" as represented by a sacrum signum "sacred sign" such as a sacrament. Responsa plural were the "responses," that is, the opinions and arguments, of the official priests on questions of religious practice and interpretation.

These were preserved in written form and archived. The rex sacrorum was a senatorial priesthood [] reserved for patricians.

Although in the historical era the Pontifex Maximus was the head of Roman state religion , Festus says [] that in the ranking of priests , the rex sacrorum was of highest prestige, followed by the flamines maiores. Although ritus is the origin of the English word "rite" via ecclesiastical Latin , in classical usage ritus meant the traditional and correct manner of performance , that is, "way, custom".

Festus defines it as a specific form of mos : " Ritus is the proven way mos in the performance of sacrifices. For Latin words meaning "ritual" or "rite", see sacra , caerimoniae , and religiones. A small number of Roman religious practices and cult innovations were carried out according to "Greek rite" ritus graecus , which the Romans characterized as Greek in origin or manner.

A priest who conducted ritu graeco wore a Greek-style fringed tunic, with his head bare capite aperto or laurel-wreathed. By contrast, in most rites of Roman public religion, an officiant wore the distinctively Roman toga , specially folded to cover his head see capite velato.

Otherwise, "Greek rite" seems to have been a somewhat indefinite category, used for prayers uttered in Greek, and Greek methods of sacrifice within otherwise conventionally Roman cult. Roman writers record elements of ritus graecus in the cult to Hercules at Rome's Ara Maxima , which according to tradition was established by the Greek king Evander even before the city of Rome was founded at the site.

It thus represented one of the most ancient Roman cults. A Greek rite to Ceres ritus graecus cereris was imported from Magna Graecia and added to her existing Aventine cult in accordance with the Sibylline books , ancient oracles written in Greek. Official rites to Apollo are perhaps "the best illustration of the Graecus ritus in Rome. The Romans regarded ritus graecus as part of their own mos maiorum ancestral tradition , and not as novus aut externus ritus , novel or foreign rite.

The thorough integration and reception of rite labeled "Greek" attests to the complex, multi-ethnic origins of Rome's people and religious life. Sacellum , a diminutive from sacer "belonging to a god" , [] is a shrine. Varro and Verrius Flaccus give explanations that seem contradictory, the former defining a sacellum in its entirety as equivalent to a cella , [] which is specifically an enclosed space, and the latter insisting that a sacellum had no roof.

Sacer describes a thing or person given to the gods, thus "sacred" to them. Human beings had no legal or moral claims on anything sacer. Sacer could be highly nuanced; Varro associates it with "perfection". Anything not sacer was profanum : literally, "in front of or outside the shrine", therefore not belonging to it or the gods. A thing or person could be made sacer consecrated , or could revert from sacer to profanum deconsecrated , only through lawful rites resecratio performed by a pontiff on behalf of the state.

Similar conditions attached to sacrifices in archaic Rome. Persons judged sacer under Roman law were placed beyond further civil judgment, sentence and protection; their lives, families and properties were forfeit to the gods.

A person could be declared sacer who harmed a plebeian tribune , failed to bear legal witness, [] failed to meet his obligations to clients , or illicitly moved the boundary markers of fields. Dies sacri "sacred days" were nefasti , meaning that the ordinary human affairs permitted on dies profani or fasti were forbidden. Sacer was a fundamental principle in Roman and Italic religions.

In Oscan , related forms are sakoro , "sacred," and sakrim , "sacrificial victim". Oscan sakaraklum is cognate with Latin sacellum , a small shrine, as Oscan sakarater is with Latin sacratur, consecrare , "consecrated". The sacerdos is "one who performs a sacred action" or "renders a thing sacred", that is, a priest. Senators , magistrates , and the decurions of towns performed ritual acts, though they were not sacerdotes per se.

Sacra neuter plural of sacer are the traditional cults, [ clarification needed ] either publica or privata , both of which were overseen by the College of Pontiffs.

The sacra publica were those performed on behalf of the whole Roman people or its major subdivisions, the tribes and curiae. They included the sacra pro populo , "rites on behalf of the Roman people," i.

Thus Numa may be seen as carrying out a reform and a reorganisation of the sacra in accord with his own views and his education. Sacra privata were particular to a gens , to a family, or to an individual, and were carried out at the expense of those concerned. Individuals had sacra on dates peculiar to them, such as birthdays, the dies lustricus , and at other times of their life such as funerals and expiations, for instance of fulgurations.

These were regarded as necessary and imperishable, and the desire to perpetuate the family's sacra was among the reasons for adoption in adulthood. Sacra gentilicia were the private rites see sacra above that were particular to a gens "clan". These rites are related to a belief in the shared ancestry of the members of a gens , since the Romans placed a high value on both family identity and commemorating the dead.

Roman practices of adoption , including so-called " testamentary adoption " when an adult heir was declared in a will, were aimed at perpetuating the sacra gentilicia as well as preserving the family name and property. Sacra gentilicia sometimes acquired public importance, and if the gens were in danger of dying out, the state might take over their maintenance.

One of the myths attached to Hercules ' time in Italy explained why his cult at the Ara Maxima was in the care of the patrician gens Potitia and the gens Pinaria ; the diminution of these families by BC caused the sacra to be transferred to the keeping of public slaves and supported with public funding. The sacra of an Italian town or community municipium might be perpetuated under the supervision of the Roman pontiffs when the locality was brought under Roman rule.

Festus defined municipalia sacra as "those owned originally, before the granting of Roman citizenship ; the pontiffs desired that the people continue to observe them and to practice them in the way mos they had been accustomed to from ancient times.

Sacramentum is an oath or vow that rendered the swearer sacer , "given to the gods," in the negative sense if he violated it.

In Roman law , a thing given as a pledge or bond was a sacramentum. The sacramentum legis actio was a sum of money deposited in a legal procedure [] to affirm that both parties to the litigation were acting in good faith. The losing side had thus in effect committed perjury , and forfeited his sacramentum as a form of piaculum ; the winner got his deposit back.

The forfeited sacramentum was normally allotted by the state to the funding of sacra publica. The sacramentum militare also as militum or militiae was the oath taken by soldiers in pledging their loyalty to the consul or emperor. The sacramentum that renders the soldier sacer helps explain why he was subjected to harsher penalties, such as execution and corporal punishment, that were considered inappropriate for civilian citizens, at least under the Republic.

The sacramentum as pertaining to both the military and the law indicates the religious basis for these institutions. The term differs from iusiurandum , which is more common in legal application, as for instance swearing an oath in court.

A sacramentum establishes a direct relation between the person swearing or the thing pledged in the swearing of the oath and the gods; the iusiurandum is an oath of good faith within the human community that is in accordance with ius as witnessed by the gods. A sacrarium was a place where sacred objects sacra were stored or deposited for safekeeping.

The sacrarium of a private home lent itself to Christian transformation, as a 4th-century poem by Ausonius demonstrates; [] in contemporary Christian usage, the sacrarium is a "special sink used for the reverent disposal of sacred substances" see piscina.

An event or thing dedicated to the gods for their disposal. The offer of sacrifice is fundamental to religio. See also Sacer and Religion in ancient Rome: Sacrifice. An adjective first introduced to define the inviolability of the function potestas of the tribunes of the plebs and of other magistrates sanctioned by law leges Valeriae Horatiae in BC, mentioned by Livy III 55, 1. It seems the sacrality of the function the tribune had already been established in earlier times through a religio and a sacramentum , [] however it obliged only the contracting parties.

In order to become a rule that obliged everybody it had to be sanctioned through a sanctio that was not only civil but religious as well: the trespasser was to be declared sacer , his family and property sold. According to other passages in Livy, the law was not approved by some jurists of the time who maintained that only those who infringed the commonly recognised divine laws id or Iovi corr.

Mueller sacrum sanciti could fall into the category of those to be declared sacri. In fact in other places Livy states that only the potestas and not the person of the tribune was defined as sacrosancta. The meaning of the word is given as guaranteed by an oath by H.

Fugier, however Morani thinks it would be more appropriate to understand the first part of the compound as a consequence of the second: sanxit tribunum sacrum the tribune is sanctioned by the law as sacer.

This kind of word composition based on an etymological figure has parallels in other IE languages in archaic constructions. A verb meaning to ratify a compact and put it under the protection of a sanctio , penalty, sanction. The formation and original meaning of the verb are debated. Thence sancio would mean to render something sacer , i. Sanctus , an adjective formed on the past participle of verb sancio, describes that which is "established as inviolable" or "sacred", most times in a sense different from that of sacer and religiosus.

They are different in size. Kangaroos of all sizes. Safwat have one thing in common: powerful back legs with long feet. A Answer the following questions 1. Where do most kinds of Kangaroos live? How many kinds of Kangaroos are there? B Choose the correct answer 3- Kangaroos have ………… back legs. Safwat 8- A key is used to………………. What ……………………………………………………. Does ……………………………………………………. Safwat Unit 20 How long have you been here? I have waited for two hours.

I have not visited Alexandria since White been in Egypt? How long have you lived in this town? We have lived here for long. White : Thank you. Soha : Where do you ……. White : I come from.

Soha :. White : I have been here ………. Soha : Do you like Egypt? White : Yes, of course. The weather is nice and the people are friendly 2 Supply the missing parts in the following two minidialogues: 1-Rania : What do you enjoy most about Egypt?

Patel : ………………………………………… 2- Mohamed :………………………………………………? Maged : Mr. Smith has been in Egypt since This is the place I would have to go to before and after school. I have always loved my.

There was a smell of coffee in the air at all times. It seemed as if all my grandmother did was make coffee. The house had one of an older heater that used firewood. The house was old. My grandmother lived in this house most of her life. No matter if it was winter; spring, summer, or fall, there was always firewood on the porch. In the summer, we would play at the pond behind the house. The pond was black as night and home to the snakes, frogs, and fish.

In the summer I also helped my grandma plant peas and corn in the garden. A Answer the following questions: 1. What was the writer s favourite place? Why does the writer love his grandma s house? His grandma likes drinking …………….

He helped his grandma plant …………. Safwat 4- The police are going to ……………the road at 4 O clock. Pat Adams has been in Egypt………… six months.

Maria Dollo will travel to Rome ………. Sue and Will are flying home next Monday. When ……………………………………………………. Sami Hassan was arrested. Who ……………………………………………………. She is going to visit the Sphinx.

The thief was carry a brown bag. The fire was in 7 O clock. They have been in Suez for Tuesday. Passive : English is spoken by people. Active: The mechanic fixed the car.

Passive : The car was fixed by the mechanic. It is used to fill. It is used for medicine when you are ill. A watch is used for telling the time. Pens are used for writing. Safwat Test based on Unit 21 1 Finish the following dialogue with these words: stayed - for - ever - How long - stay Hend : Where is most of the world s oil …… 1 ……. Manal : In the …… 2 ……East. Hend : Are plastics made …… 3. Manal : Yes, most plastics are made from oil.

Hend : What …… 4 ……. Manal : Petrol and other fuels are made from oil. Belal : …………………………………………. Raghda : No, it isn t used for cutting wood. They were covered by sand and rocks. Along time after that they formed the oil we have now. Companies look for oil everywhere under the ground and the sea. Huge machines drill to get it. Then it is pumped along pipes to the coast. Oil is made into petrol and other things in a factory known as oil refinery. Oil is very important for us. Cars, trains, buses, 52 Mr.

Safwat planes and factories run on oil. Plastics also are made from oil. Most of the oil in the world is found in the Middle East. In Egypt, oil is found in Suez and Sinai. A Answer the questions 1. How was oil formed? Where is most of the world s oil found? B Choose the correct answer; 1. Oil is pumped along ………. In Egypt Oil is found in ……………. Cars and buses run on ……………….

Cars …………. Oil was ………… millions of years ago. Tiny is the opposite of ……………… a- small b- huge c- dirty 4. A knife is used ………. The first map of the world was ………. Oil is stored in massive ………………. He is looking ……… his pen, but he can t find it. Safwat 8. A train is faster than a car.

Which …………………………………………………………. That bag is made of leather. What …………………………………………………………. My birthday was last Monday. When …………………………………………………………. Rulers are using to measure length. It s not empty. It s big. Oil is formed millions of years ago. I m late for school, so I m in a hurry. I m going to the supermarket to buy sugar and rice. She is too tired. The film was so interesting. Nada s poem? Safaa : No, What was it ……… 2 …….

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The Pathfinders marked the wrong target, mistaking a mud bank for the docks with their H2S radar, so most of the bombs landed 13 miles downstream from the centre of Hamburg, around the small town of Wedel.

Those bombs which landed on Hamburg did considerable damage starting fires, killing 27 people and injuring The damage to Wedel was extensive. U ! Mission Number B are to attack submarine pens and industrial areas of Hamburg and Bremen, but the primary targets are obscured by cloud so the bombers hit bomb "targets of opportunity in NW Germany".

A countermeasure against the radar-directed German nightfighters in the form of "Window" was used for the first time. In the clear weather visual and H2S marking was accurate and on the town centre. Less than half the force bombed within 3 miles of the centre with a bomb creepback of six miles.

The Rathaus Town Hall , the St. Nikolai church , the main police station, the main telephone exchange and the Hagenbeck Zoo were among the well-known landmarks to be hit.

About 1, people were killed which was the largest outside the range of the "Oboe" radio navigation system which helped to concentrate the bombing pattern. Thanks to the use of Window only 12 aircraft were lost, 1. Mission Number Due to the unseasonally dry conditions, a firestorm was created in the built-up working-class districts of Hammerbrook, Hamm, Borgfelde and Rothenburgsort. The bombing was more concentrated than the RAF was usually able to manage at this stage of the war.

In just over half an hour it is estimated that — bomb loads fell into an area measuring only 2 miles by 1 mile and this gradually spread the fire eastwards. The firestorm lasted for about three hours, consuming approximately 16, multi-storyed apartment buildings and killing an estimated 40, people, most of them by carbon monoxide poisoning when all the air was drawn out of their basement shelters. Fearing further raids, two-thirds of Hamburg's population, approximately 1,, people, fled the city in the aftermath.

The plan was to bomb the untouched northern suburbs. But a mistake in mapping led to the bombing of an area just north of the area devastated by the firestorm three nights before.

The residential areas of Wandsbek and Barmbek districts and parts of the Uhlenhorst and Winterhude were severely damaged and widespread fires but no firestorm. Twenty-eight aircraft 3. Hamburg and other cities raided by a total of 26 Mosquitoes. The raid was not a success, the bombing was scattered and German sources estimated that only bombers landed their load on the city. Mission Bs bombed Hamburg refineries. Rhenania-Ossag was a subsidiary of Royal Dutch Shell.

Hamburg was one of five cities bombed by a total of 53 Mosquitoes. Mission Bs dispatched to hit the Harburg , including those of the th BG and Rhenania oil refineries at Hamburg.

Mission Bs are dispatched to hit the Harburg oil refinery 72 and Rhenania oil refinery 67 at Hamburg, 28 bomb Hamburg targets of opportunity. Mission Bs are dispatched to hit the Harburg oil plant at Hamburg , of Bs hit the Rhenania oil plant at Hamburg. Mission Bs are dispatched to hit the Harburg and Rhenania oil refineries at Hamburg. Mission Bs are sent to hit the Dpag and Rhenania oil plants at Hamburg.

Mission Bs are dispatched to hit oil industry targets at Hamburg 68 , the Wilhelmsburg refinery at Harburg 92 , the Grassbrook refinery at Hamburg 71 and the industrial area at Hamburg The BG bombed the Hamburg submarine yards.

Mission Bs are sent to hit the Albrecht and Harburg 70 oil refineries at Hamburg. Mission of Bs hit the Harburg oil refinery at Hamburg without loss. The No. Mission of Bs bomb the Wilhelmsburg oil refinery at Hamburg; one other hits a target of opportunity; one B is lost and 41 damaged; 3 airmen are wounded and 10 are missing in action. Mission bombers and fighters are dispatched to bomb the shipyard and dock area at Hamburg and an oil refinery.