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Lily Blossom Tonberry Elemental. However, this type of presentation of choices does not eliminate the human problem of entering incorrect information, e. However, these do not generally have full information visual displays, meaning that all vital information is not or cannot be simultaneously displayed, and must be "multiplexed", meaning that data must share display space with other data, displayed at different times. By developing an improved interface, an attempt is made to: Reduce the searching time; Reduce the learning time; Simplify the entering of data; and, Reduce the intimidation experienced by certain persons when using electronic devices. Three programs were set so that the learning time between programs could be more accurately studied.

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Thread: The most creepy, crazy, boring, and most awesome houses you have seen? Originally Posted by NebulaRose. Unfortunately, I don't have a picture of it anymore, but an old FC buddy used to have a room in the FC house where he had placed a bunch of moogle plushies down in the shape of a pentagram, and if I remember right, there was one of those coffin beds in the middle.

Originally Posted by BillyKaplan. If anyone wants to come visit my small house it's in Shirogane ward 5 plot 52 Server: Odin you're welcome to do so. Here's a sneak peek. Will I get paid for overtime? Action to reduce risk of adverse. What do you study? Determine appropriate therapeutic alternatives to the prescribed product if necessary.

Where do you study? Have you got a telephone directory? Most of. Drug of focus is covered in detail, including but. Where did you go to university? Drug manufacturers will not pay. When can you start? When do you want me to start? This is also known as the. Would you like to leave a message? Clinical Interventions No adjudication process will. Any updates to the above guidelines, or AHECs with different operating guidelines than stated above, will be communicated to the.

Name of the Patient;. How many days will it take for the cheque to clear? Who would I report to? Do you know the address? Non-personal, aggregate information may be utilized for nationwide, school-. What are the hours of work? It is required by New York. Is this a temporary or permanent position? Could you please repeat that? How much is a First Class stamp? Have you got a current driving licence? Embassy employee were killed by armed carjackers.

Einterz, MD,1 Haroun N. Put your sheets and towels on the floor outside your room. Why did you come to? Did you go to university? Considering the. What do you do? Orientation and Portfolio Management: Interns should receive an orientation please. Have you got any experience? At the end of each day, it is important to submit a daily totals request claims balance inquiry to us. This report will show you.

The values found in the column include:. Could I make an appointment to see? Makes appropriate use of the patient profile. How do you do? Where do you come from? Review institutions policies.

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What sort of music do you listen to? Effects of alpha-d-lipoic acid on. The pharmacist must be licensed and in good standing with a State Board of Pharmacy as.

Could you give me some smaller notes? What's the interest rate on this account? Students may also opt to complete all 80 hours in. Whereabouts are you from?

Students should report all exposures to the Director. Do you need a work permit? Could you tell me my balance, please? Communicate openly, honestly, and respectfully. Present yourself in a professional manner, through your actions, your words, and how you dress. How many weeks' holiday a year are there? It is returned if your transaction to cancel a. The following are work practice controls that should be implemented as applicable to the.

Wake AHEC has six. How do I get an outside line? Interpret and evaluate the provided by external notes e. SOAP notes,. Have you seen any good films recently?

Veterinary compounding n. Paddock Laboratories Web site. Available at:. Do you know the number for? The grade you. The examination times and location will be announced by the Office.

Furthermore, if a generic product. Who do you work for? Patients capable of accessing a telephone. You will receive two 2 copies of your. Will I have to work shifts? How much notice do you have to give? The School will conduct a criminal background check on all Students assigned to the. What's the exchange rate for euros?

She is also available for individual and group consultations during business. What do you like doing in your spare time? Can I use your phone? The field values are:. Enrolled Program Students If a third-year students criminal history check reveals serious offenses, the.

He also does minor repairs and. What sort of music do you like? Pharmacy practice experience sites have the discretion to deny a request for a.

Do you have any exams coming up? What's your number? Safety contraindications, interactions, adverse drug reactions, allergies,. Develop appropriate and necessary dispensing skills needed to provide. Some plans have dispensing fee caps or deductibles equal to the dispensing fee, which. Are you a student? The PIN number has not been. They will protect you and keep. How much does the job pay?

Will I get paid for overtime? Action to reduce risk of adverse. What do you study? Determine appropriate therapeutic alternatives to the prescribed product if necessary. Where do you study? Have you got a telephone directory? Most of.

Drug of focus is covered in detail, including but. Where did you go to university? Drug manufacturers will not pay. When can you start? When do you want me to start? This is also known as the. Would you like to leave a message? Clinical Interventions No adjudication process will.

Any updates to the above guidelines, or AHECs with different operating guidelines than stated above, will be communicated to the. Name of the Patient;. How many days will it take for the cheque to clear? Who would I report to? Do you know the address? Non-personal, aggregate information may be utilized for nationwide, school-. What are the hours of work? It is required by New York. Is this a temporary or permanent position?

Could you please repeat that? How much is a First Class stamp? Have you got a current driving licence? Embassy employee were killed by armed carjackers. Einterz, MD,1 Haroun N. Put your sheets and towels on the floor outside your room. Why did you come to? Did you go to university? Considering the. What do you do? Orientation and Portfolio Management: Interns should receive an orientation please. Have you got any experience?

At the end of each day, it is important to submit a daily totals request claims balance inquiry to us.

This report will show you. The values found in the column include:. Bishop, Edward W. Victor Jr. Card, Stuart K. Carlson, Mark A. Carroll, Paul B. Ehrenreich, S. Friedman, M. Gilfoil, D. Mauro Assoc. Gould, John D. Human Factors, 32 2 April Harvey, Michael G. Hawkins, William J. Henke, Lucy L. Kreifeldt, J. Mantei, Marilyn M. Meads, Jon A. Moore, T. Norman, Donald A. CE 1 February Rogus, John G. Rosch, Winn L.

Smith, Sidney J. Streeter, L. Tello, Ernest R. Thomas, John, C. Trachtenberg, Jeffrey A. Let us count the ways", Forbes, Mar. Tyldesley, D. Verplank, William L. Voyt, Carlton F. Whitefield, A. Yoder, Stephen Kreider, "U. The following cited patents and publications are relevant to pattern recognition and control aspects of the present invention, and are herein expressly incorporated by reference:.

This reference teaches basic image enhancement techniques. This patent document cites a number of other references, each incorporated herein by reference, which are relevant to the problem of image recognition:. Ksienski et al. Appriou, A. Arrow, K. Blair, D. Pollack, "La logique du choix collectif" Pour la Science ;. Scharlic, A. Panorama de l'aide a la decision multicritere" Presses Polytechniques Romandes ;.

Keeney, R. Jeffrey, R. Roy, B. Duda, R. Hart, M. Bhatnagar, R. Kamal, "Handling uncertain information: a review of numeric and non-numeric methods", Uncertainty in Artificial Intelligence, L. Kamal and J. Lemmer, Eds. Dempster, A. Shafer, G. Dubois, D. Prade, "Combination of uncertainty with belief functions: a reexamination", Proceedings 9th International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence, Los Angeles ;.

Kyburg, H. Fua, P. Bouchon, R. Yager, Eds. Springer Verlag ;. Chao, J. Drakopoulos, C. Lee, "An evidential reasoning approach to distributed multiple hypothesis detection", Proceedings of the 20th Conference on decision and control, Los Angeles, Calif. Yager, R. General Systems, ;. Ishizuka, M. Zadeh, L. Kaufmann, A. Sugeno, M. Bellman, R. Zadeh, "Decision making in a fuzzy environment", Management Science, 17 4 December ;.

Prade, "Theorie des possibilites: application a la representation des connaissances en informatique", Masson, Paris Thus, the image or object recognition feature of the present invention may be implemented in the manner of U. Further, it is clear that this recognition feature may form an integral part of certain embodiments of the present invention.

It is also clear that the various features of the present invention would be applicable as an adjunct to the various elements of the system disclosed in U. These are discussed in detail below. Barnsley et al. Barnsley, M. Elton, J. Gleick, James, "Making a New Science", pp. Mandelbrot, B. This reference discloses a method of distinguishing between different members of a class of images, such as human beings.

A time series of successive relatively high-resolution frames of image data, any frame of which may or may not include a graphical representation of one or more predetermined specific members e. The frames of image data may be examined in real time at various resolutions, starting with a relatively low resolution, to detect whether some earlier-occurring frame includes any of a group of image features possessed by an image of a member of the given class.

The image location of a detected image feature is stored and then used in a later-occurring, higher resolution frame to direct the examination only to the image region of the stored location in order to 1 verify the detection of the aforesaid image feature, and 2 detect one or more other of the group of image features, if any is present in that image region of the frame being examined.

By repeating this type of examination for later and later occurring frames, the accumulated detected features can first reliably recognize the detected image region to be an image of a generic object of the given class, and later can reliably recognize the detected image region to be an image of a certain specific member of the given class. Thus, the personae recognition feature of the present invention may be implemented in this manner.

The following cited references are incorporated herein by reference:. Naik et al. Shinan et al. Parts of this system relating to speaker recognition may be used to implement a voice recognition system of the present invention for determining an actor or performer in a broadcast. This Patent cites various references of interest, which are incorporated herein by reference:.

Rumelhart, D. Lippmann, R. LeCun, Y. Pfeifer, Z. Schreter, F. Fogelman, L. Steels, Eds. Magazine, pp. It is clear that the methods of Pat Nos. More general neural networks are disclosed in U. In particular, Pat No. This patent cites the following documents of interest, which are incorporated herein by reference:.

Computer Visions, Graphics, and Image Processing , ;. Jackel, L. Graf, J. Denker, D. Henderson and I. Carpenter, G. Pawlicki, T. Lee, J. Hull and S. Gullichsen E. Grossberg, S. Lippman, R. This method allows an optical computing function to perform pattern recognition functions. Psaltis, D. Kellman, P. Dissertation, Stanford University, , pp. Molley, P. Rhodes, W. Vander Lugt, A. The apparatus recognizes a motion of an object which is moving and is hidden in an image signal, and discriminates the object from the background within the signal.

The apparatus has an image forming unit comprising non-linear oscillators, which forms an image of the motion of the object in accordance with an adjacent-mutual-interference-rule, on the basis of the image signal. A memory unit, comprising non-linear oscillators, stores conceptualized meanings of several motions. A retrieval unit retrieves a conceptualized meaning close to the motion image of the object. An altering unit alters the rule, on the basis of the conceptualized meaning.

The image forming unit, memory unit, retrieval unit and altering unit form a holonic-loop. Successive alterations of the rules by the altering unit within the holonic loop change an ambiguous image formed in the image forming unit into a distinct image.

It is clear that U. It is also clear that the interface and control systems of the present invention provide useful adjuncts to the elements disclosed in U. It is clear that this method is useful in the pattern recognition aspects of the present invention. It is also clear that the interface and control system of the present invention are useful adjuncts to the method disclosed in U. This patent has a software listing for this method.

In addition, the following patents are considered relevant to the data compression and pattern recognition functions of the apparatus and interface of the present invention and are incorporated herein by reference: U. Patent Nos.

The aforementioned patents, some of which are mentioned elsewhere in this disclosure, and which form a part of this disclosure, may be applied in known manner by those skilled in the art in order to practice various embodiments of the present invention.

The following scientific articles, some of which are discussed elsewhere herein, are incorporated by reference, and their relevance is understood by those skilled in the art and relate to the pattern recognition and image compression functions of the apparatus and interface of the present invention:. Liepins, G. Fitzpatrick, J. Grefenstette, D. McAulay, A. Wasserman, Philip D.

Nilsson, N. Martin, G. Jean, J. I to I Zhu, X. II to II Haruki, K. Miller, R. Hayashi, Y. Caudill, M. Burr, D. Danielsson, Erik, et al. Hopfield et al. Hinton et al. Hopfield, "Neurons with graded response have collective computational properties like those of two-state neurons", Proc. USA, May Willshaw et al. Cooper, L. USA, April Batchelor, B. Udagawa, K. Schurmann, J.

Proceedings, 6th International Conference on Pattern Recognition , pp. Farrelle, Paul M. Yamane et al. Chen et al. O'Neal et al. Anderson, F. Christiansen, B. Kortegaard, B. Aleksander, I. Steels Eds. Magazine, November , pp. Denker, International Test Conf. Gogoussis et al. SPIE Intl. Svetkoff et al. Rosenfeld, Azriel and Avinash C. Yamada et. Crawford et al. Abstract No. Rutter et al. Simpson, W. Dunning, B. Stewart, R. Lin, H. Silverston et al. Perry et al.

Bulletin, 12 8 January Bulletin 8 11 April Stanley R. Rutherford, H. Taub and B. Ney, H. Sakoe, H. S, Mahalanobis, A. Sprageu, R. Casasent, D. Vannicola et al. Pollack, "La logique du choix collectif", Pour la Science Panorama de l'aide a la decision multicritere", Presses Polytechniques Romandes Prade, "Combination of uncertainty with belief functions: a reexamination", Proceedings 9th International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence, Los Angeles Springer Verlag General Systems, Zadeh, "Decision making in a fuzzy environment", Management Science, 17 4 December Anson, L.

Caffery, B. Computer Visions, Graphics, and Image Processing, , Gullichsen, E. Shimizu et al. Omata et al. Ohsuga et al. The above-mentioned references are exemplary, and are not meant to be limiting in respect to the resources available to those skilled in the art. Of course it should be realized that the hardware available and the choice of specific method or software algorithm are interactive, and therefore must be specified together, however, it is noted that in view of the present disclosure, it is obvious to combine compatible technologies to achieve the advanced interface and control system of the present invention.

A new mechanism for easing the programming process is disclosed. The interface of the present invention serves to minimize the learning and searching times, better reflect users' expectations, provide better matching to human memory limits, be usable by both novices and experienced users, reduce intimidation of novice users by the device, and simplify the entering of programming data. The present invention optimizes the input scheme for programming an event-driven device, and can also be applied to many types of programmable devices.

Thus, certain human factors design concepts, heretofore unexploited in the design of consumer electronics devices and industrial controls, have been incorporated. Hoffberg, an inventor of the present invention!. This thesis, and cited references, are incorporated herein by reference.

This thesis publication, and references cited therein, are attached as an appendix hereto. Also incorporated by reference are: Hoffberg, Linda I. One aspect of the present invention relates to a programmable device that comprises a menu-driven interface in which the user enters information using a direct manipulation input device.

Such a type of interface scheme is disclosed in Verplank, William L. Arbeitswissenschaft, 2, pp. Louis, March ; Horgan, H. The apparatus typically involves a remote control entry device, and the interface of the present invention contains a displayed graphical interface for programming programmable devices.

The present invention seeks more accurate programming through the use of program verification to ensure that the input program is both valid and executable. Thus, it has a mechanism to store and check to verify that there are no conflicting programs. An apparatus according to the present invention can be connected, for example, to any infrared programmable device in order to simplify the programming process. By way of example only, an improved video cassette recorder VCR interface forms the basis of a disclosed example.

It is, of course, realized that the present method and apparatus may be applied to any programmable controller, i. This is a different implementation of the Videotext programming system than described in Bensch, U. Each separate program has a unique identifier code, transmitted at the beginning of the program, so that a user need only enter the code for the program, and the VCR will monitor the channel for the code transmission, and begin recording when the code is received.

The VPV disclosed does not intelligently interpret the transmission, rather the system reads the transmitted code as a literal label, without any analysis or determination of a classification of the program type.

The present invention incorporates an intelligent program recognition and characterization system, making use of any of the available cues, which allows an intelligent determination of the true nature of the broadcast and therefore is able to make a determination of whether parameters should be deemed met even with an inexact match to the specified parameters. The videotext signal of the prior art includes a digitally encoded text message which may be displayed in conjunction with the displayed image, similar to the closed caption system.

The West German system demonstrates how the signal may be received by a computer and interpreted. However, the prior art does not disclose how this signal may be used to index and catalog the contents of a tape, nor does it disclose how this signal may be used to classify or interpret the character of the broadcast. In other words, in one embodiment of the present invention, the videotext or closed caption signal is not only interpreted as a literal label, as in the prior art, but is also further processed and analyzed to yield data about the content of the broadcast, other than merely the simultaneously broadcast information.

Beyond the visible region of an NTSC broadcast video frame are a number of scan lines which are dedicated to presenting digital information, rather than analog picture information. These are normally coded as modulating the luminance signal only, with a bit timing which is far below the available bandwidth. It is therefore possible to use this area for transmitting additional information relating to the broadcast information, in particular, the characteristics of the video broadcast, and doing so could provide significant advantages, used in conjunction with the interface and intelligent pattern recognition controller of the present invention.

If this information were directly available, there would be a significantly reduced need for advanced image recognition functions, which require costly hardware devices, while still maintaining the advantages of the present invention. It is noted, however, that this requires the cooperation of broadcasters, as well as possibly the FCC, which would be difficult to obtain.

Further, governmental regulation of even private commercial broadcasting is likely, e. It is nevertheless within the skill of the art to implement such a broadcast system. It should be noted that both are included within the scope of the present invention. According to the present invention, if such characterizations are broadcast, they may, as stated above, make use of unused available spectrum bandwidth within the NTSC channel space, or other broadcast system channel space, or may be "simulcast" on a separate channel, such as an FM sideband or separate transmission channel.

Use of a separate channel would allow a separate organization, other than the network broadcasters, to provide the characterization data for distribution to users of devices that make use of the present intelligent system for controlling a VCR. Thus, the characterization generating means need not be directly linked to the local user machine in order to fall within the scope of the present invention.

CE, No. This system does not incorporate on-screen programming, nor various aspects of the display of the present invention. Research has been performed on video cassette recorder "VCR" usability, technology, implementation, programming steps, current technology, input devices, and human mental capacity. This research has resulted in a new paradigm for the entry of programming data into a sequential program execution device, such as a VCR, by casual users.

Four major problems in the interfaces of VCRs were found to exist. The first is that users spend far too much time searching for necessary information, which is necessary in order to complete the programming process. Second, people do not program the VCR to record at a later time time-shift frequently, and thus forget the programming steps in the interim. Third, the number of buttons on many remote control devices has become overwhelming. Fourth, people have become reluctant to operate or program VCRs because of their difficult operation.

It was found that, by minimizing the learning and searching times, the user's programming time and frustration level can be greatly reduced. These concepts are easily applied to other special purpose programmable devices, and also to general purpose programmable devices wherein the programming paradigm is event-driven, as well as other programming systems.

It should also be noted that it is within the scope of the present invention to provide an improved interface and programming environment for all types of programmable devices, and in this regard, the present invention incorporates adaptive features which optimize the programming environment for both the level of the user and the task to be programmed.

In optimizing the interface, four elements are most important: the input device, the display format, the sequence of the programming operation, and the ability of the device to properly interpret the input as the desired program sequence. The present invention proceeds from an understanding that an absence of user frustration with respect to a programmable consumer or industrial device or interface, may be as important as the potential functionality thereof.

The interface must be designed to minimize the user's frustration level. This can be accomplished by clearly furnishing the possible choices, presenting the data in a logical sequence, and leading the user through the steps necessary to program the device. Research has indicated that survey respondents liked color coding and on-screen programming, while they disliked small print, blinking displays, confusing menus and too much information on the display.

They also liked remote control access, with provisions for programming the VCR from the front panel, if desired, with large, well labelled single function buttons, keypad entry, natural layout of functions, "up" and "down" keys, an uncluttered display panel, a "help" key, simplified programming with fewer steps, one-touch recording, and an "OK or "ready" indicator.

Finally, they desired step-by-step instructions, the ability to backtrack to correct mistakes, a well ordered programming sequence, automatic completion of strings which must be entered, automatic compensation for lack of leading "0", and feedback of correct or erroneous inputs or status conditions. Other objects and features of the present invention will become apparent from the following detailed description considered in conjunction with the accompanying drawings.

It is to be understood, however, that the drawings are designed solely for the purposes of illustration and not as a definition of the limits of the invention, for which reference should be made to the appended claims. It is therefore an object of the present invention to provide a programmable apparatus for receiving instructions from a programmer and causing an action to occur on the happening of an event, comprising:.

It is also an object of the present invention to provide a programmable apparatus for receiving instructions from a programmer and causing an action to occur on the happening of an event, comprising:. It is a further object of the present invention to provide a programmable apparatus having a data input, said apparatus receiving instructions from a programmer and causing an action to occur on the receipt of data indicating an event, comprising:.

It is also object of the present invention to provide the programmable aforementioned apparatus, wherein said input device is remote from said display means, and provides a direct manipulation of display information of said display means, further comprising means for verifying said program instructions so that said program instructions are executable by said control means. The control means may further comprise a calendar.

It is also an object of the present invention to provide a programmable apparatus, wherein said control means provides an option, selectable by said input means in conjunction with said display means, for changing an input program instruction prior to execution by said control means, so that said apparatus enters a state wherein a new program instruction may be input to substitute for said changed input step, wherein said control means verifies said program instructions so that said program instructions are executable by said control means.

It is still another object of the present invention to provide a programmable apparatus, wherein said control means further causes said display means to display a confirmation screen after said program instructions are input, so that the programmer may confirm said program instructions. Another object of the present invention provides a programmable information storage apparatus having a data input, for receiving data to be stored, said apparatus receiving instructions from a programmer and causing an action to occur on the receipt of data indicating an event, comprising:.

The programmable information storage apparatus may also include means for reading said identifying data stored separately on said storage medium, and may also receive as an input said identifying data. Another object of the present invention is to provide a programmable information storage apparatus, wherein said control means further comprises means for recognizing character data present in a data stream of said input data, said identifying data comprising said recognized character data.

It is a still further object of the present invention to provide a video tape recording apparatus, comprising a video signal receiving device, a recording device for recording said video signal, wherein said control analyzes said video signal for the presence of a symbol, and recognizes said symbol as one of a group of recognized symbols, and said control stores said recognized symbol separately from said video signal.

Another object of the present invention is to provide a recording device for recording an analog signal sequentially on a recording medium, comprising means for characterizing the analog signal, wherein data representing said characterization and a location of the analog signal on the recording medium are stored in a directory location on the recording medium separately from the analog signal.

It is a further object of the present invention to provide an interface for a programmable control for input of a program for a controller to execute, which performs an action based on an external signal, comprising an input device, a controller for receiving data from said input device and from an external stimulus, a plant being controlled by said controller based on an input from said input device and said external stimulus, and a display device being controlled by said controller, for providing visual feedback to a user operating said input device, wherein:.

Another object of the present invention provides a system for presenting a program to a viewer, comprising:. Still another object of the present invention is to provide a system, wherein said program material is encrypted, further comprising:.

Another object of the present invention is to allow said means for characterizing the program material to operate without causing a decryption event.

Further, the system may comprise a memory for storing the program material while said characterizing means produces characterized content and said correlating means produces said correlation index. The characterizing means may also characterize the program material stored in memory, and the program material stored in memory may be compressed. Another object of the present invention is to provide a system for presenting a program to a viewer, comprising:.

The system may also include a means for storing said information signal, wherein said characterizing means characterizes said stored information signal, and also a memory for storing the program material while said characterizing means produces characterized content and said correlating means produces said correlation index. It is a still further object of the present invention to provide a system, further comprising means for storing a characterization of the program material, further comprising feedback means for inputting a feedback signal from the viewer indicating a degree of agreement with said presented stored program material, wherein said feedback signal and said stored characterization are used by said viewer preference determining means to determine a new viewer preference.

Another object of the present invention is to provide a controller for controlling a plant, having a sensor for sensing an external event and producing a sensor signal, an actuator, responsive to an actuator signal, for influencing said external event, and a control means for receiving said sensor signal and producing an actuator signal, comprising:. The characterization may comprise both an Affine transformation and a Fourier transformation.

It is another object of the present invention to provide a method for automatically recognizing digital image data consisting of image information, the method comprising the steps performed by a data processor of:. The step of selecting the mapped ranges may also include the substep of selecting, for each domain, a most closely corresponding one of the mapped ranges.

It is another object of the present invention to provide a method wherein the step of selecting the most closely corresponding one of the mapped ranges includes the step of selecting, for each domain, the mapped range which is the most similar, by a method selected from one or more of the group consisting of selecting minimum Hausdorff distance from the domain, selecting the highest cross-correlation with the domain, selecting the highest fuzzy correlation with the domain and selecting the minimum mean square error with the domain.

Another object of the present invention provides a method wherein the step of selecting the most closely corresponding one of mapped ranges includes the step of selecting, for each domain, the mapped range with the minimum modified Hausdorff distance calculated as D db,mrb! Another object of the present invention provides a method wherein the digital image data consists of a plurality of pixels each having one of a plurality of associated color map values, further comprising the steps of:.

The first criteria may comprise minimizing the Hausdorff distance between each domain and the selected range. Another object of the present invention is to provide a method further comprising the steps of:. Another object of the present invention provides an apparatus for automatically recognizing digital image data consisting of image information, comprising:. Embodiments of the present invention are shown in the figures in the drawings, in which:.

Many design considerations were found to be important in the improved interface of the present invention:. The interface should preferably employ only minimal amounts of abbreviations and the use of complete words is especially preferred. However, standard abbreviations and symbols are acceptable, and displayed character strings may be shortened or truncated in order to reduce the amount of information that is to be displayed, where necessary or desirable.

An option may be provided to the user to allow full words, which may decrease the information which may be conveyed on each screen and increase the number of screens that must be displayed, or abbreviations and symbols, which may minimize the number of displayed screens of information, thus allowing the user to make the compromise.

This aspect of the system may also be linked to the adaptive user level function of the present invention, wherein abstract symbols and abbreviations are presented to advanced users, while novices are presented with full words, based on an implicit indication of user level.

These abstract symbols and abbreviations may be standard elements of the system, or user designated icons. Of course, the user could explicitly indicate his preference for the display type, thus deactivating the automatic adaptive user level function. Some display systems have a higher available resolution than others, and the interface is preferably arranged to optimize the intended display for the resolution limits and display format of the intended or available display device.

Further, even with sufficient resolution, certain displays are of small size, and thus the visibility of the information may also be optimized by taking into consideration the size, resolution, contrast, brightness of the display, ambient conditions, characteristics of the human visual system, factors specific for a known user, and the available options of the apparatus. Techniques such as antialiasing, font substitution, hinting, precompensating for expected distortion, etc.

A preferred embodiment of the interface of the present invention, by automatic sequencing of steps, leads the user through the correct sequence of actions to set a program on the screen, so that no necessary steps are omitted, and no optional steps are accidentally omitted.

These steps are shown diagrammatically in FIG. In addition, such a system does not burden the user with the necessity of inputting superfluous information, nor overwhelm the user with the display of unnecessary data. A built-in calendar menu screen is employed so that the user cannot set the device with a program step that relies on a non-existent date.

Technology that will help eliminate the human problem of setting the wrong yet existing date may also be employed. Such technology might include accessing an on-line or other type of database containing media programming information, and prompting the user regarding the selected choice.

In situations where it is applicable, the interface should prompt the user as to how many characters the interface is expecting, such as when entering the year.

A preferred embodiment of the present invention has an easily accessible CHANGE or CANCEL feature, which facilitates backtracking or reprogramming the immediately previously entered information rather than forcing the user to repeat all or a substantial portion of the programming steps.

A method of the type described is shown in FIG. User input is also facilitated by the provision of frequently used settings as explicit choices, such as "Record today", "Record tomorrow", "Noon", and "Midnight", so that the user does not have to specify a date in these cases.

This will eliminate extra keypresses, and reduce the programming time. In addition, this could eliminate user errors. Frequently used choices for program selections are also provided to the user to reduce the number of programming steps necessary and provide the user with all the frequently used selections. The especially preferred choices are "Once On.

These redundant, complex instructions reduce the number of keystrokes required for data entry, and reduce the amount of programming time required. A preferred embodiment of the present invention provides, in the event that a color screen is available, conservatively used color coding, which allows the user to effectively and quickly acknowledge the function of each aspect of the screen. The preferred colors are royal blue for "help," red for mistakes, light blue for information previously entered, and yellow for current information being entered.

Of course, other colors could be used, according to the user's or designer's preference, cultural differences, and display parameters. A preferred embodiment of the interface contains a confirmation screen which displays to the user all of the categories and selections previously explicitly entered or otherwise inferred, and should be easily understandable.

This is shown in FIG. All of the necessary information is displayed on this screen, in addition to the change and cancel options, if possible. The entering of information on each screen is preferably consistent throughout the program. All of the screens preferably have similar layouts. However, in certain cases, relatively more important information on a given screen may be displayed more prominently, and possibly in a different screen location, in order to reduce the search time.

Further, when other factors dictate, each screen may be independently optimized for the prescribed function. For example, a representation of an analog clock dial may be used to set time information. However, even if the format does change, a standard scheme should be maintained, such as the use of a particular color to indicate that a particular program aspect has been changed. The interface should display data consistent with standards and conventions familiar to users. For, e. However, this type of presentation of choices does not eliminate the human problem of entering incorrect information, e.

The problem of ensuring the accuracy of user input may be addressed by an intelligent interface which stores data concerning programming, user preferences, and by means of some logical method, such as Boolean logic, fuzzy logic, neural network theory, or any other predictive system, determines if an entry is likely in error.

Of course, these predictive systems would also provide an initial default entry, so that the a priori most probably action or actions are initially presented to the user. In addition to following conventions of information presentation to the user, the interface of the present invention may also provide emulations of other user interfaces of which a particular user may be familiar, even if these are not optimized according to the presently preferred embodiments of the present invention, or not otherwise well known.

These emulations need not be of the same type of device, so that a broad based standard for entry of information into a programmable controls, regardless of their type, may be implemented. By allowing emulation, the interface of the present invention could provide compatibility with a standard or proprietary interface, with enhanced functionality provided by the features of the present interface.

These enhanced functional intelligent aspects of the controller may be implemented by means of software programming of a simple microcomputer, or by use of more specialized processors, such as a Fuzzy Set Processor FSP or Neural Network Processor. Of these, FSP's are preferred because they have the advantage of being easier to program through the use of presumptions or rules for making the fuzzy inferences, while Neural Networks are less easily programmed and their network weighing values are not easily understood in the abstract.

Thus, Neural networks tend to require extensive "training", while Fuzzy Set Processors may be explicitly programmed without the need of duplicating or simulating actual operating conditions.

The most frequently used choices preferably should be displayed as the default setting. The screen cursor preferably appears at the "accept" screen button, when the screen is displayed. This default can either be set in advance, or acquired by the system. In the case of acquired defaults, these may be explicitly set by the user or adaptively acquired by the system through use.

The interface of the present invention may be taught, in a "teach" mode, the preferences of the user, or may also acquire this information by analyzing the actual choices made by the user during operation of the interface and associated controller.

This type of operation is shown schematically in FIG. The options of "Midnight" AM and "Noon" PM should preferably be present, as some people often become confused when distinguishing between them. Icons, such as those indicative of the "sun" and the "moon", may also be used to facilitate data entry for AM and PM.

The interface should preferably utilize an internal clock and calendar so that the user cannot set the time or program to record on a nonexistent date. Such a system could also compensate for daylight-savings time seasonal adjustments. The cursor is preferably distinctive and readily distinguished from other parts of the screen. This may be by color, attribute i. The user can preferably exit the programming sequence at any time by selecting a "Main Menu" button which may be on the lower left-hand corner of every screen.

The user is preferably provided with an adequate amount of feedback, and error messages should be directive in nature. An acknowledgement is preferably displayed after each entry. The user should preferably not be able to go to the next programming step until the current step has been completed.

A message to convey why the user can not continue should appear when an attempt to prematurely continue is recognized. The "help" function is available for when the subject does not know what to do. The "help" screen s preferably explains the functions of each of the available buttons or functions, but may also be limited to those that are ambiguous.

The "help" screen may also be used to indicate a current status of the interface and the controller. Further, the "help" function may also provide access to various other functions, such as advanced options and configurations, and thus need not be limited to merely providing information on the display. The help system may incorporate a hypertext-type system, wherein text or information relating to concepts that are conceptually linked may be easily accessed from one another, and in a logical sequence.

To eliminate the possibility of the user trying to make selections on merely informative help screens, the cursor, in these cases, should be locked to a choice which returns the user to where they left off in the programming sequence, and this choice should be highlighted. The "help" function may also comprise "balloon help" similar to the system adopted by Apple Computer, Inc. The interface preferably initiates the programming sequence where the user wants to be, so that the interface has so-called "smart screens".

For example, when a VCR is first powered up, and the time and date are not stored in the machine, the "set date" and "set time" screens should appear. The sequence of screens may also vary depending on the system predicted requirements of the user and various aspects of the improved interface of the present invention. This is shown schematically in FIG. The preferable input device for the interface of the present invention provides as few buttons as possible to achieve the required functionality, thus reducing potential user intimidation, focusing the user's attention on the interactive display screen, where the available choices are minimized to that number necessary to efficiently allow the user to program the discrete task presented.

A computer mouse with 1 to 3 buttons is the preferred input device, for use with a general purpose computer as a controller, while a trackball on a remote control device is especially preferred for limited purpose controllers because it does not require a flat surface for operation. Other stationary or movement sensitive input devices may, of course be used, such as joysticks, gyroscopes, sonic echo-location, magnetic or electrostatic location devices, RF phase location devices, etc.

The present interface minimizes the number of necessary keys present on an input screen, while maintaining the functionality of the interface. It is noted that a strict minimization without consideration of functionality, might lead to inefficiency. For example, if the user wants to record a program which airs Monday-Friday, he would have to set five separate programs, rather than one program if a "weeknights" choice is made available.

The interface preferably should be easy to learn and should not require that a user have prior knowledge of the interface in order to use it. An attempt has been made to minimize the learning curve, i. Research has shown that people do not program their VCRs often, and they often forget the sequence of steps between recording sessions. Thus, the present invention incorporates an adaptive user level interface, wherein a novice user is presented with a simpler interface with fewer advanced features initially available, so that there is less searching for the basic functions.

A more advanced user is presented with more advanced choices and functions that are available initially. Thus, as shown in FIG. The controller of FIG. It has been found that in the case of novice users, a greater number of simple instructions may be more quickly and easily input rather than a potentially fewer number of a larger set of more complex instructions. It has further been found that, even if presented with a set of instructions which will allow a program to be entered with a fewer number of inputs, a novice user may choose to input the program using the simple instructions exclusively, thus employing an increased number of instructions and being delayed by an increased search time for those instructions that are used, from the larger set.

In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, in a VCR, in order to track the content of the tape, a directory or a catalog is recorded, preferably digitally, containing the programming information, as well as additional information about the recorded programs, in a header, i.

The device may also catalog the tape contents separately, and based on an identification of the tape, use a separately stored catalog.

A format for storing information is shown in FIG. Thus, if there are a number of selections on the tape, the entire contents of the tape could be accessible quickly, without the need for searching the entire tape. In a sequential access medium, the tape transport apparatus must still shuttle to the location of the desired material, but it may do so at increased speeds, because there is no need to read the tape once the location is determined; after the tape transport nears the desired spot, the tape may be slowed or precisely controlled to reach the exact location.

The tape read and drive system is shown schematically in FIG. The algorithm used in the final stage of approach may use fuzzy logic, mathematical formulae modeling the system differential equations to implement a Proportional-Differential-Integral PID controller, or a controller of higher order, or other known control methods.

If a selection is to be recorded over, the start and stop locations would be automatically determined from the locations already indicated on the tape. Further, this information could be stored in memory device which reads a catalog or index of the tape when a new tape is loaded or non-volatile memory device which stores information relating to known tapes within the device or both types of memory in the VCR, so that an index function may be implemented in the VCR itself, without the need to read an entire tape.

Optionally, a printer, such as a thermal label printer available from, e. Seiko Instruments, Inc. The present invention also allows encryption and decryption of material, much as the Videocipher series systems from General Instruments, and the fractal enciphering methods of EMC 2 and Iterated Systems, Inc.

The present invention, however, is not limited to broadcasts, and instead could implement a system for both broadcasts and prerecorded materials.

In the case of copying from one tape to another, such a system could not only provide the herein mentioned library functions of the present invention, it could also be used to aid in copy protection, serial copy management, and a pay-per-view royalty collection system. Such a system could be implemented by way of a telecommunication function incorporated in the device, shown as block of FIG.

A royalty fee, etc. For example, an encrypted tape or other source material so that special playback equipment need be used, and a usage registered , used with this device, could be decrypted by a decryption key available by telecommunication with a communication center, remote from the user, in a decryption unit, shown schematically as the decrypt unit a of FIG.