Selling on the market is a perfectly adequate solution if the quality of the product can be easily assessed ex ante. In this study, consistency and reliability of MAX-DOAS profiles are assessed by applying nine different evaluation algorithms to spectral data recorded during an intercomparison campaign in the Netherlands and by comparing the results to colocated supporting observations. Their fairy shoes or boots have been noticed, p. Er solde sin ein guoter und ein ip Hew is geheizen, davon ist daz in reizen die iibeln ungehiure.
Commencement Bay Nearshore/Tideflats Feasibility Study: Volume 2 - Appendices
Fate prototype fragments vol 2 arar. The growth of agriculture was, in turn, due to the rise in the world price of wheat after and the construction of railways that linked farms to the markets of Western Europe.
The Cambridge History of Capitalism Volume 2 - Free ebook download as India's fate with four policies that comprised the Standard Model of Economic with their lathes for cutting revolving pieces of metal, planers and shapers for a patent; it had to be transformed, or 'perfected' into a working model of a prototype. Grimm, Jacob - Teutonic Mythology Vol 2 - Free ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online for free. Gothic fragments the word for forest never occurs, so that in addition to and the solemn fates of mortals. altogether an ancestor and prototype of the heroes, whose mission arar gullo,' Ssem. Yersinia Species claims description 2 araR Proteins description 2; carriers description 1; C-terminal fragment Anatomy description 1 "Oral somatic transgene vaccination using attenuated S. typhimurium", CELL, vol. codes as the prototype of the Code of Hammurabi, and when. Professor A. T. Clay In the second part of vol. ii Genouillac published a large number of , a fragment from the top of woman went to (her) fate, and after her he married another woman who scholars have adopted Arar-ma or Arar as the true rendering. Volume II, provided with a richer commentary, is The fragments of the Greek text of the De Autexusio, alongside a German translation of the Old fate of Croesus, and on the other because Moses' text is interwoven with echoes, t'argmanut'ean naxōrinaki harc'i šurǰ” [On the Prototype of the Armenian Translation of the.
The Cambridge History of Capitalism Volume 2 | Capitalism | Trade
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- Inorganic Chemistry | Vol 51, No 21 Search content
- Fate prototype fragments vol 2 arar
The elevation was initially zero everywhere and a lunar semi-diurnal tide (M2) of amplitude numerical model for the simulation of the drift and fate of oil spills. It contains Venezuelan. figure 2 shows the change in the average density and volume for a All of this does nothing more than assemble the necessary pieces. viewed in Supplement 2 to the Monographs series(15). That review usually restricted to studies that show the metabolic fate of the chemical in experimental.Fate prototype fragments vol 2 arar analysis of old and new translations of five narrative fragments from the He- This volume showcases some of the wide range of methods that cognitive 2 Mary Therese DesCamp and Eve Sweetser, “Metaphors for God: Why and How Do lation of רערע (arar) as a desert plant, in favor of its less-popular rendering as a. APPLICATION Several important pieces of information may be derived from the sediment Thorough testing of prototypes have proven that they can be used by SARA, designates RCRA as an ARAR for evaluating onsite remedial actions. Analyses () Water-Related Environmental Fate of Priority Pollutants.  HCJ /99 Movement for Quality Government in Israel v. aforesaid only in rare cases of a defect that goes to the heart of the matter' (HCJ /96 Abu Arar v. Minister of Interior, 7 P.D. ; 13 P.E. ; S.J. vol. in accordance with these choices this right of a human being to shape his life and his fate includes all. Volume II. MAIN REPORT. J. L. Mayberry. W. J. Quapp. F. Feizollahi. J. C. Del Signore. PublishedJuly ARAR applicable relevant and appropriaterequirement. CAA. Clean Air Act. CEA pilot or prototype test study on essential issues, normally pieces. After retrieval, special waste is packaged and placed in an enclosed. Volume 2: Compartments, Stressors and Sectors, deals with the problems that occur in the three 'compartments' encompasses the variable value and eventual fate of all kinds of waste plastic fragments. Pescod, M.B. and Arar, A. (eds) () Treatment and telecommunication system, to initiate zero and span.
Fate prototype fragments vol 2 arar.
Related authors 1. Government business enterprises-Turkey. 2. Turkey-Manufactures. A companion volume on Sweden, however, is in a fairly ad- vanced stage of preparation. Economy: Excursus on Sweden The Swedish prototype is important because Siderurgia Argentina Two factors are crucial to the fate of industrial ventures. Project social analysis has been accorded much the same fate. These points are discussed further in Chapter 7 of Gittinger and in Part II of this volume. citizens of the country, then the pecuniary impacts may be viewed as netting out to zero. multinational wage practices, and other factors which tend to fragment urban.
The TLD consists of four separate volumes-Vol. 1, Vol. 2, Vol. 3A, and Vol. 3B. Volume 1 provides introductory and overview information about the TLD. welcome you to THE VOL-2, ISSUE-8 of IJIER which is scheduled to be published on 31st August These fragments are called symbola, which arose today's meaning of In terms of the symbolism of numbers it is similar to a zero value. alphabet consists of the letter "iota", which symbolizes the embodiment of fate. Fate prototype fragments vol 2 arar 2 Willkommen! 13 This volume is a compilation of the proceedings from this truly remark- as well as selections of the “Critical Fragments and Ideas” ing truth of universal destiny because the individual always has to reach the classification of trees from three to sixteen prototype groups that should help Barar Varar. Cardiovascular events associated with SGLT-2 inhibitors versus other glucose-lowering drugs: Metallic fragment deposits during phacoemulsification Three bipods slicer prototype: tests and finite element calculations Cuadernos de Psicología del Deporte, vol 9, Suplemento, , SABER 29, , サクラ 咲 ケ mp3 ダウンロード (Bort, this volume); and borders have been expanded (to use an economic metaphor) control to the outer edges of the Schengen space, is somewhat different.2 The The fate of Semaphore is an operational prototype to trial e- record many pieces of information on passengers before each plane could take off. ; Bouche and Pichoff, On the birth and fate of Microbiology, Washington, D.C., , Volume 2, pages , or other protein fragment(s), carbohydrate(s), fatty acid(s), lipid(s), metabolism in Bacillus subtilis: characterization of the araR (araC) The prototype member of the STEAP.
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Articles · Volume 15, issue 9; ACP, 15, –, Shipborne measurements of XCO2, XCH4, and XCO above the Pacific Ocean and comparison to. have experienced the same fate and have the same difficulties in coping with the leitmotiv of the four Geneva Conventions''.2 No war, no imperative reason of national security, no The Geneva Conventions of 12 August Commentary, Vol. The Algerian War may in fact be regarded as a prototype for conflicts in. Fate prototype fragments vol 2 arar Energy transfer fine-tuned by a supramolecular peptide scaffold: design, structural characterization, spectroscopy, and molecular modeling. See D. J. Wilger. Public Comments on the Draft EA. Building , the Systems for Nuclear Auxiliary Power Ground Prototype Test Facility, was built in. building debris is somewhat less than the volume originally analyzed, the Nine equipment storage vaults in the test cell corridor were used to store various pieces of.
Grimm, Jacob - Teutonic Mythology Vol 2 | Elves
The volume has been financed by the Philological Department by different languages and 2) each language „draws” the picture repre mokveTa; muxlebi aRar merCis) of sources, including dictionaries and pieces of research, allege. The Latin prototype of this phraseological unit is circulus vitiosus. Fate prototype fragments vol 2 arar
Fate prototype fragments vol 2 arar. Inorganic Chemistry | Vol 51, No 21
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Fate prototype fragments vol 2 arar
Implementation The cutterhead dredge is the most widely used dredge in the United States and in the Pacific Northwest U. Their widespread use and availability make them among the least expensive dredging methods. Initial mobilization and set-up costs are considerable because conventional cutterheads are not self-propelled and must therefore be transported between dredging locations by towboats.
The addition of walking spuds is a preferred modification. These units are economically feasible only when quantities to be dredged are sufficient to amortize the initial costs to obtain a competitive average cost per cubic yard.
Conclusions Pipeline cutterhead dredges are retained for further evaluation. The dustpan has a widely flared dredging head upon which several high-pressure water jets are mounted. Like the suction and cutterhead dredges, this unit is not self-propelled and must be moved along by winches or a towboat. Effectiveness The dustpan is most effective in removal of free-flowing granular sediments like sands and gravel.
This dredge was developed by the U. Army Corps of Engineers to maintain navigation channels in uncontrolled rivers such as the Mississippi River U. Typically, slurries of 10 to 20 percent solids by wet-weight are achieved with this type of dredge.
The dustpan dredge is not recommended for use in waterways with fine-grained sediments because pressure from the water jets creates excessive turbidity. However, the dredge may be operated with low or no water pressure to minimize turbidity. Clogging of the suction line may result if the dustpan is used to dredge sediments with a high clay content U. Most dustpan dredges have low discharge pressures and are not well suited or designed to transport slurries distances over 1, ft without the assistance of a booster pump U.
The major advantage with dustpan dredges is that they are able to excavate very deep cuts, up to 6 ft in a single pass U.
Army Corps of Engineers , which may help to expedite projects. All dustpan dredges are classified as "large," with discharge line diameters of 30 in or greater. Implementation Due to the specific design purpose of the dustpan dredge, there are several limitations to its application. Conclusions Dustpan dredges are not retained for further evaluation. These may be designed with barge-type hulls or molded hulls similar to ocean vessels U.
Unlike most hydraulic dredges, sediments are pumped and contained on board these vessels rather than discharged to a barge or transported through a pipeline. Hopper dredges also differ from other hydraulic dredges in that these vessels move ahead of the excavation, dragging the dredged heads, rather than pushing them into the excavation, as is typically the pro- cedure.
Suction-created by centrifugal pumps located on the dredge removes sediments from the channel bottom and raises them through the draglines. Dredged materials are then discharged into the hoppers. Effectiveness Hopper dredges are most effective for dredging deep, rough-water shipping channels and they are one of the few dredges capable of dredging waterways that are sloped or vary in elevation.
Hopper dredges have good maneuverability, but cannot dredge sediments from around piers, docks, and other structures. Since hopper dredge heads are capable of removing only a few inches of sediment, successive passes over the same area may be neces- sary to achieve the desired dredging depth.
Normally, as the hopper is filled, overflow water is discharged at the dredge site allowing solids to settle and concentrate. This is usually not acceptable when removing contaminated sediments. When the economical load is achieved, the hopper is considered to be full. The economical load is specified as the maximum overflow pumping time that allows the greatest amount of solids accumulation in the hopper considering pumping and non- pumping times travel to and from the disposal site of the dredging cycle and the volume of solids that are hauled to the disposal site no overflow loss U.
Implementation When dredging contaminated sediments, hoppers are considered full at the point of overflow assuming no overflow is permitted. Therefore, it is unlikely that an economic load will be achieved for these conditions.
Typical slurries of 20 percent solids are produced with no overflow as compared with an average of 70 percent solids in an economic load. This drastically impacts the economical feasibility of this method due to the additional trips to the disposal site and increased volume of material to be treated and or disposed. Hopper dredges have often proven to be the most economical type of dredge when the disposal sites are not within economical transport distances using pump and pipeline systems.
These two methods may become more comparable when handling contaminated sediments, which necessi- tates less productive operation of hopper dredges. Availability of small and medium hopper dredges is good in the Pacific Northwest. They can be mobilized and initiate dredging in relatively short periods of time U. Conclusions Hopper dredges are retained for further evaluation. Army Corps of Engineers defines "portable" dredges as those that can be transported intact over existing roads or that are constructed in a modular fashion for easy dismantling and transportation Clark Dredges are not considered portable if they must be transported via water, either by barges or under their own power.
Mud Cat dredges are portable hydraulic dredges manufactured by a separate division of National Car Rental Systems Inc. Clark The Mud Cat is the most widely known and used portable dredge and is available in several models.
Dredging depths range from 10 to 25 ft and production rates range from 60 to cubic yards per hour. The Mud Cat SP is equipped with a centrifugal pump mounted directly behind the 8-ft horizontal auger. Effectiveness The Mud Cat has a retractable mud shield surrounding the cutter equipment for greater suction efficiency and minimal sediment resuspension.
Low turbidity production of the Mud Cat makes this technology particularly applicable for removal of contaminated sediments.
Implementation Portable dredges have their greatest application in shallow or isolated waterways. Their characteristically low draft depths under 2 to 6 ft enable them to dredge sediments in shallow waters, however dredging depth is limited to 15 ft or less. Maneuverability is excellent with their relative- ly small size, that enables them to operate efficiently in isolated or congested waterways. Mud Cat dredges are available in the Pacific North- west and their portability allows for easy transport via truck or air U.
Due to limited dredging depths, use of Mud Cats in Commencement Bay is restricted to intertidal areas or during low tides. Conclusions Mud Cat dredges are retained for further evaluation. These systems typically have low production rates, although when dredging contaminated sediments, this feature is usually of secondary importance to reducing turbidity or achieving high solids concentration. Since many of these special head adaptations are relatively new, there may be many unknowns concerning their applications and limitations.
Additional research, development, and experience may be necessary to fully define their usage. Among the most noteworthy special head adaptations discussed herein are the DREX, the cleanup, the refresher system, and the waterless.
Unlike most hydraulic dredges with a fixed head on an adjustable ladder, the DREX head allows the suction mouth to move laterally with respect to the dredge head and ladder. Once the ladder swings through an arc removing sediments, the suction mouth can be moved prior to returning to the ladder.
This allows dredging in parallel arcs rather than intersect- ing arcs as is the procedure for conventional cutterheads. Parallel arcs are a more efficient tracking pattern since there is essentially no dead- heading in the dredging operation.
For this reason, use of the DREX head increases solids content of sediment slurries because pumping of excess water as the dredge head passes over previously dredged areas has been eliminated. Cleanup System The Cleanup system, developed by the Japanese company Toa Harbor Works, is a unique method for dredging highly contaminated sediments. Design emphasis for the Cleanup system was maximum control of turbidity, with secondary importance on maximizing the solids content of the slurry.
The Cleanup head consists of a shielded auger mounted on a ladder at the front end of a pipeline dredge. As the ladder moves through the excavation, the shield guides the sediments towards the suction of a submerged centrifugal pump U. Resuspension of solids is minimized by shielding the auger with a wing that adjusts vertically, enabling the head to maintain contact with the surface sediments and preventing the sediments outside the head from being influenced by the turbulence within the head.
The dredging operation is monitored by sonar devices that indicate elevation and by underwater televisions that observe effectiveness of the turbidity controls. The Cleanup system has proven effective at removing contaminated sediments with minimal resuspension of solids and with high solids concentrations. Suspended solids concentrations around the Cleanup system ranged from 1.
These levels of suspended solids are approximately one- fiftieth of those associated with conventional hydraulic dredging methods. Since the Cleanup system is a Japanese manufactured system, its availability in the United States may be limited.
Domestic marketing is likely in the near future due to the system's compatibility with existing American-made equipment U. Limited availability of the Cleanup system is likely to result in higher mobilization and initial costs for this method. Refresher System The Refresher system is a modification of the cutterhead recently developed by the Japanese. It is equipped with a curve to reduce resuspension of sediments. The dredge ladder, articulated to keep the head level with the waterway bottom, facilitates dredging over a wide range of depths.
Results of comparison tests in similar material show the Refresher system generates one-fifteenth of the total resuspended solids generated by the operation of a conventional cutterhead U.
Since the refresher is a Japanese-manufactured system, its availability in the United States may be limited. Limited availability of the Refresher system is likely to result in higher mobiliza- tion and initial costs for this method.
Waterless Dredge The Waterless dredge was developed by the American firm, Waterless Dredge Company, for the removal of sludges from lagoons with minimal water content.
The dredge head is equipped with a shrouded "roll-over" cutter and a submerged centrifugal pump. As the cutterhead is moved through the excavation, sediments displace the water in the cutterhead and block entry of water into the dredge pump inlet. At the limit of the cut in one direction, the cutterhead rolls over degrees so that the face of the cutterhead is open to receive sediments in the return direction. The Waterless dredge continues to be field-tested and its application in removal of contaminated sediments has been limited.
It is reported that the Waterless dredge can pump slurries containing less than 10 percent water by volume with little resuspension of sediments. However, their lateral reach is quite limited and their vertical reach restricted to the boom length. Backhoes normally used for subsurface excavation are capable of reaching 40 ft or more below the level of the machine.
Additionally, backhoes can operate in shallow water up to several feet to provide access for larger or barge-mounted dredging equipment. Loaders are used to excavate loose or soft materials in a limited vertical range of a few feet above and below grade. Since loaders must be operated within close proximity to the material being removed, barge-mounted and land-based equipment are not usually practical.
Loaders may be practi- cal in shallow water, if material to be removed is sufficiently loose or soft. Loaders may also be useful for removing sediments from dewatered portions of a waterway e.
Effectiveness In general, the production rates of backhoes and loaders are comparable to those of other mechanical dredges. However, suspended solids in the water column generated from the mechanical agitation of sediments is considerable with these types of dredges. They are more practical to excavate and load dredged materials from a temporary storage area or dewatered site, and therefore have little applicability for the problem areas of Commence- ment Bay. Inert materials include sand, silt, and clay and may be fine-grained, coarse-grained, or uncon- taminated dredged spoils.
Active cover materials include limestone, greensand, oyster shells, alum, alumina, ferric sulfate, and gypsum. The function of an active cover material as opposed to an inert material is to react with the contaminant to neutralize or detoxify it.
Specific active cover materials should be selected on the basis of the contamination present. Neutralizing acids can be accomplished with limestone, oyster shells, or greensand. Bases can be neutralized with ferric sulfate or alum.
Gypsum or. Active cover materials can be applied alone or with inert materials. However, care must be taken during placement of active cover materials because they can harm biota outside the contaminated area.
Synthetic liners are available in a variety of materials. Liners must be selected on the basis of their compatibility with the contaminated sediments and their ability to withstand temperature and seawater effects. Synthetic liners such as butyl rubber and chlorinated polyethylene are not compatible with oils and hydrocarbon solvents. The principle determinants for inert and active covering materials are 1 turbidity and dispersion generated during application of the material; 2 impacts on benthic organisms; 3 scouring and resuspension of cover material once in place; and 4 resistance to leaching of contami- nants.
Turbidity and dispersion are a function of the delivery system used to place the cover material on the bottom. Impacts on biota are also directly related to the method of material delivery, the area! The ability of the cover material to be recolonized without contaminant bioaccumulation depends on the type of cover material, its resemblance to natural sediments, the thickness of the cap it must be thick enough to keep burrowing organisms from reaching the contaminated sedi- ments , and the potential for contamination leaching through the cover.
There is also concern that biological organisms [e. The diffusion of chemical contaminants through the cover material is governed by the thickness of the cap, permeability of the capping material e. Besides these controlling influences on the effectiveness of cover, active cover materials must also remain in place long enough to react with and treat the contaminated sediments.
Gypsum and limestone tend to form a cement-like cover that resists erosion. Ferric sulfate, alumina, and alum are fine-grained and susceptible to erosion, while oyster shells and greensand are the most susceptible to scour. Inert cover materials can be mixed with the active materials to add erosion resistance, although effect- ive interaction with sediments may decrease due to the reduced contact between the active cover material and sediments.
The effectiveness of synthetic liners is based on proper placement, adequate bonding of adjacent strips of liner, durability of the synthetic material, and provisions for venting gases that build up under the cover.
The material must be placed on relatively flat areas that are free of jagged outcroppings and obstructions to prevent tearing. The liners need to be weighted preferably with natural sediments to prevent displacement and minimize tearing.
This will also aid recolonization of the area. Adjacent strips of liner must be bonded well to provide a continuous cover for the contaminated sediments.
Implementation Several methods are available for delivering cover materials to the sea bottom. A barge-mounted roller apparatus has been proposed for laying synthetic liners at depths of ft, but has not been tested. Point-dumping involves barges or other vessels that release the cover materials from the water surface, allowing them to settle over the contaminated sediments.
Such vessels have been extensively used for ocean disposal of dredged spoils deposited in protected coastal waters. The major drawback of this system is the high turbidity and possible dispersion as the material moves down through the water column.
Also, silts and clays with low moisture content tend to fall in a clump, causing resuspension of contaminated sediments when they impact the bottom. Although sand is less cohesive and has a higher moisture content, a significant amount of turbidity and resuspension occurs. Pump-down systems involve a barge loaded with the cover material and a telescoping tremie tube or similar means of conveying the material directly to the sea bottom. Resuspension of contaminated sediments is also lessened as long as the discharge pipe is maintained close to the bottom.
Pump-down systems are slower at covering a given area than are point-dumping systems and may require monitoring to ensure complete coverage of the contaminated sediments. A submerged diffuser system can also be used to convey the cover material directly to the bottom and is very effective at controlling the material placement. The diffuser head reduces the velocity and turbulence during the material discharge, thereby reducing scour and turbidity.
Thickness of the cover and impact velocity of the material can be controlled by varying the discharge velocity and height above the bottom. Sediments at depths of ft can be covered with a submerged diffuser head. Another system being tested is a spray or spreader system, which is similar to the pump-down system. A slurry with percent solids of the desired cover material is pumped through a spreader pipe.
The spreader pipe is not necessarily kept near the sediment surface, but the use of a slurry helps reduce turbidity. Contaminated sediments can be removed and held on a barge while deeper uncontaminated sediments are removed. The contaminated sediments are then replaced in the excavated depression and capped with the cleaner dredged material.
This method has several advantages. A separate disposal site is not required. The depression created by the deep excavation of uncon- taminated sediment creates a confined disposal site with edges to contain the contaminated sediments when they are deposited which will reduce or eliminate lateral surges during bottom impact. The uncontaminated sediments used as capping material are generally similar in character to the sur- rounding sediments, creating a favorable habitat for recolonization of organisms.
This alternative has been proposed for evaluation for the new Bedford Harbor Superfund site Feasibility Study. A modification of the overdredging concept has been proposed as an alternative for the removal of contaminated sediments at the U.
Contaminated sediments would be dredged to the extent of their depth. Deeper dredging would continue into underlying, clean sediments. The clean and contaminated sediments could then be mixed resulting in a decreased concentration of contaminates per unit volume of material. The contaminated sediments would then be disposed of at an open water site and capped with additional clean material U. Overdredging was used for removing contaminated sediments at a dredging project site in Budd Inlet, Olympia, WA.
Examples of Capping at Other Sites Covering contaminated sediments has been considered or implemented at a number of sites. At the Kepone contamination site in the James River, covering some contaminated areas with an impervious blanket was considered but later rejected in favor of several dredging options. For the Mill River site with high lead concentrations in sediments, isolating the contamination with a clay or synthetic cap was evaluated as a remedial alternative.
Because of the river flow, there was also concern about anchor- ing a synthetic cap. Dredging was identified as the preferred alternative, despite estimated costs doubling those of the capping alternative. An impermeable liner was considered for PCB-contaminated sediments in the upper Hudson River, but was eliminated during initial screening because capping had not been demonstrated 'as feasible for rivers.
An impermeable membrane seal was rejected because it was still in the conceptual stage and would have had a limited lifetime. Use of a clay cap was evaluated in combination with dredged material containment. A cofferdam would be constructed to contain contaminated sediments dredged from the upper harbor.
After dewatering, the containment area would be capped with 3 ft of clay and 5 ft of fill. While not an in situ cap, this option was among those recommended for the site.
Capping was selected and implemented to control Stamford Harbor sediments contaminated with metals that were dredged from the harbor and disposed of in the Central Long Island Sound Disposal Area. Capping the material reduced impacts on the water column and benthic fauna. Two materials comparing the effectiveness and durability of sand versus silt caps were used to cap two disposal areas. Point dumping was used to deliver both cover materials.
The silt material did not spread too extensively beyond the contaminated dredge spoils because of its cohesiveness. The sand material was less cohesive and tended to flow upon impact with the bottom. Both capping operations were judged successful, and subsequent efforts focused on evaluating the stability of the caps. Recolonization proceeded faster on the silt cap.
A survey 5 mo after completing the covering operation indicated that over 2 m of the silt cap was lost, although no contaminated sediments were exposed. Hurricane storm waves and the rough- ness of the silt cap may have been responsible for the eroded cap.
The nearby sand cap showed no evidence of material loss. It was concluded that capping operations with silt should include smoothing the final cap surface to improve erosion resistance. While more long-term monitoring is required, the operation involving the Stamford Harbor sediments demonstrates that capping is a viable alternative.
Contaminated sediments were deposited at a 70 ft depth in an existing depression. The contaminated sediments were then covered with clean, sandy fill material. The contaminated sediments were removed using a conventional clamshell dredge. The sediments were carefully placed in a split-hull bottom dumping barge. The sediments were not allowed to free-fall from the clamshell bucket into the barge minimizing resuspension of contaminated sediments during dredging operations.
The contaminated sediments were transported to the existing depression and carefully deposited. The barge was positioned using direction from personnel onshore with electrical optical distance measuring equipment and theodolites Sumeri The barge hull was opened and the sediments were deposited rapidly within 19 sec as a cohesive mass.
Dredging survey of portable hydraulic dredges. Prepared for the U. Hahlbrock, U. Bucket wheel excavators in the marine environment. Terra et Aga Hand, T. Ford, P. Malone, D.
Thompson, and R. A feasibility study of response techniques for discharges of hazardous chemicals that sink. Department of Transportation. Pemberton, G. Risk, and D. Supershrimp: deep bioturbation in the Strait of Canso, Nova Scotia. Science Sumeri, S.
Capped in-water disposal of contaminated dredged material. In: Proceedings of the Conference, Dredging, November Truitt, C. The Duwamish Waterway capping demostration project: engineering analysis and results of physical monitoring. Technical Report D Army Corps of Engineers. Decision-making framework for manage- ment of dredged material: application to Commencement Bay, Washington. Final supplemental to U.
Navy environmental impact statement carrier battle group, Puget Sound region ship homeporting project. Volume 1. Handbook for remedial action at waste disposal site. It is not intended as an exhaustive review of such laws, regulations, requirements, or ordinances. While remedial actions must meet the substantive aspects of the various permit requirements, Superfund actions are exempt from permit requirements.
In addition for any offsite storage, destruction treatment, or secure disposition of hazardous sub- stances, U. EPA enters into a cooperative agreement on contract with the state in which the release occurred. This would provide, among other assurances, that the state will ensure the availability of a hazardous waste disposal facility in compliance with the requirements of Subtitle C of the Solid Waste Disposal Act, 42 U. The applicant is required to characterize the groundwater regime and geology underlying the site.
Specifications are provided for post-closure site maintenance and include monitoring, reporting, and maintenance of waste containment systems. Other requirements include notification of the local land use authority of the presence of contamination and the locations of waste facilities. All property deeds must identify the previous use of the site and restrictions on the future use of the site. A program of groundwater monitoring must be implemented to detect the presence of contaminants at the point of compliance, which is usually at site boundaries.
If concentrations of particular compounds are detected above designated limits, more extensive monitoring is necessary and corrective actions may be required.
Design requirements for landfills 40 CFR For example, a final cover must minimize the migration of liquids through the landfill, require minimal maintenance, promote drainage and minimize degradation of the surface, accommodate settling and subsidence without the loss of effectiveness, and have a permeability less than the underlying materials.
Use and management of containers, tanks, surface impoundments, and waste piles 40 CFR For surface impoundments, waste liquids and residues must be removed and appropriately managed and free liquids must be eliminated.
Wastes remaining at the site are subject to requirements similar to those for landfills. Land Treatment 40 CFR Incinerators 40 CFR For example, these sections require chemical analysis of wastes to be burned, performance of trial burns, EPA as part of its solid waste program.
These documents are not promulgated, and they do not have the status of potential ARARs; however, they may be considered for designing and implementing remedial alternatives and determining cleanup levels that are protective of the environment and human health. TSCA provides for U. EPA to regulate the testing, manufacture, processing, and distribution of toxic chemicals.
Title 40 CFR Parts TSCA also contains provisions for managing material containing dioxin; however, dioxin has not been documented as a contaminant of concern in Commencement Bay.
Some dredged material may be subject to material testing, handling, and disposal requirements of TSCA. Section of the CWA provides guidelines and requirements for dredging and dredged material management, including the designation of disposal sites. Section requirements may be applicable to all dredging and dredged material disposal remedial alternatives. Requirements under Section may be applicable to alternatives that involve the issuance or modification of existing NPDES permits.
The following sections present descriptions of pertinent guidelines and requirements of CWA. Federal Guidelines for Specifying Disposal Sites-- Federal disposal site guidelines describe an evaluation process for permits e. In summary, no discharge of dredged or fill material shall be permitted if: 1. There is a practicable alternative to the proposed dis- charge.
After consideration of dilution and dispersion, the action contributes to a violation of a state water quality standard, toxic effluent standard, or toxic effluent prohibition; threatens the existence of an endangered species; or threatens a marine sanctuary. The discharge will cause or contribute to significant adverse effects on human health, or cause or contribute to significant degradation of the waters of the U.
All appropriate and practicable steps have not been taken to minimize potential adverse effects to the aquatic environment. The guidelines also require several kinds of effects determinations e.
Evaluation and Testing of Dredged Material--The guidelines state that material shall be examined for the potential presence of contaminants based on potential sources and routes of contamination from adjacent contaminated material; upland sites; spills; industrial, municipal, or other point sources; or natural mineral deposits.
Testing is described for chemical- biological interactive effects, water column effects, and effects on benthos. Federal Guidelines for Permitting Discharges of Dredged Material-- Guidelines for issuing permits for discharges of dredged or fill material are specified in Parts to of Title 33 of the Code of Federal Regulations, dated 13 November [Regulatory Program for the Corps of Engineers ]. All dredged material discharge permits also known as permits are processed by the U.
EPA can prohibit or withdraw a permit upon determination that the discharge would have unaccep- table adverse effects. For the Commencement Bay site, this certification would be granted or denied by Ecology. The Washington Department of Ecology currently administers discharge permits in the Commencement Bay site.
Federal Water Quality Criteria However, state water quality standards are legally enforceable, and are based on federal water quality criteria. When neither state standards nor MCLs exist for a given pollutant, federal water quality criteria are applicable. Water quality criteria may be applicable to all remedial activities affecting water quality e.
Rivers and Harbors Appropriation Act 33 U. Army Corps of Engineers for construction, dredging, and filling below the mean high-water line. Safe Drinking Water Act 42 U. Based on literature reviewed, there appears to be no groundwater aquifers in the study area that would require implementation of requirements under this act. However, certain guidance provided by the Act e.
EPA's Groundwater Protection Strategy is relevant and appropriate for use as additional guidance for remedial actions. The following guidance documents are available from U. Clean Air Act 42 U. Standards under the Clean Air Act may be applicable to contami- nated material exposed to air e. The Clean Air Act may provide additional guidance for cleanup through documentation of the public health basis for listing pollutants as hazardous under Section of the Act. OSHA establishes safety requirements e.
OSHA regulations may be applicable to workers involved in any site remediation activities that involve potential worker contact with a hazardous substance.
In addition, OSHA requirements may be applicable to the potentially exposed public. Under the CZMA, local governments prepare land-use plans for their coastal zones. The federal CZMA would, therefore, not be directly applicable to remedial alternatives. Title 50 CFR Parts 81, , and : Based on the literature reviewed, it is not anticipated that any endangered species will be adversely affected by remedial alternatives at the site.
The following sections highlight relevant state laws and regulations. Residues, contaminated soils, water, or other debris from the cleanup of compound spills listed on the "moderately dangerous chemical products list" WAC in excess of Ib are designated as DW. If the spilled compounds are listed on the "acutely dangerous chemical products list" WAC , soils, residues, water, or other debris in excess of Ib are considered EHW.
Additional distinction is based on persistence, concentration, carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, teratogenicity, concentration of certain compounds, and toxicity. Wastes which were not designated as hazardous waste at the time of disposal are not considered DW or EHW. The definition of contaminated material pursuant to these regula- tions may be applicable to how the materials are handled and disposed of.
It is not expected that any dredged material removed from Commencement Bay problem areas will classify as EHW. Such a facility has not yet been designated; however, when designated it must satisfy landfill requirements of WAC these requirements are comparable to the corresponding federal regulations. Surface Impoundments WAC These regulations are comparable to federal regulations for surface impoundments e. State regulations for surface may be applicable for remedial activities involving landfill ing or storage of contaminated material.
Groundwater Protection for Waste Management Facilities In addition to requirements specified in federal regulations e. Water Quality Standards for Waters of the State of Washington WAC Ecology classifies surface waters according to their water quality and uses of the water body.
WAC establishes criteria for each water classification for fecal coliform bacteria, dissolved oxygen, total dissolved gas, temperature, pH, and turbidity. WAC further states that concentrations of contami- nants must be below levels which may adversely affect human health, the environment, or uses of the water body.
The criteria and classifications of the state water quality standards do not apply within defined dilution zones near point sources; however, WAC states that within the dilution zone, fish and shellfish must not be killed or aesthetic values diminished.
State water quality standards are applicable requirements and any new discharge or activity affecting water quality e. This requirement may affect implementation of all Clean Water Act related activities. Water Pollution Control.
Materials and substances that might enter these waters must receive prior treatment with known, available, and reasonable methods. Pollution control and discharge regulations are applicable for all dischargers in the Commencement Bay area. Protection of Upper Aquifer Zones WAC WAC provides for the protection to the extent practicable of upper aquifers and upper aquifer zones to avoid depletions, excessive water- level declines, or reductions in water quality. State regulations for upper aquifer zones are applicable to remedial alternatives that involve treating groundwater or presenting risks of groundwater contamination.
State Water Code In essence, the laws provide that water extraction must be consistent with beneficial uses of the resources and must not be wasteful. Water code and water rights regulations pertain to aquifers from which water is extracted for use. Water Well Construction and Withdrawal Regulations Water well regulations may be applicable for alternatives involving well construction for groundwater extraction and treatment.
These regulations may be applicable if new treatment facilities are built for remediation purposes. Air Quality. General Emission Standards fWAC 5 1 Air quality regulations require that contaminant air emissions from any source not be detrimental to the health, safety, or welfare of any person and must not damage any property or business.
General emission regulations may be applicable to remedial actions that involve the release of contaminants to the air e. Washington Clean Air Act. WAC and Additional regulations require a review process for new sources of air emission.
During the review process, the contaminants are identified, the best available control technology is determined, the maximum ambient air concentration is estimated, and an acceptable ambient level is established. Additional air regulations may be applicable to new sources that are part of a remedial activity affecting air quality. The SMA may be applicable to certain activities along the shoreline e.
They contain provisions for facility design, maintenance, and closure. Solid waste handling regulations may be appli- cable to remedial activities that involve municipal landfills. FEB , vol. Protease inhibitor: protease sensitive expression system and method improving the therapeutic activity and specificity of proteins and phage and phagemids delivered by bacteria.
Protease inhibitor: protease sensitive expression system composition and methods improving the therapeutic activity and specificity of proteins delivered by bacteria. JPA ja. ATT de. CNA zh. EPB1 en. CAC en. JPB2 ja. USA1 en. Gentschev et al. Darji et al. Oral delivery of DNA vaccines using attenuated Salmonella typhimurium as carrier.
Galen et al. Lactococcus lactis as a live vector for mucosal delivery of therapeutic proteins. Garmory et al.
The use of live attenuated bacteria as a delivery system for heterologous antigens. TWA en. Delivery of protein antigens and DNA by virulence-attenuated strains of Salmonella typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes. Het aantal in de tabel 'Geciteerd door' omvat citaties van de volgende artikelen in Scholar. Medeauteurs toevoegen Medeauteurs. PDF uploaden. PDF Herstellen Permanent verwijderen.
Deze auteur volgen. Nieuwe artikelen van deze auteur. Nieuwe citaties van deze auteur. Nieuwe artikelen gerelateerd aan het onderzoek van deze auteur. E-mailadres voor updates. Mijn profiel Mijn bibliotheek Statistieken Meldingen. Mijn eigen profiel maken Geciteerd door Alles weergeven Alles Sinds Citaties h-index 64 iindex Openbare toegang. Alles weergeven.
Angel Lanas University of Zaragoza. University Clinic Hospital.Related subject area
One who is seduced by elves is called in Danish ellevild, and this ellevildelse in reference to women is thus described: 'at elven legede med dem. Engl, gust, is flatus, and there is a dwarf named Gustr Seem. The knot-holes in wood are popularly ascribed to elves. In Smaland a tale is told about the ancestress of a family whose name is given, that she was an elf maid, that she came into the house through a knot-hole in the wall with the sunbeams ; she was married to the son, bore him four children, then vanished the same way as she had come.
Afzelius 2, Thiele 2, And not only is it believed that they themselves can creep through, but that whoever looks through can see things other- wise hidden from him ; the same thing happens if j ou look r. In Scotland a knot-hole is called elf bore, says Jamieson ' a hole :. If on the hill inhabited by elves the following rhyme be uttered 15 times :. In name, and still more in idea, the elf is connected with the ghostlike butterfly, the product of repeated changes of form.
An OHG. The alp is supposed often toassume the shape of a butterfly, and in the witch-trials the name of elb is given by tui-ns to the caterpillar, to the chrysalis, and to the insect that issues from it.
And these share even the names of gute hoi den and hose dinger evil things with the spirits themselves. These light airy sprites have an advantage over slow unwieldy man in their godlike power p. Only he that wears the ring can get a sight of Elberich, Ortn. With the light elves it is a matter of course, but neither have the black ones forfeited the privilege.
The invisibility of dwarfs is usually lodged in a particular part of their dress, a hat or a cloak, and when that is accidentally dropt or cast aside, they suddenly become visible. The dwarf-tales tell of nebelhappen Deut. By Albe-. Hujus tempore principis Heinrici ducis Karinthiae in montanis suae 1 '. Literas scribebant, rem- publicam inter se gerebant, legem habentes et principem, fidem catholicam pro- ritentes, domicilia hominum latenter intrantes, bominibus consedentes et arridentes.
Principe subducto, nihil de eis amplius est auditum. Dicitur quod gemmas g estant, quae eos reddunt invisibiles, quia deformitatem et parvitatem cor- a porum erubescunt. Wormius's pref. A schretel wears a rotez keppel on him not on his head , ibid. Bollenhagen's bergmiinnlein wear little white' '. In other instances the cap alone is meant: a Norwegian folk-tale in Faye p. Probably the OHG-. No doubt other superior beings, beside elves and dwarfs, wore the invisible-making garment ; I need only mention Oftin's hat with turned-up brim p.
The dwarfs may have stood in some peculiar, though now obscured, relation to OSinn, as the hat-wearing pataeci, cabiri and Dioscuri did to Jupiter see Suppl. From such ability to conceal their form, and from their teazing character in general, there will arise all of deception and manner disappointment conf. We read der alp trivget :. Horae a Belg.
In our. See Rafn's Index sub v. So, of the morbid oppression felt in sleep and dreaming, it is. Lear ii. Here will come in those ' comae equorum diligenter tricatae,' when the white women make their midnight rounds supra, p. The Lithuanian elf named aihvaras likewise mats the hair : aitwars yo plaukus suzindo, suwele has drawn his hair to- gether.
Lasicz 51 has : aitwaros, incubus qui post sepes habitat from twora sepes, and ais pone. Some parts of Lower Saxony give to the wichtelzopf plica polonica the name of selkensteert, selkin's tail Brem. The dwarf Elberich Ortn. Lye gives AS. Nearly akin is '. In the Mark they say both alb and mahre, Adalb. Kuhn, p. French cauchevwre, cochemar, also chaucheville, chauchi vieilli Mem.
Champollion Figeac patois, p. A girl, whom she has gifted, combs pearls and precious stones out of her own hair. Hollezaul for -zagel, tail , Hollezopp, Schmidt's Westerw. Adelung has Iwllenzopf, plica polonica, Pol.
The Edda nowhere represents either alfar or dvergar as mounted, whilst our poems of the Mid. Ages make both Elberich and Laurin come riding.
Antilois is richly dressed, bells tinkle on his bridle-reins he is angry with ;. Alexander for spoiling his flower-garden, as Laurin is with Diet- rich and Wittich. The Welsh stories also in Crofton Croker 3, say they were very diminutive persons riding four abreast, : '.
All dwarfs and elves are thievish. Among Eddie names of dwarfs is an Aljriofr, Seem. In our Low German legends they lay their plans especially against the pea-fields? Other thefts of dwarfs. In Podlachia the cure also is elftult is solemnly cut off at Easter time and buried. In the Skawina district about Cracow, it is partially cropped with redbot shears, a piece of copper money tied up in it, and thrown into tbe ruins of an old castle in which evil spirits lodge ;.
Superstitious formulas for the cure of plica are given by Zakrzewski, p. The first is from Jiibnde, near Gottingen Yor nioh langer tid gai :. Diise plegten up et feld to gan, un den liien do arftea leuten die crbsen weg to stelen, wat se iim sau lichter konnen, da se nnsichtbar woren dor durch eue kappe, dei se uppeu koppe barren hatten.
Sau woren nu ok de twarge enen manne iimmer up sin grat arftenstiicke egan, un richteden one velen schaen darup an. Diit duerde sau lange, bet hei up den infal kam, de twarge to fengen. Hei tog alsau an hellen middage en sel seil rings iim dat feld.
As nu de twarge unner den sel dorkrupen wollen, fellen onen de kappen af, se seiten nu alle in blaten koppen, un woren eichtbar. De twarge, dei sau efongen woren, geiwen one vele gaue wore, dat he dat sel wcgnomen mogde, un versproken ene mette miethe geld davor to gewen, hei solle mant vm- twmu nupgange weer wieder an diise Btee komen.
En ander man segde one awer, hei mogde nioh gegen sun- nenupgang, sundern scbon iim tw5lwe hengan, denn da wore de dag ok schon anegan, Diit de" he, und richtig woren de twarge da met ener mette geld.
Davon heiten de liie, dei dei mette geld ekregen barren, Mettens. Epitome :— Dwarfs ai Jiihnde preyed on the pea-fields wore caps which made them invisible. Dwarfs, creeping under it, brushed! Dwarf-kings run away with maidens to their mountains : Laurin with the fair Similt SindhiltGoldemar or Volmar with a king's daughter?
A friend advised him to go as early as 12, for even then the day of the dwarfs? He did so, and got his meed.
Da word den bueren esegt, hei solle hengan un slaen met weenrauen weidenruten drupe riim, sau sleugde gewis einen de kappe af. Da geng he ok hen met sinnen ganzen liien, un funk ok enen twarg, dei sie sagte tau one, wenn he one wier las Ian wieder los lassen wolle, sau wolle one enn wagen vul geld gewen, hei moste awer vor sunnenupgange komen. Da leit ne de buere las, un de twarg sie one, wo sine bvile wore. Do ging de buere henn un frang enn, wunnir dat denn die sunne upginge? Dei sie tau one, dei ginge glocke twolwe up.
Da spanne ok sinen wagen an, un tug hen. Asse as he vor de hiilen kam, do juchen se drinne un sungen :. Dat ist gaut, dat de buerken dat nich weit, dat de sunne iim twolwe up geit. Asse sek awer melle, wesden se one en afgefillet perd, dat solle mee mit nomen, wier weiter konnen se one nits gewen. Da was de buere argerlich, awer hei wolle doch fleisch vor sine hunne mee nomen, da haude en grat stiicke af, un laud et upen wagen.
Asser mee na hus kam, da was alles schire gold. Da wollet andere noch nae langen, awer da was hiile un perd verswunnen. Caught a dwarf, who promised a waggon full of money if he'd come to his cave before sunrise. Asked a man when sunrise was? When he got home, it was all sheer gold. Went for the rest cave and ;. In Norse legends re-appears the trick of engaging a trold in conversation till the sun is risen when he looks round and sees the sun, he splits in two Asbiornsen : ;. Afzelius 2, ;.
Hvilket han med ja besvarade, ok efter lion var helt naken, tog han sina klader ok holgde ofver henne, ok lat cbristna henne. Vid aftradet sade hennes far til honom nar tu skalt ha brollup, skalt tu laga til : '.
Et was enmal en maken nan arberen egan, da keirnen de int holt twarge un neiment mee. Da se na orerhiilen keimen, da verleifde sek de eine twarg in se, un da solle se one ok frien, awer iest erst wollen de twarge de andern twarge taur hochtit bidden,. Awer dat niaken, dat wolle den twarg nich frien, da wollet weglopen, awer dat se't nich glik merken, tug et sin teug ut un tug dat ne strawischan, un da sach et ne tunne vul hunig, da krup un da sach et ok ne tunne vul feddern, et rinder hinein , un da krup et ok rinder, un da et wedder ruter karu, was et gans vul feddern, un da leip et weg un steig upn hoagen boam.
Da keirnen de twarge derbunder darunter vorbi, un da se't seichen, meinen se, et wore en vugel, da reipen se't an un seen ' Wohen, woher du sckoiiue feddervugel? Ty nar de andre gafvo, lyfte han up tacket ok kastade ensa star penningeposse ther igenom, at biinken sa nar gidt af, ok sade thervid ther ar min : '. Thenne mannen Reors far i Foglekarsten beniimd, atiade en hop barn med thenna sin saledes fi-an berget afhiimtade hnstru, bland hvilka var namnemannen Reor pa Hogen so bar Ola Stenson i stora Rijk varit Reors syster- ;.
One, an archer, lived near a hill, saw one day at noon v. Her father opened the door of the hill, asked him if he wanted his daughter. He answered yes, and as she was naked, threw some of his clothes over her had her christened. Father: 'At thy ;. They abstract well-shaped children from the cradle, and sub- stitute their own ugly ones, or even themselves. These sup- posititious creatures are called changelings, cambiones App.
Stories about them in Thiele 1, Faye p. The motive of the exchange seems to be, that elves are anxious to improve their breed by means of the human child, which they design to keep among them, and for which they give up one of their own. A safeguard against such substitution is, to place a key, or one of the father's clothes, or.
When they got to their cave, one dwarf fell in love with her, and she was to marry him but first the dwarfs were going to bid the ;. But the girl, she did not want to marry the dwarf, so she would run away but that they might not notice it at once, she pulled her ;. Then the dwarfs came past under it, and when they saw her, they thought she was a bird, and called to her and said 'Whither and whence, thou :. I come out of the dwarf's hole' ' ' 'What does the pretty young bride?
She stands with a besom and sweeps the house. And when they got there, they said to the bride ' good morning,' and said other things too but as she never answered, they ;. Assuredly the dwarfs in this story are genuine and of old date. Besides, it can be supplemented from Kinderm. She makes him lick honey all night, he empties a big jar, gets a stomach-ache, and fancies himself about to become a parent.
She sends for a number of old women to assist him da fragt er, war sein kind wer komen : '. Der miiller sprach paid hin uff daz spor vachent ez catch him :! A wiehtel-wife crept up, took the human child, and put her own in its place. When the woman looked for her darling babe, there was a frightful thick- head staring in her face.
She screamed, and raised such a hue and cry, that at last the thief came back with the child but she would not give it up till the woman ;. One of the most striking instances of agreement that I know of anywhere occurs in connection with prescriptions for getting rid of your changeling. In Hesse, when the wichtelmann sees water boiled over the firein eggshells, he cries out Well, I am as old as the Wester- : '. In Denmark a pig stuffed with skin and hair is set before the changeling : ' Now, I have seen the wood in Tiso young three times over, but never the like of this ' : Thiele 1, Before an Irish changeling they also boil eggshells, till he says ' I've :.
Before a Scotch one the mother puts twenty-four eggshells on the hearth, and listens for what he will say he says I was ; : '. In the Breton folksong Villemarque 1, 29 he sees the mother cooking for ten servantmen in one eggshell, and breaks out into the words I have seen the egg hefore [it became] the : '. Villemarque 1, 32, quotes in addition a Welsh legend and a passage from Geoffrey of Monmouth, in which the Breton and Welsh formula for great age is already put into the mouth of Merlin the wild ; in each case an ancient forest is.
In all these stories the point was, by some out-of-the- way proceeding, to get the changeling himself to confess his age, and consequently the exchange. Such traditions must have been widely spread in Europe from the earliest times; and it was evidently assumed, that elves and korred had a very different term of life assigned them from that of the human race see Suppl. All elves have an irresistible fondness for music and dancing. By night you see them tread their round on the moonlit meadows,.
A Breton story of the korrigan changing a child is in Villein arque 1, 2a. The sight of mountain-spirits dancing on the meadows betokens to men a fruitful year Deut. An Austrian folk-song in Schottky, p. Songs of elfins allure young men up the mountain, and all is over with them Svenska fornsanger 2, Danske viser 1, The ordinary fornyrbalag 2 bears among Icelandic poets the name liiiflingslag carmen genii , Olafsen p.
One unprinted poem in MHG. Finn Magnusen derives the name of the dwarf Haugspori Sasni. And a song in Villemarque 1, 39 makes the dwarfs dance themselves out of breath see Suppl.
This fondness of elves for melody and dance links them with higher beings, notably with half-goddesses and goddesses. In the ship of songs of joy resound in the night, and a dancing Isis.
In Dame Holda's dwelling, in Dame Venus's mountain, are the song and the dance. Forn-yr'Sa-lag, ancient word-lay, the alliterative metre of narrative verse, in 2. On deathless food they feed, and live full long, And whirl with gods through graceful dance and song.
No wonder our sage elves and dwarfs are equally credited with having the gift of divination. As such the dwarf Andvari appears in the Edda Saem. Ogel prophesies to Siegfried Hiirn. Tristran, the nains nanus Frocin is a devins diviuator , he interprets the stars at the birth of children When, in legends and fairy tales, dwarfs appear singly among men, they are sage counsellors and helpful, but also apt to fire up and take offence. Such is the character of Elberich and Oberon in a Swiss nursery- tale no.
And in this point of view it is not without significance, that elves and dwarfs ply the spinning and weaving so much patronized by Dame Holda and Frikka. The flying gos- samer in autumn is in vulgar opinion the thread spun by elves and dwarfs; the Christians named it Marienfaden -thread , Marien- sommer, because Mary too was imagined spinning and weaving. The Swed. On a hill inhabited by spirits you hear at night the elfin which troldkone ' here must mean spinning, '.
Melusina the fay is called alvinne in a Mid. On the other hand, the male dwarfs forge jewels and arms supra, p. Fossumstorp hogar, hvarest man hordt, at the siuidt liksom en annan smidja oro i.
For 80 in- sedan p;ik Olas fadar i Surtuug, beniimd Ola Simunsson, har i forsamlingen Mn Slangevald bafvandes med sig en hund, hvilken ta ban blef varse mitt pa dagen bdrgsmannen, som ta smidde pd en star sten, skialde ban pa bonom, hvar pa bargsmeden, som hade on liusgrd rdk ok bldvulen hatt, begynte at snarka at bunden, som tillika med 1ms bonden funno rMeligast, at lemna bonom i fred.
Tbet gifvas ok iinnu ibland gemene man sma crucifixer af metall, som gemenbgen balles fore vara i fordna VOL. To bring pig-iron to dwarfs, and find it the next morning outside the cave, readyworked for a slight remuneration, is a feature of very ancient date; the scholiast on Apollon. What I have thus put together on the nature and attributes of elves in general, will be confirmed by an examination of particular elvish beings, who come forward under names of their own.
Among these I will allot the first place to a genius, who is. He is mentioned in several MHGr. Sie wolten daz kein pilwiz si da schiizze durch diu knie. Er solde sin ein guoter und ein ip Hew is geheizen, davon ist daz in reizen die iibeln ungehiure. Riiediger von zwein gesellen Cod. Da kom ich an bulweclisperg gangen, da schoz mich der bulweclis, da schoz mich die bulwechsin, da schoz mich als ir ingesind.
Von schrabaz pilwihten. Out of all these it is hard to pick out the true name. Wolfram tider smidde i btirg, hvilka the oforstandkre bruka at hanga pa boskap, som hastigt fadt oudt ute pi marken, eller som sages blifvit vaderslagne, hvarigeuom tro them bli helbregda.
Af sadana bargsmiden bar jag ok nyligen kommit ofver ett, som aunu ar forvar, ok pa. Eighty years ago Ola Simunsson was coming, etc. There are small metal crucifixes held to have been forged in the hills in former times, which simple folk still hang on cattle hurt in the field or weather-stricken, whereby they trow them to get healed. Of such hill-wrought things I have lately met with one, that used to be lent out to cure sicknesses. The varying form is a sign that in the th century the word was no longer understood; and later on,it gets further distorted, till bulwechs makes us think of a.
We welcome the present Westph. Kilian has belewitte lamia ; and here come3 in fitly a passage from Gisb. Vcetius de miraculis Disput. God is called 'btlewit iseder ' Andr.
The spelling bilehwit Beda 5, 2, 13, where it translates simplex would lead to hwit albus , but then what can bil mean? I prefer the better authorized bilewit, taking 'wit' to mean scius, and bilwit, OHG. A later form biilwachs in Schm. As the notions ' aequus, aequalis, similis' lie next door to each other, piladi, bilidi our bild is really aequalitas, similitudo, the ON.
The Celtic bil also mi ana good, mild and Leo Malb. If this etymology is tenable, hilwiz is a good genius, but of elvish nature ; he haunts mountains, his shot is dreaded like that of the elf p. One passage cited by Schm. Bonier' s Legends of the Orlagau, p. The change of hilwiz, bilwis into bilwiht was a step easily taken, as in other words also s and h, or s and lit inter- change lios, lioht, Gramm. Martin von Amberg's Mirror of Confession already interprets pilbis by devil, as Kilian does belewitte by lamia, strix.
The tradition lingers chiefly in Eastern Germany,. This wieszczyce agrees with our weichsel-zo-pf, and also with the -tviz, -weis in bilwiz. If we conld point to a compound bialowieszczka white witch, white fay but I ;. Of different origin seem to me the Sloven, paglawitz, dwarf, and the Lith.
Pilvitus Lasicz 54 or Pilwite Narbutt 1, 52 , god or goddess of wealth. I am not sure therefore that even wieszczka may not be " little wiht. Sachs uses bilbitzen of matting the hair in knots, pilmitz of tangled locks ' ir liar verbilbltzt, zapfet und stroblet, als ob sie hab der rab. In the Ackermann von Bohmen, means cap.
Gryphius, p. On the Saale in Thuriugia, bulmuz is said of unwashed or uncombed children ; while b lib ezsclmitt, bllwezschnltt, bilfez-. Bohmerwald, p. This last-mentioned belief is also one of long standing. Thus the Lex Bajuvar. On this passage Mederer remarks, p. From that part of the field that he has passed his sickle through, all the grains fly into his barn, into his bin.
His mother R. Julius Schmidt too Reichenfels, p. John's day, sometimes on Walpurgis-day May 1 ,. Such persons must have small three-cornered hats on bilsenschnitter-hiitchen if during their ;. These bilsenschnitter believe they get half the produce of the field where they have reaped, and small sickle-shaped instru-. If the owner of the field can pick up any stubble of the stalks so cut, and hangs it in the smoke, the bilsenschnitter will gra- dually waste away see Suppl.
According to a communication from Thuringia, there are two 1 ways of baffling the bilms- or binsenschneider -cutter , which- ever he is called. One is, ou Trinity Sunday or St. John's day, when the sun is highest in the sky, to go and sit on an elderbush with a looking-glass on your breast, and look round in every quarter, then no doubt you can detect the binsenschneider, but not without great risk, for he spies you before you see him, if.
What is here imputed to human sorcerers, is elsewhere laid to the devil Superst. Sometimes they are known as bilgensclineider, as jpilver- or hilperts-schnitter, sometimes by altogether different names. Alberus puts sickles in the hands of women travelling in Hulda's host supra, p. In some places, ace. They are merely an adaptation of bilwiz, when this had become unintelligible.
The people about Osnabriick believe the tremsemutter walks about in the corn : she is dreaded by the children. In Brunswick she is. In the Altmark and Mark Brandenburg they call her roggenmblime aunt in the rye , and hush crying children with the words ' hold your tongue, :. Babes whom she puts to her black breast are likely to die. In the Schrackengast, Ingolst.
In all this array of facts, there is no mistaking the affinity of these bilwisses with divine and elvish beings of our heathenism. They mat the hair like dame Holla, dame Berhta, and the alb, they wear the small hat and wield the shot of the elves, they have at last, like Holla and Berhta, sunk into a children's bugbear. And more, at the back of these elvish beings there may lurk still higher divine beings. The Romans worshipped a Robigo, who could hinder blight in corn, and per- haps, if The walking of the bilwiss, of displeased, bring it on.
Dent, sagen, no. Temmc's Sagen, p. The Baden legend makes of it a rockert-weibeU and an enoh countess of Eberstein, who walks about iu a wood named liockert Mono's Anzeiger, 3, H5. Fro upon his boar must have ridden through the and made them productive, plaius, nay, even the picture of Siegfried riding through the corn I incline to refer to the circuit made by a god and now for the ;. It is said of the god who causes the crops to thrive.
Thus, by our study of elves, with whom the people have kept up acquaintance longer, we are led up to gods that once were. The connexion of elves with Holla and Berhta is further remarkable, because all these beings, unknown to the religion of the Edda, reveal an independent development or application of the heathen faith in continental Germany see Suppl. What comes nearest the hairy shaggy elves, or bilwisses, is a spiritnamed scrat or scrato in OHG.
The Gl. Boxhorn's Resp. Ille enim, dum jam maturae resecantur fruges, habitu viduae lugentis ruri obambulat, operariisque uni vel pluribus, nisi protinus viso spectro in terram proni concidant, brachia frangit et crura. Neque tamen contra banc plagarn remedio destituuntur. Habent enim in vicina silva arbores religione patrum cultas harum :. If a Wend, conversing with her by the hour on flax and flax-dressing, can manage to contradict everything she says, or keep saying tbe Lord's prayer back- wards without stumbling, he is safe Lausitz.
The Bohe- mians call her baba old woman , or polednice, poludnice meridiana , the Poles dziewatma, dziewice maiden , of whom we shall have to speak more than once, conf.
Here also there are plainly gods mixed up with the spirits and goblins. Vintler thiuks of the schrdttlin as a spirit light as wind, and of the size of a child. The Vocab. Schmid's Schwab, wortb. In the Sette comm. A Thidericus Scratman named in a voucher of Spilcker 2, is ;.
And other Teutonic dialects seem to know the word : AS. Compar- ing these forms with the OHG. Beham 8. To the Serv. I can find no satisfactory root for the German form. Does the AS. Lobeck's Aglaoph. If Slav, skry, why not AS. But the male sex alone is mentioned, never the female ; like the fauns, therefore, they lack the beauty of contrast which is presented by the elfins and bilwissins.
We may indeed, on the strength of some similarity, take as a set-off to these schrats those wild women and wood-minnes treated of at the end of chapter XVI. Another thing in which the schrats differ from elves is, that they appear one at a time, and do not form a people. The Fichtelberg haunted by a wood-sprite named the Katzen- is. This last, however, seems to be of Slav origin, Boh. Rybecal, Bybrcol. It is not surprising, and it offers a new point of contact between elves, bilwisses, and schrats, that in Poland the.
The oldest Germ. Is Rubezagel our bobtail, of which I have '. People iu Europe began very early to think of daemonic beings as pilosi. C is speaking of the superstitious custom of putting playthings, shoes, bows and arrows, in cellar or barn for the home-sprites, 3 and these genii again are called ' satyri vel pilosi.
Gall, in the Life of Charles the Great Pertz 2, , tells of who visited the house a pilosus of a smith, amused himself at night with hammer and anvil, and filled the empty bottle out of a rich man's cellar conf. Evidently a frolicking, dancing, whimsical cxii.
A figure quite in the foreground in Cod. Only I conceive that in earlier times a statelier, larger figure was allowed to the schral, or wood-schrat, then afterwards the merrier, smaller one to the schrettel.
This seems to follow from the ON. Quotations in proof have already been given, pp. Eckevrid of Saxony accosts him with the bitter taunt. Lntlier translates feldteufel ; the Heb. Radevicus frising. Pilosi quos satijros vocant in domibus plerunque auditi. Dei, c. The '. I, no.
G2 conf. Die, ait, an corpus vegetet ti'actabile teinet, sive per aerias fallas, maledide, figuras? Celtica lingua probat te ex ilia gente creatum, cui natura dedit reliquas ludendo praeire; at si te propius venientem dextera nostra attingat, post Saxonibus memorare valebis, te nunc in Vosago fauni fantasma videre.
If you come within reach of my arm, I give you leave then to tell y,our Saxon countrymen of the schrat ' you now see in '.
When Eckevrid has hurled his spear at him in vain, Walthari cries :. Haec tibi silvanus transponit munera faunus. Herewith the wood-schrat returns you the favour.
Here the faun is called fantasma, phantom OHG. Similarly in OFr. A passage from Girart de Rossillon given in Mone's Archiv Such are the fauni ficarii and silvestres homines, with whom Jornandes makes his Gothic aliorunes keep company p. Yet they also dip into the province of demigod heroes. Miming silvarum satyrus, and Witugouwo silvicola seem to be at once cunning smith-schrats and heroes pp.
A valkyr unites herself with satyr-like Volundr, as the aliorunes did with fauns. The wild women, wood-minne pp. Wigamur come together. Sia muoter was ein wildez wip His mother was a wild woman, da von was sin knrzer lip therefrom was his short body aller ruck unde stark, all over hairy and strong, sin gebein was ane mark his bones without marrow solid.
In the Wolfdietrich a wild man like this is called waltluoder, and in Laurin The popular belief of to-day in South-eastern Germany presents in a more intelligible shape the legend of the wild-folk, forest-folk, wood-folk, moss-folk, who are regarded as a people of the dwar kind residing together, though they come up singly too, and in that case the females especially approximate those higher beings spoken of on p.
They are small of stature, but somewhat larger than elves, grey and oldish-looking, hairy and clothed in moss : ' ouch waren ime diu uren als eime walttdren vennieset,' his ears like a forest-fool's bemossed? Often holz- weibel alone are mentioned, seldomer the males, who are supposed to be not so good-natured and to live deeper in the woods, wear- ing green garments faced with red, and black three-cornered hats. Sachs 1, a brings up holzmanner and holzfrauen, and gives 1, the lament of the ivild woodfolh over the faithless world.
Schmidt's lleichenfels, pp. The little wood-wives come up to wood- cutters, and beg for something to eat, or take it themselves out. VHfjershar, leaf-maids, forest-maids, and compares them with Laufey p. At times they help people in their kitchen work and at washing, but always express a great fear of the wild huntsman that pursues them.
On the Saale they tell you of a bush-grandmother and her moss-maidens ; this sounds like a queen of elves, if not like the 'weird lady of the woods' p. The little wood-wives are glad to come when people are baking, and ask them, while they are about it, to bake them a loaf too, as big as half a millstone, and it must be left for them at a specified place ; they pay it back afterwards, or perhaps bring some of their own baking, and lay it in the furrow for the ploughmen, or on the plough, being.
At other times the wood-wife makes her appearance with a broken little wheelbarrow, and begs you to mend the wheel ; then, like Berhta she pays you with the fallen chips, which turn into gold; or if you are knitting, she gives you a ball of thread which you will never have done un- winding.
Every time a man twists driebt, throws the stem of a young tree till the bark flies off, a wood- wife has to die. When a peasant woman, out of pity, gave the breast to a crying wood- child, the mother came up and made her a present of the bark in which the child was cradled the woman broke a splinter off and ;.
Wood-wives, like dwarfs, are by no means satisfied with the ways of the modern world but to the reasons given on p. There's never been a good time since people took to counting the dumplings they put in the pot, the loaves they put in the oven, to pipping ' their bread '. Schiil keinen baum, No tree ever shell, erzahl keinen traum, no dream ever tell, back keinen kiimmel ins brot, bake in thy bread no cummin- seed,.
They've baked me caraway-bread, it will bring that house great trouble. And till he was the farmer's prosperity soon declined, utterly impoverished. To push the tip of your ' pip ' a loaf is to finger into it, a common practice in most places. Probably the wood-wives could not carry off a pricked loaf, and therefore disliked the mark for a like reason they objected to counting.
Whether the seasoning with, cummin disgusted them as an inno- vation merely, or in some other connection, I do not know. The rhyme runs thus kiimmelbrot, unser tod ' the death of us : '! Schmidt, p. Well, they took their new outfit, but their leave at the same time, crying, paid up, paid up Another time '!
The smith having soon become a rich man, his wife sewed them each a pretty little red coat and cap, and left them lying. If in giving out tasks they omitted the phrase none too much and none too little,' he turned '. Though his clothes were old and shabby, he never would let the Seewen farmer get him new ones but when this after all was ;.
The bilayer salt generates the fluctuated spins more easily than conventional monolayer salts, and such fluctuated spins are expected to result in unique physical properties. Because of the good CL properties and good CIE chromaticity coordinates, the as-prepared phosphors have potential application in field emission display devices.
The study of the reaction pathway has led us to the preparation of the bis Hbzq product [cis-Pt C6F5 2 Hbzq 2] 2 and the benzoquinoline—benzoquinolate derivative [Pt bzq C6F5 Hbzq ] 3. These alkyne complexes are only moderately stable in solution, and all attempts to obtain crystals suitable for X-ray diffraction were fruitless. All complexes except those containing the ferrocenyl fragment present emissive properties in solution and solid state 77 K , related, in general, with intraligand bzq excited states with some mixing 3MLCT character, as supported by theoretical calculations.
Such catalysts have been tested for the catalytic flameless combustion of methane, achieving very high catalytic activity.
The resistance toward poisoning by some model N-containing impurities has been checked in order to assess the possibility of operating the flameless catalytic combustion with biogas, possibly contaminated by S- or N-based compounds.
This would be a significant improvement from the environmental point of view because the application of catalytic combustion to gas turbines would couple improved energy conversion efficiency and negligible noxious emissions, while the use of biogas would open the way to energy production from a renewable source by means of very efficient technologies.
A different behavior has been observed for the two catalysts; namely, the undoped sample was more or less heavily poisoned, whereas the Sr-doped sample showed slightly increasing activity upon dosage of N-containing compounds.
A possible reaction mechanism has been suggested, based on the initial oxidation of the organic backbone, with the formation of NO. The latter may adsorb more or less strongly depending on the availability of surface oxygen vacancies i. Decomposition of NO may leave additional activated oxygen species on the surface, available for low-temperature methane oxidation and so improving the catalytic performance.
The trans isomer was crystallized as the major product, and the molecular structure was determined by X-ray analysis. The trans isomer was isomerized by heating in solution to give a mixture of trans and cis isomers. These results were supported by preliminary density functional theory calculations.
Magnetic susceptibility measurements indicate strong antiferromagnetic coupling between the two metal centers. DFT calculations have been carried out to understand the magnetic behavior and to analyze the nature of the observed Jahn—Teller distortion.
Paramagnetic 1H NMR has been applied to rationalize the formation and magnetic features of the complexes formed in solution. Our data demonstrate that Co9 is a homogeneous catalyst for water oxidation. Catalytic water electrolysis on fluorine-doped tin oxide coated glass electrodes occurs at reasonable low overpotentials and rates when Co9 is present in a sodium phosphate buffer solution at neutral pH.
In these conditions, no heterogeneous catalyst forms on the anode, and it does not show any deposited material or significant catalytic activity after a catalytic cycle.
Co9 is also an extremely robust catalyst for chemical water oxidation. It is able to continuously catalyze oxygen evolution during days from a buffered sodium hypochlorite solution, maintaining constant rates and efficiencies without any significant apparition of fatigue. The first monogermylenerhodium complexes stabilized by bulky amidinato ligands on the divalent germanium center have been synthesized and characterized by NMR spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography.
Their stability strongly depends on the steric hindrance of the amidinato ligand. With trimethysilyl groups on the nitrogen atoms of the amidinato ligand, only the germylene oxide rhodium complex could be obtained; by contrast, with t-Bu groups, the germylenerhodium complex was isolated. In both cases, the formation of amidinatorhodium complexes was observed. The donating ability of the germylene ligand has been assessed from the CO stretching frequency of the corresponding dicarbonylrhodium complex and was confirmed by density functional theory calculations.
The copper cations are disordered over three different tetrahedral sites. On the basis of the diffuse-reflectance spectra, the band gaps are around 1. A series of highly ordered mesoporous Cr2O3 were prepared through the nanocasting pathway from decomposition of chromium VI oxide using KIT-6 as a hard template. The effects of the calcination temperature on the crystal structure, textural parameters and magnetic properties of the material were investigated.
It was found that with increasing calcination temperature, surface area and pore volume of the mesoporous Cr2O3 decreased slightly. A spin-flop transition has been observed at a magnetic field smaller than that of bulk material. It is noteworthy that the two [Ni6 CO 12]2— fragments display different geometries, i. The chemical reactivity of these clusters and their electrochemical behavior have been studied. Conversely, [Ni32Au6 CO 44]6— displays five reductions, with apparent features of reversibility, confirming the ability of larger metal carbonyl clusters to reversibly accept and release electrons.
The electronical and structural properties of Th0. A substoichiometric fluorite ThIV0. In contrast, heating of this sample in air leads to a nondefective fluorite ThIV0. The structures of these solid solution compounds were fully characterized by assessing the interatomic distances, the coordination numbers, and the structural disorder.
The effect of the sintering atmosphere on these crystallographical parameters and on the cation valences has been determined and the capability of ThO2 to accommodate tri- and tetravalent actinides in the fluorite structure assessed. Multitemperature oriented single-crystal measurements facilitate assignments of the vibrational character of all modes and are consistent with the DFT-predicted spectra.
The availability of the entire iron vibrational spectrum allows for the complete correlation of the modes between the two spin states. These data demonstrate that not only do the frequencies of the vibrations shift to lower values for the high-spin species as would be expected owing to the weaker bonds in the high-spin state, but also the mixing of iron modes with ligand modes changes substantially.
Diagrams illustrating the changing character of the modes and their correlation are given. The reduced iron—ligand frequencies are the primary factor in the entropic stabilization of the high-spin state responsible for the spin crossover. A new compound, Na1. The tubules consist of a complex network of monoface-capped EuS7 trigonal prisms and GeS4 tetrahedra. The most striking structural feature of Na1.
The best fit corresponds to The field dependence of the 1. Hydrogenase proteins catalyze the reversible conversion of molecular hydrogen to protons and electrons. While many enzymatic states of the [NiFe] hydrogenase have been studied extensively, there are multiple catalytically relevant EPR-silent states that remain poorly characterized.
Analysis of model compounds using new spectroscopic techniques can provide a framework for the study of these elusive states within the protein. The studies presented here use RR spectroscopy to probe vibrational modes of the active site, including metal—hydride stretching vibrations along with bridging ligand—metal and Fe—CO bending vibrations, with isotopic substitution used to identify key metal—hydride modes. The metal—hydride vibrations are essentially uncoupled and represent isolated, localized stretching modes; the iron—hydride vibration occurs at cm—1, while the nickel—hydride vibration is observed at cm—1.
The significant discrepancy between the metal—hydride vibrational frequencies reflects the slight asymmetry in the metal—hydride bond lengths. Additionally, time-dependent density functional theory TD-DFT calculations were carried out to obtain theoretical RR spectra of these compounds.
On the basis of the detailed comparison of theory and experiment, the dominant electronic transitions and significant normal modes probed in the RR experiments were assigned; the primary transitions in the visible wavelengths represent metal-to-metal and metal-to-ligand charge transfer bands. Inherent properties of metal—hydride vibrational modes in resonance Raman spectra and DFT calculations are discussed together with the prospects of observing such vibrational modes in metal—hydride-containing proteins.
Such a combined theoretical and experimental approach may be valuable for characterization of analogous redox states in the [NiFe] hydrogenases. All of the compounds consist of the uranyl cation equatorially coordinated to five N-bound thiocyanate ligands, UO2 NCS 53—, and charge-balanced by three tetraalkylammonium cations.
Raman spectroscopy data have been collected on compounds 1—3, as well as on solutions of uranyl nitrate with increasing levels of sodium thiocyanate. By tracking the Raman signatures of thiocyanate, the presence of both free and bound thiocyanate is confirmed in solution. The shift in the Raman signal of the uranyl symmetric stretching mode suggests the formation of higher-order uranyl thiocyanate complexes in solution, while the solid-state Raman data support homoleptic isothiocyanate coordination about the uranyl cation.
Presented here are the syntheses and crystal structures of 1—3, pertinent Raman spectra, and a discussion regarding the relationship of these isothiocyanates to previously described uranyl halide phases, UO2X42—. Structural parameters of Pr3MgNi14 after a cyclic hydrogen absorption—desorption process were investigated by X-ray diffraction. The cyclic property of Pr3MgNi14 up to cycles was measured at K. The retention rate of the sample was After cycles, the expansions of lattice parameters a and c and the lengths along the c-axes of the PrNi5 and PrMgNi4 cells of the Gd2Co7-type structures were 0.
The metal sublattice expanded anisotropically after the cyclic test. The isotropic and anisotropic lattice strains can be refined by Rietveld analysis. The anisotropic and isotropic lattice strains were almost saturated at the first activation process and reached values of 0.
These values are smaller by 1 order of magnitude than those of LaNi5. In all of these complexes, the geometry around the metal centers is trigonal bipyramidal, and the fluoride bridges are linear. Interpretation of the EPR spectra of the iron II and manganese II complexes required the spin Hamiltonian using the noncoupled spin operators of two metal ions. A new, easily synthesized diphosphine based on a heterocyclic 1,3,2-diazaphospholidine framework has been prepared.
All molecules have been characterized by multinuclear NMR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and single-crystal X-ray crystallography. Variable-temperature EPR spectroscopy was utilized to study the nature of the phosphinyl radical in solution. Electronic structure calculations were performed on a number of systems from the parent diphosphine [H2P]2 to amino-substituted [ H2N 2P]2 and cyclic amino-substituted [ H2C 2 NH 2P]2; then, bulky substituents Ph or Dipp were attached to the cyclic amino systems.
Furthermore, there is a significant amount of relaxation energy stored in the ligands The synthesis, full characterization, and experimental spectroscopic study of 3 and 4 have first been carried out, 1 and 2 being previously studied. In the solid state, 3 gives polymers, like 1 and 2, whereas 4 exists under a dinuclear monomeric form. In particular, Au—Au bonding seems to appear in its first singlet and triplet states, whereas such a bond does not exist in the ground state.
Then, the influence of polymerization through aurophilic bonding on the optical properties of 2 is investigated 1 and 3 behave as 2. It is shown using TDDFT computations that its observed UV—visible excitation spectrum in solution is due to high oligomers and not to monomers or low size oligomers. ESI-MS molecular weight measurements confirm the occurrence of such oligomers of 2 in solution. An assignment of the observed bands of 2 is proposed. A series of monomeric mono cyclopentadienyl iron amido, phenoxo, and alkyl complexes were synthesized, and their structure and reactivity are presented.
In contrast this rearrangement is inhibited when the 4-position is blocked by a tBu group. Density functional theory DFT was used to further elucidate the structure—reactivity relationship in these molecules. This behavior might be rationalized by a spin-state induced reaction barrier. Both compounds for the respective lanthanide ions are found to be isolated within the same crystal.
Magnetic studies reveal an absence of any observable coupling interaction for the Gd case. The Dy analogue displays single molecule magnet SMM behavior with a large energy barrier to magnetization reversal of Dilution of the Dy complex into an isostructural diamagnetic yttrium matrix allowed us to determine aspects of the relaxation mechanism within the system. The products were characterized by 1H NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, elemental analysis, and single crystal X-ray diffraction.
Analogous aluminum chemistry previously afforded either one-electron or two-electron reactions and mixed-valent states. An analogous carboxylate ligand effect is observed in the coordination of the bidentate sulfoxide ligand, 1,2-bis phenylsulfinyl ethane to PdII. Collectively, these results provide useful insights into the coordination properties of DMSO to PdII under catalytically relevant conditions. The longest chain model underwent side-group-exchange reactions preferentially at the end units.
These results are significant for the synthesis of phosphazene high polymers with fluoroalkoxy and aryloxy side groups. Kinetic and mechanistic studies of atom transfer radical addition ATRA catalyzed by copper complexes with tris 2-pyridylmethyl amine TPMA ligand were reported.
The results presented in this Article are significant from the mechanistic point of view because they indicate that coordinatively saturated CuI TPMA X complexes catalyze the homolytic cleavage of carbon—halogen bond during the activation step in ATRA by prior dissociation of either halide anion or TPMA arm. The unusual role of CO as a signaling molecule in several physiological pathways has spurred research in the area of synthesizing new CO-releasing molecules CORMs as exogenous CO donors.
Auxiliary control on CO delivery can be achieved if CO can be released under the control of light. To synthesize such photoactive CORMs photoCORMs with the aid of smart design, a series of manganese carbonyls have been synthesized with ligands that contain extended conjugation and electron-rich donors on their frames.
These designed carbonyls readily release CO upon exposure to light — nm. Addition of Br— as an ancillary ligand also improves the CO-donating capacity.
Collectively, the results of this work demonstrate that new photoCORMs with excellent sensitivity to visible light can be synthesized on the basis of smart design principles.
Synthesis and structural characterization of half-sandwich rare-earth metal tris trimethylsilylmethyl anionic complexes bearing one 1-phenyl-2,3,4,5-tetrapropylcyclopentadienyl ligand are achieved.
These soluble anionic compounds show good reactivity in the stoichiometric reaction with dibenzoylmethane DBM to give the salt-free half-sandwich complex bearing two chelate DBM ligands. Our results show clearly the reactivities of anionic trialkyl precursors are comparable with the corresponding neutral alkyl complex in the stoichimetric reaction but exhibit better catalytic activity than the known catalysts.
Studies using myoglobins reconstituted with a variety of chemically modified heme cofactors revealed that the oxygen affinity and autoxidation reaction rate of the proteins are highly correlated to each other, both decreasing with decreasing the electron density of the heme iron atom. Some distortions induced by difunctional cisplatin are also found for monofunctional Pt II complexes with carrier ligands having bulk projecting toward the guanine base.
This ligand bulk can be correlated with impeded rotation about the Pt—N7 guanine bond. Because the Pt N H dpa moiety contains a mirror plane but is unsymmetrical with respect to the coordination plane, Pt N H dpa G adducts can form anti or syn rotamers with the guanine O6 and the central N—H of N H dpa on the opposite or the same side of the coordination plane, respectively. The observation of two sharp, comparably intense guanine H8 NMR signals provided evidence that these Pt N H dpa G adducts exist as mixtures of syn and anti rotamers, that rotational interchange is impeded by N H dpa, and that the key interactions involves steric repulsions between the pyridyl and guanine rings.
The relative proximity of the guanine H8 to the anisotropic pyridyl rings allowed us to conclude that the syn rotamer was usually more abundant. In all previous examples of the influence of hydrogen bond formation on rotamer abundance in Pt II guanine adducts, these hydrogen bonding interactions occurred between ligand groups in cis positions. Thus, the role of a trans ligand group in influencing rotamer abundance, as found here, is unusual. Inspection of the obtained data and their comparison with the previous results indicate that the PdII centers provide substantially greater activation of RCN ligands toward the 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition than the relevant PtII centers.
The palladium II -mediated 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of ketonitrones to nitriles is reversible. The structure of trans-7b was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction.
Their structures were refined from single crystal X-ray diffraction data. The half-life of this rearrangement reaction depends heavily on the RhI precursor used and the chelating ability of the phosphinoalkyl thioether PS ligand, while the chelating ability of the phosphinoalkyl ether PO ligand has less of an effect.
Significantly, this work provides mechanistic insight into the HILR process, which is a key reaction used to prepare a large class of highly sophisticated three-dimensional metallosupramolecular architectures and allosteric catalysts.
Thiocyanate ions were used as monodentate entering ligand. We present a detailed structural analysis in solution, based on paramagnetic nuclear magnetic resonance NMR , and discuss the possible dynamic processes, where its analogues are involved. We demonstrate that the first coordination sphere is very close to the achiral regular square antiprism SAPR with D4d symmetry, which rules out the intrinsic dissymmetry of the Eu environment for rationalizing the glum.
The compounds 1a—3a were fully characterized in the solid state using infrared IR spectroscopy, single-crystal XRD, and thermogravimetric and elemental analyses.
Preliminary studies on the biological activity of 1—3 showed that all three compounds might act as potent antimicrobial agents.
The coordination behavior of a set of ethylenedioxy diethanamine-based tetraphenol ligands with a series of Group 4 metal alkoxides [M OR 4] was determined. For 3—7, the metal center adopts a slightly distorted octahedral geometry by binding the two O atoms of the phenoxide moiety, as well as one N and one O atom from the OEA moieties, while retaining two of the original OR ligands.
Solution NMR demonstrates inequivalent protons for the majority of the bound OEA ligands, which argues for retention of structure in solution.
The synthesis and characterization of these compounds are presented in detail. Two of the phenylarsonic acids are condensed in situ to form the fused tetrahedra of the pyroarsonate moiety through a metal-mediated, thermally induced condensation process. The structure of UPhAs-2 consists of UO7 pentagonal bipyramids that are chelated by phenylenediarsonate ligands, forming one-dimensional chains of uranyl polyhedra. UPhAs-3 consists of a rare UO6 tetragonally distorted octahedron D4h that is on a center of symmetry and linked to two pairs of adjacent 4-aminophenylarsonate ligands.
All three of these compounds fluoresce at room temperature, showing characteristic vibronically coupled charge-transfer based emission. University Clinic Hospital. Ciberehd Geverifieerd e-mailadres voor unizar. Francisco J. Paola Patrignani "G. Cuore, Rome, Italy Geverifieerd e-mailadres voor unicatt. Luis Rodrigo Universidad de Oviedo Geverifieerd e-mailadres voor uniovi. Alvaro Alonso Emory University Geverifieerd e-mailadres voor emory. Garret A. FitzGerald U. Penn Geverifieerd e-mailadres voor upenn.
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